The independent magazine for the independent user

Inside the Sinclair organisati<
hardware woftd, software scene, new produ school spot book revie helpline, mind games


.v.v.v.v.v. v l v l v

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ZX81 software
The Damsel & the Beast Dictator House of Gnomes Startrek ZXAS Assembler 2XDB Disassembler/Debugger RENUM renumbering program


£5-00 £5.00




Program Program Program Program Program Program Program

Pack Pack Pack Pack Pack Pack Pack

1 (IK) 2 3 (IK) 4 5 6 7

£3.50 £3.50 £4.50 £4.50 £4.50 £4.50 £5.00 £7.50

All programs require RAW pack unless otherwise stated.

Videograph Tables teaching & testing Constellation Whist Multifile Invaders IK Breakout Viewtext ( information display )


£4.00 £17-50
£ 4 ; 00 £4.50


All prices include V.A.T. and postage. Generous discounts available for dealers.


ORDERS ACCEPTED ON 0 5 1 2 2 7 2 6 4 2







Editorial director ]ohf>Sterlicchi Consultant editor Mike Johnston Production editor Harold Mayes Design Bill Scolding Advertisement director Simon Horgan Advertisement manager Les Morton Editorial/production assistant Sue Hawes Managing director Terry Cartwright Chairman Richard Hease Sinclair User is published m o n t h l y by ECC Publications Ltd. It is not in anyway connected with Sinclair Research Ltd. Telephone All departments 01 -359 7481

3 SINCLAIRVOYANCE The question every user asks is " W h a t will Clive Sinclair do next?" Each month we will look intoourcrystal ball. 7 S O E T W A R E SCENE Hopefully all new software which comes on to the market will come under our scrutiny and will form the basis of a series of snappy reviews. 1 1 H A R D W A R E W O R L D The same applies to hardware. This month we look at various boards, systems, kits and assorted goodies. 1 4 I N S I D E S I N C L A I R Meet Ruth Bramley, who works for Sinclair answering the hundreds of technical queries the company receives from users. 1 7 M I C R O F A I R M A N I A Once again thousands queued for hours to go to the / X Microfair. Our photographer captured the happy scenes. 1 8 S T A R T I N G F R O M S C R A T C H lust bought a ZX-81? Well, here is a guide to help you take those tentative first steps to understanding your system 2 2 HELPLINE Is this what you have been waiting for? Our expert. Andrew Hewson. aims to answer problems in his monthly column 2 7 S C H O O L S P O T Sinclairs have made such a great impact in our schools that we intend to travel the length and breadth of the U.K. looking for interesting applications 3 1 E I G H T P A G E S O F P R O G R A M S Othello. Blackjack and Star Swerver are just three of the programs we list this month. Remember if you have written a program we will pay if we print it. 4 0 B U S I N E S S W h o said the ZX-81 was no good forbusinessapplications?Certainly not Mike Salem, who sets out to prove it is just fine. 4 3 C O N V E R S I O N No. not just to the Gospel according to Clive! This is one for you folks who climbed aboard the ZX-80 bandwagon and want to convert your programs to the ZX-81. 4 8 B O O K S Almost as much has been written about the ZX-81 as the rest of the micro scene put together. In each issue we will examine a few offerings. 5 1 S O F T W A R E O V E R V I E W As this is the first issue we thought we would skate over some of the products which have been on the market a time before we begin more in depth analyses. 5 6 H A R D W A R E O V E R V I E W Ditto on the hardware side. Stephen Adams scans the market before getting down to dissecting Sinclairs 1HK R A M next month 5 9 C O M P E T I T I O N W e know that Sinclair printers are supposed to be as rare as golddust but we have managed to get our hands on five to give a way as prizes. 6 1 PRESTEL There is £1.000 at stake for the inventor of the best ZX-81/Prestel adaptor. Roger Green looks at what doors such an adaptor would open. 6 5 M I N D G A M E S Last but not least we have asked Philip |oy to write a regular column on more thought-provoking games. He. in turn, is asking for help from you the reader.

If you would like to contribute to Sinclair User, please send typed (or beautiful! y-handwritten) articles or programs to— Sinclair User ECC Publications. 30-31 Islington Green, L o n d o n N l 8R| W e will pay £10 for each program printed and £50 for each article which should be approximately 1,000 words long. ©Copyright 1982 Sinclair User ISSN No.0262-5458 Printed and typeset by Bournehall Press Ltd, W e i wyn Garden City, Herts


April 1982


recorders • Interface directly to any serial printer (RS232C) * Single USR Business Systems. Tel 0 1 " 7 2 3 0141 CIO C\2 CIS Super Sot I w o r e E3I2 Cassette Tape £2500 lo Storkrose Lid no: Telephone e n q u . easy to programme and save time programme storage tapes. I n c l u d e s all r e q u i r e d functions Tape Counter COMPUTER CASSETTES H i g h quality s c r e w a s s e m b l e d c a s s e t t e s w i t h library box All l e n g t h s available (see b e l o w ) battery mains r e c o r d light Ear Aux AAic/ Remote sockets COMPUTER C5 CASSETTES QTY PRICE 35 p 37p 38p 39p 4lp TOTM ZX99 ITEM Automatic Controller Tape + OTY £6290 Drive ORDER F O R M TO DATA ASSETTE. S U l .Word Processing command tape to tape copy ^ Autoand Information Retrieval are now matically create directory listings of fast. 43p 44 p Chorqe my A c t e s v Visa cord £1 00 1 0 % P & P SIGNED. E312 TAPE DRIVE H i g h q u a l i t y . n e t w e l c o m e Cheque/PO payable C20 C25 C30 CIS leoderleu A d d m m £1 5 0 o r O f NAME ADDRESS. D e p t . f u l l y t e s t e d c a s s e t t e recorder ideal for use w i t h your Z X 8 I .Cassette Users: Everythtnt you need for enhancing >g your Sinclair 2 X 8 0 / 8 I cla' TRADE ENQUIRIES welcome from any country! AUTOMATIC TAPE DRIVE CONTROLLER + SUPER SOFTWARE Programme Control of multiple • Programme Control for 1 t o 4 cassette input output tapes plus serial printer. •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 . 4 4 London N W I 6 U G ShrotonStreet.

is that he will not. as everyone had assumed. possibly for the ZX-81. Speculation about the ZX-81 began almost as soon as the ZX-81 appeared and it seemed that the 80 in ZX-80 referred not to the Z-80 processor it used. of course. Finally. for what it is worth. and that the development can be expected towards the end of this year and may even be announced shortly. Clive Sinclair. there is a tantalising gap in the market between the ZX-81 and the next product up. annoyed that the BBC had failed to select the most obvious choice for a beginner's machine. There will also be general interest features and applications stories about how other people are involved with Sinclair and ZX machines. What could be more helpful than a ZX-82? To begin. plus news of new products and in-depth reviews of established hardware and software. The main rumour is that Sinclair is developing a mini-disc. it would be marvellous news for ZX users. BT is reported reliably to be considering at least 20 applications for its £1. to be produced by Sinclair Research have been circulating for some time. Rumours abound but the one man who could answer most of those possibilities for certain. Will he or will he not produce it? My guess. First. Let's begin with a look ahead W have a shopping list of products which he would dearly like to make—provided that the technology is available to enable him to do so at the proper price and we do not know how far up that list ZX-81 discs are. The only problem is that Sinclair seems to SINCLAIR USER A p r i l 1982 Speculation was fuelled further by Clive Sinclair's reaction to the BBC choice of microcomputer last year. You could make use of that huge address/telephone/stamp collection program you wrote because you could probably access the information in a few seconds. the independent magazine which aims to help you make the most of your machine. If you wanted to upgrade where would you go? Ifl . have been referring to the negotiations with ICL to produce a small computer terminal incorporating the flat screen and using Sinclair Basic. Sinclair said something about discs—across a crowded room—in January.000 or so ZX owners around could be persuaded to buy one. On this page every month we intend to give you an insight into the future. let us imagine a Sinclair computer with built-in screen. perhaps understandably. Or even a cheap disc system and a Prestel adaptor for the ZX-81. The question arose at to whether he would meet the challenge and produce a competing product. the ZX-81. Imagine. Sinclair said last year that he foresaw a convergence of his computer and flat-screen technologies in 1982. That being the case. discs and extended Basic to rival the BBC computer at around £200. instead of the many minutes it takes at present. What now seems certain. which could breathe new life into the flagging British Telecom system. The adaptor makes exciting news for Sinclair users because it would mean they could communicate directly with each other—directly via Prestel. at least not in 1982. Each month we plan to provide you with as much fun and information as possible. He may. I shudder to think what that could mean in terms of software piracy. colour. He is reported to have said he could have met the specification for around half the price of the model chosen. a ZX-81 in 1981. selling for around £100. Surely it cannot be a coincidence that he has a research laboratory near to that of IBM at Winchester. there is the vexed question of the ZX-82. Again. but to the year of its launch. The winner or winners of the competition are expected to be announced in late April. especially in view of his recent licensing agreement with Timex in North America and his tie-up with ICL is that he will stay in the computer field. JSee page 61 for the full story J. More recently he suggested that it would be a later development—"perhaps 1983-84". to be proved wrong. A ZX-80 in 1980. Sinclair seemed. It is just that it seems too good to be true. in thst case. or going to make a cup of tea while the 16K program loads-up. no more slaving over a hot and possibly unreliable tape recorder. the Prestel adaptor.sinclairvoyance ELCOME to the first issue of Sinclair User. although I would be delighted. W e will always print a good selection of programs. Commercial suppliers may find they need to sell only one program to see it instantly distributed—free —throughout the country.000 prize announced three months ago for a workable ZX-81 adaptor. Rumours of a mass storage device. if the 200. that is. is content for the moment to keep us guessing.

Requires7K RAM. A reliable expansion system allowi ng a total of any RAM pack plus two other plug In boards to be in use at once.y.00. p u n T H E C O M P U T E R FAIR. Which ROM. Increasing number of asteroids Full mobility of ship to all areas of the screen Two asteroid si2es Bonus ship at 10. £26.+connector+CHRS bd+The special G raphlcs version of ARCTIC COMPUTING'S ZX CHESS 11. : M A Y B U S H : SOTON : H A N T S : E N G L A N D . 3 levels of play./ A programmable character generator giving 128 SEP ARATELY PROG RAMMABLE CHARACTERS. oo.3 TONES. Socket £ 8 6 . Plugs direct In to the rear port on your ZX Computer £18. 33rd to 28th.80. A p r i l 3 r d ZX MICROFAXR.. Signal O/P via 3. RIGHT. Special offers & news ( 1 ) QS Mother bd. BLACK. 30th A p r i l & 1 st May ALL PRODUCTS FULLY GUARANTEED. Bonus base. UP. QS H I RJSSBD. 1 NOISE. The strongest chess program with 7 levels of play ( 8 ) QS MOTHER BD+CONNECTOR + either SOUND or CHRS bd £40. A HI-res graphics board giving 256 x 192 PIXELS 6K ON BD RAM SOFTWARE SELECT/ DESELECT. Up to 84 fast moving characters on screen at once. 0 0 . An extremely reliable static RAM Bd which combines with the computer's memory to give 4K total. the AY chip does most of the work leaving your computer free for other things. when ordering. MIXED TEXT AND GRAPHICS. DOWN. Come and see u s . 6 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . . QS CHRS BD.) Mother board £ 13. Q S 3 K R A M Bd. Q 5 . 8 0 .00 Connecto r £ 4 . QS ASTEROIDS LEFT . ENVELOPE SHAPER: + TWO 8 BIT I/O PORTS Easily programmable from BASIC. 0 0 . Earls Court. SCROLL. QUICKBTLVA: 9 8 . Drives Sound bd fir CHRS bd. PRINT AS. Westminster. On board 5V regulator drives all external boards Fitted with two 23 way double sided edge connectors. QS SOUND BD. MOVE x. . Connector is 2 * 23 way edge conns soldered back to back Expansion can operate in two ways ( 1 ) COMPUTER« • CONNECTOR Any QS add on bd (but no extra RAM pack). ON/OFF SWITCH. IK ON BOARD RAM Enables creation and display of your own characters to screen or printer Demo cassette of fast machine code operation routines and lower case alphabet included See below for ZX PRINTER listing. DRAW x. 4K m m of RAM + SLOW function £ 8 . WHITE CLEAR COPY See side for ZX PRINTER lisUngs using COPY £ 8 8 . 0 0 .LOUCR CASE d t c d 11 9 h • j k tftnopqrstuvwxijt > QS I N V A D E R S . Central Hall.FIRE Software to drive QS SOUND BD.OO. Multiple missiles firing in 8 directions.5 m m Jack socket Ports O/P via a 16 pin I.L I A D I B B I N COMPUTER GAMES FIRST CHOICE TOR ZX i SUPPORT: ZX-81 QS D E F E N D E R .8KROM » Slow £5.y.C. High score. LEFT.000 points Requires 8K ROM. Software to drive QS SOUND BD Moving Planetary surface. Memory size. On screen scoring. PLOT x.RIGHT THRUST . 8 0 .OO. (2) COMPUTER -^CONNECTOR — MOTHER BD —» ANY RAM PACK ( 2 bds to fit in mother bd. LEFT RIGHT . y. Increasing attack patterns Requires 8K ROM. and 4K mln of RAM £ 8 . A programmable sound effects board using the AY-3-8910. QS M O T H E R BOARD BD. Please state Type of machine. 2K ON BOARD ROM Resident fast machine code graphics software (in ROM ) provides the following HI-RES Commands. & QS CONNECTOR.y. RND saucers. £ 4 8 .FIRE 13x7 INVADERS. BOX x. U P P E R B R O W N H I L L R D . UP DOWN THRUST FIRE First and only full screen display.. On screen scoring Ten missiles at once. We will be at the following shows .

iifn cnnpa \ SINCLAIR USER April\W2 7 . Budget will tell you how much you are worth after you deduct your regular payments. A copy of either tape is available from Zedex. see what your game results are. You can save any game on to cassette and continue lA/non irnu n a v l Iv. it gives a quick reaction to the input of a direction and gives help if you are lost. promotion and relegation struggles and several levels of play.50 for cassette number two. Five Oak Green. pay £2. Written in machine code. If you want only the finance programs. The cost is £15 approximately for mamiol marninn nnnn for any computer errors. up-to-date game with four divisions. one for the dreaded metric litres and one for imperial gallons. hut watch for those injuries. After selecting your team and transferring the players you do not like or cannot afford. 2 Stone Castle Cottages. Maidstone Road. The original Mickie was developed by the late Dr Christopher Evans at the National Physical Laboratory and the NPL still considers it important enough to reserve it as a trademark.Each month Sinclair User aims to introduce new products What's new in the marketplace L Entering the 3D Labyrinth THIS GAME is in full 3D and presents you with an ever-changing view of a corridor along which you must travel to get out of the maze. You can play as many seasons as you like. Can you afford that new car? Cor Log is two programs. schools and colleges. A manual of examples is provided with the language. Kent TN12 6SD. Putting the bail in the net A MODERN. The Mickie language also has single-key commands and is written in machine code for a fast response.

breakpoints in your rouhurst Hill. The 32-page manual with the cassette will show you how to ENTER. as it requires the 16K RAM THE PROGRAM allows you to write machine code. avoiding the long-lost ghosts of his servants and the built-in traps which you have devised. The entire program. Machine code monitor GAMEL is not an adventure program but a program which allows you to write your adventure programs. Gee the screen by moving a Cross. Stone Lane. Blewbury. The Screen Kit 1 by the same firm allows you to create and load data files from cassette from within a program. Asteroid Belt means that you must avoid the rocks hurtling at you to survive. The cost of the toolkit is £6.50. Fireman's Rescue is a game in which you bounce people from a fire into a waiting ambulance. Heltaskelta Software is at 48 Cranfield Road. and rivals.95. A new SCROLL is included which will move the screen. up. Looking through a window A FASCINATING new language. which means that you have obniberite or titanium. for rubiurn. ranging Wickham. £8. That can be very useful as it can swap the Basic variables for the same program. West of the cheapest software Corkscrew listing available. RUN and DEBUG your machine code routines independent of Basic. The game is on cassette with an instruction book explaining how you can write programs in hours rather than weeks. The author has also written a book on hints and tips for the ZX-81 which has been much praised. is for writing large display programs for shop windows. up 3}K of space on a 16K RAM pack.50 and the Screen Kit 1 £4.[continued from page 7) the programmer work. The ZX-81 can now be programmed to find a gold treasure within a pyramid. Oxon OXl 1 9QE. right or left. London SE4 1UG. It can also reverse video any chosen window without affecting the rest of the message. LOADing SAVEing and RUNning machine code. changing display can be long. Phototon fire scores hits as space ships cross your star field view of the universe. Hyde. which can be scrolled independently up or to the right. Text and graphics can be inserted anywhere on the screen and up to 12 screens full can be stored in one 16K RAM pack. from 55-70 pence. Buck. Kent BR4 9BB. The list includes a RENUMBER which will also change GOTOs and GOSUBs. characters are inserted on 39 Glouster Road.double speed. The program is obtain. the like of which has never been seen previously. it includes more routines for data files. can be saved on cassette for running later.95 for the cassette and manual.SAVE and LOAD it at able from Campbell Sys. including all the screens. /continued on pose W J A Aids you on your adventure Making layouts simpler SINCLAIR USfcR April 1982 M . They are all lK games and include Alien Chase and Navarone—shooting games. The screen can be divided into sections. the a multiple-choice question choice is yours. The cost is £6. REPLACE all lines of Basic in a given program with another. if SIMPLIFIES the drawing you fancy discovering of program layouts for minerals on an alien planet games or teaching pro. down. to answer for the things Gamel 81 is available you want to do. in large or small characters. The ZX-MC with manual costs £6. Cheap but also very cheerful That then draws a line which will follow the cursor until key 0 is pressed. That puts the cursor back into the rubout mode. There are also some 16K pack games available on cassette from £2 to £4. Essex lG9 6BL tines. Stourbridge. 15 Rous Road. The • from Control Technology. christened Window Language by its author.infested with monsters grams. so that you can find for £7 but overseas orders the results so far as a check should include sufficient as to why your program crashes. It is menu-driven. Video Sketch is available from Video Software. The book and the toolkit can be obtained from Hewson Consultants. pack to run it.95 for boxed de-luxe sets. 6 THIS FIRM provides some Hill. INSPECT-COPY and alter—when COPYd into RAM—ZX-81 ROM routines. Midlands DY7 6EQ. Or. Cheshire cursor to the place on the Skl4 5)G. The monitor takes for an air mail package. W. screen where you want the graphic and pressing key 9. It provides tems. 7 Grahame Close. Kinver. Both cassettes are available from Picturesque. The rolling.

Board backing. 2 bote Ptist to Butler Currie & Hook. charts! The surface .FOR ONLY £2. All you have to defend yourself is your laser cannon. board on to a Sinclair presents illegal move if printer or to store a game any other is entered and on to cassette. London E I C B fe Moo Shop 3 7 a Sn ah m High R London S / 6 uf r 4 teta d U1 •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 . as they are already included in the the program..without waiting a week for sions. author white. If you have bought a sound board from the same company. levels. explosions and crashes. one of which. Name Address.251 \ Jotter FILM' is a matt Fbly«ter film version of the "JOTTER" Grids identical in size so you can co-ordinate precisely PRINT and PLOT or you can copy photographs.allows you to copy the dard notation for moves.. Hull. moves. and the PRINT/M PLOTTER JOTTER. manoeuvrability up and down and the speed at which you attack the enemy. Size A4. 19 Borough High Street London S£ 19SE Please send me "Jotters" © £3 50 | r r VAT. 2 Cart husian St.for enthusiasts Just take a look at the specification -then think of the possibilities for real graphic graphicsl PRINTN PLOTTER FILM TOO . The object of the flight of your defender spaceship is to destroy the invaders from the right. ZXchess II also levels 1-6 which uses stan. you can enjoy all rushes of the wind. drawings. Both games will allow you to set up your own board pieces and start from there.... Humberside.(continued from page 8) Speedy game of Defender ENTIRELY in machine code and providing a very fast game if you can survive. drop bombs on you or crash into you. All prices in this review Lightning chess. North response. will have been rounded-up to respond faster in end include VAT and postage moves and opening book where possible. Maybush. ever. Program notes \ ZX81 Keyboard. The original. jomi prtrr Also amiable c w the cotnter at v Anyx»n*fdii»iiiwdM»in*hctfnrfffc«pi iyouflfqufft«Clw>mnpwpinw«MWpio Omy s Bookseuen. ZXchess is ZXchess II has seven £8 and ZXchess II £14. Defender is available from Quicksilva. It's the professionally-produced ZX Graphicsaid designed t y enthusiasts. giving the impression of movement over varying terrain. P&P) Please send me films" @ £225 |mc W P&P) Please send me your illustrated leaflet — I enclose a stamp Please bill my Access/Barclaytard No:. They can fire at you. of the film is ideal for drawing (with pencil) and erasure. Chess on several levels I HOW TO GET SERIOUS ABOUT ZX GRAPHICS FOR ONLY£3-5Q Fed up with listings that ignore the graphic approach? Is your PRINTING and PLOTTING SDll guesswork? Do you want to write data programs with graphic PRINT AT and PLOT and professional looking 'windows' and 'scrolls'? Or maybe you're still trying to find the successor to Space InvadersI All you need is ingenuity. can be reached used and the machine code at 396 James Reckitt games give a very fast Avenue. 100 Sheets. maps. howSouthampton. can recommend your best move and recognise stalemate. with the results.. 95 Upper Brownhill Road. I With both JOTTER and FILM the graphics possibilities are enormous — l ' despite low resolution Isn't it time you got serious about ZX Graphics? punched Numbered I PLOT Grid. thus allowing you to solve newspaper problems AVAILABLE in two ver. The game. Numbered PRINT Grid. The full screen is of ZXchess. Adjustments can be made to the program if your television set cannot keep up with such a fast game as is included in the instructions. The background moves from right to left. allows you to play black or Artie Computing.

but also clever thinking. bombs. It also has facilities for 4 extra buttons which could be used for o n / o f f switch. it also has a spare holder on the board which will accept a further 4K of R O M / R A M . This module.95. The keyboard has been specially designed for the Sinclair computer and is supplied ready-buitt. you must manoeuvre within a cubic maze and contend w i t h corridors which may go l e f t / r i g h t / u p / d o w n . The only real version of space invaders on the ZX computer. £3. uses fast moving graphics to provide a challenge requiring not only quick reaction.00.95. In the ROM are lower case letters. Numeric Pad £10. Never mind your invaders. etc £27.ZX 80/81 HARDWARE/SOFTWARE ZX KEYBOARD Now with repeat key facilities to add a numeric pad The keyboard has all the 8 0 / 8 1 functions on the keys. This now turns the 81 into a very powerful computer. £4. This is the cheapest small memory expansion available anywhere. Specify Z X 8 0 / 8 1 on order. 2K RAM £14. Norfolk. w i t h a graphic set rarely found on larger more expensive machines. fully tested and complete w i t h a 4K graphic ROM. Great Yarmouth. your normal graphic set contains 64. unlike most other accessories fits neatly inside your computer under the keyboard. 4K GRAPHICS ROM The dK Graphic module is our latest ZX81 accessory. 4K plus onboard = 5K. the module does not finish there. It is fitted w i t h push type keys as in larger computers. SPACE IN VADERS. Full size 3D graphical representation. bullets. 2K & 4K R A M Static Ram memory expansion for the 8 0 / 8 1 . but this goes one stage beyond. However. tanks. which was highly acclaimed at the Microfair. CENTIPEDE. rockets. CENTIPEDE Graphic ROM version of our popular centipede game. 4K RAM £19.95. 3 D / 3 D LABYRINTH You have all seen 3D Labyrinth games. Software p&p free. This can be used with a 1 K or 2 K RAM chip for user definable graphics. a complete set of invaders graphics and that only accounts for about 5 0 of them.95. This will give you 4 4 8 extra pre-programmed graphics. Gorleston. 16K 81 SOFTWARE DEFLEX. this is positively shining.e. MEMORY 80/81 16K RAM Massive add-on memory for 8 0 / 8 1 . They both work w i t h onboard Ram i. One and t w o player versions on same cassette. etc. Please add £ 1 p&p for all hardware. reset. £3.95. £32. This totally new and very addictive game. The module comes ready built. the speed at which this runs makes ZX invaders look likeagameof simple snap.. £29. ALL OUR PRODUCTS ARE COVERED BY A MONEY BACK GUARANTEE.95. there are still about 4 0 0 left {that may give you an idea as to the scope of the new ROM). This is the first implementation of the popular arcade game on any micro anywhere.95.95. and will greatly increase your programming speed. This means that you now have 5 1 2 graphics and w i t h there inverse 1024. 16K GRAPHIC ROM SOFTWARE 2 3 Sussex Road. Telephone: Yarmouth ( 0 4 9 3 ) 6 0 2 4 5 3 (K'tronics 10 su SINCLAIR USKR April 10H2 . so you can create your o w n custom character sets.

