“Technology is like an ocean and an engineer is like a pearl diver in search of treasure like treasure beneath the sea, there is no end to technical studies but an engineer tries to get an much as possible.” “Can words express the heart felt feeling and gratitude but words are too weak to express the expression of ones feelings. As the intensity in our sentiments deepens, we find no words and fail to express them. Therefore, no words are better than----Thanks“ With great pleasure and sense of gratitude I express my sincere thanks to the management of “MALWA INDUSTRIES LTD. MACHIWARA for giving me an opportunity to do summer training in their concern and for the facilities provided to me during training. Doing this project has been an enrich learning experience for me. We would like to thanks Mr. Jagir Singh, Vice President - Operations & Mr. K.S. Verma – Sr. Vice President, H.R. & Administration from the core of my heart for giving me an opportunity to interact with him, which has been a very good experience for me. I would also like to thanks my project guide Mr. Deepak Kundra - H.O.D. Processing Deptt who extended all his help, support, cooperation & complete flexibility in doing my project and all other officer who always extended their timely guidance and co-operation during my training period and all members & workers of the concern for providing me highly co-operative environment and for providing me valuable information which will help me in future to shape my carrier. I am also thankful to Dr. S. Dhamija (Training Officer) and classmates Mr. Surender (Training Coordinator) and Mr. Hansraj (Training Coordinator) for their valuable efforts and contribution. Last but not least to mention in this column are my parents whose blessings and well wishes always give me enthusiasm and driving force to complete the task and is able to submit this report, I wish to pay deep respect to my parents Bunty Beakta Vijay kumar

As founder of Malwa Group, I feel a strong sense of pride and honour to head such an exceptional organization. Exceptional in every regard, be it dedication to work, a sense of commitment to the customer or maintaining quality standards. Most of all, in winning over customers confidence which to us is the prime reason for our success day after day, year after year. Achievement brings with it a sense of pride which further encourages the growth of the people, the company and the product line. As we look back over the years, we have come a long way from whence we began. The road to success has not always been easy to tread but each hurdle overcome gave us strength to go one more step a head. We took each challenge as a part of the bigger process which prepared us for greater things in time to come. The Malwa Group, a vision of the future that is continually expanding itself by the basic qualities, necessary to growth and holds a promise of even greater things to come. I thank every one at the Malwa Group for their unwavering faith and conviction which had made it possible for the vision to come true. Its my distinct privilege to share it with you.
Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal

Introduction about the Company

Karam Yogi Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal: The great warrior, the centurion man Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal was born at village Jodhan, Ludhiana in 1908. Lalaji had a long stressful journey from a simple layman to a successful business Tycoon. He started his life as a simple employee in a shop. With his hard work, patience and intelligence he reached to the highest level of being considered as a doyen of Industrial revolution in hosiery in Ludhiana and was instrumental in bringing Ludhiana on the Industrial map of the world, known as Manchester of India. Malwa Group: The foundation of Malwa Group (formerly called the VSO Group) was laid by Late Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal - a visionary known as much for his perspicacity and sharp business acumen as for his philanthropic pursuits. Driven by a strong desire to achieve what few in his day & time could have dreamt of, he sowed the seeds of the textile powerhouse that Malwa has come to be today, built around the cornerstones of Dedication to Work, Excellence in Product quality & Work Practices, Commitment to its Customers and Daring to think beyond the ordinary. Today, after having been in existence for seven decades, Malwa Group has become an over 10,000-member strong Institution. The Group is fully integrated in Textiles with interests in Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Processing and Garmenting, and is one of the biggest Textile Conglomerates in the Country. The significant business diversification and the major

the scion of the Oswal family and the Managing Director of Malwa Industries Limited started the denim manufacturing facility in response to the increased market demand for Jeans in the 1990's. Malwa's premier denim manufacturing plant is located at Ludhiana in the Punjab region. its products are exported to over 40countries worldwide where these are sold under some of the biggest denim brands & designer labels that come to mind. Malwa Group also runs India's second largest charitable Cancer Hospital. With Quality certifications such as the ISO9001. the name Malwa has. of India in recent years. It has the most . Germany .international forays towards expansion are proof of the growing international presence of the Malwa Group. Italy . in line with the vision of its founder. Rishi Oswal. Jordan & Italy. Mr. In 1997. Commercial operations started in FY97-98 and since then the company has been growing at a fast pace. Further. Its operations span India (where it is headquartered).Denim arm of the Malwa Group. In recognition of its excellent track record in Exports. MIL achieves a current production capacity of 20 million meters of denim fabrics & 4.50 million pairs of Jeans annually. become synonymous with superlative quality & product excellence. Through these operations. MALWA INDUSTRIES LIMITED (MIL) . Equipped with the latest machines imported from Switzerland . the heart of the Indian cotton producing belt. Oekotex & Woolmark. ISO14001. The Jeans manufacturing facility at Jordan (Third Dimension Apparel LLC or more popularly Petra) boasts of an annual capacity of 4. the facility boasts of some of the best equipment the industry has to offer.0million pieces. today. Belgium . Japan & the US . With this state-of-the-art technology. it has been honoured with Export Performance Awards by the Govt.