The audio modulator costs £10 and is available for Compusound (U. and the Republic of Ireland..Add-ons to make your computing more fun As more and more people buy ZX-81 s. Hampshire. The ZX-99 also provides an RS232C serial output interface which allows a wide range of printers to be driven. Southampton. " THIS UNIT will allow ZX-80 or ZX-81 owners to put any audio sounds through their TV loudspeakers.S. ^ j M i i l i ^ B . to the ZX-80 or ZX-81 when the 16K or other memory pack was fitted. Computer Keyboards is at Clendale Park. There are Compshops in the U. QS sound board £26. . It requires no soldering to attach it to the ZX-81—only the opening of the ZX-81 plastic case and the insertion of the replacement leads. apart from the RAM.x4jin. Since then. will plug in either direct to the ZX-81 via a QS connector—a double-sided edge connector—or into the motherboard. QS CHRS board £26: QS RAM from £18-£35. It consists of 46 microswitch keys with the correct stepped arrangement for a QWERTY keyboard. London NWl. as it takes care and patience to fit it inside the ZX-80 case. 32 Langley Close. The overall dimensions are 10in. easy-tounderstand instructions and Quicksilva provides test programs for each unit. as the unit draws 300ma from the+5V regulator but the cost is only £15.95 for the keyboard in a metal case. The cost is £28. Compshop will not assemble kits or attach them to a ZX-80. leaving six spare keys for the user and the space bar unmarked. New Barnet. it to the ZX-81 video modulator but derives all its power from the internal +5V regulator. The ZX-99 is available from Data-assette. more and more companies are bringing out add-on products. Keying out of industry THIS PROFESSIONAL keyboard is from a manufacturer of keyboards for the computer industry generally.99. Making the proper noises . All the boards. the device slots into the •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 Pnrt of the range. Boards galore from Quicksilva THIS COMPANY was one of the first to introduce a motherboard. Berkshire. Called the ZX-99.). Each m o n t h w e will look briefly at what has arrived recently on the market Slow mode kit N O W a kit for a ZX^O which will allow you to have a constant static screen when used with the 8K ROM. Forty keys are labelled with the Sinclair codes. It is complete with instructions. The boards are all supplied with very clear. expansion board and according to the company gives the ZX-81 real computing power. The audio transferred in the slow mode is unaffected by the ZX-81 computing. Hertfordshire EN5 1QW. a range of goods has been produced. Frenbank Road. The top line will tend to slant to the left and the power supply may have to be changed. It is called a Telesound 82. Ascot. A separate audio lead which can be plugged into a tape recorder ear socket or the output of a sound board is also provided. It stops that annoying flicker when accepting an INPUT or entering a program from the keyboard. 14 Station Road. The kit requires the use of a soldering iron toattach Aiming for real power DATA-ASSETTE has launched the first of its hardware add-ons for the ZX-81. Worcs B98 OET. The sound board also has included a 16-bit port which can be used to control devices external to the ZX-81 by PEEK and POKE commands. Four tape recorders can be handled at one time and business applications are now within reach. 44 Shroton Street.95 for the keyboard and £43.x2in. Maybush. Redditch. The sounds can be fed-in from a tape recorder—instructions for using the program perhaps? They can also be used to give Space Invaders real explosions. The kit is a metal box which fits on top of the modulator inside the ZX machines. Compshop Ltd. The kit is for the ZX-80 enthusiast who can use a soldering iron. Quicksilva is at 95 Upper Brownhill Road. so that other things could be connected from 3K RAM packs at £18 to sound and programmable graphics boards.K. QS motherboard £12.

000 on a ZX-80. including postage and packing. Bournemouth Park Road. Audio Computers now supplies some programs for storing the screen and program in high memory —above RAMTOP. Each tape into the back of the ZX recorder. That port allows the user access to control printers. which looks the machines.external loudspeaker. Fuller will doit for £10. to the tape via the amplifier The 32K RAM pack costs and loudspeaker included £46 for a kit and £54 readyin the unit. The facturer of floppy discs to INPUT and OUTPUT ports eliminate the problems are mounted on a printed with LOADing and SAVE. Program names can be entered for recording on tape through a condenser THIS BOX has one switch microphone fitted within to control all your tape recorder functions. Demonstrated at the ZX Microfair was the use of the OUTPUT port to generTHIS tape recorder has ate tones through an been designed by a manu. The tops of the keys are stepped and have on the key-tops the same symbols as the Sinclair keyboard. Taping-out your problems speaker is used for a talk-in before the program starts. tape and passes it through a special circuit. It is not possible with the programs just to swap the variables (data) to a new program.1 U (continued from page l l j sticks.75 built. cueing recorder can be obtained the tape up to the correct from The Monolith Elec. The system requires only a screwdriver to assemble unless you have ZX-80. One switch from Abacus Helping to expand up to32K A port only for the ZX-81 A MEMORY-MAPPED port which can be PEEKed and POKEd from a Basic program located at 11. The ECR81 has a obtainable from the same long-life recording head firm. The ERC81 tape ing and SAVEing. costs £32.circuit board which plugs ing tapes. Fuller Micro Systems is at Sandfield Park East. The power supply can be fitted inside the case and can reduce the number of cables required to connect the unit.000 for the ZX-fll or 25. Controlling your tape. if that scares you. Feedback causing hum or a high-pitched tone on recordings is eliminated by . The same loud. Somerset TA18 7HR. Essex. Therefore all the leads can be left plugged-in all the time. Abacus can be contacted at 188 St. which consists of thecased keyboard. West Glamorgan. the 16K RAM can be used only on the ZX-81. adjusted for the correct Technomatic can be conalignment to TDK Cr02 tacted at 17.position and inserting a tronics Co Ltd. The controller costs £12. The basic system. high bias tapes. The unit is also supplied with 70 centimetres of cable so that the tape recorder does not have to be sited next to the ZX machine. The system can be builtup using the 16K RAM pack and a motherboard which will accept any boards which will plug into the standard 23 x 2-way edge connectors. Burnley Road. LOADthe tape recorder. Audio Computers is at 87 have one switch position. The It takes the data from a port costs £18. Crewkerne. is tested and sold have to be used to attach complete with a certifica. London NW10 1ED. After that is done there is 1BK for programs and l^K for variables and data. 5-7 Church voice on to the tape all Street. Cueing is done by listening Southend-on-Sea. That allows you to change the screen within a program and swap programs stored in RAM. with (his board. so that tape variations cannot effect the data LOADed into the ZX-81.the 16K RAM pack—also tion tape. Aiming at 'proper* invaders IF YOU become disinterested in Space Invciders looking as if they were made from Lego. you can. Screwingina system THE FULLER DP system consists of a keyboard unit which contains your ZX-80 or ZX-81 printed circuit board and a keyboard made up of 40 microswitches in the same layout as the Sinclair flat keyboard. to light LEDs. The output is through a DIN socket. to use joy12 THIS RAM pack fits on to the back of a ZX-81 to give 32K B of memory for use by the Sinclair 8K Basic. Swansea. Helens Avenue. Liverpool L12 9HP. so an extra same as any portable tape printed circuit board will recorder.switching-off the ear connection when SAVEing. That means that it cannot be used with the 18K RAM pack on the ZX-80. swap Sinclair letters and charac9 (continuftf on page J3J SINCLAIR USKR April 1U82 . Technomatic can also supply a booklet of applications for 40 pence if you want some ideas.75 as a kit or £38. The original 16K can be expanded to 32K on the ZX-81 by altering the RAMTOP variable and giving the command NEW.built.covered with a clear plastic top to prevent wear.

. i ki A conut on I u»iO SUIS TD O G M1 P C A I AK ) D tottl* IM t o d t l K l - a a tor 1 • WwawHW) . 23 Sussex Road. B 1 UU A SD V N E N3 T L P O E WOflTHHM IM1 (Ev*n4n9» and W—fc«nd» on*) EEH N IM H M f*CK ns Ml Ml A M * < t't .l • tiw cmeTK ear iatk many gin r A rhete iovime* ate At. PAUl MOlMtS Po d Y toHowin^ « M | n 1 Itittilirft rmv < <i A o bnt rfflgmbtf you llllr »t4fli«>9 nomtwf and irc'untnl v|lu« S«nt" and replace changei pyyy occurence o' a tl<i>Kl«l *h you require Ffee i h i i i*ii( tm ho» 'nany Itnftyieivou hj. O * in•.n»n • .*ri( th*no» each ctiarat ler on your »c>»n to ill mini video T P R U I E provleft a »yftlef W I A E O TN AT dtlion un'il afty i > iri irive. J."•• .I> * lh IHWW atC He —P I r» > f ufi refund * nm da*rghled JRS SOFTWARE ZX81 16K MACHINE CODE DEBUG/MONITOR tit • E L I M I N A T E M A C H I N E C O D E P R O B L E M S «ith ZX M C .J • • h' . All the devices from light pen to analogue and digital inputs are available through PEEKing and POKEing location 15360 to 16383. not on h o w and w h e r e to store t h e m • Z X M C is supplied on a high quality cassette. usable on the ZX-80 or ZX-81.'.95 from dK'tronics.MI Ah' M . W E S T W I C K H A M SEE US AT THE ZX M I C R O F A I R KENT BR4 9BB APRIL 3 0 a n d WAY 1 . The 4K graphics ROM and printed circuit board is available for £30. SUSSEX. A RAM chip—4118 or 6116—must be inserted in the socket to storeall these user-defined characters. just the Basic variables. giving extra facilities. RD Laboratories is at 5 Kennedy Road. ' I>nli(«1 tm*Qm » u tilt r . send the ZX-81 and an extra £3 and it will be done for you.. The printed circuit expansion port at the back connects to the Pienly of facilities for RD. The unit is supplied from the ZX machine +9V line via its +5V regulator. The modules cost between £23.80. A E S N I ! HMltwi I r w I R M Z I «h Z M I R M n S E TA. M »oti £4. a n d leaves vou 12 ' i K of memcKy to work w i t h • S A V E ft L O A D A T D O U B L E S P E E D j n y i[«.f C«tt Bomb i cod* tltl M ot iMOh^V 0»d*r OVffiSlAS CUSTOMtHS rr»J» dv m^ije in .nitam y with you* n PN <e r ypeclied character • A«.i' u**d > con»uncT. D o N A X1 X K O I M C «he*i o'ltpcog Mf l e Sl'. Mum's the word for facilities THIS SYSTEM. Gt. * M mj'ttd f'tfvtOwVv «I*d I! M tro^sn iqut'vi A iKoul L »S n o' d U < | fc Ot » i " <« > g O b n| ' f O > t«t fjft (hit At'ch O r tot •ip«nd*ng t>i*t" W b u o Smmi T oh liaaic tr M cod* IMl V nr v. for only I .-f^ j*ed to m|ivp tour Ut ot round i"«r ii'M" t o>i T iNftti |t t > PlUt iWont and B c H * * l . The motherboard consists of a connector to plug into the ZX machine and vertical printed circuit boards on to which the modules fit." >n > PttASt NOTf Ail qqoos siwr Amman SINCLAIR USER A p r i l1982Ifl llwc V^rroll*' W f-'eHOi t rftOldJ* If M cod* t* S h t Toolfl f < 1 wM o 4 %mm (Basic IMl nk A t. D U fully inclusive IC W 01 B * » < att >< I Plntr <«» l+JI Mn la' irhtr-. It fits beneath the keyboard in the ZX-81 and requires three soldered connections to the ZX-81 printed circuit board. R U N & D E B U G vout macfune code programs indeperideriOy of Basic c o m m a n d s .!». <d U v« V • • » M * goo* and » u t»'cle c» km»» and «t»*«* o »v r*« . • • U » ( 4 * 6 IM. o* mk » % di » r f4 9b o «I . Dane End.30. . There are 448 extra characters within the ROM which require no special taped program or RAM to use. w i t h a 32 page operating manual. 16K RAM im» at you require nivon on'yi F.nfttantly Hit up « many empty pr.iliud area of (re.30 and £33.'I'IlM »l. There is a spare socket on the unit so that graphics symbols of your choice can be used. t > .on with O E Ml* your » r e> . HertsSGl2 oLU.e left Hypei graph>tt mode ^MDhiEi nf.' a t G T t aid G S S » i cu e * i. to enhance your screen display.-<.95 fully inclusive iC W O ) S e n d large S A E lor more details Programs available mail order only A l l o w u p to 14 days delivery Please make cheques PO payable l o 6 C O R K S C R E W HILL. a simple instruction of LET X = USR (??????) is all that is required. D " > >. the Micro-mum which will take two boards and the Super-mum which will take eight boards. There are two sizes of motherboard. j y m g easM-r P L U S many more useful c o m m a n d s • A M U S T FOR B E G I N N E R S b A D V A N C E D U S E R S concentrate o n your M / C programs..•'V-i (continued from page 12) ters for proper Space Invaders. Yarmouth. at double speed. .'l II. l«£5fg™ n IS f J * ! (*TO« i •— t'JTi.[I«r I f Py o ' ul I jll.n« Fliu wftltiiCliont and ftampW proflrant . the Super-mum £40.R A M At last vou are freed from storing youi M C in arrays or R E M lines • R E G I S T E R S D I S P L A Y 8 B R E A K P O I N T S to make d» b u . If that worries you. I U | 4 » [< lu S 'USA tuSlufT'*'* onlfcl r n m e OO Ou nldd n eu br Saarih 1# a d lilt ivffy line containing ipecilied charade' 1 n > 1 S E I L G A HC R U I E PC A RPIS OT S N SCREEN KIT 1 A suite of machine code routines that are called f r o m Basic programs.Heri in maclvne loJp and together i d" r up only n I < BvtfS o your pr*c*ou> R M an inceditile acinatamanir' 6 < A * ^ .! . The Mini-mum costs £15. a n d create D a t a Files on cassette S C R E E N KIT becomes part of your Basic program • D R A W A BORDER • C L E A R P A R T OF S C R E E N • LOAD ANY CHARACTER TO WHOLE SCREEN • C L E A R S C R E E N B Y S C R O L L I N G U P D O W N LEFT O R R I G H T • KEYBOARD SCAN • FLASHING CURSOR • I N V E R T V I D E O O F P A R T OF S C R E E N • M E M O R Y LEFT • D A T A FILES lets vou Save b Load. All prices in this review are rounded-up to include VAT at 15 percen t and p+p.O . Gorleston. Norfolk. t* W Y I E A E U . consists of a motherboard into which cassette case-type modules plug. Ware. ed-tii* loo1 O L 0 » itJ *> lor ca»«tie NY » ud.#f teen on a 2 8 belore X1 Op*« . WORTHING.'' C.J mw software d e b u g / m o n i t o r for the Z X 8 1 16K • E N T E R .80. Z X M C resides m R A M .. ••ii. Different D a t a Files can n o w be Loaded into the same Basic program • Supplied on cassette w i t h instructions PIUS UIHm i irn • i.

ranging from schoolchildren who have just started using the machine to middle-aged people verging on retirement who do not want to let their brains go stale. Many people might think that Sinclair employs an entire team of experts to deal with the mounds of technical queries pouring in daily but. It starts at the Cambridge King's Parade HQ where the letters arrive. the technical advicedepartment is inundated with enquiries every day. On the surface that part of the Sinclair operation appears a simple one. the correct type of jack-plug to use. she says. With the letter is also sent a list of cassette recorders which have proved to be compatible with the ZX-81 and which produce the best results. I will take extra trouble to sort out their problems because. one person copes with them single-handed. through to theelderly who find tackling some such new concept an interesting challenge. helpful answer. And incredibly they are all dealt W ITH 250. Ruth Bramley. covering an ever-wider range of points. Behind the scenes. "If children write or telephone me. with some help from her secretary. she adds. With such a wide range of people wanting information. in reality.T" Introducinj with more fair share o Every day Sinclair receives up to 50 pleas for help. how to avoid noise from mains being recorded on to the tape. "The biggest query is undoubtedly from people asking about cassette loading and almost always it is because people are using a recorder which is not compatible". and how to align the tape properly against the playback head. which shows how much ZX-81 sales have increased in that ime. a standard letter has been devised which tells the user how to set the correct signal level. The process of answering written enquiries is time-consuming. after all. however. plush offices of Sinclair Research in Cambridge. a smalt team of people Ruth Bram/ey: up to 50 letters a day. To cope with the demand generated by that query. SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' 14 . If you write to the Cambridge headquarters or telephone with a technical enquiry.000 ZX-81 sales under the belt of Sinclair Research. deals every day with the sometimes daunting task of replying to technical enquiries about the ZX-80and ZX-81. Miss Bramley has to deal with all the letters and telephone calls on the subject. On an average day she handles between 30 and 50 letters and calls. As the only technical adviser for Sinclair. they are the adults of tomorrow who will be using this technology all the more". nine times out of 10 you will be given a prompt. Now housed in the recentlyacquired. it resembles organised chaos. it is inevitable that they will make a variety of requests and need many different problems solving. People of every age like to know about the ZX-81. About a year ago she was receiving something in the region of 20 to 30 letters and calls a week. Once opened.

wanting to know how to deal with data read and store. production and complaints departments. "Many of the programming enquiries are from people. she says. At the moment there are no plans to employ another technical expert to lessen the workload but if interest in the ZX-81 continues to grow as much this year as it did last year. Many require a standard brochure about the computer containing details about both the hardware and applications software available and how to order goods.lg the lady 3 than her )f problems with by one w o m a n . If she receives a number of queries about one subject. the time of day. Ifl . I will see what needs to be done and send a reply". For each call she answers she notes the date on which it occurred. "If there is anything really specific which requires a separate answer. R u t h Bramley. There are two standard letters we send dealing with cassette loading difficulties. otherwise I accumulate an enormous backlog". like saving and loading. The method of handling enquiries by telephone is just as efficient as dealing with the mounds of mail. Questions she deals with alone include modification of the ZX-81 and enquiries about the circuit in the machine. The only queries in her sphere which she sometimes finds difficult SINCLAIR USER April 1982 to handle are those connected with engineering. Most of the letters are helping people with programming problems. Yet there is no problem there. it will not be long before the technical advice department expands to keep customers satisfied. Frequently callers telephone again and her log enables her to find quickly and easily what the previous enquiry was about. Since December she has set up a logging system recording every telephone enquiry with which she deals. she considers compiling a new standard letter to solve the problem. often children. If she is particularly inundated with paperwork and is unable to answer a telephone enquiry. Anything of a remotely technical nature goes straight to Miss Bramley. and hints on how tosaveand load with the ZX-81. With programming forming part of her mathematics degree course. "I like to have the letters in and out the same day. problems experienced with the!6K RAM pack. together with a spell with a software house. the other girls are capable of dealing with basic technical questions. she is unlikely to experience great difficulty. Others are sent to her equivalent in the sales. thecaller. because she can go to the engineers at any time. engineering.and the points the caller makes—in her own code. Her secretary deals with the general administration of the small technical enquiries department but the two share an office with five girls comprising the sales and administrative department. Here w e look at how she manages to cope sort them into various categories. she explains.

ELEMENTARY STATPACK: mean. corr. and versatile £25. of variance. send sae f or a copy of t he r ules HILD€RBAUTD 1981 H I L D E R B A Y L T D (YCM). speed £6. 01-2513090 ZX81&16K SOFTWARE EQUATION PACK: linear and quadratic equations. London SW1 (30th April-1st May). variance.. L o n d o n N W 1 7 A A . Earls Court (23rd-25th April) and the ZX Micro Fair. 8 / 1 0 P a r k w a y . sets. will now be handled by HOLDCO LTD. and for well under £ 10. POLYNOMIAL EVALUATION: operations. RELIABLE 16KRAM Pack for the ZX81 £42. Open to allIpurchasersof 'GOL D' or Games Pack 1 A64K Memotech will be sent tothe player who sends us the highest score received by 31 July 1982 Monthly prizes of blank cassettes for your programs' II you ha veal ready bought GOLD'... big. cQk> COMPETITION WINA 64K MEMOTECHI * * * * * * * * * Budget £15. TRIANGLES: complete trigs package £8. DO YOU HAVE DIFFICULTY LOADING TAPES! We have the answers.HILDERBAY LTD PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE If you don't believe that the Sinclair ZX81 can do real work. BRITTON STREET LONDON EC1M5NQ Tel: 01-251 3090 •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 . METRIC/IMPERIAL/US CONVERSIONS: length. HOLDCO GAMES — See our special advertisement in this magazine Prices include VAL Post & Packing. weightsand measures. £8. MEMOTECH 64K Memopak £ 79. COD Orders £2 extra. APPLE II Payroll: £35 HEWLETT PACKARD 9845B. Post & Packing. volume. 40 operations and functions. Superspline (general purpose interpolation and tabulation). come and see usat the Computer Fair Exhibition. * Stock Control Fast. surface. £8. regression £10.) £8. VDUs Prices include VAT. COD Orders £2 extra. 14. Contact us for more details CROFTON PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARDS. equations of higher degree. BANK ACCOUNT: calculate your bank charges whilst keeping youraccount £5.err. lin. covariance. Critical Path Analysis Up to 500act i vities £ 15 VAT & Mortgage & Loan £8 GOLD: A really good adventure: together with the intriguing "Picka Word". HOLDCO LTD. takes away the tedious task of manually handlingthe problem £25. coeft. Telephone enquiries for Hilderbay Ltd. Central Hall. TAPE HINT: Don't use the first 20 seconds of your cassettes — most tape problems are found near the ends of the tape. stand. BARCHARTS FOR ARCHITECTS: a simplified version. Regents Park. ZX81 & 16K SOFTWARE: Reviewed in "Your Computer" (Feb 1982) * Payroll for up to 30employees Meetsall regulations £25. complex)and Descartes £10. BEAMSCAN: Beamanalysisforarchitectsandengineers£25. CALCULATOR PACK: the equivalent of RPN calculators. zero's (int.£8. Westminster. stand. MONITORS.anal... real. MATRIX ROUTINES: the matrix statements of normal basic (MAT.

who is pictured with his band of helpers. to help avoid the massive queues. is being held over two days on Friday. Mike.000 people paid 50p each to fight their way round to the 70 exhibitors.. some 7. is at the moment planning his next Microfair which. April 30 and Saturday. SINCLAIR USER A p r i l1982Ifl . May 1. No wonder show organiser Mike Johnston is looking exhausted but pleased (bottom right). Our photographer has captured the atmosphere of the thronging crowds who had to wait up to four hours before getting into the show..Microfair mania M iHf ICROMANIA hit westminster Central Halls again recently when the second ZX Microfair was held there.

If you have a push-button model. If all that fails. is that a program—a series of instructions to the com- 81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81J 18 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . you pull out the power plug. You can enter anything you like from the keyboard. in practice. wait for a second or two. to make sure you have all the correct pieces— a ZX-81. an aerial lead and a pair of cassette leads. a manual. than a calculator and can also cope with letters and words— those on the keyboard—provided they are presented in the proper way. The programs you put in will stay there only while the power is on. so nothing you do to it in ordinary use will cause any damage to it. Talking to your ZX-A1 The ZX-81. Remember only to do that as a last resort. like a pocket calculator. It is far more sophisticated. You do not have to be a genius or a mathematical wizard to use it. then re-set the machine by unplugging the power for a second or so and try tuning again. it will not necessarily work but it certainly will do no harm. you should see a black square in the corner of the screen with a white 'K' like the picture in the manual. a power supply unit. the ZX-81 uses an artificial language designed for computers. if you have just opened the box. On other models the tuner is at the back of the set or sometimes in a pull-out tray at the front. try another set before you send for a replacement. Once you have tuned-in. double-check that you have everything plugged-in to the correct sockets and that power is on. 'understands' numbers and signs like plus and minus. plug it back and your machine is as good as new. Setting up The instructions for setting-up your computer on page seven of the manual are reasonably comprehensive and you should normally have no problems. This computer was made with the beginner in mind and will let you learn in easy stages and take you on to advanced computing. You will find that you use a few power sockets for your system and a four-way block connector on a short length of extension cable helps to tidy trailing leads. A calculator follows the rules of arithemtic. If the worst happens and you find strange pictures on the screens. There are many computer languages but Basic is a good general-purpose one. turn on the power—remembering to keep the TV volume low to save your eardrums—and tune to channel 36UHF. do not worry. If the picture remains fuzzy or unsteady you may need to adjust the vertical or horizontal hold on the TV and check the aerial lead for loose connections. Similarly. switch to an unused channel and turn thepush button. it makes life easier if you can find a corner somewhere to leave your equipment permanently set up— unplugged. It can save family arguments if you can afford a separate TV for your ZX-81. you can buy a cheap portable set for around £50 or obtain a second-hand one even more cheaply.ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81 81 ZX 81 O YOU have taken the plunge ZX ZX ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 ZX 81 81 81 s 1ZX81ZX81ZX81ZX81Z and bought your ZX-fll—now what? You may have a specific use for the machine in mind or you may simply be fascinated by the prospect of owning your own computer and keen to learn more about it. Connect up. or to your television or cassette recorder. Most manufacturers have their own slightly different version or dialect of Basic and Sinclair is no exception. What this means. however. The ZX-81 was designed for you. The ZX-81 is fairly robust and tolerant of mistakes. Here are a few general hints to help you. The 'K' will take fractionally longer to appear if you have a 16K memory connected. or the keyboard will not respond. called Basic. It is worth checking. If the 'K' does not appear. You may have slight difficulty locating the UHF tuner on your TV because some manufacturers manage to conceal it fairly skilfully. fairly easy for non-computer specialists to learn and found widely on microcomputers. because you will lose everything you have typed-in. Don't panic If all you know about computers so far is that they usually try to take over the world in science fiction films.

A word of warning. there are plenty by NEWLINE. many of whom would A good deal of the interest and 81 Chapter 16 of the manuals tells be only too happy to advise you if fun of having your own computer 2X 81 you in detail how to do it. you have joined a not very excluthe reviews and use your 2X To record a program. If you Many people feel that the best ZX-81. pre81 tape. You can ignore the functions Carry on computing Make sure you copy them exactly.2X will not work on another without but if you find it heavy going or gram and type LOAD " " followed 81 some modification but if you 2X not to your taste. 2X ties. ZX program you play it back to the in any case. 2X 81 then re-wind the tape. a health warning. over your machine. poor souls. 2X can learn at your own pace in the 81 easily find yourself crouched For that reason.ii 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X 81 2X one else. you SAVE 81 sive club with many thousands of judgment to choose the best. The beauty of having 2X entertaining hobby and is almost cues and the program will not 81 your own computer is that you certainly habit-forming. tape before you press RUN and 2X 81 Keeping your programs thinking that in another five NEWLINE to make it work. you can LOAD it 2X copy of the program. Sinclair User is in writing your own programs. will You can also buy a wide variety 81 2X can record on to ordinary cassette probably be sick to death of hearof commercially-produced. $pace Invaders written by someZX 812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X81 What to donow you have bought yourSinclair Don't panic! Here is the Sinclair User beginners' guide S I N C L A I R USER April 1982 Ifl . The manual deals way to deal with that is to wind puter—written for one machine 81 thoroughly with Sinclair Basic the tape to the middle of the pro. red-eyed. usually with tapes other users by printing a list of playing even the best game of 2X 81 recorded by other people. because meeting other Sinclair users. it back quickly from the tape and 81 the ZX-81 can reproduce the 2X undoubtedly will help your prolook for the error. Refer to 2X copy the programs you find in 81 the manual if you have difficulSine/air User.12812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X812X81 . adapt them for the 81 five horizontal black bands. if you have made a mistake 81 of your computer when you turn problem. computwith a comma or a quote omitted 2X ments to get the feel of your ing with your ZX-81 can be a very but your ZX-81 relies on those 81 machine. 2X may have problems occasionally will help you to get in touch with which is easily as fascinating as 81 in LOADing. without having 81 instructions you have typed-in as gramming—and your non-comto type it in from the beginning. members. That 2X You lose the program contents minutes you will sort out the way. then slowly turn understand Sinclair Basic you can 81 of books available for the ZX-81. They can vary a good deal in 81 ZX ZX-81 and it translates the coded By getting a ZX-81 you will find quality and you will need to read 81 sound back as your program. One clubs each month. Try to break that habit and you lose the program from 2X 81 off the power but you can take a by getting into the fresh air and the computer. You you have problems. 2X it and to play it back you LOAD it. 81 and calculations initially and 2X Finally. You can 81 volume setting. with a little 2X find one which suits you. make the computer do. 2X a coded sound signal which you puting friends. it is a good idea 2X style which suits you best. television screen shows four or practice. You may work without them. up the volume of the recorder soon learn the minor peculiarities 2X Check your local bookshop and with the tape running until the 81 of other versions and. the proway to learn is to plunge in at the You do not need to wait to learn 2X gram should load normally at the deep end and see what you can the language to start. in to SAVE a program on cassette 81 the early hours of the morning. Apart You may understand a sentence 81 experiment with PRINT statefrom any practical uses. When you want to use the ing about computers by that time recorded programs on cassette.

COMPUTING TODAY and <T Ninth London > - e T l TlCMNOtOCYUfc HrORMftTtOHOO t A m ^ ^ TTCHNOCOCTOA 20 " SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' .6pm ^ ^ [7pm 16th) Including: Retail Exhibitors • Hobbyists Club Stands • Seminars .THE 3rd LONDON COMPUTER FAIR APRIL 15th 16th & 17th 1982 10am .Workshops Bring and Buy Sale [17th only] Admission £1. tube station r ri '•'•"QD SPONSORED BY EDUCATIONAL COMPUTING.00 POLYTECHNIC OF NORTH LONDON THEATRE -©• Opposite Holloway Rd.

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Thus if location 17000 contains 34. a computer sends information to the memory location at a given address. and locations 16384 to 17407 are used by the RAM. starting at 16509. from Mr Adler of Harpenden is: "Please explain the meaning of an "address". Each month I shall answer a selection of letters from my postbag on a theme of interest to Sinclair users. Clearly each location needs a separate label or address to distinguish it from its fellows. The next question. Mr Peters of Blackpool asks: "1 want lo write several programs which use the same data but there seems to be no way to do so using the Sinclair functions. How can a byte. The add-on 16K RAM uses locations 16384 to 32767. Each location in memory contains one byte of information. the display file does not start at a fixed address. The display file is next but as programs can vary in length.H ELLO and welcome to HELPLINE. A single location can only hold a number between 0 and 255 and so two adjacent locations are used to store larger numbers. author of am perplexed by the manner in Hints Er Tips for the ZX-60 which addresses are stored in the & Tips for the system variables. I have been asked many times if there is a simple way of allowing two programs to use the same variables. The value held at an address can be found by PEEKing at it and so you can PRINT the value of D-FILE by entering: PRI NT PEEK 16396 + 256 * PEEK 16397 You may know that the contents of the first location in the display file is always 118 and you can show that by entering: PRINT PEEK (PEEK 16396 + 256 * PEEK 16397) Finally. that D-FILE is the begin. I know. we might say "byte 17000 is 34". The ZX-81 keeps track of it by storing the current value of the starting address in D-FILE. for example. The first request. If you look at page 178 of the manual you will see that the value of D-FILE is stored at address 16396 and so you might infer that you have only to look at the contents of 16396 to find the value of D-FILE. for and Hints example. in the unexpanded ZX-81 locations0to8191 are used by the ROM. The word address came into use because writing information to one of many memory locations is similar to writing a letter to one of many people. that is not true.ZX-81. Often I shall refer to pages in the manual supplied with (he ZX machines and this month the questions centre on chapters 27 and 28 of the ZX-81 manual which are about the Organisation of Memory and the System Variables. locations 8192 to 16383 are unused. The value of D-FILE is given by: value held in 16396 + 256 * value held in 16397 Any whole number between 0 and 65535 inclusive can be stored using this system. Only the contents of RAM may be altered and so users are generally interested in addresses 16384 and upwards. from Mr Lypartin of Paignton develops our theme: " I am keen to understand how my ZX-81 works but as a beginner I A n d r e w H e w s o n . have an address?" An important part of a computer is its memory and typical microcomputers have several thousand memory locations available for immediate use. Do I have to write routines to save and Andrew Hewson: with the right advice. Remember that the value of D-FILE is an address and that addresses are whole numbers. like 16384 and 17407 and 32767. so. Similarly. Unfortunately. Computer addresses are simply whole numbers starting at zero. answers questions on ning of the display file—but how is h a r d w a r e and software for that information stored?" The area at the bottom of RAM between 16384 and 16508 holds the system variables and is followed by the program area. Letters are sent to an address so that they reach the person who lives there. SINCLAIR USER April 1982 Questions organise 22 i . In practice. A byte can be thought of as a whole number between0 and 255 inclusive. the word byte is often also used to mean a "location in memory" as well as to mean the number which is stored at that location. which is a number.

Your first program can then copy data into the area above RAMTOP. and so you need at least 56 bytes above RAMTOP. Ifl . Line 50 stores the value of VARS in | and line 60 stores the value of RAMTOP in K. The address is stored as a system variable at 16388 and 16389 as the values 0 and 68 respectively JO and 128].N)/256)] Inourexamplethe result is67 [128]. The same technique works for ordinary variables but strings cannot.10—these values have been chosen for the purposes of this demonstration and have no special significance. i. The trick is to alter the RAMTOP system variable to give you some space at the top of RAM which is out of reach of the Sinclair system in normal use. You can use your ZX-81 to calculate the new value to be POKEd into 16388 by entering: PRINT 17408-N-256 MNT((17408NJ/256) [PRINT32768. \ on how to j memory load data on cassette or is there some way of passing data between programs directly? There is. All the calculations following refer to the unexpended ZX-81 with values for the 16K expansion in square brackets where they are different. so do so at that point. Variables are stored at the address held in VARSat 16400 and 16401 so you can PRINT S I N C L A I R USER April 1982 the current value by entering: PRINT PEEK 16400 + 256* PEEK 16401 • Saving an array above RAMTOP. In each case. so that it lies at the bottom of the variables area. but the data saved above RAMTOP will still be intact. in general. You can then load a second program.e. Let us take the job step by step. because 0 + 256 * 68 = 17408 [0 + 256 128 = 32768). 17408 (32768 with the 16K RAM]. • Retrieving an array from above RAMTOP. The following program demonstrates the technique: 10 DIM A(10) 20 FOR 1 = 1 TO 10 30 LET A[I) = I 40 NEXT I 50 LET J = PEEK 16400 + 256 * PEEK 16401 60 LET K = PEEK 16388 + 256 * PEEK 16389 70 FOR 1=0 TO55 80 POKE(K + I). A single-dimensional array occupies five bytes per element plus another six making 56 bytes in all. queries and comments to Andrew at 7 G r a h a m e Close.. because they can move around in RAM. be copied in this manner. Blewbury. lines 50 to 90 represent theessential part of the program but it is important toassign thearray at the beginning of the program.. if you havea program in your machine you should SAVE it first. replacing the first. When you switch on your ZX-B1. Oxon. Suppose you want to pass a 10-element array between programs.. • Finding your array. The ZX-81 will ignore any alterations to RAMTOP until you enter NEW. The loop at lines 100 to 120 PRINTs the values of thearray as set by the first program. PEEK (K +1) 90 NEXT I 100 FOR 1=1 TO 10 110 PRINT A(I} 120 NEXT I In this program thearray is assigned and J and K are set to VARS and RAMTOP as before but the loop at lines 50 to 780 now copies the data from above RAMTOP to the variables area. The second program can then copy the data back into its own variables area.Sinclair ZX computers. Now delete the first program and enter the following: 10 DIM A(10) 50 LET J = PEEK 16400 + 256 * PEEK 16401 60 LET K = PEEK 16388 + 256 * PEEK 16389 * 70 FOR 1 = 0 TO 55 80 POKE (] + I). PEEKU + I) 90 NEXT I Lines 10 to 40 assign the array and set its values to 1 . The value to be POKEd into 16389 is given by: PRINT INT((17408 -N)/256) |PRINT INT {(32768 . RAMTOP is set automatically to one more than the top of RAM. • Moving RAMTOP. The loop at lines 70 to 90 copies the contents of the array above RAMTOP. Of course.N -256 * INT((32768 -NJ/256}] Using N = 56 for our example gives 200. Please address your problems.

. debatedly. BOBKER 2 9 C H A D D E R T O N DRIVE. 1 YOU 1 JOIN L A T E . BYTEINC DEEPER I N T O Y O U R ZX81 supplements the ZX81 manual and provides an excellent introduction to computer programming. the user's manual can not answer all the questions and problems that arise when using the 2X81. and homework aids). the fastest selling personal computer in the U.i ot D AIM C eoo I E * THE BIRLE Holy Moses L SOOOM IM I GOLIATH ! 0 JONAH Betttohem priui includ* kitarra audio mtrot rmhingtr d»tcnpt. the user's manual gives the distinct impression of being written by an engineer.41/ ^ ^ Sigma X Technical X Press j f l ^ H ^ H H H the UK Software Publisher M l ! |^ l i o o - cMMmm i M JK * * • | FO« J D D MN S B D AE IO A T S IS O K SKCIAUIT AK U VASECTOMY SMUT HITLER 7 V OA ADULT GAMES ACNE DOLE 1y ROYAL F L U S H • •alsac REAGAN PsKffl BYTEING DEEPER INTO YOUR ZX81 by M . ( p Zl.' M U TO OClN >•fel• • O IK J06 N »ox DEATH (St C N t TO O CP t N DT MH K KSU U CP M I .95 ALL GAMES* PROGS. LANCS. BURY. The only way you can see the manual is by buying the machine.O. Also. IT IS I N T E N D E D TO BE E D U C A T I O N \ I INCLUDES ARTICLES O N BASK PEEK. ZX81 (CLUB IS D E V O T E D EXCLUSIVELY T O / X 8 1 1 JOIN ZX-GUARANTEED L The ZX81 Microcomputer is now.50) A I R M A I L OUTSIDE EUROPE £ 10 PLEASE M A K E CHEQUES P. FOR DETAILS. .o" . personal data banks. It starts from first principles. G. by reference to over 30 carefully graded examples.7 6 6 5712 Distributed by i 8 o 7 ! y 1 / ) 1082 \XTv T^SS5' Baffms lane • Chichester Sussex P 0 1 9 1UO England Wiley & Sons Limited 24 1 SINCLAIR USKR April 1UH2 . each of these is suitable for domestic use (e. PwiunouiK « UO AA D* S X* H rt or> ZX81 Mark Harrison ^Sioma Technical Pres*. ETC. M EM BERSHIP IS APRIL TO APRIL. December 1981 0905104 137 160pp paper only £4.g. SAMPLE LAST Y E A R S BACK ISSUECI PI I S S A E O R SAF. C U R R E N T YEARS BACK ISSl I S WILL BE SENT. M E M B E R S H I P S PER VI \R(ElJROPE£6. HINTS A N D TIPS.»» r X t o v potloo* A n n r t f w uh n M d la A T M T ITD. ZX-Gl A R ANTEE D IS NOT Jl ST ( . A.RRORFREF. DRAFTS PAYABLE TO: ZX-GUARANTEED. progresses to some of the most advanced techniques useable on this computer It presents detailed projects and programs for the user to solve. Unfortunately. and. T E L : 0 6 1 . games. GL ARANTEEDF. not for the average user of the ZX81.K. All but two programs will run on ZX80. UNSWORTHY. POKE. Harrison atv*tt# N 3 o IM O * Vl Vf . M A C H I N E CODE. ETC. 6 A OilwM Rood. for engineers. AM I S. FLICKER FREE P R O G R A M M I N G .

32-64K. Assembled #htcr>e*er <Jo« nor Jop>* (BOOK B r AnDHf W Hf WSOM Stock Control Programme Payroll Programme HINTS & TIPS FOR ZX81 £4. — TOTAL J To: M e m o t e c h Ltd. The unit is user transparent and accepts such basic commands as 10 DIM A(9000) 0-8K . and can be used to run assembly language routines. OX4 1XL Telephone (0865> 722102 SINCLAIR USER A p r i l 1982 Ifl .. reliable memory extension. holds its contents during cassette loads.This area can be used for basic programmes and assembly language routines.00 Postage SUi I.32K of RAM memory for basic variables and large arrays. 3 Collins Street.. allows c o m m u n i c a t i o n between programmes..? For Subscription Form see page 64 The Memotech 6 4 K Memopak The growth of interest in computer use caused by the introduction of the Sinclair ZX81 has made new and exciting demands on the ingenuity of electronic engineers. It plugs directly into the back of the ZX81 and does not inhibit the use of the printer or other add-on boards.. At Memotech we have focused our attention on the design of an inexpensive..Sinclair ROM 8-16K. suitable for business leisure and educational use.00 £ 25. The Memopak is a 64K RAM pack which extends the memory of the ZX81 by a further 56K.Lack of ZX81 memory giving you headaches..This section of memory switches in or out in 4K blocks to leave space for memory mapping.00 VAT a 15% £2.. Oxlord. With the Memopak extension the ZX81 is transformed into a powerful computer. The Memopak together with the ZX81 gives a full 64K.. which is neither switched nor paged. Please debit my BARCIAYCARD ACCESS' account number: Please rush me: Quantity Price £68. at a fraction of the cost of comparaDle systems... 16-32K.25 £ 25. Following the success of our 48K memory board the new memory extension is designed to be within the price range expected by Sinclair users. and is directly addressable.69 Total |SuLa585isiSsisKsajjiajii ncnoTccn Memotech Ltd 3 Collins Street Oxford-OX41XL Tel • 722102/3/4/5 c det&te 'Pieast Signature Date NAME ADDRESS 64K RAM. There is no need for an additional power supply or for leads.

Educational ZX80/81 Users' Group Newsletter. 9 5 £2 £3 Nighlmare Plrk UK £4 High Has. MiddlesbroughTS5 5 E S Price € 7 . September 1981 COMPANION Bob Maunder Send your cheque for £ 7 9 5 (includes UK p & p l to L1NSAC ISBN 0 90721 1 01 1 1 lVlCAr L l F O f W /Ol l\ ( O U ) 6 8 Barker Road. Card Not to X . P 0. as well as a unique listing of the 8K R O M for machine code applications Far and a w a y the best once again Ltnsac has produced the book for the serious end of the m a r k e t ' . tips and warnings' -Education Equipment. November 1981 IheZXBI Companion is a most professional product. Graphics 16K £3 Space Invaders IK £4 Space Invaders n» 3 £5 K Breakout nil IK E3 16K £4 Dragon Mare Planeioids 16K £3 Scroti/ Rolling Riter 1 -16K £2 16K £3 un SUrVek 16K £4 Mission ol the Deep 16K £5 FruH Machine and Ponloon T K £2 6 Space Rescue 16K £3 Warner 16K £4 30 0' 4 X t + Connect Four 16K £5 Music Musk 2 . October 1981 Bob Maunder s attempt to show meaningful uses of the machine is brilliantly successful thoughtfully written. detailed and illustrated with meaningful programs To conclude . Linthorpe. quality games and special techniques the widest range available from one supplier! litems Oepl S U 26 Spteri Close Knowle Solihull Weil Midlands B93 9ES 26 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' .. with many good illustrative programs.16K IK 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 Assembly 81 Assembly 1 3 Mei Ldr/D i<«t 1K £5 95 3K £8 95 IK £1 00 * No hardware modifications • whatsoever 5 A E for catalogue All programs supplied on cassette with Instructions Send remittance with ordei (Cheque. ." T H E BEST ZX81 BOOK ZX81 THE If you have a Sinclair Z X 8 1 and want to use it to its full potential then. as the experts have all agreed. this is the book for you It contains detailed guidelines and documented programs in the areas of gaming.the book is definitely an outstandingly useful second step for the Z X 8 1 user .Your Computer. information retrieval and education.

Together with a series of home(continued on pagv 28) designed work sheets. is disc drives and high-resolution now using the micros happily is colour graphics. Using two lunch break and stayed after hours. its price. you could buy 10 ZX-81 s. The machine obviously has limitations—the absence of disc storage. he was •1 SINCLAIR USER .. it was intend. despite a long ZX-81s are ready for something with wait for delivery of two ZX-81s. but it takes users have written their own pro. For the same price as the Pet or Apple. Some of the fusing at first.with the ZX-81s. They have to discipline the equipment with his pupils. ZX-81s. the ZX-81 is a useful tool in primary education. cares? By the time children using the One school which. the youngsters tried simple He had this to say about his programming techniques.about two minutes to get the idea grams and developed some interest. worked through their unemployed teenagers. something without which they cannot manage to handle standard number-crunching. Griffin and George and W H Smith. The cost of the ZX-81 is well within the limited budget of a primary school and is a worthwhile investment to enable children to develop an awareness and can be used to present material in an unusual and interesting way. and languages will have developed Sheffield.anyway". all the machines Arbourthorne Middle School. providing a greater spread of usage. the whole education spectrum is using ZX-81 s Sheffield schoolchildren and their ZX-81 s.and it makes children's typing much ing applications. I admit. for example—and cannot compare to the versatility of some of the more powerful micros but it performs admirably within its scope.encouraged by pupil response. the ZX-81 has value and can withstand a surprising amount of robust hands-on use. One branch of the Youth Oppor. ed to use the ZX-81s for staff After only a short period of work familiarisation in computer hard. for instance. all of which offer theoffical range of hardware and software.T HE INTRODUCTION of the ZX-81 into an educational environment has greater value than many people imagine. From simple awareness to program writing and word processing. a member of • Computer programming is a valid staff keen to promote the use of subject for 11-year-olds—possibly micros in the school. The beauty of this particular micro is. including control faster. Originally. highquality software and peripherals mean the ZX-81 is capable of sophisticated operations. decided to try younger. Students at North London Polytechnic and at many other higher education establishments consider the ZX-81 to be a standard piece of equipment. Dommett makes ware and programming techniques. Non-standard Basic? W h o experiments. of course. RAM expansion. It may look like a toy—and perhaps deserved the label when first introduced—but independent suppliers have joined forces with Sinclair to produce an impressive array of addons which enhance the machine considerably. At the other end of the curriculum. the following observations: Stephen Dommett. given a certain amount of attention with a soldering iron. gaining a experience: valuable awareness of what a com"The single-stroke keywords? Conputer is capable of doing. program analysis and computing/ statistical study in specific subject applications. tunities Programme aims to give Interested children in his class hands-on experience to a number of arrived early. April >982 Why Sinclairs are such a smash hit From primaries to polytechnics. most with educational discounts. The only disadvantage might be the keying-in of input—the touch-sensitive keyboard may prove difficult for younger children to use. Educational suppliers include Sinclair Research.

save and debug machine code).12K or more of variables area LANGUAGE D I C T I O N A R Y £3.75 Z 8 0 OP CODES £145 A must for the beginner and the experienced programmer alike Thishands ready reckoner lists all 600 plus Z80 machine code i ns* ructions m deci ma I and hexadecimal with their mnemonics Each OpCode issucc metis explained and cross-referenced Supplied in a protective transparent wallet for easy reference and durability T hrec programs on ihe one cassette I ) I Statistics . When the sockets are secured and more RAM added. can you dobetl cr? W ntten i n machine code for super last fun Squadron •tiler wjuadron attack your position T hire laser bases Full score display _ f i ^ .S Y N t Chaptenon Saving Space Undemanding Ihe Display File Convening Z X 8 0 Programs Chai n ing Programs (paw Jala between programs. The educational users group. L O A D . playing games which will be entertaining and useful. especially in the unstable environment of a school classroom. a sound microcomputer. A T E a new dictionary and S. The ZX-81 is. That prevents program crashes. F I N D a given piece of Baste code and REPI AC Y all Oct u rrences of it. and rewarded.I 6 K can be switched in and out in 4K blocks to lease spat e for memory mapping • 12-16K can be protected against overwriting during loading from cassette • Directly addressable and user transparent * I p l o t J Kofbtsic program area » .plolsa graph of data entered from lhe keyboard Cheque with order or quote Accessor Barclaycard number to: H E W S O N C O N S U L T A N T S . when one talks about continued usage with children. The area which causes concern. E D I T amJKt \ m a c h i n e code programs. "The plan for this academic year". interesting and entertaining programs. too". 7 G R A H A M E CLOSE. • The Sinclair is the ideal machine to start. move bloc ks of Basic I ine\ with E D I T JLJa 16K R A M £37. The connection at the rear is vulnerable and it is advisable to construct some kind of base to which the micro and expansion packs can be attached. > l H I S Q U A R E D T E S 1 prints thecurrent value ofthc I h i squared sialism and the current sample w le IJ Ci R APH PLOT . not just because you can afford sufficient of them to make it worthwhile but because of the single-stroke keywords and userfriendly Basic. D I D C O T . he comments.AVE it on tape all with the same lullsdetailed program I K STATISTICS £3. because of increased usage and interest in the ZX-81. within its inherent physical limitations. however.YOI. K I T to do the donkes work Copy it into R A M before j ou start work then you will have it at your fingertips. 8 L E W B U R Y . why pay more? M E M O P A C K 64K R A M £79.X printer and other add-on hardware.prints the current mean and standard des lalionofthe > and x sal uev and Ihe intercept and slope of Ihe regression line hi T tend-prints the current mean and standard deviation of the s andssalues and the intercept and slope of the trend I ines . produces a comprehensive list of programs available. O X O N 0 X 1 1 9QE Tel: ( 0 2 3 5 ) 8 5 0 0 7 5 .00 Deselopedby Memotevh this amazing 64K R A M needs no extra power supply Simply plugs neatly and firmly into the rear port of your ZX81. when a program works. "is for all interested pupils to start programming and for every child in the school to lay hands on a micro for a few minutes each week. 16K S O F T W A R E SPACE I N T R U D E R S JOalienshipsineachsquadron All action display Automatic-option-themachine pits s it«lf. Routines and programs are scattered liberally I hroughout the l e d and the final chapter consists of twelve useful. you are no longer considering a £70 micro but one more in the region of £150. Comprehensive L I N E R E N U M B E R including(iOTOsand t j O S L B s . You then have to consider the point of buying an inexpensive system compared to something like the Atom or BBC machine which is more expensive initially but gives you a more sophisticated tool without the need for add-ons. however. establish data files! Machine l o d e Programs (write. Only time will tell if it works but it will have been fun for me. call subroutine! from cassette. Just look at these features * K . there can be no doubt. "We do not envisage our ZX-81 s being used solely for learning programming. DEPT SU. EZUG. All things considered. The PCB is Z-80-based and can cope with the majority of tasks.75 Now you can construct your own English Ircnch. there is now a significant number of educational packages. • (continued from page 27J their thoughts to use the language.' R C O M PI TER Ni>v81 "Excellent t t i ) ) o « l value for m o n e y " . With those changes.50 A lop qua! ity add-on 16 K dynamic memory specially designed for the 7 X 8 1 Simply plugs into the port at the bactof your Sinclair Can beusedincon)uftCtKMwilhthe/-X printer Neatly packaged in a black plastic shell to match y o u r Z X 8 I Incredible salue. edit. Another advisable amendment to the basic system is the addition of a mechanical QWERTY keyboard.50 Are you writing yourown programs for the / X g l ' T h e n use our T O O ) . The same is true for the RAM expansion packs now available—up to 48K—which greatly enhance the capabilities of the machine. English Vnsthing dictionary with our LA NCi I AGE D I C T I O N A R Y V P D A T E the entries. the ZX-81 has an important role to play in the classroom.: f) > V. both commercial and home-produced. ZX81 H E W S O N CONSULTAIMTS ZX81 H I N T S & T I P S for the Z X 8 1 by A N D R E W H E W S O N "Goodvalueandquuefascinating a very mexpenvise way of acquiring month* of programming e»penence" . I R t . £4 9 5 v PROGRAMMERS TOOLKIT £6. SEA R( H f o r a word. It is just that educational programs take longer to develop". yet creativity and imagination are also required. One hint is to solder the power supply and UHF lead for video output into the main body of the ZX-81.prints the current mean and standard des ution after each salueis entered ii Regression . load. Can be used w ilh the/. In fact. is the connections and sockets at the back and sides of the machine. 28 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . you have a useful piece of equipment— there is no doubt about that. INSPECT I h e / X K I system routine*COPY them i n t o R A M a n d P A T C H and or E X T E N D t h c m .