to possess capabilities in offering Total Solutions in Denims and that too from a single point interface.5million pieces annually in capacities to Malwa's denim stable. It caters to the top end of the market and has a client base comprising of leading designer labels & fashion brands.000 sq. This facility also adds 2. which is the country's second largest Cancer Research & Care Hospital. Besides this it has acquired the status of the postgraduate institute for having been affiliated by the Diplomat National Board in various specialties for the post graduate courses.advanced CAD system which helps in optimizing fabric consumption that minimizes cost. shopping areas. Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Institution is doing a great service to the patients suffering from dreaded disease of cancer. It is housed in a multistoried building.T. Malwa also runs a fully equipped charitable Cancer Hospital at Ludhiana (Mohan Dai Oswal Charitable Cancer Hospital). The Italian venture (Emmetre) is a fully automated state-of-the-art facility for Garment Dyeing & Finishing. Yards spread over 4 floors. Mohan Dai Oswal Charitable Cancer Hospital As part of its philanthropic activities. making the product affordable. Ludhiana. Road near Sherpur bye pass. In addition there is a mechanical laundry. a workshop. Patient care area is approx. globally. Malwa today stands tall & proud of its stature as one amongst a handful of denim suppliers. prized knowledge of emerging fashion trends in denim making MIL a trendsetter by virtue of this knowledge. Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Treatment & Research Foundation was established in 1984 as a charitable institution to extend comprehensive quality treatment for cancer to the masses at an affordable price. residential . It is a 300 bedded hospital located on the Amritsar New Delhi G. The facility brings to Malwa's fold. 16.

Miller Ganj.accommodation for medical. Opp. Fire Brigade. VSO Group has opened a Institute of Information Technology a Charitable (No Fee) Institution in the Memory of Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal . Road. .T. G. nursing & paramedical staff and a sarai for poor patients (Free of cost stay). Ludhiana.

is an ISO 9001:2000. and thereby being one of the biggest Textile Conglomerates in the Country. The Company has been successful in making it the most exclusive Brand in the Country. MIL also has a jeans wear plant with capacity of 4. Spinning. in line with the Vision of its founder. Recognized Export House with manufacturing capacity of 20 million meters of Denim Fabric per annum. Further. the flagship Company of the Group was set up in 1976.. The Group is fully integrated in Textiles with interests in Ginning. Malwa Group has become an over 7000member strong Institution.5 lac ring spindles and produces about 77 tonnes of yarns per day. Malwa Cotton Spinning Mills Ltd. the Garment Company is the solelicensee in India for manufacturing and marketing of the well-known International Brand ‘Pringle of Scotland’. Weaving.5 million pieces per annum catering to niche brands overseas. The Company also started manufacturing Sewing Threads and it has already garnered sizeable market share. It also has a wet finish unit in Italy with 2. MCSML has a total spinning capacity of 1. Malwa Group also runs India’s second largest charitable Cancer Hospital. Today.Brief Profile of Malwa Group MALWA GROUP is the brain-child of Lala Vidya Sagar Oswal. Another Group Company. Processing and Garmenting. ISO 14001:2004 and Oeko-Tex Standard 100 certified Company and a Govt. Malwa Industries Limited (MIL). which too is one of the topmost Brands in the Country. ABOUT THE MANAGEMENT .50 million pieces per annum in India and 4 million pieces in Jordan. after having been in existence for more than 60 years. The Company also owns the well-established Brand name in Sweaters--‘Casablanca’. Oswal Knit (I) Ltd. incorporated in 1993. Today..

the . Bangladesh. found in museums. A team of well-qualified and vastly experienced professionals in the field of Technical. Kenya. Russia. Rishi Oswal. The size of the global denim fabrics industry in 2004 was estimated broadly at around 2. Jangi Lal Oswal. Dubai.730 million metres annually. Mauritius etc. Most reference books say that Denim is an English corruption of the French ‘serge de Nimes’. Mg. ABOUT THE PRODUCTS Denim is one of the world’s oldest fabrics. USA. Sri Lanka. antique stores and archaeological digs. The Company’s Board comprises of 9 Directors on its Board. born in Europe. Australia. Morocco. 6 of the directors are professionals/technocrats/consultants including 2 as Institutional Nominees and only 3 are from the family. pants and garments. out of which. Apart from the above. Hence. made into upholstery. Legend and fact are also interwoven when scholars discuss the origin of the name of Denim has been woven. used and discarded. Iran. Malawi. Finance and HR are supporting the top management and constantly striving to achieve Excellence. Portugal. Chairman of the Group. 3 are independent Directors with a non-executive Chairman. Marketing. who has an experience of more than 13 years in the Industry. Turkey. ABOUT COMPANY’S MARKETS MIL today exports to over 40 countries across the Globe as diverse as Italy. who has more than 31 years of experience in the Industry. Poland. Director. France.The Company is being managed under the able and dynamic leadership of Sh. Lebanon. worn as the fabric of hard & honest worker and also used for the sailors of Columbus’ ships in legend. Denim today is being used in various designs and weaves using various blends of yarns and these innovations in Denim are believed to be keeping the fabric eternally young. The operations are being overviewed by Sh. a serge fabric from the city of Nimes in France. valued at an estimated US$8 billion (Source:juststyle. UK. Denim’s function and adaptable form found a perfect home in America that today is biggest consumer of Denim in the world. Israel. From the 17th century to the present. Tunisia.