S K E T C H ( Z X 8 1 only) M o v e the cursor to any part of the screen Draw or rub-out as you move it Mix m text or graphics Save picture <n memory Save picture sequence on cassette V I D E O .ZX81 S O F T W A R E F R O M V I D E O S O F T W A R E LTD 16K S O F T W A R E V I D E O . A machine code master program which sits at the top of R A M This is initially loaded like a B A S I C program • 2 A demonstration index containing 1 . SPACE-RACE ( Z X 8 1 only). references to magazine articles. ZX81 orZX80+"8K ROM ZX printer is useful but not essential Price £ 9 9 5 Mail order customers add £1 per order Allow 2 8 days for delivery Cash with order please to V I D E O S O F T W A R E LTD Stone Lane.G R A P H GAMESET-VIDEO-MAP + 5 GAMES 1K PARTY T R I C K S ( Z X 8 1 only) PRICE 1K&16K NEW VIDEO INDEX NEW Q H o w do you store 5 7 .V I D E O . Stourbridge.V I D E O . Set-up your o w n pages and change them as and w h e n required VIDEO-GRAPH Planning and design aid.M A R K E T ( Z X 8 1 only) An exciting g a m e of skill and judgement Buy and sell stocks and shares as prices change in response to world events PACK 1 .95 5 95 3 95 3 95 3 95 3 95 3. Educational game based on maps Navigate your plane to its destination FORCE FIELD ( Z X 8 1 only} Animated bombardment game. Party game for eight players.M A T C H Realistic simulation of a test match series Dynamic scoreboard. W e s t Midlands D Y 7 6EQ 7. 0 0 0 characters in a 16K R A M A Use V I D E O . •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 .V I E W Do it yourself teletext Create pages of data. efficient and ingenious and is by far the best product w e have introduced for the Z X 8 1 N B There isn't room for a commentary on this cassetie so you II have t o r e a d t h e manual.I N D E X detects these duplications and thereby conserves space.P L A N ( Z X 8 1 only) Performs the function of an analysis book Arithmetic functions include addition. subtraction. V I D E O . FOOTBALL-LEAGUE Realistic simulation of an entire season Every match played and results shown with progressive league table S T O C K . Kmver. W h a t do you get? 1. T E S T .P L A N + V I D E O .95 7.V I E W + V I D E O .I N D E X 7. multiplication.95 17 9 5 13 9 5 19 9 5 4 95 Personal callers welcome during office hours. Create pictures/charrs/graphs and store within the program V I D E O . For instance in an index of ariicles in computer magazines about the Z X 8 1 certain words occur time and again V I D E O . 0 0 0 characters m a 16K R A M It gives the illusion of doing so by eliminating duplicates.A D Rotating display of 16 pages of advertising material.95 Catalogue your cassettes. 0 0 0 references to articles about the Z X 8 1 in the popular magazines 3 A detailed instruction manual You may then proceed to create your own catalogues and indexes and save them on cassette This program is fast. 0 0 0 individual references each of which can generate 5 7 characters of text Powerful search facilities once the index has been created H o w is it done? The system cannot really fit 5 7 .A D PACK 2 . Store them within the program. Amazingly versatile Capacity for 1 .95 f 5 95 5. your record collection. V I D E O .M A P ( Z X 8 1 only).

J * » A T R A M p a c k / s £ 3 2 9 5 each cased k e y b o a r d / s £ 3 7 9 5 each uncased k e y b o a r d / s £ 2 7 9 5 each keyboard c a s e / s £ 1 0 9 5 each I enclose £. This is a genuine professional keyboard and should not be confused with toy keyboards currently available on the market.95 This is a highly professional keyboard using executive buttons as found on top quality computers. It has a repeat key and comes. Address. 9 5 UNCASED KEYBOARD £27...95 KEYBOARD CASE £10. Please add £ 1 5 0 p / p and make cheques payable to Kayde Electronic Systems SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . 16K RAMPACKS W H Y W A I T TO PAY MORE FAST IMMEDIATE DELIVERY Post to: DeptSCU Kayde Electronic Systems 4 8 / 4 9 Exmouth Road Great Yarmouth Norfolk NR30 3DPTel:049357867 All products include VAT are fully built and tested and come with a COMPLETE MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 30 Please Please Please Please send me send me send me send m e . MASSIVE ADD ON MEMORY f"r:i:. complete in its own luxury case. Name.ZX 80/1 WAR! WITH ZX KEYBOARD FULLY CASED REPEAT KEY FULLY CASED KEYBOARD £ 3 7 .

without writing more program than you can fit in 1K. 24 200 INPUT A$ 210 IF A $ = " • T H E N GOTO200 220 POKEC. Then. 147 560 STOP 580 LET D= D-1 590 RETURN 600 PRINT "(SHIFT A) DESTROYED (SHIFT A ) " 610 STOP SINCLAIR USER April 1982 Ifl . once you have mastered the version as listed you can delete several lines.66). INTfPC ! O L E T A S = "$" 20 LETD=10 30 L E T E = R N D ( 9 ) + 5 40 LET A s 16794 50 LETG = A+384 80 LET B= A 70 FOR F=1 T O 527 100 PR I NT ""(space) 110 NEXT F 120 L E T C = A + 33*D+E 130l. the missile hits and only the message DESTROYED remains. If you do not.O 230 POKE B. written for the ZX-80 by Ian Wright of Weybread. The game is relatively simple if no mistakes are made. W e would be interested in seeing what variations on the game you produce. Diss. you have the problem of how to make it destroy the Freighter each time.20 180 B. You may well like to tackle the problem. for example. 147 190 POKE G. and allowing the enemy missile to move at random. D equal to 14 and FOR F = 1 TO (527 .2 500 RETURN 550 L E T E = E+1 555 RETURN 557 PRINT "(SFilFTS) INTERCEPTED (SHIFTS)" 558 POKE B. If you succeed.0 240 POKE G.O 245 LET B= B+1 250 L E T D = D-1 260 G O S U B C O D E [ AS)* 10 270 G O T O 120 490 LET E = E . making. of course. makes good use of POKEing to the screen. The missile is launched from a different position each time. the Freighter remains on the screen with the message INTERCEPTED. To make the game more difficult. The aim of the game is to destroy the enemy missile—a less-than symbol—with your intercept missile (*) before the Federation Freighter—an inverse plus sign—is destroyed.3 4 1401F G » B T H E N G O T O 600 1S0JFG = C T H E N G O T O 5 5 7 IttOlFC < A THEN STOP 170POKEC.ETG = G .8 PAGES OF PROGRAMS I for both the ZX-80 and the ZX-81 NTERCEPT.

you have a chance to see where they are placed. and as it is false—i.F OURTEEN-year-old Tim Rogers of Richmond.e.. Surrey.. It works like this: 95 LET P = P + {INKEYS = "6" OR P = P . about which 1 will not warn you. in which you have to steer your space ship—a minus sign followed by a less-than symbol—past the stars which block your path as you whizz across the little inverse universe which the IK ZX-81 sets up for you in SLOW mode. I took the INKEYS line from Mark Charlton's book The Gateway Guide to the ZX-81 and ZX-80 and I think it is very clever. you will have some idea of where to steer to avoid them. so that when your ship enters the universe at a random height from the right. the statement inside the brackets is true and thus returns a 1. which is added to P. Some weird thing happens. Rogers writes about his program: "In this game I have used nearly every memory-saving technique 1 know. so that if someone is pressing "6". when you hit a star. provided us with this splendid game. "7" not being pressed—0 is returned and taken away from P". "I have also used VAL "lO" instead of just the number 10. Each time the computer creates the universe with stars.P) . Your score is given at the end of the game.7" OR P = L).(INKEYS = . 32 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . The variable P is the position up the screen of the space ship. including using PI-P! instead of 0 and Pl/Pl instead of 1.

which is fascinating to run. Do not use the shift H key ( " ) for powers of X as an error will result.4142136 E R R O R IS 4 . As the ZX-81 has SQR function. The computer then refines that guess by division.REM 5 Q U R R E ROOT SOLUER R E M (C> H R R T N E L L l^ftP SCROLL PRINT "UHICH NUMBER DO Y O U ME" 4.1 0 THE SOURRE ROOT IS 1.5 TO 5 S T E P . He describes it as follows: "The program plots the graph of any curve entered in the form 'X*X 2 + 4*X* or even '1/X\ Line 130 is the heart of theprogram.0235294." The three sample curves plotted are X*X.5 S C R O L L 5® P R I N T " T O F I N D T H E S Q U A R E R DOT OF?" 6© INPUT B 7 0 IF B < 0 T H E N G O T O E l -? 3 0 L E T fl=INT ( R N D * B ) + 1 90 LET X=B/R 100 LET Y = ( X t R ) / a 110 S C R O L L 115 P R I N T Y 117 S C R O L L 120 P R I N T " E R R O R IS " .Y/2+2i 150 N E X T X 160 G O T O 1 0 0 S I N C L A I R USER April 1982 PLOT HIS PROCRAM. 2 1 40 NEXT N 100 INPUT 120 FOR X = . the program is of little practical use but it is fascinating to run and watch how quickly it finds the correct answer.4142136 E R R O R IS 4 .4142157 E R R O R IS 2 . checking each time to see how close to the correct answer it is. Ifl m w HETTER .[/• T V 10 FOR N =0 T O 4 3 20 PLOT 2®/N 30 P L O T N .4.1 0 1 . Line 120 is not part of the computer checking apparatus—which you can verify by deleting the line— but is there so that you can watch the action of the computer as it searches for the correct answer.4 E R R O R IS 3. 6 5 6 6 1 2 9 E . Surrey. J . over and over again. wherethe VAL command puts Y equal to the values of X required by your formula (entered in line 100). 1 2 3 4 1 5 5 E . The program allows more than one curve to be viewed at once.8626452E-9 0 0 ROOT IS 3 SOURRE UHICH N U M B E R DO YOU URHT ME TO FIND T H E S O U R R E ROOT O F ? 1-5 E R R O R IS . It first guesses—line 80—by picking any number between zero and the number chosen. the computer is looking for the square root of nine—example one—and of two—example two. 6 5 6 6 1 2 9 E .0235294 E R R O R 15 3.4 3 T H E N X*4+20.12 . 0 8 5 7 8 6 4 3 7 1 . 9 B 5 (Y-SO R (B) ) 13© IF R = Y T H E N G O T O 1 6 0 1 4 0 L E T fi=Y 150 G O T O 9 0 160 S C R O L L 165 S C R O L L 170 P R I N T " T H E S O U R R E R O O T IS ' SMJFOTE nm} S UHICH N U M B E R DO Y O U URNT ME TO FIND THE S O U R R E ROOT O F ? E R R O R IS 3 .25 1 2 5 IF X = 0 T H E N N E X T X 130 LET Y = U R L 1 4 0 IF Y < 4 3 R N D Y > . was written for a IK ZX-81 by R Easto of Reigate. 0 0 2 4 5 3 1 0 3 7 1 .00O0916 E R R O R IS 3 E R R O R IS 3 E R R O R IS ERROR THE IS 5 2 0.000091554597 1.6 1 .4166667 E R R O R IS .X'X*X + 4*X*Xand 39/X.4142136 QUARE ROOT Solver will work out the square root of any number you enter. In the two sample runs.

placing their pieces on a square adjacent to one occupied by an enemy piece". red on the other. A member of the National ZX-80 and ZX-81 Users' Club. of Chichester. which is simply Reversi with a restriction on the opening position: "Most published Othello programs evaluate the best move for the computer to make on the basis of FOR X = 1 T O 8 LET 0=G GOSUB 30 IF 0=4-0 T H E N G O T O 5 5 0 IF C < > 4-5 T H E N G O T O 6 1 0 F O R R = G T O D S T E P £><XJ LET 520 630 NEXT R NEXT X GOSUB 640 GOTO 60 Rt(R?-"H" . which was invented in 1888.C O D E A S *D) RETURN Fh5T L E T H =0 F O R B = 12 T O 6 9 LET J=0 LET Q=0 LET D=B IP fl$(D) < > " * T H E N G O T O 3 3 0 * F O R X =1 T O 6 LET K=0 GOSUB £0 LET K=K+1 IF C < > 4 5 T H E N G O T O 2 0 0 GOSUB 30 GOTO 160 IF C < > 4-0 T H E N GOTO 2 3 0 IF K<2 T H E N L E T K = 0 LET NEXT X LBTT B i = 5 T R J C V LET V=URL Bid) L E T Z = U R L B$V£i __ IF Y « 1 O R Y = 8 T H E N L E T 0 = 0 * IF Z=2 OR 2=9 THEN LET GOTO 713 O 2 9 0 IF Y = 2 O R Y = 7 O R Z = 3 O R Z = 6 THEN LET 0=0/2 _ _ 3 0 0 IF (Y = 1 O R Y = S O R Z = 2 O R Z = 9) A N D (Y = 2 O R Y = 7 O R Z = 3 O R Z = * ) THEN LET 0=0/4 3 1 0 IF © > H T H E N L E T M=B 3 2 0 IF O > H T H E N L E T H = © 330 NEXT B 3 4 0 IF H = 0 T H E N G O T O 4 4 0 350 FOR X = 1 TO B 360 LET D=H 370 GOSUB 30 3 8 0 IF C = 4 5 T H E N G O T O 3 7 0 3 9 0 IF C < >4-0 T H E N G O T O 4-30 400 FOR R=M T O D STEP D(X) 4 1 0 L E T R $ \ R> = " C " 420 NEXT R 4-30 NEXT X U=6£0 4 4 0 IF H = 0 T H E N L E T 4 5 0 G O S U B 64-0 460 PRINT "YOUR H O V E ? " 470 INPUT G $ 4-80 P R I N T R T 1 6 . l . 8 . "The four squares are covered in the first four turns of play and then the players continue alternately. in his book Discovering Old Board Games.20 4 0 1 1 0 REM D T H i f L L O BY 5 . using pieces which were double-sided. G I Suggett. CHARL T O N 30 50 6 0 •70 60 100 110 120 90 130 1 4 0 1S0 1 6 0 170 180 £10 £20 £3© 2 4 ® 2 5 0 2 6 0 £ 0 0 190 270 260 LET D=6 LET D = D + D ( X ) L E T C . " 4 9 0 FRST 500 LET G=URL G $ 5 1 0 IF G = 0 T H E N G O T O t>0 + U 5 2 0 IF G < 0 O R G > 1 0 0 T H E N G O T O 530 54. 1980. Red replies by placing his first piece red side up on another central square. The winner is the player with the most pieces when the board is covered. Aylesbury. says Bell. Any enemy pieces in a straight line between the latest piece placed and another one of the player's pieces is then flipped over to show the colour of the player. Shire Publications Ltd. when discussing computer Othello. that black begins the game by placing a piece black side up on one of the four central squares on the empty board. Reversi was played on a standard draughts board. R C Bell explains. or when neither player may move. black on one side. Sussex points out.0 550 560 570 530 590 600 6 1 0 THELLO is based on the game Reversi.

0 L E T R = 0 350 LET = "^ 2 3 4 . 2 23 Ctf 5 6 S70 660 560 54.R 2 6 1 3 45 2 HC C-H 6 1 3 4 5 7 3 7 3 34-56 7891® 2HHH):r)Hhn — 1CCCCOCCC1 5 6 7 8 5 1 3HHCCHHHH3 5HCHHCCHH5 5HHCCHCHH6 7HHHCCHHh!7 3CCCCCCCCS I SCORED YOU SCORED 37 4HCHHHNHM* 35 . 1240. N T T A B 3. perhaps by adding 1215 GOTO 1280. which sells a sophisticated ZX-81 machine code program under that name. Enter those numbers as a single number. A IK version of the game. in the early stages of the game. then the number across the board of that square.9 780 LET D < + .0 550 SUOU PRINT AT FOR F = 1 TO 100 PRINT I F 1 0 * 1 NT fF / i i 3 . The name Othello is copyright by Mine of Information.. such as the corners.0 D I M D (8 > L E T D (1) = . You enter a move by entering the number down the left-hand edge of the board next to the square where you want to move. Once you have played a few games with the program. i =F 5 6 7 8 9 f l O ? 34.1 7 9 0 L E T D v5) = 1 3 0 0 L E T D (6) = Q •310 L E T D (7 ) = 1 0 3 2 0 L E T D (5) = 11 3 3 0 LEI 5 = 0 34. a . also in machine code. you might like to alter its strategy slightly by changing the 2 in lines 1220. "In fact. is available from Logan Software.maximising the number of captures made with a possible extra score given to certain positions. positional play is far more important than making a large number of captures". 1250. such as 36. by Graham Charlton and Tim Hartnell. lends more weight to position than to the number of pieces available to convert. then press NEWLINE. 12650 and 1270 into 3 or even try deleting the lines completely. This program. Enter zero if you are unable to make a move. When you press RUN. 690 NEXT F 700 RETURN "^10 F R S T LET H=0 7 3 0 L E T K =0 74.1 0 t 770 LET D ( 3 ? = . 1230. you will see the board appear with the four first pieces in place.1 1 7 6 0 L E T D 12 . HC 4-5 360 370 360 390 900 910 920 ORED 8I234&6769I" GG5UB 640 GOTO 60 FOR F-l TO 100 IF ft $ (F) = " C " T H E N L E T 5 = 5 + 1 IF ft*(F>="H" 7H£N LET R=R + 1 NEXT F P R I N T "I S C O R E D " YOU SC ".

Sagan says Ulackjack is "the one casino game where the player may have a chance". the computer plays reasonably well and will certainly give you a run for your money. 1980—Hans Sagan says it is "probably the most popular and most widely-played banking card game in the States. political clubrooms. private clubs. Despite that. " M A S BEEN DEALT" 70 RETURN 80 SCROLL 85 PRINT "ENTER 1 FOR A N O T H E R CARD" 86 S C R O L L 87 PRINT TAB 3.T HE CARD GAME Blackjack is very popular. and places you may never have heard of". agrees: "Blackjack is the most widely-played banking card in the world". Pari of that chance is based on the fact that the cards removed from a pack as the game is played change the odds of other cards appearing—and knowing the odds can be of some benefit in deciding what to do. T H A N K S F O R P L A Y I NG"jEND 160 S C R O L L 161 S C R O L L 162 S C R O L L 165 L E T D = 0 170 LET 5 = 0 180 G O S U B 2 0 190 LET H = C A 200 GOSUB 20 210 L E T A =CA 220 GOSUB 50 2 3 0 L E T E =CA 24-0 G O S U B 5 0 2 5 0 L E T F =CA 36 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' S REM . The player advantage is stymied in this version because the ZX-81 has somehow acquired an infinite. It is played in gambling houses. back rooms of all kinds. In his book Beat the Odds."OR 0 TO STAND" 90 INPUT G 100 R E T U R N 110 SCROLL 112 P R I N T " A N O T H E R G A M E . There is no direct betting in the game and BLACKJACK <C> HfiRTNELL 1 9 8 2 7 LET M=0 10 G O T O 16® 20 LET CA=1NT (RN0*11)+1 3 0 IP Cfl = 1 1 A N D £ + C A >21 T H E N L > ET CA=1 35 L E T D = D + 36 S C R O L L 3 7 IF M > 1 T H E N P R I N T C A . barracks. troop transports. C A R D S H A RP?" 120 INPUT A $ 125 L E T M = 0 1 3 0 IF A $ < > " N O " T H E N G O T O 1 6 0 135 S C R O L L 14-0 PR I N T ~ "OK . in his authorative Scarne's Encyclopedia of Games. (ohn Scarne. Microcomputer Simulations of Casino Games—Hayden. constantly-replenished pack of cards. " H P S BEEN D E A L T " 38 LET M=M + 1 4-0 R E T U R N S 0 L E T Cfl=INT (RND411J+1 6 0 IF C A = 1 1 A N D S + C A > 2 1 T H E N L ET C A = 1 65 L E T B = B + C A 66 SCROLL 6 7 IF H >1 T H E N P R I N T C * .