France. Flu and Live-in etc. Tom Wolf. The Company has been equally focused on the Domestic Market. H&M. Spykar. Spring Field. FUTURE OUTLOOK The Company sees growth in Value Added Products of Denim. Infact. Topman. of India.Company also has a fair presence in the Domestic market mainly for its Value Added Products (VAPs). However. Already the major domestic Brands have started increasing their capacities. The Company has been constantly upgrading its existing operations/ technology to meet market demand and to deliver quality products at . Spain. Garments are being supplied to brands and retailers like VF. for Outstanding Export Performance in Fabrics amongst Manufacturer Exporters for year 2000-2001 and Outstanding Export Performance in Fabrics amongst Non-Quota Exports for the year 2000 – 2001 and again awarded with similar category for 2001-02. Calvin Klein. Target and Sears etc. The Company’s products are well accepted and demanded by the major Domestic Brands like Killer. Nautica etc. No Excuse. Burton. The Company has been awarded 2 Silver Trophies by the Govt. Portugal. since it has already created ripples in the Industry and is giving the oldies of the Industry a run for their market-shares. Weekender. Next. Levi’s. from the facilities in India and Jordan. Levi’s Red Tab & Silver Tab. The Company today has over 1000 different varieties of Denim to choose from to cater requirement of every type of garment being manufactured with Denim. whereby all the major International Brands talk of outsourcing garments from India. Malwa Industries has already made deep inroads in all the major Fashion markets all over the world. VF. With the booming Apparel market in India. NEXT. its youth is limited to its age only. All the major textile research agencies conclude that Denim has become a fashion item and the consumer is ready to spend extra money for new and innovative designs and varieties in Denim. The Company has very strong presence in the fashion conscious Italy. the demand for the Company’s Value-added Products is continuously rising in the Country. George. Pepe Jeans. Turkey and other European markets. The Company’s Denim is being used in the garments from major fashion Brands like Zara. increasing the Domestic Demand further and translating into higher prices and better margins for the Company. Charlie. GLO and Nine West of Jones Apparel. MIL is a relatively young player in the Denim Industry. in its short span of 8 years.

Versace. MIL did soft launch of Wool Denim the product in UK in collaboration with IWS to select customers. its trademark and its manufacturing processes worldwide. Hence. Streaky Denim. Dolce & Gabanna. MIL intends to sell Wool Denim initially only to the super-premium brands thereby establishing itself as a high-fashion player in the market. Burberry. the world’s regulatory governing body for all woolen products and Jeans-Care (a world renowned specialty washing company) have assisted MIL’s R&D team in developing this product. Mercerized Denim. The Company has been able to create its name in the international as well as domestic market as the ‘product-innovators’. Prada. which will also have positive spin-off effects on the rest of its business with all categories of customers Moreover. etc) and at the same time lending itself to the casual lifestyle flavor of denim. Wool Denim will fuel the Company’s aspirations to be an innovation-led business that will drive growth by partnering with its customers in establishing fashion trends. Further. “Wool Denim” One of the most exciting innovation programs of the Company has been in the development of a fabric made 100% from wool but dyed and washed to give it the look of Indigo. which is expected to have a very high fashion quotient (thus appealing to super-premium fashion-driven brands such as Zegna. The Company still believes that ever-new varieties in Denim shall continue to drive the growth an5d expansion of market for Denim. The International Wool Secretariat (‘IWS’). Garments made from Wool Denim are being designed in Italy for purposes of marketing this fabric worldwide. Indian Denim fabric . the ‘Made-in-India’ Denim fabric has already established its quality perception amongst the highly quality conscious European and US Markets. which could find application across a wide cross-section of products and brands.competitive prices to its valued customers. the Company plans to keep its focus on R&D efforts and increase the share of “Value Added Products” like Multi-counts. Wool Denim represents a specialty and niche high-end product. Shiny Denim. The company is working closely with 2-3 top end brands for positioning of Wool denim product line. Armani. with the disbanding of the quota regime from 1st Jan. Chinos etc in its product mix. Stretch Denim. many Garment outsourcing orders from European and US markets have started to come to the cheaper manufacturing countries. Pigment Dyed apart from the already established Cross Hatches. with China and India bagging the prominent shares. These products fetch far better margins for the Company. Slubs. MIL has christened this revolutionary new product as “Wool Denim” and is in the process of patenting this product. 2005 onwards.

both in terms of volumes as well as the products that they manufacture for brands. Expansion Activities The Company expanded its fabric manufacturing capacity by 5 million meters (from 15 to 20 million mtrs per annum) and put up a 4.4 million pieces p. which would reduce .e. in 2002 to approximately 3. with a large part of this growth contributed by Levi’s and Polo. which are the primary reasons behind the acquisition. amongst other customers. a CAGR of 65% over a 3-year period).fetches a certain premium over its other South Asian competitors’ fabrics. Hence. Sales volumes increased from approximately 1. One Unit is a Garmenting facility having capacity of 4 mn pcs p. It has also been approved by these brands as a consistent source of supply. in 2004 (i. mtrs. Considering the increasing demand of its products by & nomination of its fabric in the leading brands of the world and also to meet its captive consumption of fabric in its Jeans Wear facilities in India and Jordan. as the Unit is proximate to the EU. are as follows: ➢ Well-established operations – TDAL has steadily built business with its key customers. The company has also put up a 6 MW captive power plant based on biofuel. and Polo are among the target customers for MIL for its fabric and garments business. ➢ Common customer-base – Global brands such as Levi’s. Hence.5 million pieces per annum jeans wear manufacturing plant in FY 2005-06. MIL would also be able to sell its fabrics to TDAL and sell finished garments to Levi’s and Polo.a.5 million pieces per annum. The rationale for such acquisitions is explained hereunder: Jordan Acquisition (Third Dimension Apparel LLC “TDAL”) The key strengths identified with TDAL. it provided a ready platform for MIL to launch into its garmenting foray and accelerate its business plans.a. MIL is considering doubling its denim manufacturing capacity to 40 mn.a. p. the domestic demand for Denim is expected to grow manifold. ➢ Logistics Play – Apart from USA customers.25 million pieces p. Thus the acquisition could provide additional captive market for Denim fabric of around 5 million meters with the same garment buyer Brands. in Middle East (Jordan) and another is a top-end Wet processing facility for Garments in Europe (Italy) having capacity of 2.a from exisiting 20 million mtrs Acquisitions: The Company has acquired two Units located overseas. there are opportunities for MIL to service EU brands as well from this unit.