D FOR V = 1 T O 60 NEXT Y 5 4 0 GOSUB 20 550 SCROLL 5 7 0 P R I N T " T O T A L IS N O U ". F 305 SCROLL 310 PRINT T R B 4 j "TOTALLING ." AND " . The round is a draw if both reach the same total less than 21. That is not a mistake and it stops the program because the computer 'reads' the word END as unassigned variable and stops the program with an error message." T O T A L " .D 5 7 5 F O R Y = 1 T O 5© 575 NEXT Y 577 SCROLL 5 3 0 IF D > 2 1 T H E N P R I N T " > > > > B U S TED " 5 9 0 IF D <17 T H E N G O T O 5 4 0 500 GOTO 370 SINCLAIR USER April 1982 Ifl . F 1 LET B$=" THE ZX31 HPS 1 270 LET C $ ="THE HUMAN HH5 265 SCROLL 290 PRINT B$. without exceeding 21. queens and jacks each count 10. Aces count as either one or 11.E. B SCROLL IF B . If you bust—exceed 21—the dealer (ZX-fll) wins the round automatically.00 1 0 LET D=H+A LET b=E + F GOSUB 30 IF G = 1 T H E N G O T O 4 9 0 IF £><17 T H E N G O T O 5 3 0 SCROLL IF D < > 2 1 T H E N P R I N T 3 $ . trying to go as close as possible to 21. D SCROLL IF D < > 2 1 T H E N P R I N T C $ .program that is a feature you may well want to add in due course. staying with the cards you hold. or sticking—that is.. 535 535 IF B <D T H E N P R I N T I WIN" GOTO 110 GOSUB 50 SCROLL P R I N T C$. You need around 212K for the game.1X»V i 405 SCROLL 4-10 IF B > D 4. You can store the pack in a REM statement or in an array. Blackjack is not difficult to play. and kings.D A N D B < > 2 1 T H E N P R I N T T H I S R O U N D IS A D R A U " IF E > 2 1 O R D > 2 1 T H E N G O T O J THEN PRINT VOU J. You may also like to change the program so that it goes through a pack of cards before there is a need to re-shuffle.Cfl. 26 0 The computer deals two cards to the human and one to itself. You and the computer add the total of the cards you hold. B SCROLL IF B ? 2 1 T H E N P R I N T " > > > >B\J5 IF B > 2 1 T H E N G D T P IIP" GOTO 34© SCROLL P R I N T B$. You have the option of taking another card at any time during your turn. The program assigns a value of one automatically to an ace if counting it as 11 would force the total above 21. Note the use of the word End in line 140. E + • > 315 320 340 350 350 370 372 375 330 385 390 "SO 4.20 4-30 490 500 505 510 512 TED" 515 520 530 534.H 295 SCROLL 3 0 0 PRINT C$.

2 1 O R A-23 O R A—27 O R A=12 O R A-14 O R N LET H ( A ) « 5 » 9090 NEXT A 9100 LET Z I 1) . way. o < • 1 T HIS GAME is somewhat like goes to the subroutine at line 8000 to draughts.. 605S PRINT TAB O. The pieces player s move. then pressing various subroutines.IT 8040 PRINT 6050 PRINT TAG 6 . J / 1 0 .l TO 99 9050 I F H>77 O R A—70 O R H-66 O R A-69 O R A. an opponent for a capture into an and so on.problems. 196? SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' .0 PRINT AT A.. 0 9020 DIH M l 9 9 I 9025 DIH Z I 4 I 9030 FOR A . are each section of the program. enters the SLOW mode and Hayden Book Co Inc.50 O R A-56 O R A-40 O R A-49 O R N GOTO 9090 90S5 IF A =30 O R A-3CI O R A-20 O R A .K 7417 LET Y . it returns to Henry F Ledgard. X."H E ".. Line 30 sends of a program much easier. with a specific subroutine for apart from the size of the board. the action to a subroutine at the end if you would like to learn about of the program which initialises the structured and top-down programvariables.0. 1 HE 36 2 A-60 O R H'BS O R A—46 THE A-39 O R A <11 THE A-76 O R A—67 THE A-85 O R A . published by the line 50. of the opponent's pieces. " 1834 IF IT>5 O R Hfc-B THEN GOTO B RETURN IF IT=5 I F HE"« THfcN PRINT THfcN PRINT " I U1N" "YOU UIN 6990 STOP 9000 LET IT -45 9010 LET H E .0 IF HIA+Z<B>I=S2 AND H I A + 0 ) £6 THEN GOTO 7070 7050 NEXT B 7060 NEXT H 7065 GOTO 7300 7070 LET M Itt + Z 161 ) * 2 6 7060 LET HlAt=ab 7090 LET M l f i .Old Forty-niner i mo i • J 5 3® 40 so 60 70 io« m •m m o.CHR• ( . jumps.1 IF M i n i ( > 6 1 THEN GOTO 7060 FOR B«1 TO 4 I F A <26 AND 6 <3 THEN GOTO 7 e NEXT J PRINT TAB 8. B . Although this is not the most The program.Z 12J 9120 LET • Z ( 3 J . starting at 7000. one player manages to capture five 9000-9140 Assigns variables. into FAST(line 100) then back diagonally one square. which needs about memory-efficient method of prowas written by Tim Hartnell gramming.) >0 9140 RETURN I MOUED FROH 84 TO fROM'' SCORES YOU. or of getting lost.0BS 6097 6090 «09S >= i e 6096 >*lfl 6100 6490 7010 7030 7030 7032 050 7033 r r A>60 AND B>2 THEN GOTO 7 060 7035 LET O'StZIBJ 704. " F B O W INPUT rt PRINT AT a . jumping over to make the computer's next move. 6090 6100 6110 6120 140 6130 6 140 6150 FAST GOiUB 9OB0 GOSUtJ 7P0P SLOU GOSUB SEEE G O S U B G®0PI GOSUB 0000 F AST PRINT FTI 0 . | . M i / j i . 0 .CHR % IF) . 8000-8990 Prints-out board.6 1 9060 IF A .debugging and future development gramming techniques. 1 6 THE (c) Hartnell.H I J . updates score for player. Placing the variables assignment at The computer is the Xs moving the end has the advantage that you down the screen and you are the Os. without the square from which you are mov. PRINT TAB O. empty square beyond the opponent.76 TO 12 STEP .. O I . CM R» <e> . From there it played on a 7 x 7 board. LET M I N> »aa IP HPS CM-NJ >22 O R ABS IH -N T H E N LET M [ i r t . hence goes to subroutine 6000 to accept the the name Old Forty-niner. tells you before it moves its updates ZX-81 score.2 6 OP A . NEWLINE—then the number of the 6000-6990 Accepts players move.HE. The computer then goes to ming. The ZX-81 keeps track of the 7000-7470 Makes computer's move. " T 0 7 " INPUT N PRINT HI A 0 . you could do well to read Basic its move routine. The layout of the program ing—entering the number along the is simple: left-hand edge first. to 8000 to reprint the move as draughts pieces— board. 6 1 6077 LET G-H iO*7> 0060 PRINT TAB 7 . " T O "jY 3015 PR TNT 6020 PRINT -SCORES YOU ". 6 1 7092 LET Y-A+O 7093 L T E T *>H 7095 LET IT =rT • 1 7100 RETURN 7310 LET Y=0 7320 LET Y«Y«1 7330 LET K . then the number 1-1000 Main loop.. I N T <RND»66> »12 734® I F H I K I < >61 AND Y ( 1 0 « THEN GOTO 7320 /3S. as the need for You move by entering the number of them becomes apparent.2 6 9070 I F A a72 O R A-74 O R A = 61 O R A =63 O R A-6S O R N LET H ( A 1 .0 I F N I K ) < >61 THEN GOTO 74O0 7360 FOR T u l TO * 7370 I F HIK IT J > * 2 6 THEN GOTO 7 4 00 7360 NEXT T 7390 I F Y t V 0 THfcN GOTO 7310 7395 GOTO 7460 7400 LET H I K I Z I T I I > 6 1 74 10 LET H IK J . a s I r UBS <H-N> =22 O R HBS IH-N THEN LET ME=Me+l LET H <H> =26 RETURN FOR fl. score. can add new ones. square from which you are moving. is that that pieces may move forward and you can easily alter part of the probackward at will. CHR» (CI. except that it is print-out the board. and terminates the game as soon as checks if game is over. M .K + Z ( T ) 7430 RETURN 7460 PRINT " I CONCEDE" 74 70 STOP * 3000 PRINT 6010 PRINT " I MOUCD FROM " . pieces to which square it is moving.CMH» IBI. sends action to across the top. The advantage of working in that The main differences from draughts.2 6 74 16 L E T X . CHR* <DJ.1 1 9110 LET . 38 J00 110 1000 BEEE 6060 6070 O0UH T. it makes the work of and shows some structured pro. With Style by Paul A Nagin and Having made a move.CHR» IQJ. there are no gram which appears unsatisfactory kings—every piece can move as if it without facing the danger of runis a king—and there are no multiple ning out of lines. " PRINT HT 0 . score. 6060 FOR vis 70 TO 10 6061 LET A > H ( J * l l 6062 LET A*H(U+2» 6063 LET C > H I J t 3 l 6064 LET D>H(J+4) 60t>3 LET E > H I J » 6 I 6066 LET F . 0 .2 9 ON N G T O O 9090 9060 LET H ( A > . GOTO 4.1 1 9130 LET Z (4.

lots of the fun and headaches of the soccer boss's lifestyle Includes graphics. starvation. importing and exporting. C a m b r i d g e C B 3 9 N Q MICRO SHOP NEW SOFTWARE SHOP EXCLUSIVELY FOR ZX81 • • MOST OF THE MAIL ORDER ITEMS ADVERTISED IN THIS MAGAZINE AVAILABLE OVER THE COUNTER • LOADING PROBLEMS? TRY OUR INTERFACE BUSINESS & TECHNICAL DATA HANDLING PROGS. explosions and ZX BUG £ 7 00 personalised scoring A 3 0 m 1 machine code fool and disassembler. factory space. please send a S A E to GALAXIANS Alt the features of the arcade game in a fast machine £6 50 code program Swooping attackers. Can your economic. withcassetteroutines 3 9 6 J a m e s Reckitt Avenue Hull H U 8 0 J A Artie Computing A B A C U S ELECTRONICS 186 S t Helens Avenue Swansea. Tycoon Start a company producing widgets" and compete in the market against a computer controlled rival Start small and build up your business or borrow money and starl big You have to make decisions about financing. collect treasure and escape alive Beware Includes a cassette save routine You are unfortunate enough lo be drawn to an alien crutsei Can you reach Ihe control room and free yourself or will they get vou first > Includes a cassette save routine GALAXY WARRIOR £3. pricing etc Battle of Britain As strategic commander of nine British fighter squadrons you must track and intercept the devious enemy bomber squadrons before they reach London Micro acts as a flight control and communications centre for patrols. Send cheque or P. spend gate money. staffing. GAMES. •**•!* P1'*. One switch operation allows selection of TALK. sanctions. force. APPRECIATED FOR CATALOGUE 0**8 PROGRAMS FOR THE Z X 8 t / 8 0 I N C L U D I N G - M O V I N G AHEAD WITH ZX SOFTWARE If you own a ZX80181 then you need the ABACUS CONTROLLER Developed to eliminate tedious swapping of plugs when LOADING or SAVING programs on cassette. transferring players. strikes.O.A. tactical concessions etc.769 2887 S. £ 4 9 5 for 1 / £ 8 9 0 any 2 / £ 12 8 5 3 / C 1 6 8 0 4 / £ 2 0 . 7 5 5 Please send c h e q u e / P O to: 7 3 T h e B r o a d w a y . diplo matic and military judgements prevent a rapid slide towards nuclear war? Use threats. capitalizing companies on the stock market and bidding for takeovers to gain control of lucrative assets. PROPER KEYBOARDS.00 Fast and excif ing interactive ani mated graphics game Hun t C lingons and go through bl ack holes 1 K G A M E S PACK £6 0 0 and many more For a catalogue giving full details. building cities. allows access to all registers and to search through. controlling game strategy. SAVE. watching your team play other great sides in the Super League. CONSOLES. Grantchester. and modify memory. factories and ships. How long can you stay in p o w e r 7 All programs 16K for 1 player. "ADD/ONS" • * * Micrograme ZX81 Simulations (1 6K) Soccer S u p r e m o Run your favourite club in your own style. Using a built-in microphone/speaker to allow fast and reliable program naming and cueing. over population and revolution. allocating labour. Can your micro really outwit you? K i n g d o m of N a m As ruler of N a m you must control its economy. Balance of P o w e r As leader of a superpower you strive to maintain superiority of arms over a neighbouring country The problem is that you and your enemy are mutually dependent on each other for raw materials. LONDON SW16 Tel: 01. including star names. CUE and LOAD modes. making boardroom decisions or delegating to solve business problems: improve facilities. for £12 including p&p to: ZX CHESS & ADVENTURES ZX CHESS I reduced to € 6 5 0 ZX CHESS II now only £ 1 2 9 9 ADVENTURES ADVENTURE Ofi n n tO. intelligence reports etc Sketch map provided.and ' n addition a recommended move option Exciting machine code games with instant response Choose from the range below You find yourself stranded on an alien planet Can you reach yoor ship end escape* In a tungle clearing you come across an Inca temple Vou mu>t break in. Tel: (0792) 50282 Ifl SINCLAIR USER April 1982 .THE BUFFER (NEXT TO STREATHAM STATION) * • • PROGRAMS. machinery. missions. W . Glam. negotiating pay claims and fighting the looming threats of inflation. May also be played on any map of SE England w i t h standard grid Asset Stripper Compete against your computer controlled arch-rival "KO Investments".E. VDUS • • ' • 374A STREATHAM HIGH ROAD.UU £7 0 0 ADVENTURE £8 0 0 C A Very popular machine code program with six Pf»Y and »n analysis option Unbeaten except by seven levels of ADVENTURE B A now improved v«ruon with a fastet response time.

that the printer is rather basic. ! will show that is not true at all. nol suitable for anything but games and learning to write programs. and that the keyboard is inconvenient to use. as it was not possible to design machines to do it. The ZX-81 and RAM cost slightly less than £100 plus VAT in January. as it was known. Computer programs were designed to use core as sparingly as possible. can do a wide variety of useful tasks. compared to other microcomputers. threaded painstakingly with fine wires. with its data. be used. All that had to be done by hand. The main limitations. The ZX-81. So the ZX-81 is S I N C L A I R USKR April 1982 40 . A television set and tape recorder must. if provided with good software.W h e n the ZX-81 was first launched many experts refused to believe it was of any use for business applications. The bulk of the data being processed was stored on relatively simple and inexpensive media such as magnetic tape and. 1982. Such a configuration would have cost many tens of thousands of pounds a few years ago. cassette tape is such an inconvenient medium for that kind of process that it would be scarcely practical. later. Data was loaded into core as and when needed and dumped back to tape as soon as possible. may be loaded and stored later. Adding the printer and the 48K of memory increases the price toabout £210. are that the ZX-81 does not support data files. Neither can it be expanded except to a limited extent. Computer memory used to consist of vast arrays of tiny rings of a magnetic material.000 rings—with no mistakes. The printer is extremely useful. Mike Salem of Hilderbay Ltd set out to prove them wrong T HE SINCLAIR ZX-81 is widely-held to be a toy. for use by people with no previous experience of computing. The price has fallen dramatically but that does not detract from the capability of the machine. The minimum requirement for serious work is the ZX-81 plus at least 16K of RAM. disc. It is suitable. Each ring provided one bit of storage: 16K of core. Even if it were possible to use a data tape in that way. would involve threading two wires through each of about 130. of course. when provided with sufficient memory. The ZX-81 does not allow data to be stored on and read from tape by a program—the whole program.

The keyboard is perfectly usable. a feature not to be found in payrolls on much more costly systems can be incorporated —gross pay and deductions can be worked out from the nett pay. Ifl . if necessary. Numeric information is handled well. 48K is unbelievable. A ZX-81 with 48K of RAM can do virtually everything that a 48K Apple with printer but without discs can do —but compare the prices. a sheet of inter-dependent data is set up and then the consequences of changes are explored. the effects on company profits of different assumptions about inflation can be assessed. The width of the printed output is 32 characters: a kind of silver paper is used. losing all the contents of memory: those problems can be solved in an entirely satisfactory way. 16K of memory goes a long way. Room is left for full data on 30 employees to be held in RAM. light and very robust. The ZX-81 is very much more difficult to expand and interface. It is perfectly feasible to operate a ZX-81 for 24 hours a day. It is very easy to plug disc drives and various interfaces into a computer such as an Apple II. Keyboards of conventional type can be bought from independent suppliers for exceptionally reasonable prices. to what it can hold in memoryat one time. however. the price.Turning your Sinclair ZX-81 into a business machine limited. The graphics capability of the ZX printer is good. although slow and inconvenient. The machine is small. While that would not be suitable for a large company. for example. it can save a small company doing payroll manually a great deal of unecessary work. Another application is a what-if? type of program. the payroll of a small company. text information is handled better than by most machines. Nonetheless. The price difference extends into the software field—compare the price and performance of a really good ZX-81 program to that of a similar program for a more expensive machine. All the information which can be printed on a wider printer can. including some in the more than £10. The ZX-81 has a very good version of the Basic language.000 bracket. there is no need for data files of any kind. in practical terms. For example. with nothing omitted: in fact. Consider. How serious is that? It depends on the particular application. The prime advantage is. The quality of the output is SINCLAIR USER April 1982 surprisingly good—I was sceptical about the printer until we received one—and it reproduces very well on an office copier. The ZX printer is not. many people are spending a great deal of effort on the problems and unbelievable products are appearing at unbelievably low prices. of course. as will be seen when discussing possible applications. There have been problems with the interconnection between the ZX-81 and the RAM pack—the machine would suddenly go ahead. A comprehensive program can be written to fit comfortably within 16K. be re-formatted to use the 32-character width. as good as a printer which costs more than the complete 48K ZX-81 system but it is a matter of inconvenience rather than impossibility.

Crash. sent by first class post.95 or kit £33. Rubython. The 4 0 key switch board is a custom unit not made up out of other manufacturers parts. Access to the user port.P. Pontoon.FULLER FD SYSTEM FOR ZX80/81—N THE MOST VERSATILE SYSTEM FOR EXPANDING YOUR ZX STANDARD KEYBOARD AND CASE r Fuller I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I II [ I ! I ! I I I I II I I I I I I II i I I This splendid keyboard and case houses your Z X 8 1 printed circuit board. the extra keys can be assigned to other functions. power supply. MICHAEL ORWIIU'S ZX81 CASSETTES for 1K ZX81 CASSETTE ONE INVADERS (IK) "I had your Invaders React cassette .80. London NW10 "I have been intending to write to you for some days to say how much I enjoy the games on Cassetti One' which you supplied mr with earlier this month. Liverpool 2. Bug Splat.. S e n d S A E for d e t a i l s to: EXTENDED KEYBOARD AND CASE Fuller "IVI'I'I'IVI" 1 0 'I'l'l'l'l'l'l'lTTT Keyboard Only Available! Built £24. Built keyboard and case £36. Awari. Basic Hangman PLUS Large screen versions of Invaders and Maze of Death. not necessarily of our manufacture. The keytops are our own design and have the ZX Qwerty and functions foil printed onto them.95 plus £2. The ZX Centre. ft'ftHOU M A P H A N T O M ALIENS * r ¥ PENNY S H O O T It ll>« H H 8 « »w» It < M » CftCDIT »r r z> PONTOON I POwroOH | BUG SPLAT Cassette One IK machine code programs: React. The case is designed to house not only the keyboard and ZX but also our motherboard. Motherboards £15. TV. . Laser Bases. You can now enter data with ease. Pte. into the secret of your first time load every time!" E. Willesden. 16k RAM board £35. Maze of Death. 80p) FULLER M I C R O S Y S T E M S . and ear sockets are as per the ZX case. . Recorded on quality cassettes. Mastermind. from: Michael Orwin. The case is supplied with a "Power O n " LED. Rectangles. Invaders. m S U IL4 a® s >ou stuck 19 J T I W UlTw 17 Hftut UOM r I f * Cassette Two contains Othello. e let . Sweeting Street. 26 B r o w n l o w Road. M I C . The injection moulded case measures 2 0 0 m m x 3 5 0 m m x 6 0 mm and houses a 4 2 keyswitch board. which is simply screwed into place.50 postage and packing. Phantom Aliens. ready for when you get 16K Cassette One costs C3. Cassette Two costs C5.H.10 postage and packing.95. Planet Lander. Robots. Penny Shoot and Gun Command.95 ( + P.95 plus 80p postage and packing. Bouncing Letters. . R A M cards and t w o other boards.95. Word Mastermind." P. I was delighted with this first cassette. the keyboard plugs into the ZX. i W l AAA « n AAA MA n n A ii A A f) «• AAA AHA f. V A A Ten games in Basic for 16K ZX81 AWARI tnt «•»« Df i tm t l i e CASSETTE T W O RECTANGLES I T . Built keyboard and case £39.95 Kit £18. London S W 4 Just two our of over 20 unsolicited testimonials. 1K Basic Programs: I Ching. 64k RAM board £79. Roulette.. London N W 1 0 9QL.70 or £30.70 as a kit plus £2. I Mail order only please) 42 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' .

ETX = INT(RND*10)+1 You may be able to save a line when you see the following in a ZX-80 program: LETX = RND{10) I F X = 5 T H E N PR INT "FIVE" The ZX-81 version could well be IF RND greater than or equal to . you should make a few changes on the listing before turning-on your computer.9 THEN PR INT "FIVE". of course. If you look through the program before you enter it and see there are no PEEKs and POKEs. {continued on pcige <HJ •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 .-% How to convert your ZX-80 programs to run on a ZX-81 / l A step by step guide by M a r k Charlton L OOK QUICKLY IP of ai through the H H f i 1 1 • §' m *W' c mm m > 4 m am <mm: m « <• ft 1 MB m i t M mm mm: a '0m1 am mm mm mm •am m m mm' ' 1 ®r W l <m 1 r * listing of a program you want to convert.conversion i> i . for a start: ZX-80 L E T X = RND(tQ) ZX-a0l. Change the way the random numbers are generated. Using INKEYX instead of INPUT AS. If there are no PEEKs and POKEs and you have more than IK on your ZX-81. PRINT AT and SLOW ensure that far more attractive displays are possible and the use of inverse graphics in PRINT lines can also enhance the display. most programs will run more smoothly on the ZX-81. you are not likely to have many problems. After changing the random numbers—and realising. The main difficulties in converting programs occur when there is POKEing to the screen. pressing NEWLINE also makes things work in a much more satisfactory way. Despite that. or when the ZX-80 program proves to be too long for the IK ZX-81 when converted.

so it truncates a number automatically.> <-. 7 2 print an inverse space. PLOT and TAB—'INT a number automatically. the output of the program will be: HELLO ELLO LLO LO O GOODBYE The ZX-80 lacks the facility to deal with floating point arithmetic.6439 1 6 4 4 0 1 6 4 4 1 1 6 4 4 2 1644-3 "64-44 1 6 4 4 5 J. and their inverses.> < -.> < -. 4 1 1 . produced by the hard-working ZX-81. Here is a list. so work out which value—the nearest whole number or the lower whole number —to which you would like them to be INTed.4.> <.> <-.> < -.5 to the numbers entered if you want rounding-up.80 2 X 6 1 < •. (continued from page 43J ZX.99) and what happened to them. or that the 1 . You may find that you would prefer the computer to round the figure to the nearest whole number.> < -• > < -• > 1 6 5 1 3 165141 6 5 1 5 1 6 5 1 6 1 6 5 1 7 1 6 5 1 8 1 6 5 1 9 1 6 5 2 0 1 6 5 2 1 1 6 5 2 2 1 6 5 2 3 1 6 5 2 4 1 6 5 2 5 1 6 5 2 6 1 6 5 2 7 1 6 5 2 6 1 3 5 2 9 1 6 5 3 0 1 6 5 3 1 1 6 5 3 2 1 6 5 3 3 1 6 5 3 4 1 6 5 3 5 1 6 5 3 6 1 6 5 3 7 1 6 5 3 6 1 6 5 3 9 1 6 5 4 0 1 6 5 4 1 1654.1.47 164-4-8 1 6 4 4 9 1 6 4 5 0 1 6 4 6 1 1 5 4 5 2 1 6 4 5 3 1 6 4 5 4 1 6 4 5 5 1 6 4 5 6 1 6 4 5 7 .> < -.> < -.INT H 3 0 G O T O 10 1. 7 1 .7 and 1.> < -. The INT function should be used before any division in a ZX-80 program listing when entering it into 44 The output shows the numbers entered (1.> < -.> < -..> < -> <-. 4-0 G O T O 10 you will find either a great number 1 1 of things like PRINT CHRS (128) to 1 . rather than to the lower whole number. while the equivalent address on the ZX-81 is 16514.> < -.> < -. depending on the listing. Here is a small program on the ZX-81 to show that the INT function does not 'round' to the nearest number but just to the nearest lower whole number: 10 I N P U T O 20 LPRINT h. as the following example shows. 2 0 L P R I N T XNT 3 0 ZX-80 and.> < -.6435 i £ 4 3 6 1 6 4 3 7 1 6 4 3 9 5.> < -.> < -. You need to add . If you have a program which stores information in and retrieves information from REM statements. That was not so on the L P R I N T A.> < -.41 1 1 1 In both cases.> < --> < --> < --> <. if the ZX-80 program says: LET A S = " H E L L O " 10LETA8="HELLO" 20 Print AS 30 LET AS = TLS [AS) 40 IF AS greater than "" THEN G O T O 20 50 P R I N T " G O O D B Y E " You should rewrite it to read: 10LET AS = " H E L L O " 20 PRINT AS 30 LET AS = AS (2 TO) 40 IF AS greater than " " THEN G O TO 20 50 PRINT G O O D B Y E the ZX-81. when entering the You are probably aware that all same initial four values: graphics symbols.Certain functions on the ZX-81— PRINT AT.2 1654-3 1 6 5 4 4 that RAND on the ZX-81 is equal to the ZX-80 RANDOMISE—look for any use of TLS (truncate left) in the ZX-80 program. are available directly from the keyboard 10 INPUT n on the ZX-81.> < -. 99 1 1.> < -.6446 164. That is.> < -. The ZX-81 equivalent of this very useful ZX command is AS (2 TO).> < -.1. you can convert them easily by keeping in mind that the first address after the word REM in the first line of a ZX-80 program is 16427. of ZX-80 (first) addresses for PEEK/POKE REM work and the equivalent on the ZX-81: .> < -.> < -. letters and numbers. 9 9 2 listing draws-in the required characSINCLAIR USER April 10H2' 1 6 4 2 6 164-27 1 6 4 2 8 1 6 4 2 9 1 6 4 3 0 164-31 164-32 1 6 4 3 3 164-34 3.

Here is a list of them. shift E. Y is the count- Good converting. say. Not all system variables are so convenient. graphic 6. the larger the number. n Wonder of wonders. You will find it necessary to delete the whole of the moving display. with their character numbers and codes. unless you have added a SLOW—or to a delay loop—FOR J = 1 TO 20 NEXT J—or just leaving it as it is. shift F. graphic T. You may well prefer to use PRINT AT. up to 255. If the specific key is referred to. shift S. changing it to PAUSE—jerky. keeping in mind that the first reference is to the ZX-80 keyboard. Ifl . shift A. graphic 3. shift W . shift 6. Here are the graphics symbols available on the ZX-80. graphic 1. down from the top of the screen. Use this table when you find a reference to. shift D. PRINT CHRS (137) in a ZX-80 listing: moving display routine are generally greatly improved on the ZX-81. Experiment with display formats to see if you can dispense with use of CLS. but the only thing possible on a newROM ZX-80. graphic 2: shift T. n Variables Graphics LET A = C/B INPUT A 41 LET A » = A8(2TO) PAUSE 255-n (very approximate) see table see relevant table.>V- Si ter or refers to the graphic on a particular key. this still works on the ZX-81 adjusting itself automatically to accommodate changes in programs. the shorter the time the display is held on the ZX-80. The SCROLL command is very useful for printout of tables. The list was compiled by Toni Baker: Old R O M 16384 16385 16386 16387 16386 16389 16390 16391 16392 16393 16394 16395 16396 16397 16398 16399 16400 16401 16402 16403 16404 16405 16406 16407 16406 16409 16410 16411 16412 16413 16414 16415 16418 16417 16418 16419 16420 16421 16422 16423 16424 16425 16426 16427 New R O M 16384 16385 16391 16392 no equivalent no equivalent 16394 16395 16400 16401 16404 16405 16396 16397 no equivalent no equivalent 16412 16413 16418 16419 16420 16408 16409 16427 16428 16429 16432 16433 16434 16435 16436 16437 no equivalent no eq divalent noequivalenl noequivalent noequivalent noequivalenl 16406 16407 16509 16510 16513 16514 ZX-81 LET A = INT(RND'9) To sum up.28 You may find that the appearance of the program when running will be greatly improved if you use PRINT AT rather than CLS.5) LET A =CODE (JNKEYS). shift R. which produces more or less the same result. graphic D. the second to the ZX-81: shift Q. here is what you do: ZX-80 LET A = RND(9) LET AS = TLS5(A$) Moving graphics: POKE 16414. graphic 4. two given LET A=INTJC/B) or LET A = INT(C/B+. showing the ZX-80 and Zx-81 equivalents. graphic A. X is the count across. ZX-80 programs which use a SINCLAIR USER A p r i l 1982 Many ZX-80 programs use the following line to POKE a character into a specific position on the screen: POKE Y*33 + X + 1 + PEEK (16396) + PEEK • (16397) '256. You can obtain some indication as to which figure to place after the word PAUSE by keeping in mind that the figure used in most ZX-80 moving-display routines to POKE 16414 is related inversely to the delay—that is. use this table to convert. graphic 5. graphics.

• Able to drive the new Sinclair printer. • Advanced 4-chip design: microBASIC manual processor.unique. Designed by Sinclair and custom-built in Britain. • Multi-dimensional string and numerical arrays.Sinclair ZX8I Personal Comp the heart of a system that grows with you.ever made. this unique chip replaces 18 chips from L o w e r price: higher c a p a b i l i t y With the ZX81. more power. faster version of the famous Z80 It uses the same micro-processor. etc.) have their and builds up animated displays. handles logs deal of tiresome typing. RAM. tower price how's it done? Quite simply. to 21. on cassette. custom-built chip manual . from replacing 18 ZX80 chips. In March 1981. Key words and trig. The ZX81 reduces the 21 to 4! The secret lies in a totally new master chip.a complete course in BASIC programming. first principles to complex programs Built: Kit or built-it's up to youl You'll be surprised how easy the ZX81 kit is to build: just four chips to assemble (plus. • Up to 26 FOR/NEXT loops. For just £69. Initially. The ZX80 reduced the chips in a working computer from 40 or so. own single-key entry. And you may already have a suitable mains adaptor . plus master Every ZX81 comes with • comprehensive.the 'trained • Unique'one-touch' keyword intelligence' of the computer. • Graphrdrawing and animateddisplay facilities. of course the other discrete components) . it's still very simple to the ZX80! teach yourself computing. chip. Kit and built versions come complete with all leads to connect to your TV (colour or black and white) and cassette recorder.over 50. And the ZX Software library is growing every day. Kit: £49. widely recognised as the best but incorporates a new. over 50.000 were sold. LIST. Not surprisingly. the Sinclair lead increased dramatically. And theZX81 incorporates other • Unique syntax-check and report operation refinements . . and to • Full range of mathematical and drive the new ZX Printer. even we were surprised by the demand . for example. PRINT. • Cassette LOAD and SAVE with named programs. ful 8K BASIC ROM . improved specification ZX81 packs even greater working • Z80A micro-processor .the facility codes identify programming errors to load and save named programs capability than the ZX80. allows you to plot graphs. 95 Higher specification. This entry: the ZX81 eliminates a great chip works in decimals. specially. but the New. scientific functions accurate to eight decimal places. You can add 16-times more memory with the ZX RAM pack.a few hours' work with a fine-tipped soldering iron. world's first complete personal computer for under £100.000 in the first 3 months! Today. by design. • Randomise function-useful for games as well as serious applications.written chip .600 mA at 9 V DC nominal unregulated (supplied with built version). 1980 saw a genuine breakthrough the Sinclair ZX80. The ZX Printer offers an unbeatable combination of performance and price.95 the Sinclair ZX81 offers even more advanced facilities at an even lower price. (RUN. • 1K-byte RAM expandable to 16K bytes with Sinclair RAM pack. ROM. the Sinclair ZX81 is the heart of a computer system.

. laii- 'Please delete/complete as applies We I I I I I I I I I I Please print Name: Mr/Mrs/Miss Address I l_ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 6 King* Pa M B J-ifea UtT C l L. 12 11 10 18 27 17 ZX8I in • Please tick if you require a VAT receipt TOTAL £ *l enclose a cheque/postal order payable to Sinclair Research Ltd.95 19.using a stackable connector so you can plug in a RAM pack as well. Access. We want you t o be satisfied beyond doubt and we have no doubt that you will be. postal order. And of course you can print out your results for permanent records or sending to a friend. for £ •Please charge to my Access/Barclaycard/Trustcard account no. every day. A roll of paper (65 ft long x 4 in wide) is supplied. j o i 1i r I Hf v . How to order your ZX81 BY PHONE .T p Available nowthe ZX Printer for only £49. Barclaycard or Trustcard holders can call 01-200 0200 for personal attention 24 hours a day.95 49.95 Total £ n To: Sinclair Research.95 2. Barclaycard or Trustcard. Cambridge. Ready-assembled Sinclair ZX81 Personal Computer(s). Designed as a complete module to fit your Sinclair ZX80 or ZX81. Cambs. Surrey.95 49. Qty Item Sinclair ZX81 Personal Computer kit(s) Price includes ZX81 BASIC manual. which prints out exactly what is on the whole TV screen without the need for further inductions. along with full instructions.use the no-stampneeded coupon below.95 8.Access. A special feature is COPY. by cheque. GUI 5 3BR. FREEPOS T . 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I J_L I I SUSO* . At last you can have a hard copy of your program listings-particularly useful when writing or editing programs. Printing speed is 50 characters per second. Order Code Item price £ 49. Camberley. The ZX Printer connects to the rear of your computer . excludes mains adaptor. the RAM pack simply plugs into the existing expansion port at the rear of the computer to multiply your data/program storage by 16! Use it for long and complex programs or as a personal database. Tel: (0276) 66104 4 21282. BY FREEPOST . EITHER WAY .please allow up to 28 days for delivery. And there's a 14-day money-back option. you can also run some of the more sophisticated ZX Software . You can pay 16K-byte RAM pack for massive add-on memory.n o stamp needed. FREEPOST. With the RAM pack.CT * l i S t POKE l_E. Yet it costs as little as half the price of competitive additional memory. Price includes ZX81 BASIC manual and mains adaptor Mains Adaptors) (600 mA at 9 V DC nominal unregulated) 16K-BYTE RAM pack Sinclair ZX Pnnter 8K BASIC ROM to fit ZX80 Post and Packing.( . CB21SN. the printer offers full alphanumerics and highly sophisticated graphics.^ Designed exclusively for use with the ZX81 (and ZX80 with 8K BASIC ROM). with 32 characters per line and 9 lines per vertical inch.the Business & Household management systems for example.95 68.

Some may say that is not the case but all have to Starting to get acquainted with the Sinclair book world Since the d a w n i n g of the thousands of words have been successor. have set it up and worked your way through the manual provided. Do not worry. 1X81 48 S I N C L A I R USER April 10H2' . II will tell how to do things but is not concerned particularly with why the techniques it describes are useful. The approaches generally can be divided into two—that the whole thing should be fun and that the reader should be taught or shown the techniques he needs to know for what he wants to do.O NCE YOU have your ZX-81. We aim to provide a rough guide to the books available. to provide the answer for which the new ZX-81 owner is looking. In the U. there are at least 15 manuals generally-available for owners of all levels of experience and fields of interest. The machine is just a tool. All the books assume that the reader has read the manual. Publishers are falling over each other to produce books which will aim. The programming techniques learned in computer games are just as applicable to writing a household accounts program as those designed specifically todoso. Both frequently then leave you to get on with it. so that you can choose the approach to suit you.K. Each m o n t h w e will words to see if they are of value ZX-80. for work or for education. that of which to choose. hundreds of written about it and its examine some of those to users. the obvious question arises— Where do I go from here? For the Sinclair book. is still only a manufacturer's manual—a guide to the capabilities of the product. Both are fair enough. By Ron Coates. good of its kind. whether for household accounts or a game. with new titles appearing almost weekly. with varying degrees of success. That is at least comforting but it raises another problem. It is how you use it that counts—for enjoyment. The authors and publishers have had somewhat the same problems of trying to decide what information the ZX-81 user might want and how best to impart it. nor the best way of attacking a practical program. The answer can really be provided by deciding the purpose for which you bought the machine in the first place.

Making the most of your ZX-80 and Stretching your ZX-81 or ZX-80 are continuations of increasing complexity and I found that stretching referred more to me than it reallydid tothecomputer. who has a number of titles to his credit of scaled degrees of difficulty. That probably is unavoidable. Poke. Through the book games of greater complexity are listed. tedious and. There is a page-and-a-half of introduction and Hartnell then expects you to key-in the first game to see how it works and enjoy it. specialised functions in mathematics and so on. The game approach to teaching computer programming has a long history. it also worked. The explanatory text is held to a bare minimum. . The disadvantages are that the books are all revisions of books for the ZX-80 and Hartnell has had neither Ihe time nor resources to make it clear which listings of programs are for which machine. Readers will probably find his explanations easier to follow. Then he •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 demonstrate a programming technique or facility of the machine— tricks with the screen. m explains what has happened. for if any manual or book tried to explain all its terms and usages in comprehensive detail. but he never says anything without reason and you can generally grasp the point with a littlethought. while not heavy-handed. as are the other books. His explanations are terse. The good point is that Hartnell makes the effort to make learning a pleasure and pushes the reader quickly to a point of confidence in programming ability and the ZX-81.W& i J i * JH m 'Jzt iiJ3Ji i M m ^^jJJZjHZ i you can see why it became popular. business or household accounting. The ZX-81 Companion is one of the better books. It aims to have the reader start using the machine as soon as it can be hooked to the television. Next month we will look at more serious books and the delightful Peek. The author is an academic and his style. because of his step-by-step notation. It is not really for the absolute beginner but embraces most of the techniques dealt with by Hartnell's three books. That is the approach followed by one of the pioneer ZX-BO writers. most to ! i m miS3 ZX81 M l •i . Many big computer companies and universities discovered that one of the best ways of teaching programming was for the students to design their own games and run them on a machine. That may sound damning but on the whole the books are to be recommended because of the successful effort Hartnell has put into judging the level of information he presents in each. Byte and Ham. Programs and examples are presented clearly but he is obviously addressing himself to the ZX-81 owner who wants to move as quickly as possible from the manual to using the machine for teaching. boring. It is different in concept from the others reviewed. For the person who wishes to take the ZX-81 really seriously. A book which tries to cover much the same ground is The ZX81 Pocket Book by Trevor Toms. worst of all.books rely at one point or another on various pieces of information and the explanations in it. shows it. The author has made an effort to extend his explanation—for instance each line of programming code is explained if it is novel—and to do more than provide a series of listings to type into the machine. The techniques and uses of the machine are indicated very well by the example programs. When you think that the alternative was to read a number of manuals and then write programs to work out the VAT on any quantity of widgets. His other book. very expensive. it would be long. It was regarded by the teachers and students as a painless way of learning how to make the machine work and do what was required of it. occasionally to the verge of incomprehensibility. Getting acquainted with your ZX-81 startsat the lowest level. Tim Hartnell.

PLEASE CONTACTTHE ORGANISER BARGAIN BYTES FOR T H E 1 6 K Z X 8 1 UNBEATABLE VALUE! CASSETTE OF 8 P R O G R A M S (50K+) For f u n a n d f o r t u n e . personal budgeting.COMPUTACALC ZX t "t'"L' JfcN 167 FEE. user groups and lots of new products. 2 . IF Y O U H A V E A N I N T E R E S T I N G P R O D U C T Y O U W O U L D LIKE T O S H O W A T THE Z X M I C R O F A I R . I:'sup to you.00 pm) ~ D E C 40RTGAGE167 'HONE 42 ~ JfiS ia is 62 31' 35 65 Oft 61 7 1a ta 7C 1a 1a 233 OTftU 284 293 5*4 275 264 2 7 EVERYTHING FOR THE Z X 8 0 / 8 1 Dozens of hardware add-ons and hundreds of programs to suit all tastes AND books. and your software (on T D K cassette) will then be desptachcd. Lanes. 22 Green Leys. 7 1 Park London N 1 7 OHG Lane. H A N G M A N (I I YzKlTheold family game based on a library of500 words. Berkshire S1. L O A N (2'AK) Calculates repav mcnts. STILL T H E BIGGEST SELECTION A N Y W H E R E Bring and Buy Sale for micros/add-ons/software Buffet for Refreshments Showguide with full details of suppliers and products LOW PRICE ADMISSION: Adults. Requires 16K RAM PACK C O N T A I N S TAPE & I N S T R U C T I O N S Only C5 5 0 Both t a p e s supplied t o g e t h e r for just € 1 0 . but beware of the T w o . 3 0 . (accompanied children under 10 FREE) ADVANCE TICKETS (Fnday 30th Apnl only): Adults €1. paper and calculator can be performed in seconds with C O M P U T A C A L C ZX For cassette and full documentation send £ 7 9 5 to. London W C 2 1 EJ.6 7EZ Telephone: (0628) 21107 Professional Software for Hobby Computers THE KEYS OF G O N D R U N A |ourney beneath the Enchanted Forest in search of the missing keys of Gondrun the Wizard. Save on tape or printout for a permanent record Tasks that would take hours with pencil. BANK A C C O l N T (I3'AK) Invaluable for controlling your finances Produces detailed statements and can also keep track ofcrcdit canJ spending. All our prices include UK postage European customers please add 2 0 p per tape.40p.o r you could end up broke. Shaw.4 Chichester Rents. Can you discover the keys . 0 0 W e may have other games ready by the time you read this S. first class post. ( I 4 K I Discoverthe treasure chest before you run out of gold or strength. elsewhere please add 5 0 p per tape M A I L ORDER ONLY Only E5 5 0 LEISURE GAMES ONLY £5 SPECIAL OFFER ORDER N O W ! 3 Spring Rise. Send to: Richard Shepherd. Organiser: Mike Johnston.and stay alive? W i t h real-time monster fights (6 skill levels). For Bank Loansor Mortgages CODE BREAKER <2K) Vou have ten guesses at the lour digit number held by the computer. save on cassette feature and alternative responses to give a different game every time M a p the caves as you travel through them. Levels of play from "difficult" to "downright impossible" Also has "Save Game" feature. mags. the Jubiaroo and the other nasties which are lurking A greal game occupy ing the full 16K R A M PACK C O N T A I N S TAPE & I N S T R U C T I O N S POP STAR W o u l d you like to be rich and f a m o u s ? This program w o n t guarantee that. 3 0 pm) S A T U R D A Y 1st M A Y 1 9 8 2 <10. Oldham. I \ D f c R G R O l N D ADVF N T l RI <6^K> Battle against monsters and obstacles underground. Change one number or formula and all dependant results change p r o g r a m m i n g k n o w l e d g e needed I DEEP SEA ADVENTURF. 167 flhP 167 UPU 167 nt16 3 rd ZX MICROFAIR CENTRALHALLWESTMINSTER LONDON SW1 FRIDAY 3 0 t h APRIL 1 9 8 2 ( 1 2 .8 . sum borrowed or interest. like flop records. complete with comprehensive instructions. home.then don't get caught! In this game you could make a m i l l i o n . time.H e a d e d Thronga. Buy or just browse.E.A. FOREIGN CURRENCY <3K> How many dollars is £110? How many Francs is $387 Sec what you money will buy around the world! For convenience simply quote SU4 and your name and address on the reverse of your cheque postal order. Maidenhead. the taxman and other horrors are always waning And if you decide to bribe and cheat . High Crompton. A very difficult and challenging task. (cheques payable to ZX M icrofair) Children 50p. cashflow analysis and countless other business. SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' LEISURE GAMES 50 .00-6. S 1 .6 0 2 6074). but it's great fun all the same Will your records be hits'* Can you negotiate a better royalty rate and increase your income? M a y b e you'll be offered a TV series or film But it isn't an easy life and troubles.(Tel:01 . Tottenham. for details. Excellent graphics. 60p Under 14. D E P T H C H A R G E (2'AK) A skillful moving graphics game Fire your depthcharges to blow up encmv suhniarines before they destory your ship. scientific and technical applications The screen acts as a window on a much larger grid I up to 3 8 x 3 8 ) of titles and numbers (up to 9 digits). An advanced spreadsheet program for the Sinclair 2 X 8 1 with 16K R A M This versatile software allows manipulation and inspection of data in the most convenient w a y ever Ideal for financial planning. Silicon Tricks. Dept.

It is far and away the most original and compulsive game I have either for the 80 or the 81. There are many gems among them and one or two which barely make it into the glass category. Simon. splitting the Z-80 microprocessor time between keeping on the display and following the program instructions. using software in exactly the way that the ZX-81 uses hardware. other games and utilities. By the time the public could obtain either the new machine or the new ROM for the ZX-80. which 1 will split into three groups—arcade games. it was difficult to find it mentioned in the microcomputer magazines. let alone any software. Now if we had discs—but that is another story.Sorting the diamonds from the glass Phil Garratt scratches the surface of the vast number of products on the market O OVERVIEW of software for the Sinclair computers can hope to do more than scratch the surface of an enormous range of products now available. Nim. I am also omitting household programs such as Bank Account and Telephone Directory. the first "flickerfree" games for the ZX-80 appeared. showed that there was more to the ZX-80 than met the eye. is sufficient on its own for me never to want to part with my ZX-80. Another major achievement in ZX-80 software was Philip Joy's chess program. When my ZX-80 arrived nearly two years ago. Its failure to add to the range in a year is a great pity. Ken MacDonald's Amazing Active Display. Although its standard of play could perhaps best be described as "not illegal". Sinclair introduced a range of inexpensive software. though fairly routine. . the ZX-81 takes too long to save and load to make them worthwhile. it showed that the ZX-80 had a potential to match computers costing five times as much. Although those programs are useful when trying to justify a home computer to sceptics. MacDonald produced his "flickerfree" if rather eye-numbing Breakout. with its range which includes a payroll system. which appeared in early 1981. a machine code pause routine. there was already a number of books and programs available. because of the Sinclair "seeding" of some authors with machines. He also invented Galaxy Wars which. which was good at the time. Then the ZX-81 was announced. Shortly after. and John Edmonds produced a limited but recognisable Space Invaders. Now there are hundreds of programs available and •1 SINCLAIR USER April >982 N almost as many micro magazines. all 1 can do is to try to deal with some of the ZX-81 programs available. however. is doing a marvellous public relations job for the rest of us—by showing that the Sinclair is sufficiently powerful to have a serious side. I have to omit any discussion of business-orientated packages as they are outside my field but it must be said that Hilderbay. The earliest ZX-80 offerings were fairly routine—Mastermind. if I had no other reason. As I indicated initially.