“Emmetre”) . The acquisition gives access to sophisticated customer base of the Italian unit. Malwa by this acquisition will be able to provide high end product at price lower than Turkey. ➢ while the Quota restrictions have gone and that it is already bringing host of business opportunities to Asian Countries.) – currently a limitation in India. This negotiating leverage will place MIL in a better position to ask for a premium over pure ‘garmenting’ suppliers who do not have any fabric linkages. All these Brands are also Malwa’s target customers for the Garmenting business. The spill over effect of this on our garment unit will be immense. multi-location. viz.5 million pcs a year. but there still are high-end fashionable Brands in the Western World that do not look to Asia for supply of their input-materials. Diesel. etc. Hugo Boss.the lead-times to its customers and position MIL as a multi-product.e it is IP Co.l. The acquisition is also expected to have spin off financial benefits for MIL’s existing operations as MIL will be able to negotiate orders and prices with brands with an ‘existing supplier’ status and not a new supplier. Paul Smith. Strategic Benefits ➢ The Unit. which sells to the above brands between Euro 16-18 per pc. Romania etc. The Project shall impart a radically new look to Malwa’s product offerings. ➢ Access to propriety knowledge acquired over 30 years in Dyeing and High end washing of Jeans and cotton trousers( i. Italy Acquisition (Emmetre Tintolavanderie S. Armani. We have decided that by acquiring this Unit. Jaeger. This Project is intended to bring Malwa’s Denim Fabrics and Jeans-wear out of the ‘Asian’ tag and increase its perceived value in the eyes of the select top eminent Brands. Giorgio Armani. having capacity of processing 2. sell their products at very premium prices. giving its Expansion plans a jump-start with tremendous demand-pull. logistically flexible supplier to the brands. Miss Sixty etc. Tunisia. and shall put Malwa straight in the high-end fashion league alongside few Western European and Japanese counterparts. we can push our Indian offerings faster into these Brands.r. These Brands. ➢ Use of the unit as a vehicle to ensure premium pricing for garments made by Malwa’s Indian factories. is catering to top Brands viz.


7s Nec and 10s Nec in ratio of 2:4:6. 2/20s Nec or 2/30s Nec are used in weft. (Almost all the departments in Malwa Industries Ltd. The purified air now obtained is now transported via a suction fan to the humidifier and dampers. are as follows: ➢ Normal denim-3/1 weaves with indigo dyed warp and grey weft. 5s Nec. ➢ Sticky denim-mixed count in warp i. employ the LUWA system of humidification and sucked in waste is being re-circulated along with proper filtration. Mts. ex. 100X35 Sq. 50X40 Sq. dampers and humidifier.BALL WARPING: OPEN END SPINNING: DRAW FRAME: CARDING: BLOW ROOM: DYIENG: FINISHING: FOLDING: TYPE OF ROOF: TYPE OF GATES: 50X50 Sq.e. Mts.The micro-dust is being transferred to the rotary filter (consisting of a large filtering cylinder) where the micro-dust is retained and dust free air is sucked in with the help of travelling nozzles. 15X35 Sq. 60X35 Sq. ➢ Cross hatch-mixed weft with mixed or same type of warp. Mts. 15X50 Sq. 50X40 Sq. ➢ 3/1 weaves with sulphur dyed warp and grey weft. 20X80 Sq. ➢ Chino-ply yarns.) TYPES OF PRODUCTS The different types of fabrics being produced in Malwa Industries Ltd. 6s Nec. Mts. INCLINED IRON(SLIDING) HUMIDIFICATION SYSTEM The humidification plant mainly comprises of the rotary filter. . Mts. The function of a damper is to control the flow of air to the department where the dry air gets humid and is transferred to department. Mts. ➢ Lycra denim-lycra yarn of 2/30s Nec are used in weft. Mts. Mts.

Madhya Pradesh etc. 2/1 twill. Some of the qualities of cotton used here are listed below along with their costs and staple length is: Sr. RAW MATERIAL The raw material (fibre) used in this unit is only Cotton. where as it is given per 355 Kgs (cd) for the materials coming from Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. ➢ Fancy denim-A special appearance is produced by special shedding arrangements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Type J-34 S/G J-34 R/G DESI V-797 NHH-44 SHANKAR-4 SHANKAR-6 Y-1 LYCRA MECH-1 Staple Length 25-27 mm 25-27 mm 19-20 mm 24 mm 24 mm 28-29 mm 28-29 mm 22-23 mm 24 mm 28-29 mm Price Rs 2200-2400/40 Kg Rs 2200-2400/40 Kg Rs 1600-1700/40 Kg Rs 1650/40 Kg Rs 1600/40 Kg Rs 20000/cd Rs 20000/cd Rs 16000/cd Rs 18000/cd Rs 22000/cd Along with the materials quality. Lycra comes from Nahar Industries and Polyester comes from INDORAMA (New Delhi). Haryana. No. . Rajasthan. ➢ Slub denim : Slub yarns are used in warp and/or weft. Different types of weaves are used-plain. Most of the materials used here are of S/G type. Gujarat. herringbone to get special looks in denim.the nature of ginning process is also specified along with it such as: S/G = Saw Gin R/G = Roller Gin R/H = Ready heap in the field etc.➢ Polyester denim : polyester filament weft of 660. 3/1 twill. The cost of material from the regions like Punjab. This mainly comes from Punjab. Haryana and Rajasthan are given per 40 Kgs of the same.330 denier is used in the weft.

The fibre properties being tested are given below along with their respective values for a fibre quality.A. The company produces world class denim fabric in its manufacturing units in India and abroad. Denim is a warp faced cotton fabric having 3/1 twill weave with an indigo dyed warp & un-dyed weft. each having capacity of 3000 bales. though the number of workers may vary according to the requirement of situation.68 workers along with person for clerical jobs work in the godowns. One lot generally consists of 55 bales. Quality code Upper half mean length Average Fibre Length Short Fibre % Uniformity Index Average micronaire value Maturity Ratio Trash Content = = = = = = = = J-34 S/G 24-26 mm 25 mm 10% 80% 4.But nowadays to produce a fancy effect in the fabric this definition is no longer valid for denim fabric. The different parameters for raw cotton are not being tested here.This raw cotton comes in the form of bales each of 160-165 Kg and is stored in the Godowns. combined twill and plain weave are also used with variety of yarn counts to produce denim. Technically. very commonly used over here. .5% Malwa Industries Limited is a leading manufacturer of denim fabric and garments. There are four Godowns. lab for testing. The bales are arranged over according to quality and lot no.2 74-84% 4. The warp having count 2/20 s or 10s and weft count is 10s. Different weaves like broken twill. Sampling is done over here and it is sent to Q.


First open end spinning department the mill is being explained: Capacity : 1840 rotors (5 m/c-216 rotor 2 m/c-240 rotor 1 m/c-280 rotor) Rotor manufacturer Rotor speed Rotor Dia. Count range spun Production/day Efficiency Waste No.5s Nec-20s Nec 25 ton 93% 10-11% 75 24000 units/d OPEN END SPINNING . of people in deptt Energy consumption : : : : : : : : : Rieter 50. both open end and ring spinning methods are employed to spin yarn.m (depends on count) 32 mm 4.000-85000 r.p.SPINNING In Malwa Industries Limited.

6.In Malwa Industries Ltd. 12s. 9 s. the final product is denim which requires coarser yarns (5.6s.1s. For the production of these counts open and spinning is preferred instead of Ring spinning. 8 s. RING SPINNING . 10 s. 16 s).

-1116 Spindle speed in R/F T. Count range spun Production/day Efficiency Waste No.0 4s Nec-20s Nec 10-12 ton 93% 10-11% 120 24000 units/d .m 4.M.2-5.p. Zinser Co. of people in deptt Energy consumption : : : : : : : : 13.-1008 spindle 5 R/F spindle.Capacity : 7596 spindles (2 R/F Compact Co.000 r.

of logs to be used at the creeling zone of rope dying machine. Generally after every 1000 mts. ROPE DYEING . Length of rope on log is generally 12930 m. Lease are inserted at regular intervals which can se set automatically on the machine. Leases also help in yarn separation after sizing.BALL WARPING The main object of ball warping is to prepare log for the rope dying machine. Here magazine types of creels are used for the creeling of yarns in the form of cheese. of ends taken one as per requirement of further processes that is for preparing the weavers beam. of ends in each group. The no. these facilities denting the long chain beaming. the sheet of yarns passes through the lease reed where lease are inserted . According to no. lease is inserted. the respective creeling is done to make the required no.

When he continued producing these trousers he used cheap cotton fabrics coming from Genova.During this . a pick hammer and a bale of fabric out of brown sail cloth which was meant to put up a tent. however. When the great gold rush began in 1850.In a vat filled with water and partially with human fermented urine as alkali donor stems and leaves were exposed to a putrefactive process. The fabric´s name Serge de Nimes was quickly turned into denim in American colloquial language. This did not happen. The name of the town of Genova was modified into “jeans” in the American slang.The Indigo plant is used for preparing Indigo (ill 1).Only the leaves were used for good qualities whereas the leaves together with the stalks were applied for normal qualities. at the age of 17 Levi Strauss left his Frankonian native country in Germany and immigrated to New York together with his family. The name of this fabric was “Serge de Nimes”.It was first mentioned in a book 13 BC.Serge is the French expression for a combined twill and Nimes is the French town where the fabric comes from. he decided to take part and went over to San Francisco in California. It is said to have been used for dyeing in India and China 2000 years BC already. at that time the name Indian blue indicated the country the colour came from. however Levi found out that the gold diggers´ hard work in the mines made their clothes get worn out very quickly and he produced stout working trousers out of the sail cloth he had taken with him which he called half overalls. At that time Genova was a flourishing place where cotton was exported all over the world.At the end of the sixties of the 19th century he replaced the brown sail cloth by an indigodyed. The members of the Strauss family were capable and skilful businessmen and also became pedlars. wear resistant cotton fabric coming from France.HISTORY OF DENIM In 1847. HISTORY OF INDIGO DYE Indigo belongs to the category of water-insoluble dyestuffs.This plant came to Europe in the 16th century via India and gradually replaced the woad which was one of the most important dyeing plants up to this time. He took with him a spade.