. Quicksilva's Defender and Asteroids. Second. the most ^ famous of which is Space Invaders. What is also very creditable about it is that the player can decide at the start how many bases each game should have and how fast the game should run. That means that several people can play at the same level of difficulty and the program produces a high score league table. so suffice to say it has excellent moving 52 graphics and is very-attractively presented. e. although it is not cheap. whereas the Macronic Nightmore Park is usually finished quickly. O equals up. it includes software to drive an add-on sound generator available from Quicksilva and.. The larger asteroids disintegrate in a satisfying manner and more and more appear as the game progresses. Once you are used to not having an arrow to show the direction of your ship. trying to fire while avoiding their missiles and all the time watching the ground rush past below. Macronics provides a listing with each cassette and it would be pleasant if other companies followed suit. that would not have been required for the next two programs. as did all the children to whom I showed it at Christmas. Incidentally. and which you go through at random as you try to cross the (continued on page S3) SINCLAIR USER April 1D82 8 . and the like. The Adventure A seems the easier of the two but Adventure B will give you a score—if you score anything —although it is much fussier about which words it will accept in each situation. It is really eight or 10 simple Basic programs. The first involves running a gauntlet of invaders coming at you from the right. while moving your ship upand down. all joined neatly together. the display uses the entire height of the TV screen—not just the portion of it addressed by the ZX-81. a number of "adventures" are available and one of the major factors in determining the appeal of an adventure is the number of situations involved in the game. it adds a new dimension to games. The last arcade game at which I look as is DKtronics Centipede. They added their own sound effects of the Pchow! and Wham! variety but if I had had the necessary hardware. I had reservations at first but I soon became addicted.g. with the game becoming progressively more difficult in several ways. That means that machine code games such as the two Artie Computing Adventures have a big advantage over programs using Basic. Moving to non-arcade games. and the Macronics version for the 1K ZX-81 is good for the time when your 10 pence pieces run out. Your ship is a number on the screen. it becomes a good game. no highest score feature. Z equals right. First. Asteroids does not use the entire screen but has the sound-generating instructions. such as Number Guessing and Simon. The program is a smaller version of the real thing—you have only one laser base per game and only the current and last game scores are displayed—i. Both require plenty of time and patience. The program is remarkable in two respects.(continued from poge 51J \ y So to arcade games.e. which represents the direction of movement or fire. faster and slower. I cannot describe it adequately without confusing all and sundry.

often providing displays and routines 1 would not have thought possible. The best thing is to see the programs run before you buy. in general. too. It plays an impressive game on six levels. and the other by Silversoft enter standard Z-80 mnemonic which. and then placed wherever you want Several chess programs exist. "Cee. if gram. (1639H). explains its operation and outlines the principles ol and for those confused by computer programming A chapter on /argon (and who isn't?) there is applications surveys the many uses a glossary ot technical terms.• V i • m n® >fl minutes respectively. computer. Marketing Manager al Ihe address shown 0408 01178 5 176 pages 9 4 £4.50 Q&A on Personal Computing II you have a ZX81.Sevenoaks. the additional facilities offered by the 16 K This book will help anyone who wrjftes to learn about personal expansion RAM and how to use the computers and the uses to whKh Sinclair ZX printer There are 14 they can be put II describes the original programs for you to run on development of the personal the machtne(for IK and 16K versions). and which can produce memories from machine code—e. In addition. It allows you to carefully. 40 seconds and five it a hundred times easier. although the only one I have is Artie in memory. I have two versions of the game. This well-presented game kept plays good chess but tends to lack an end-game strategy. 1 have mentioned fewer programs than I would like and in less detail than I would like. this book will tell you all you need to know to get the best trom tt Coming shortly. although entering of commands has to be done ZXAS assembler. Watch for the "cowboys' who are selling programs extracted from magazines but. It seems that many ZX-81 users ZX chess.95 £4. in REM statements. LU HL. 26 BASIC Programs for your Micro Derrick Daines Here is a collection ol 26 new and varied games programs. which can be used at the same time as ZXAS. which are a game can take two hou rs. with a list ot variables and memory sire required. the level one time has game to an 11 -year-old and her comment. which are assembled better-presented. and the use ot the microprocessor in home computers 0 408 00414 2 92 pages This took wii he Of great value IO all ZX&O owners II tells you how to get the ZX90 working. the support componentt such as memories and communication interlaces. ZX software is good value. which apparently allows double-speed loading and saving of any part of the memory. I showed the madea little more complicated. A number of ZX-81 versions of the seen the latest version of the proclassic Stortrek are available—all. this book lakes the reader step by step through the mysteries ot the microprocessor chip and its instruction sel. and cheaper than similar programs for other computers on the market. ol these remarkable machines Robin Norman assumes no initial knowledge of computing and his undemanding writing style is a perfect beginner's introduction.. better than the original ed. or are thinking ol buying one. 0 408 00555 6 96 pages £1.g. The last program which I have not seen yet is ZX-MC from Picturesque. which has minor bugs correctanything. although a trifle slower.g. although the input has been mainframe program. e. plus a program irshng and sample run The book <s ideal tor hobbyists smce it helps improve techniques lor writing successful programs whilst also providing plenty ot enter lam men • The ZX81 Basic book covers the Peter Latterly Basic IK version.from your local bookseller In case of difficulty send cash with order to Patricia Davres. Robin IZX81I iBasic Book! Norman Learning BASIC with your Sinclair ZX80 Robin Norman Microprocessors for Hobbyists Ray Coles Adapted from a popular series of articles m Practical electronic*. The best I have seen is Bug-Bytes good use of graphics. is codes. Irom spelling rests fo submarinehunting They are graded from the most elementary usable on the simplest home computer to longer and more complex programs suitable for more advanced machines Derrick Dames has written the games in an easy subset of BASIC so that the reader mKhaveno dilltculty m translating them lor any microcomputer Each program is described in a lively and informative Style. which makes grams. the ROM—plus other facilities. it takes a million years to been reduced from 10 to two kill a single Klingon" is a slight seconds and the others speeded exaggeration.. (continued from page 52J Bug-Bytes also sells a disassembler. Now for the utilities.95 ORDER NOW. now to program it ant) how to gel the best out ol it Cootmns an lhe information necessary to use the Sinclair ZX80 to the tut plus U specially wntten programs unavailable elsewhere 011017 160 pages 0408 £3. Recently 1 have the children quiet for hours.. the first three are interested in machine code: the levels responding in less than 10 assembler makes learning and using seconds. although it is true that accordingly. programs to help you write proone by Macronics.Kent TN15 8PH Ifl ISL) 4/5/8?) . Every level park. among other things. as more and more are now available in shops.95 SINCLAIR USER A p r i l 1982 ewnes Technical Books Borough Green..


Get the most from your Sinclair—or your A t o m or Vic-by investing in some of the best books available...
Getting Acquainted with your ZX-81— Tim Hartnell. More than 80 great programs in this 128-page book, includingZom^/es, Life, Micro-Mouse. Word Processor —to use w i t h the printer—and DRAUGHTS. This is the number one U.K. ZX-81 book and is designed to get your ZX-81 up and running w i t h worthwhile programs from day one. ZX-81 commands are explained, w i t h programs to show them in action; there is a chapter on how to make the most of the standard 1 K memory and much more. Computing Today said: " This b o o k . . . gives you the basis of a hands-on program . . . it is easy to r e a d . . . has something for everyone . . the practical approach used can only benefit the growing body of users". In the U.S., Creative Computing said: "The book is chock full of games, such as Checkers, which draws the entire board on the screen . . . As you work your way through it, your program library will grow along with your understanding of Basic". Tim Hartnell is head of the National ZX-80 and ZX-81 Users' Club and has used the feedback from hundreds of members to create the most suitable book for the ZX-81 user. Getting Acquainted with your ZX-81 by Tim Hartnell is £5.95, plus 7 0 p p. & p. The Gateway Guide to the ZX-81 and ZX-80—Mark Charlton. This 180-page book contains more than 70 fully-documented and explained programs for the ZX-81 and ZX-80. The book is a "doing" book rather than a reading one and the author encourages the reader to try things as he or she goes. Creative Computing said: "The book starts at a tow level and assumes the ZX-80 or ZX-81 is the reader s first computer. By the end, the reader will have become quite proficient". The book describes each function and statement in turn, illustrates it in a demonstration routine or program, and then combines it with previously-discussed material. The Gateway Guide to the ZX-81 and Z X - 8 0 by Mark Charlton is £6.45, plus 70p p. & p. Mastering Machine Code on your ZX-81 or ZX-80— Tony Baker.

Get the m your Si
Sate*** GUIDE

Z X 8 1

7 0 p r o s p


& m S


This great book, the best-selling U.K. volume on the machine code for the ZX-81, has been warmlywelcomed by the computer press and users. Practical Computing, in a review on Prestel, said: "Have worked through three chapters so far and it's remarkable. If the rest is as good I expect to be able to do some quite clever things quite soon. It does need concentration but compared to some articles I've read on the same topic its Janet and J o h n ' " . The book assumes you know Basic, but assumes you know nothing about machine code. It starts with well-understood Basic programs. From simple arithmetic and random number generators

you are guided slowly through a series of easy-to-understand routines. The book includes an intelligent draughts game, with full display, which fits a I K ZX-81. Mastering Machine Code on your ZX-81 or Z X - 8 0 by Tony Baker is £7.50, plus 7 0 p p . & p. 3 4 Amazing Games for the 1 K ZX-81—Alastair Gourlay. This book is the answer to the apparently limited 1K memory provided on the standard ZX-81. Alastair Gourlay, a member of the National Z X - 8 0 and ZX-81 Users' Club from Scotland, has spent a great deal of time stretching the 1 K to its limits and the result of that work is in this book for you. The programs have all been dumped

or Atoi

I ost out of i nclair...

h r ,

host of new games and adaptations of old favourites. Many of the programs will run in just 1K, including a simplified Space Invaders-type program Some of the games are based on chance—the dreaded Sinclair random number generator—and others depend on skill, both yours and that of the computer. In editing the book, Tim Hartnell has tried to ensure that each and every program contains at least one programming technique which you will be able to adapt for your programs. 4 9 Explosive Games for the ZX-81, edited by Tim Hartnell, is £5.95, plus 70p p. & p. Getting Acquainted with your Acorn Atom—Trevor Sharpies and Tim Hartnell. If the A t o m is the first computer you have owned, this 184-page book will help you unlock its secrets. Master the graphics, PEEK and POKE, keyboard scans. Assembler and more. Getting Acquainted with your Acorn Atom by Trevor Sharpies and Tim Hartnell is £7.95, plus 7 0 p p . & p. Getting Acquainted with your Vic 20—Tim Hartnell. This 130-page book is based on Tim HartneM's best-selling ZX-81 books, w i t h extra material on the Vic sound and graphics capabilities. Computing Today said: "Tim Hartnell leads the reader, step by simple step, from the absolute basics of programming the Vic to writing complex, sophisticated programs. It thoroughly describes use of the sound, music and colour capabilities and illustrates the use of these functions in over 6 0 programs and games". Getting Acquainted with your Vic 2 0 by Tim Hartnell is £6.95, plus 7Op p. & p.

tir G



Get the most from your from the printer and are guaranteed Trek. Death Maze, 4-in-a-row and an Sinclair—or your Acorn or Vic—by to run first time. The programming 8K Adventure-Xyjpe program. investing in some of the best books tricks Alastair has used to com- Smugglers Bold. As well, there is a available. press the programs can be used by ORDER F O R M you in your programs. The book is much more than a collection of Please rush me the following books: Total games. It is a guidebook to show Getting Acquainted w i t h y o u r Z X - 8 1 a t £ 5 . 9 5 you how to make the most of your The Gateway Guide to the ZX-81 and Z X - 8 0 at £6.45 1 K Z X - 8 1 . 3 4 Amazing Games for Mastering M a c h i n e C o d e o n y o u r Z X - 8 1 or ZX-80 at £7.50 the 1 K ZX-81 by Alastair Gourlay 3 4 Amazing Games for the 1 K ZX-81 at £4.95 i s £ 4 . 9 5 , p l u s 7 0 p p . & p. 4 9 Explosive Games for the ZX-81 at £5.95 49 Explosive Games for the Getting Acquainted w i t h your Acorn A t o m at £7.95 ZX-81—plus 2 7 for the ZX 8 0 — Getting Acquainted w i t h your Vic 2 0 at £6.95 edited by Tim Hartnell. In this book Add TOp per book for postage and packing you will find many great games to Total keep you locked to your ZX-81 for hours. The book has listings for Cheques should be made payable to Interface Publications. Now post every game we thought you might order w i t h cheque to Sinclair Books, Sinclair User, 3 0 - 3 1 Islington want, including Galactic Intruders. Green, London, N1 8BJ. Breakout Draughts/Checkers. Star
SINCLAIR USER April 1982 Ifl

HERE has been no shortage of developments on the hardware side of the market since the introduction of the ZX-81 in March. 1981. Most were based on designs which developed on the ZX-80 and enhanced by the introduction of the ZX-81. The main differences between the ZX-80—even with the 8K ROM—and the ZX-81 are the appearance of a static screen on the ZX-81—slow mode—and the extension to the expansion bus—the edge connector at the back of the ROM CS line which meant that some of the Sinclair address decoding should be sorted-out externally to the ZX-81. For the first six months or so. firms were very cautious about the ZX-81. watching the market to see whether it would take off. The first product to appear was a sound board, complete with input/output port and a motherboard from Quicksilva; that was one of the first motherboards for the ZX-81 and meant that the user could have more than just the Sinclair lfiK RAM pack on the back. The next announcements appeared in September. 1981 at the Personal Computer World Show—floppy discs. RS232 serial printer port, cheaper input/output ports and. for the first time, the Sinclair printer. Since then things have snowballed; ZX-81 sales have exceeded the 250.000 mark, showing that there is a

Plenty for users
To lead into in-depth analyses of hardware
great deal of feeling for the micro and the number of firms which have been set up to deal with ZX-81 equipment has more than doubled since September. The ZX Microfair in November was an event which meant that the equipment which was promised in the glossy advertisements available previously only on mail order could be seen before purchasing. Such was the enthusiasm for that type of Microfair by both the exhibitors— Sinclair alone took more than £8,000 in orders on one day—and the users that another was organised quickly for Janaury. A word of warning to users—be wary of certain manufacturers who claim that they have a product available when all they are doing is testing the market to see if anyone is interested. It is better to write and confirm on what date they will be able to supply the product to you. Computer manufacturers have the tendency to quote a date and then supply the product between six and 12 weeks after you have paid. Bigger firms are the main culprits. I have divided this review of the hardware products available for the ZX-81 into three headings—essential add-ons, keyboards, motherboards and extra RAM. They comprise input and output capabilities where some technical knowledge is assumed; enhancements which require programming skill, but either plug direct into the ZX-81 expansion bus or the ZX-81 is modified by the manufacturer. There are two leaders in the amount of RAM you can cram into the ZX-81 memory map. The Meinotech 48K RAM pack has the largest continuous Basic memory; not all of it can be used for a Basic program— only the bottom lfiK (16K-32K). The rest has to be used for storing data but not machine code. Audio Computing has the largest memory pack available. 128K of RAM but only 32K of it available at any time. To switch between sets of 32K, called banks of memory, a manual switch has to be thrown and the ZX-81 has to be re-set to start up the Basic system again. That is not very convenient, as it cannot yet be operated from software or the variables transferred from bank to bank. The Memotech 48K was one of the packs I have tested; it was good value at £129 plus VAT. assembled, and is very easy to use. So the arrival of Memotech's 64K pack must be welcomed, especially as it retails for only £79 including VAT. More about this newlyreleased product soon. There are other external RAM packs varying from an extra 3K giving a total of 4K of RAM to a full 16K of RAM cheaper than Sinclair's. Always check that the RAM pack does not prevent you connecting other equipment after it is fitted to the expansion bus. That was the case with the Sinclair RAM pack, which meant that you had to spend at least £10 to attach anything else to the ZX-81. If you are spending that

A cassette recorder developed for the ZX-fi 1. 56

Another facility is to have a colour board by Haven Hardware. It also includes the only RS232 printer port available: it will accept data only one bit at a time but many printers are available for it. The new memory chip will cost at least £7 and RAM packs start at £18. supplying only the Sinclair ZX-81 and 16K RAM pack. There are various attachments to fied. The maximum is 40K per disc and the cost is expected to be £249. disc. Programmable character generators can create high-resolution graphics. They are given a registered number and are highlytuned. memorymapped—can be PEEKed and POKEd from a Basic program—and input/output-mapped — using special machine-code routines. LOAD and store random data on 5jin. so the resolution can be 512 by 256. they keep the data the same while the ZX-81 does other things. With all those products it is pleasant to see that one manufacturer. Each dot on the screen can be speci- not speak to Nick Lambert of Quicksilva? The final enhancement is more of a service than a product.1 » to choose from products. Usually some soldering has to be done. A greater need for any user is more knowledge about what is available. There is a wide selection of input/ output ports available which can provide from 16 to 24 bits of information on a separate bus to the ZX-81 databus. although not essential. Light pens can be used to draw on the screen by checking the light received against the screen layout at the time. designed specially by Monolith for the ZX-81. why Speech input from William Stuart Systems. The newest must be the speech input by William Stuart Systems and the speech output by DCP. They can be divided into two types. Those outputs are latched. Abacus has a cassette switch which will prevent confusion when SAVEing or LOADing. Full instructions usually are given with the kits. The new keyboard usually is very light to the touch and extremely responsive. Most of those require some technical knowledge to be able to use them. it can print your own-designed characters but that takes a good deal of memory. Digital cassette recorders can be bought. I can only say that 1 have done my part and now it is up to you. They are the only way of getting information in and out of the ZX-81 tocontrol other equipment. Stephen Adams scans the market money you might as well look at the expansion possibilities after you have it. If you intend to produce something. consisting of 4U professional microswitches mounted on to a bare printed circuit board. Now various attachments can be used on those ports. They will be stored in ROM and can be used to SAVE. at least. A/D converters which take a voltage. It is called the Buffer Shop and has been set up in London to cater only for the ZX machines. which is programmable in 16 colours. Various keyboards can be obtained which are basically of the same construction. Macronics disc system will act like a super-fast tape recorder using specially-written machine core routines. None of the original keyboard functions are lost as they are all controlled from software. can improve the facilities available to the programmer. That replaces the keyboard on the ZX-81. apart from W H Smith. That necessitates going inside the ZX-81 and perhaps some soldering. It is the only retail outlet for products. Motherboards can be plugged easily into the expansion port to give you more sockets. After checking inside to see if you have one chip—just change the original chip for the new one—or two—a new-28 pin IC socket needs to be fitted—change one strap on the board. which can then be printed-out by the very good quality Sinclair printer. measure it and give out a digital number for the ZX-81 to read. That means that you can program the ZX-81 to accept words like LIST. It is only through co-operation of manufacturers with magazines such as Sine/air User that the user of a ZX-81 can makea valid judgement. is sufficiently concerned to contact other firms to agree some kind of standard. RUN and the like and have it reply in a limited numberof words. If you still want to use your own recorder. Even without the character board. The Sinclair printer uses an aluminium-coated paper with all the characters being shown by black dots. improving the time taken to enter a program by at least 50 percent. so that all those devices can plug into the ZX-81 all at once. Ifl . D/A converters which SINCLAIR USER April 1982 take a digital number and output a voltage corresponding to it. The only other RAM extenstion possible is to change the IK of RAM chips fitted into the basic ZX-81 for a 2K chip. the ZX-81 which.

Nantwich. large SAE. faster typing with bigger and real keys 40 colour coded key-tops for easy reading Robust.50 post and packing. K A L E I D E S C O P E otc P R O B A B L Y T H E B E S T V A L U E 1K T A P E A V A I L A B L E ' W e v e d o n e <n 1K g o m e s tha t s o m e of o u r c o m p e r n o r s required 16K t o do 1 ARTIST ZX81 GAMES G r e a t U n c l e A r b u t h n o t is D e a d You stand to inherit his entire estate. subroutines. Berkshire. K. N A M E (Capnals please). Authors: Ian Stewart & Robin Jones The reader-friendly guide to getting started with the Sinclair ZX81. HESSEL. 0 0 0 within 2 6 weeks. CODE.95 ISBN 0 9 0 6 8 1 2 1 7 8 FULLY B U I L T £64. or o n e o l Ihe ma ny M O N S T E R S g e t * y o u ' Can Y O U discover t h e s e c r e t * of t h e CATACOMBS 3 D M O N S T E R S M A Z E G A M E S T A P E 4. for 1 6 K only £ 5 9 5 Unbelievable Graphic*1 Can you find your way through the M a t e > The EXIT i» there s o m e w h e r e . Full Postal address For payment by Access/American Express Card No. SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . Church Lane. Cheques to 'Frome Computing'. G R E Y E Trade enquiries SOFTWARE ZX81 Fast. on the Metal Market and RISK your capital al the Casino or Races W A T C H O U T FOR Y O U R RELATIVES W H O W I L L APPEAR AT THE M O S T I N O P P O R T U N E T I M E S . copy/copies of PEEK. 4. Sunninghill. you have inherited an ailing soft-drinks factory. Includes an introduction to looping and branching. B O M B E R GUILLOTINE.95 inc. FIRES. COPY etc G A M EST A P E 3. 'big' computer construction PCB prepared for more add ons to come New edge connector provided for Sinclair and other manufacturers' peripherals • Key legends can be changed for future new ROM functions • Sinclair PCB fully enclosed and room for much more If you feel you've o u t g r o w n your ZX 81 don't sell it for peanuts and m o v e to another system. Simply unscrew your ZX-81 printed circuit board from its black Sinclair case and plug into Protos. BA11 2SF \ V Frome Computing. (vi) M A K E A M I L L I O N P O U N D S The g a m e is called I N H E R I T A N C E " and is available on Cassette with full instructions at only € 4 2 5 from: G A M E S T A P E 2 . please. Signature. You may invest your cash at the Stock Exchange. TRY THESE! KALEIDESCOPE G A M E S T A P E 1. 16 PARK STREET. with over 50 programs designed to run on the standard 1K memory. b u t t h e n so is a T REX a n d i t * after Y O U ' A l l in 3 D .FED UP W I T H BEING RIPPED OFF? HAVE YOU BOUGHT B O R I N G / W O R T H L E S S / R U B B I S H GAMES? DON'T DESPAIR. Cheshire CW5 5RQ. (v) Decide on the best time to E X P A N D your factory. 0 0 0 into C I 0 0 . t h e n use the 1 0 m e m o r i e s to Store your d r a w i n g s Incl S A V E . In) Manufacture and market the drink successfully. A d d it t o Protos and m a k e your ZX 81 g r o w Published by: Shiva Publishing Ltd. Ini) Try to predict demand in an ever changing market: M Cope with STRIKES. If you are successful you will be able to L O A D part 2 of the game on side 2 of the cassette Now enter the world of BIG B U S I N E S S . and debugging techniques. but first you must prove your financial acumen by turning € 1 0 . 20 Ashtree Road. For 1st Class Postage please add 25p Price: £4. for 1 6 K only C5 9 5 'CATACOMBS A Multi-Level Graphics Adventure You are alone and lost i n i he C A T A C O M BS H o w l o n g c a n y o u s u r v i v e ' B efore y o u starve t o death. f ( * 16K only f 4 9 5 'STARFlGHTER YOU are f i g h t i n g at the e n d of t h e u m v e r v n o w m a n y e n e m y c a n y o u d e s t o r v ' A graphic n m u l a t i o n PYR A M ID Can y o u m o v e I h e P Y R A M I D ' M a k e » m i s t a k e a n d it WIII col lapse 1 A t h i n k e r * g a m e ARTIST b e c o m e an A R T I S T . Dept. full size keyboard in a top quality case for your ZX 81. Telephone: (0270) 628272 Order from your bookseller or fill in the coupon Please supply me with RAM. C a r d w e l l Crescent. etc. Efficient Service welcome Dept SU. GAMES MARKED ' ind Machine Code J. graphics. Somerset. Avon BA1 2TE 1 6K R A M Full Money-back Guarantee ZX81 owners Protos • • • • • K e y b o a r d is here: At last! A real. For orders add C2. BATH. Cheques payable to Shiva Publishing Ltd. lor 1 K only f 3 9 6 t O g a m e s m c l A S T E R O I D S UFO. F R A U D S .POKE.BYTE & Profos Computer Systems 58 For details. V A T More accurate.96 per copy. Frome. 1 5 L y t h a m Court. S. y o u ve never s e e n a n y t h i n g like this before' S I M O N W. Y O U R T A S K S ARE S I M P L E |i| Find the secret formula for a potentially world beating drink called P A R A D I S E COLA. 110 pages — Paperback £4. T R Y I N G TO TRICK OR HINDER YOU.