Before the introduction of synthetic indigo was the only dye which produced fast blue shades on cotton. Indurubin.putrefactive process hydrogen was created by means of micro-organisms which. ability to build up to heavy navy blue shades by repeated dipping in dye bath. Its attractive shade. &Indigo Brown were never constant. as a reduction agent. Then the liquid standing above was drained and what was left was a thin mash which was dried in the open air and was put on the market in pressed or in powder form (ill 2). The introduction of synthetic indigo in 1897 and that of stable sodium hydrosulphite in1905. Illustration 1 illustration 2 The indigo was obtained exclusively from plants. originally cultivated in India. transformed the dyestuff contained in the Indigo plant into a watersoluble form.In a last step the water-insoluble dyestuff particles could then deposit on the bottom of a stationary vat. The reason for doing so was to transform the Indigo into its water insoluble form again by air oxidation. For this reason the production of chemically-pure indigo which would be constant composition seemed to be most desirable. of which is the most important was Indigofera tinctoria. One of the disadvantages of natural Indigo was that proportions of Indigo. ease of reduction and ability to dye cotton from a cold bath.In 1880 Adolf von Baeyer succeeded in carrying out the . so that there was no certainty about different batches being able to reproduce exactly the same shade.When this process was over the whole mass was filled into a liquid where the fermented mass was stirred with poles.

The overall reaction of the dye is as follows: Reduction Insoluble leuco form of indigo Soluble leuco form of indigo . As was already mentioned Indigo is a dyestuff insoluble in water. this is nowadays carried out with sodium hydrosulphite in the alkaline range.The reduction of this vat dye is done today with Caustic Soda and Sodium Hydroxide solution. In the year 1897 the “Badische Anilin.alkalies or acids. A few years later this synthetic dyestuff replaced the Indigo coming from British-India almost completely.first synthetic production of Indigo.It has no affinity for the cellulosic fibre so long as it remains in insoluble pigment state.It is characterised by the presence of –C=C.was able to carry out an industrial-scale production of the Indigo dyestuff for the first time. In order to be able to apply it on cotton it must be transformed into a water-soluble form. Similar to the former production of Indigo this is done by reducing the dyestuff. which are insoluble in water therefore in order to prepare this dye for dyeing it must be chemically changed in to the soluble ‘leuco’ form.und Sodafabrik“ in Ludwigshafen – which is nowadays called BASF . REACTION WITH CELLULOSIC FIBRE As we know that indigo dye belongs to the class of vat as chromophore. In practice. CHEMISTRY OF INDIGO DYEING Indigo is a vat dye and as such it is insoluble in water.

One of the principal factors affecting the colour yield and ease of washing down is the pH of the dye bath. After the cotton yarn have absorbed the leuco form of the vat dye they are either oxidised by exposure to air or by treatment with an oxidising agent such as Hydrogen Peroxide to reconvert the dye to its original insoluble form. reducing agent. of process parameters such as dye concentration. not as great as with other vat dyes. in case of indigo it is pale yellow. as well as immersion and oxidation time. ➢ Di ionic form: It has very good water solubility but relatively low affinity for cotton. It has been reported that maximum colour yield can be achieved at pH 10.5-11. of dips. . wetting agent.The leuco form of vat dye is different in colour from parent substance. surface dyeing or ring dyeing gives better apparent yield together with good wash down properties. Prior to the dye dipping. temperature. DIFFERENT IONIC FORMS OF INDIGO In dyebath reduced indigo can exist in the following four forms: ➢ Non ionic form: This form has little water solubility hence very low or negligible affinity for cotton. ➢ Reduced non ionic form: This form is also having little water solubility and low affinity with cotton. pH. Addition of wetting agent in to the dyebath will affect the degree of penetration and hence resulting lower the apparent colour yield.5. In general. So to achieve a sufficient deep colour. for instance. The affinity of the leuco form for cotton is. the final colour achieved is affected by a no. Such factors affect not only the build up of indigo dye on the material but also the degree of penetration. however. the cotton material needs to be pre-wetted or boiled off by passing it through hot and cold water baths containing surfactants in order to improve absorbency. Although the colour depth of indigo is primarily determined by no. ➢ Mono ionic form: It has limited solubility but relatively higher affinity for cotton. This may be due to higher affinity and lower solubility of the monophenolate form of indigo that exists at this pH range leading more intensive surface dyeing. it is necessary to subject the yarn to repeated application cycles of dye.

However. In this pH range both mono-ionic and di-ionic forms of indigo are present. at a pH of 10. Most of the monophenolate ion is produced within the pH range of 10.The optimisation of colour yield is caused by the relatively high affinity and strike rate of the mono ionic form of the dye for bottom fibre. the pH of the dye bath tends to fall roughly between 12 and 13 or even somewhat higher. .The monophenolate ion has much higher apparent affinity and strike rate for cotton than does the biphenolate ion. with low penetration of the denim yarn and a great ring dyeing effect. colour yield of indigo is optimum as shown in figure.5-11.8 to 11. Conventional sodium hydroxide bath tends to have a pH that lies between 12 and 13. Within such a pH range. Experimental results have shown that the distribution of indigo dye in the cross section of denim warm is highly dependent on the pH of the dye bath with lower than usual pH's resulting in a more ring eyed warm having a greater depth of shade and an improved tendency to wash down during laundering. The higher strke rate of the monophenolate ion results in less penetration of the yarn bundle and greater colour yield due to higher amount of dye fixed at the yarn surface. In most commercial denim warm dyeing operations.5 explaining why colour yield is maximum within that pH range.2 only mono ionic form of indigo is present.

Factors affecting eye build up on the cellulosic material and degree of penetration Effect of the concentration of indigo The affinity of indigo dye to cotton warm and its build up property is very low. time of CONCENTRATION (g/l) It is clear from the figure that immersion time of 30 seconds appeared to be adequate. Hence. K/S IMMERSION TIME . Effect of immersionDYEBATH yarn into dyebath. but remains fairly constant when the dye concentration exceeds 3 g/l. the colour depth of indigo colour cannot be achieved solely by increasing the K/S dye concentration. Prolonged immersion does not increase the colour depth because the oxidised indigo on the material may be re reduced by the reducing agents present and causes desorption of the indigo back to the dye liquor. The colour depth or K/S increases with increasing dye concentration. Figure shows the effect of indigo eye concentration on the colour depth.

Figure shows the effect of oxidation time on colour depth of indigo dyeing. The colour yield achieved becomes fairly stable when the oxidation time is 60 seconds or longer. this is restricted by the types of machine setup available. NUMBER OF DIPPINGS . it is important to ensure adequate oxidation after immersion. OXIDATION TIME (SECONDS) Effect of no. In general. of dipping Since the colour depth of indigo dyeing relies on the progressive building up of colour through successive dipping and oxidation the number of dippings is the prime factor K/S determining the final colour depth achieved. However. In practice the duration of oxidation depends on factors K/S such as the amount of reducing agent present.Effect of oxidation time on dye uptake To achieve the progressive building up of colour. By pretreating the cotton material with cationic active compounds prior to dipping the number of dippings can be reduced considerably. since further dippings would only increase the colour depth slightly. temperature and air velocity under which the oxidation takes place. optimum colour yield can be achieved by choosing 10 dippings.

treated with cationic compound as well as non treated material. Figure shows the effect of temperature on colour depth of indigo dyeing on cotton material. DYEBATH TEMPERATURE ( °C) Effect of pH . Wettability should be ensured by adequate pre wetting of the material or by adding penetrant into the dipping baths. At K/S low temperature the affinity of the leuco indigo on the material to be re reduced into the subsequent dipping baths.Effect of temperature Dipping should be done at low temperatures unless it is necessary to maintain high temperatures owing to the use of reducing agents other than sodium hydrosulphite.

e.1 gm ions/l at a pH of 3.above 11.5 K/S(UNTREATED) K/S(PRETREATED) DYEBATH The optimum pH to achieve maximum colour yield should be between pH 10. since both the eye i. At pH. Figure shows effect of pH on colour depth of indigo dyeing. It is reasonable to expect repulsion between negatively charged dye and fibre at higher pH's.5 10 10.5 to 11.0 the concentration of cellulose is about 3 x 10-3 gm ions/l of fibre but increases to about 1.5 12 12.5 the colour depth decreases apparently. Indigo dye and the cellulose are more highly ionised.5 11 11. It was suggested that it is owing to the higher affinity and lower solubility of the mono phenolate form of indigo present at this pH range that surface dyeing of cotton is enhanced. Such repulsion probably could result in a decreased apparent affinity. Effect of cotton morphology At a pH 10.5. The increased stile rate results in a more ring dyed yarn than that which would be obtained with lower strike rate found at higher dyebath . accompanied by a reduce strike rate and greater penetration of the warm bundle.K/S 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 9.0.

followed by oxidation. the long chain warp was given six dips through a three-box range. each with its own squeezing and skying mechanism. a system for warp sheet dyeing was developed in a sheet of yarn was passed through four or five dye boxes. The former is more suited for high production mills since multiple warps can be dyed side by side.pH's. could be accomplished. With five or six dips. with multiple squeeze/skying assemblies. With increasing ring dyeing. Both long again warp and warp sheet dyeing are used today. Until 1915 all dyeing was carried out in the form of skeins. It was around 1920. About two-thirds of indigo denim in the market is dyed by long chain method. Four to six or more dips could be achieved. Indigo dyeing equipments and their advancements The equipment used for dyeing cotton with indigo has changed over the years and each mechanical modification has been an attempt to minimise problems and to produce a better product by a more economical method. dyed in a any or pit. began in 1972. Unfortunately each new development produced its own set of new problems. based on a 1903 German patent. By 1979 equipment had been developed. Around 1915 long chain of warps were made and eyeing was accomplished by pulling the warm bundle back and forth through a single dyebox with intermediate oxidation in between passes. Prerequisites for continuous indigo dyeing range The application of indigo on an industrial scale was made possible by the introduction of a continuous dyeing procedure for warp yarn. Eyeing wars sheets through a single box. each followed by squeezing and plying. A typical indigo-dyeing installation plant consists of following phases: ➢ Preimpregnating phase ➢ Dyeing phase ➢ After treatment phase . to pass the warp sheet through a single box with one squeeze roll assembly. were used to build up the shade. and by 1930 the warp was passed continuously through a range of 4 to 10 dye boxes. Repeated dips. Around 1970. there is greater shade depth for a given amount of dye fixed per unit weight of yarn.