As a tie-break—if one is necessary—we want you to write a slogan beginning with the words: ' M y ZX-81 helps me \ The usual rules. the user. For the next five months w e will be giving away a printer—and other special prizes—to whoever submits the best programs for the ZX-81. the w i n n e r will be whoever submits the best original games program. . Your entry must reach us by April 10. make more of your machine. as w e want to include all the readers with only 1K of memory. In this first month. about the editor's decision being final and employees of E C C Publications being ineligible.Write a program and win a super Sinclair printer W e l c o m e to Sinclair User and the first in a series of competitions w h i c h w e hope will help you. as a Ue-breaW* • | | ? r©rrK* 1 I 1 FORt I| 1 7 p t t this slogan — ~ " Complex helps t>«»> |! ^atne rreen. Fill in the entry form below and w h i l e w e will accept a cassette it must be accompanied by a well-typed or beautifully hand-written listing. apply. . | \ ^ ^ ^ r r r .— j 4 S I N C L A I R USER AprihWU SO .

memory. avoiding irrelevant and/or difficult ideas: processors.95 each plus 5 Op for postage and pocking. And a glance at the chapter headings down below may well give the impression that this book is fun to read.Learn all about computers through a remarkable new language. And at a modest £1. What goes on inside-a swift canter through the heavy technology. because this is all you need to know: what can it do? What's available? And where do you buy a computer? What to look for-how to buy a small computer. I Introduction to the introduction . • / en dose cheque for£ Name Address made payable toECC Publications. • Please charge my credit card the sum o f f Name of credit card Number Signed N o w post please t o E C C Publications. Because this book provides a wonderful opportunity of clearing up any grey areas of your knowledge. And his book is called The Good Computing Book for Beginners. applications.facts. or at least how to avoid complete disappointment. If you're not a beginner.3 1 I s l i n g t o n G r e e n . All in all. 60 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . the pleasant and unpleasant faces of programming. A practical glossary . That someone is none other than Dennis jarrett: doyen of simple English and former Managing Editor of WHICH COMPUTER? and Practical Computing. you'll find this book does for computers what Berlitz did for languages. There's also a complete language guide to computer-jargon mumbo-jumbo in a glossary of terms that's as comprehensive as you'll find anywhere. I/O. Enrol here! Pleasesendme copy(ies) of the Good Computing Book for Beginners at £1. or at least where the noise comes from: system software. 3 0 . In 304 pages. T e l e p h o n e enquiries: 01-359 readers start here. opinions. You would be right Its the brightest way imaginable of learning all about computers.95.what makes the computer tick. why they are being dispelled. someone has written a book on computers that even Au nt E mi ly can understand. references and a few personalities. and the truth about computers. Simple English At long myths. chips. 3 Programmes . with notes. don't let the title put you off. L o n d o n N 1 8BJ. Now read on recommended reading. Your course in computers. What's a personal computer?.

low-price. A BRITISH Telecom-endorsed adaptor to allow ZX-81 s to run telesoftware programs transmitted by viewdata is to be unveiled at the end of April. The design of the £50 add-on gadget will be the winner of a competition launched at the end of 1981 by TeleS1NCLA1R USER April J38z com to boost interest among Sinclair users in programs delivered by telephone line through the Prestel viewdata service. practical. The adaptor is scheduled to make its debut at the April 23-25 Computer Fair in London. robust and efficient"— were entered by the March 14 closing date. Roger Green tells the story and w h y there is a need for the adaptor.000 first prize which goes to the designer of best ZX-81/Prestel adaptor.April debut planned for prize-winning adaptor There are more than 20 entries for the £1. {continued on page 62/ . More than 20 competing designs for the unit—which "should be in the spirit of the ZX-81.

have for some years enjoyed down-loaded programs obtained from special computer services. free yourself of that dead. an even parity bit and a stop bit. 62 SINCLAIR USER April 10H2' . keyboard only) Supplied on cassette with library case Too allow you to prove to yourself that our products are second to none. n o w try the BEST. imagine the tremendous variety of games and applications that now become possible * Details supplied on how to use the joysticks in your own programs Please note that you cannot connect conventional analogue joysticks directly to the digital input ports found on most I / O boards. each seven-bil code can be used to represent an instruction of a microcomputer program. S U 1 . (they'll get you in the end}. find out how fast you really are now only € 3 9 5 ZX C H E S S The original and still the best * Graphic display of chessboard. and can be used w i t h joysticks or keyboard. * 6 levels of play * Displays record of your moves and the computers. only C3 9 5 now only £ 3 9 5 ZX B R E A K O U T Quite simply the best breakout on the market ZX N E W Y O R K A very addictive arcade g a m e Bomb and shoot you way out of trouble. unresponsive keyboard " 1 or 2 joysticks may be connected via our A / D board * Turns your Z X 8 1 into a true programmable games machine * Extends the capability of the Z X 8 1 . The display characters include all the usual aiphanumerics. The viewdata decoder strips-out the data bits which can represent one of 128 display or control characters for the television screen. i program has many features including an ever increasing rate of play. One way is distributing telesoftware programs to owners of personal computers. (you won't find this one easy). He explained: "What is required is a cheap device which will allow the ZX-81 to load and execute programs stored on the Prestel database". As such.Berks. and a series of shapes which are used to construct Ihe crude graphics which have become the Prestel trademark. A telesoftware adaptor incorporates some buffer memory and a control program to transform them into executable code which will run when loaded into the ZX-81 RAM. seven data bits. The trickiest problem in Ihe design of the adaptor is likely to be the construction of the modem/line termination unit which links the {continued on ptixo 63) r MICRO GEN QUALITY PRODUCTS ' The most exciting add-on ever for the Z X 8 1 . In telesoftware. Cheques and PO's payable to M I C R O G E N . either with built-in additional circuitry or linked to a special adaptor. The information transmitted by a Prestel computer is a series of 10-bit binary codes—a start bit. (except chess. On the reverse of the cassette isZX REFLEX. ' Resetable function. 2 4 AgarCrescent. M I C R O GE N offers the following terms toour customers nOWOnly£6 50 14 DAYS FREE APPROVAL ON ALL PRODUCTS All money will refunded if goods are returned in good condition within 14 days of despatch If you write a program which is exceptional. such as background colour or flashing. Programs available ZX SPACE I N V A D E R S You've tried the rest. an A / B convenor such as ours is required A free copy of ZX A M AZE plus any one of the games listed below w h e n ordering a Joystick and an A / D board. The display area is treated as 24 rows of 40 character positions.S. some special symbols. for a different game each time you play. 'Single key entry All our games are written in machine code. and select the information they require by pressing buttons on a calculatorlike keypad. In theory. The original idea was to gene- rate out-of-office-hours telephone traffic. the service has so far flopped. Personal computer users in the U. so now Telecom is seeking new ways to stimulate demand for Prestel. Users dial the computer from a television set. D e p t . British Telecom telesoftware product manager Tony Sweet expected that the television display circuitry for that would have to be omitted to keep down costs. Viewdata was devised 10 years ago as an inexpensive method of selling to the public information stored at dedicated Telecom computer centres. however. records time taken by each player. * Board can be set up to any position * Has ability to change sides or level in mid-game * PLUS * C H E S S CLOCK on reverse side.fcontinuud from poge 611 Do not expect. Bracknell. The idea of delivering programs in that way is not new in the mainstream computer world. to be able to look at Prestel information pages if you buy the adaptor. the transformations could be handled by the ZX-81 but in practice that would take too much memory. c eatures seven! at angles. The control codes are used to add attributes to the displayed characters. otherwise you are doomed to crash Generates a different pattern. please submit it to us W e will offer a royalty if it is suitable.

The term telesoftware was coined by a consultant. however. Because there is only so much spare capacity in the television signals. it seemed that no-one wanted to be told about telesoftware. In parallel. At theend of 1979. The winning adaptor is to be awarded a £1. At present it is no more than 15. Telesoftware was touted as a method of training the unemployed. The initiative disappeared as CAP fell into financial difficulties and decided to stay with more breadand-butter business activities. CAP subsequently put some of its own and £90. the Dutch-owned electronics manufacturer responsible for most of the world's production of the special chips used in teletext and viewdata decoders. As usual. too. however. with only rudimentary data submitted from the dumb terminals. Those. telesoftware emerged as as part of the ambitious plans of the then Labour Government to educate the nation. a major British computer programming company. 1978. if only a tiny proportion of ZX-81 owners signed for Prestel. Teletext is a close relation of viewdata. 1980 when the Council for Educational Technology published a recommended format for telesoftware programs stored on Prestel. the company had a full-page advertisement in The Times to inform a wider world about the innovation and to ask: "Has British management the will to exploit it?" Evidently British management did not. public interest was minimal when. users. the idea was gaining ground of telesoftware transmissions by viewdata to intelligent user terminals.200 bits per second from computer to terminal. at least one order of magnitude below the estimates made in the optimistic days of the late 1970s. because it tied up too much computer power. Information is delivered to modified television sets in the same format as in viewdata but scrambled into television broadcast signals instead of by telephone lines. it was dropped quietly as the system was brought SINCLAIR USER April 1982 into regular service. 75 bits per second for the human button-pushing in the other direction.000 of Government money into developing the concept. Ifl . 1977.000. however. representing all the interested parties. Outside the world of viewdata research. it would make a big increase to the number of users.K. allowed the calculation of mortgage repayments. depended on the the viewdata computer doing the work. In November.[continued from page62) device to the telephone network. to design microcomputers and 64K memory chips. The experiments continued later that year with other simple programs. was disagreement about the version of computer language in which telesoftware should be written. Commercial data processing users. A prototype intelligent television set was demonstrated running telesoftware programs. Telesoftware began with some research by the Independent Television Companies Association as part of its Oracle teletext activities. The interface with the telephone line will have to be built to rigorous standards of electrical safety to meet the notoriously-strict Telecom rules. a top-level committee. The first telesoftware program was transmitted by the Oracle teletext service in February. in May. The most positive and most promising development in viewdata telesoftware occurred in September. All that emerged. Although the data processing feature was much talked about in the early days of Prestel. had been deliberating on the design of an intelligent viewdata terminal. there is a limit of a few hundred to the number of screens of information which can be delivered by a teletext data store. That limitation is the key difference between teletext and viewdata. a version of the ubiquitous Mastermind game and a calculateyour-repayments mortgage routine. for reception on a specially lashed-up Signetics microcomputer system. By May.000 prize and the possibly more generous carrot of freedom to sell the design to the 250. there was one to calculate mortgage repayments and the initiative returned to obscurity. through intelligent viewdata sets. A viewdata modem employs asymetric transmission format—1. the early demonstrations of what became the Prestel viewdata service included showing some programs initiated from user terminals. another attempt was made to promote the cause of teletext telesoftware when the results were revealed of a collaboration between the Oracle engineers and Mullard. 1978. The move by British Telecom to initiate the development of a ZX-81 adaptor is in parallel with its other attempts to enlist the help of personal computer enthusiasts to bootstrap the telesoftware concept. During all that time. It seemed then that teletext telesoftware—because it was free to anyone who had the proper equipment—would emerge as the major medium for programs delivered to domestic users.000 other Sinclair U. predicted confidently that viewdata would become a major vehicle for software distribution. who had the idea of broadcast "software at a distance" in 1976. Those early efforts. The following year. The chairman of CAP. would buy their programs from a viewdata service which was able to charge them for it. Will Overington. on the other hand.

And your biggest problem is likely to be obtaining all the information to satisfy your interest. written specifically for owners of ZX 80's and ZX 81's.the best enhancement yet for the ZX enthusiast. WHICH COMPUTER?. and Computer & Video Games. Our expert writers will analyse established products to help Editorial Plans May T e S c w I6K R M h mL A dissected Adventure games programs June Disks a kink :nio ihe future Graph>ts software July lite. We promise that Sinclair User will be devoted entirely to quenching your thirst for information. send in your programs for which we will pay £10 if we publish .. There will be exclusive pre release snippets on products which are about to hit the market.N L O N D O N N1 SiBJ 64 SINCLAIR USKR April 1982 . Last but not least let us say that the best way you can guarantee you like the magazine is by participating yourself. look at our forthcoming editorial plans. And just in case you need further convincing. There will be pages of information on available hardware and software. And we intend to carry as much information as possible about clubs.SINCLAIR USER . Whether you bought your system yesterday or are an old hand. Sinclair User is the latest monthly from ECC Publications pioneers of Practical Computing. Send in your club news and tell us of any interesting people out there in user land. Can you continue to get the most out of your ZX without reading the Sinclair User every month? So why not fill in the subscription order form today? What is the best way to guarantee that you never become bored with your Sinclair computer? The answer is to subscnbe to Sinclair User ..ZX81 m m r map e oy analysed Debugging [irograms August T e Sinclair printer h and its ahemaliues C e i (Kixjrams h s> September Enhancements lor the entliuskisi f r/ O t • • zxsi f a air ECC PUBLICATIONS 30 31 I S L I N G T O N GRLF. Don't forget to ask us your queries. you are probably an enthusiast for your machine. the user. As the name suggests. the content will be geared specifically to helping you.and be sure to tell us if you are using your ZX 81 in a special way. Make sure you get it monthly! you make the right choice. Our aim is to make Sinclair User invaluable and we will chronicle applications which are of special interestEach month we will carry pages of programs Another must for every user is our first-rate helpline service.

think what must have been done perhaps portions of my programs. you could begin to investigate the end game.mind games HERE are now many versions of chess for the ZX-81. much better than the old one. The standard of play therefore. by storing standard moves. I feel. become a watchdog for chess proor are even halfway through your grams and a library of routines. As the game draws to a close. If you have one of By what I have asked you to send. but I would like you to send any games you have played with those versions. The reason is clear. if so. is changed only by how compact the program is. it shows large amounts of skill. working program and printed. In a 16K ZX-81 the standard of play is a reflection of the program. which may. That has little to do with the dedicated chess machine and even less to do with the ZX-81 but it shows that it is all a matter of storage space. the number of ways in which a game can end makes it very difficult to put standard moves for it into thecomputer. w h o it is generally acknowledged wrote the first w o r t h w h i l e ZX-80 chess program. Of course. if anything. noting your likes and dislikes. the dedicated chess computers on the market have shown that to be true. or how to obtain the best graphical Chess Challenger is copyright by board. the dramatic decrease in skill is noted. I shall be pro. The speed of the compactness of program will change only in real terms when you move from Basic to machine code. send your views on the update thing about the version on the compared to the old version and say market.Fidelity Electronics. own chess program. I shall hope to include porwhether you think the update is tions of any routines you send. You may be which I hope could be turned into a interested only in the middle game. A strong game is a reflection of how compact and therefore how well-written it was. I hope that readers. I have played against Chess Challenger and that shows how well it can play at the start. I do not intend to review those versions as that would be unfair. Even at the middle game. begins a series of articles on that game and the m a n y others which stimulate the brain as well as being of immense fun will an update be so much better? If viding from time to time hints and so. is wrong. in Iheend. if you had a large mainframe computer with its large amount of storage. Keeping in mind what I have said.toprovidea set of In future issues I shall include routines. prosome of the best letters concerning duce a chess program. is a common practice. those updates and you have the old we should be able to know everycopy. what 1 have asked and I will answer If that happens. I can then explain why those problems might exist and you could then reply with your comments. SINCLAIR USER April 1982 T It's the program that matters if you want the satisfaction of a good game of chess Philip Joy. send them. the are as they are. W e can compare the versions and see what. In the end this page will some of you are thinking of starting. however. The production of good openings. which proves how popular the game was. Ifl . including myown. The market for the ZX-81 versions is strong and I would imagine new or updated versions will follow thick and fast. because 1 wrote a ZX-80 version. to make it better. we will all have a them with some reasons why things chess program built by you. We shall probably notice that the same type of problem appears with all the versions. It is known that a computer cannot play the end game very well.

Northampton Price list on request Post and Pack >s included Overseas add £2 66 S I N C L A I R USER April 10H2' . 0 0 0 users of the Sinclair ZX systems. SUTts B77JU Sell your used computer or peripherals through Sinclair Supermart at low cost. Frae t«>ns?i»& } J U N I O R M A T H S 2 Areas Perimeters. St James' Rd. address and/or telephone number should be included Please print in block capitals. totalling over 2% kilobyte* and printed in friendly decimal Each program fits into IK.. LCM Fractions I l i t I. Meanings 2 lharderl. Opposite* 2 (harder).. even print it Plus fascinating Pattern Generators £ 3 9 5 each post free from A Parsons. but the more R A M the better -free expansion detmli on requesi Why pay f 4 for arun-ot the-mill tape' Fortune Teller is different and only £ 2 5 0 1 *t class post free-from F vie soft.£3 5 0 1 H E L 0 6 S LAIR The pictorial adventure game with complete room structure You can choose your weapons for battling with the denuens of the lair ECONOMY GAME 11 to 4 players) Can you set Ihe economy to rights and outpersuade your opponents lo win the next General election •' You may lie a little 1 6 K 8 1 / 4 C3 5 0 CHEOPS TOMB U to 4 players! Adventure with complete room structure which draws the room the player is m Can you get by the old Gods to the sarcophagus and thus find the only means to escape' COMMODITY GAME (1 to 4 players) Bid for contracts of supply agamst your opponents Buy materials on the market at a bargain and sell for massive profit 1 6KB1 /X £5 5 0 COMPILATION MINES & MONSTERS ECONOMY GAME STOCKMARKET COMMODITIES GAME Cheque or P / 0 lo Algor. 2 0 Wandle Road. Tel: Have you included the fee of £5? Conditions The Advertisement Manager reserves the right to alter.Opposiles t . retect or cancel any order without explanation The Proprietor* are not liable for any loss from any caute whatever nor do they accept liability for printers errors The Advertisers shall indemnify the Publishers in respect of any claim. Books. turn it into cash be placing a classified advertisement in Sinclair Supermart and reach around 4 0 .Two-slot motherboard for expanding your 2 X 8 1 Complete with 5v regulator to remove the strain that hardware extensions put on the internal regulator Only C14 9 5 built and tested 2 3 Way ZX Edge Connector . 2 3 Coxhill Gardens. diagrams. 5 0 0 word* of explanatory text An appendix contain* 8 machine-code subroutines. Ash. Similes. Group Teim». Your name. Odd Word Out.1 6 Cassette for only £ 3 2 5 from M a t h Ed. Dover. Hants G U 1 2 6LX Mail Order Only Math-Ed 1X81 IK starter pack Twelve programs on cassette written lor the new user to demonstrate the versatility of the ZXB1 Seven exciting moving graphic games including. London SW17 MICROWARE Retail shop in LEICESTER Hardware. up to 3 0 wordsfor only £5.n words work out areas and perimeters.£ 3 4 9 each Exciting new hardware and software products in development ALL PRICES INCLUSIVE Digital Integration.00 o ZV O A 4 Quality lowe 1 sorrow 16k GALAXY INVADERS cassette " S e n d s a c for d e t a i l s " Pnces include* VAT Po*t and packing F R E E in British Isles BRIDGE S O F T W A R E I U ) . Software. HCF. Dept S. Monitors etc. MELTON ROAD.You are the pilot Of a |Ot fighter Test your instrument-flying skills from take-off to landing with this realtime. Parts of Speech. English Vocabulary Test plus two versions of Hangman 16K ART A N D F U N Play Noughts and Crosses Battleships or Board Game Draw a picture record it to display again. ForZX81 131. bug-free. Simple Equations. LEICESTER Z X 8 1 USERS Fighter Pilot . 148 Widney Lane Solihull. Cheshire SK6 5BE 1 Mail Older Only * with FREE Z X 8 1 F O R T U N E TELLER •s exceptional value (or money 40-page book include* Tarot Cards * I Chmg The 52 Cards * ESP Tests Siorythms * Numerology Ouija Invaders * Mandela 10 major. FUNCTIONS TABLES. trans late French. reject or suspend an advertisement without assigning any reason Advertisement* are accepted subject to approval of copy and to the right of the Advertisement Manager to alter. 3-dimensional flight simulation Supplied on cassette lor 16K Z X 8 I £346 C 1 2 Cassettes . Spelling* [ 4 5 0 per cassette or send sae lor catalogue to ROSE CASSETTES. SENTENCES Devised by a professional maths educator tor ages 9 . Invaders. 3 6 F e r n w o o d Merple Bridge S T O C K P O R T . Please write your advertisement in the boxes betow. Underline words required in bold type. ESTIMATES Each at two levels.Maths Education \ At latt! Tasty maths tasks Challenging but do-able Cassette of 1 K programs RATIO. West Midlands B91 3LH GALAXAY INVADERS (needs mm 4K RAMI cassette and instructions £3 0 0 MULTIGRAPHICS 2 3 meeds 16K RAMI cassette and 2 0 page illustrated Manual £4 5 0 1 K GRAPHICS <4 programs) cassette and instructions £3 0 0 1K GAMES 15 games) cassette and instructions £300 1 K STATISTICS 14 programs! cassette and instructions £3. 114 Harris Street St H e l e n * W A 1 0 2 N P Our * IJBrnnb* IrTM Iwnwrth.£ 3 3 0 MINES & M O N STERS A narrative adventure game tor 1 to 4 players STOCKMARKET <1 to 4 player*! Make your fortune buying and selling shares 1 6 K 8 1 / 2 . Percentages Sets Vunn Diagrams J U N I O R E N G L I S H 1 Meanings t. River. or any infringement of copyright. FRACTIONS. The advertisement will appear in the earliest possible issue. cost and expenses arising out of any libellous or malicious matter or untrue statement in any advertisement published for the advertisers. Anagrams J U N I O R E N G L I S H 2 l<lK»ms. Tank-Shoot. plus MEMORY. charts and over 2 . 2 2 Ash Church Rd. Have you updated your computer or do you no longer use that add-on ? I nstead of leaving it lying around. Kent Z X 8 1 116 K) E D U C A T I O N A L SOFTWARE G C E O LEVEL M A T H S 3 full I 6 K programs ranging over whole syllabus J U N I O R M A T H S 1 Long Mull Long Div. Aldershot. Subsearch and Road Race A sound generation program is also inc luded Orders despatched on high Quality cassette by return C3 90 with order to Z X 8 1 E D U C A T I O N A L CASSETTES good quality popular with children. Name: Address: . Note—this service is open only to private advertisers.€ 4 9 9 for 1 0 Motherboard . . patent or design therein The placing of any order will be deemed to be an acceptance of these conditions ALGOR 16KZX81 and2X808K ROM P R O G R A M S O N CASSETTE 1 6 K 8 1 / 1 .. one word per box. parents and teachers 1 6 K G E O G R A P H Y Find townsin U K or Europe with a series of five maps drawn on ihe screen Plus Town and Country naming program and English Towns Hangman 16K L E A R N I N G F U N Add . programs are presented with drawings. Dovercourt.. Proverbs.

Laser Base. ALL ONLY £4. Hyde. £6.95 CASSETTE 1 'A A super value cassette of 16K and 1K software written in Machine Code and Basic. video roadracer.3 + CASSETTE 1'/? BOTH ONLY £9. DATE '81 . COLUMBIA. GOTO. LOTS MORE. PHONEBOOK .95 TAPEBOOK 50. BINARY CONVERTER. Invaders. ZX AUTOCODER compiles a subset of ZX81 BASIC for the following: PRINT.95 the lot. COMPUTAPRINT . Still amazing value at £6.95 PACK 1 6 / 2 includes all of: ADVENTURE ATLANTIC: You may become very rich or you may be marooned forever BREAKOUT. you must bring planes into land. t ZXAUTOCODER This program takes your BAStC. see if you can beat a microelectronic mind.Brain teaser. GOSUB.95 The breakthrough you've waited for P R O G R A M THE 2 X 8 1 *N ENGLISH!!! With GAMAL 81 you can now write adventure programs in hours not weeks and with GAMAL 81 you'll have every adventure you'll ever want for the price of dating program Who will it pick for you? ALL ONLY £4. GOTO.keep friends' and relatives' numbers on cassette. Includes: React. TANK BATTLE. ALL ONLY £4. etc.95 Tapebook 50. Comes on cassette with instruction book.use this program to predict results of horse races. Gee Cross.95 including Cassette and Manual ZX BUSINESS SYSTEM This is our latest package which includes all the software you need to use a ZX81 in a small business. BATTLESHIPS . ALL ONLY £4. rectangle plus more. PLOT. BANK A/C. INVADERS SELF PLAY. VATCHECK.95 All prices include V A T and postage and packing CONTROL TECHNOLOGY. converts it into Z 8 0 assembly language. £7. TORPEDO. Invaders. SQUASH PRACTICE. 1 Ching. Phantom Aliens. This includes: PURCHASE LEDGER SALES LEDGER STOCK CONTROL M A I L I N G LIST PHONE DIRECTORY ALL THESE ARE SUPPLIED W I T H CASSETTES A N D M A N U A L S I N T R O D U C T O R Y PRICE £ 1 4 . PAUSE. Version 3 5 0 programs for the 1 K RAM ZX81 Latest version includes: SQUASH. Planetlander. and LET statements. football pools. DRAUGHTS. CLS.nautical warfare on your own computer. HEXLOADER.ZX-81 PACK 16/1 includes all of: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL: Animated radar screen of busy airport shown. Hangman. 3 9 Gloucester Road. IF THEN. PRINTAT. Maze of Death. SPLAT. LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR translates any European language to any other. 9 5 YOU WILL NEED 16K RAM A L T H O U G H A PRINTER IS O P T I O N A L PACK 16/1 + 1 6 / 2 + 16/3 {any two only £5. BREAKOUT. Computer Chequers.95 PACK 1 6 / 3 includes all of: INDI 500. INTEGRATION. MASTERMIND . W e bring you a full feature system only found on much larger computers. CheshireSK14 5JG 061-368 7558 OVER '/4 M I L L I O N P R O G R A M S SOLD TO DATE! i . CREDIT CARD CALCULATOR. AND LOTS.95) ALL THREE ONLY £6.

95 v ? BOOKS miiiiiinm IN OUT PORT CONNECTORS 24 Lines(in or out) Controlled by basic 23 Way female 23 Way male Built £16. ^ Programming for real6.95 1. Overseas add £1. \ A i \ MUSIC BOARD 3 channels Kit £16.95 code 1.80 .just plug in Proper switches Two colour ledgends RAM/PRINTER operation not affected KIT CASE EXTRA €20 50 © 1030 KEYS 48 P i ^ ' T \ V o t ^ 1 i i * \ i \ \ i i \ - \ \ i - .95 appiications Tape for above\V • 11.44 '7. Orders under £10 add 40p.30 Mastering machine 5.95 3CTLw£y ribbon Kit £18.95 Built J18.95 G e t t i n g acquainted 4.9S m REDDITCH ELECTRONICS OEPT 21 SU HILL 4RU AVENUE FERNEY REDDITCH WORCS B97 » £2.KEYBOARD £ 2 5 70 Wo soldering . ENGLAND TEL 0527 61240 Send SAE for free illustrated catalogue (5" x 7") All prices include VAT and postage.40 .

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