It should never remain longer than 60 seconds in each dip vat. Dyeing phase The dyeing phase consists of a series of dip vats where application of reduced dye takes place and an aerial oxidation operation known as plying is done. In such type of . On the other hand he the immersion time is too short adequate liquor exchange does not occur. saves the indigo dye. The rope dyeing technique allows for the simultaneous production of more than one warp set in one run. and this may affect the penetration and depth of shade obtained. This pre-dyeing process is carried out in the first wetting section of the continuous plant while the second section is used to rinse the dyed material which is ultimately squeezed to retain 100% moisture content. The warp usually remains in the individual dip vat for 20-30 seconds.Preimpregnating phase The Preimpregnating phase server to hold padding auxiliaries which eliminates air from the yarn and by preventing oxidation of the dye. because the fixed indigo is liable to be revatted and removed. These are: ➢ Rope form dyeing ➢ Sheet form dyeing Rope Form dyeing Rope form dyeing accounts for a large percentage of the yarn dyed for denim warps. the unfixed dye is removed and the chemicals washed out. It also serves to carry out pre-dyeing with sulphur black to a pale or medium grey so as to obtain a better ground dyeing. This maximises continuity of shades and maximises continuity of shades and minimises the danger of side-centre-side shade variation. Air oxidation requires between 1 and 2 minutes out the last passage should be somewhat longer (3 minutes) After treatment phase In the after treatment share with the addition of suitable auxiliaries. At the discharge end of each dip vat is a squeezing and hence a flattening out of the yarn. Types of indigo dyeing machines There are three types of eyeing machines which are most popular in organised sector. The warp is then dried.

From the counter stand the yarn then passes to a traversing funnel or trumpet mounted on the ball warper. A typical bailed yarn density of 59 cubic inches per pound is used in this equation.8 X yarn count X ball width X (D2 – d2) ENDS PER ROPE . the yarn ends pass through a leasing stand consisting of special comb and lease rods. it is unloaded and mounted on the dye range creel. ROPE LENGTH=11.machine long chain warps are made up on a ball warp mill and consists of a bundles of 320 to 380 ends of warp yarn. As the diameter of the ball increases. the beam is pneumatically loaded downward on to these drums. 350 to 450 ends are further merged forming the rope. Once the ball has been fully wounded. A typical speed is 400 meters/minute. At this point. The maximum (mechanical) speed of the ball warper will depend on the desired production of the mill. After this. A process flow diagram of rope dyeing range is shown as follows: BALL WARPING DRYING COILING CREEL AFTERWASH REBEAMING PREWASH DYEING AND OXIDIZING SIZING WEAVING Some of the important parts of the machine are defined: ➢ BALL WARPER The ball warping process begins with packages of yarn in a warping creel. The creel is normally designed to accommodate approximately 350 t0 450 packages when pulled from the creel by the ball warper. Leasing ensures proper registration of ends throughout the entire dyeing process. yarn passes through a counter stand/condenser tube assembly where the yarn sheet is merged into a bundle. The relationship of ball dimensions and the corresponding length of yarn is given in the equation. The configuration of the comb is setup so as to allow an end-by-end lease.

maximum of 48 inches d is log diameter in inches. Creel configuration will also affect specifications of the special comb in the ball warping leasing section. The basic purpose of long chain beaming . ➢ LONG CHAIN BEAMING PROCESS Once the process of ball warping has been completed. Creels can be equipped with either drop wire. At the exit of the dyed range. each dyed rope is coiled in to a bag or a tow storage canister. An important feature of the warping creel is the creel stop motion. If long production runs of identical yarns are expected. The creel may be of the magazine or non-magazine type. the desired numbers of balls are mounted on the dye range creel. photoelectric type.Where D is ball diameter in inches. usually 9 inches Ball width is in inches. These canisters are taken to the long chain beaming process. or motion sensitive stop motions at the exit at the creel. The stop motion triggers the brake on the ball warper once a broken yarn is detected so that the broken yarn end can be repaired. usually 38 to 50 inches ➢ THE CREEL The warping creel used in the ball warping process should be configured (number of package rows in height and length) based on the mill’s space requirements and limitations. faller wire. a magazine type creel would be an advantage. Each rope or chain is then run through the various stags of the indigo dyeing process at the same time.

The west point accumulator is designed to store up to 12 meters of yarn. 500 yards per minute. in order to properly repair the warp end breaks. the operator can start or stop the beamers. Alternately. Running speed is set by the potentiometer on the operator’s control panel. a dead weight type accumulator can be mounted on the long chain beamer with approximately 8 meters of yarn storage. using a typical beamed yarn density of 56 cubic inches per pound. Beamers can normally accommodate a beam upto 72 inches between flanges and can be configured to have either spindle driven beams or journaless type beams.5 meters away from the rear of the long chain beamers.e. ➢ YARN STORAGE ACCUMULATORS This optional yarn storage accumulator is located approximately 1.process is to open each rope or chain of dyed denim warp into a sheet of yarn and to wound this sheet under proper tension on to a warper or section beam that. By means of a foot actuated control. The equation gives the relationship between beam length and beam dimensions. Yarn tension is controlled hydraulically for both forward and reverse direction movement of yarn. with no crossed ends. will be placed in a sizing machine. The primary purpose of yarn accumulator in long chain beaming process is to unwind the warp from the section beam. ➢ BEAMERS Beamers are normally designed for a maximum speed of 450 meters per minute i. in turn. Long chain beamer accumulators controls are located on the operator’s control panel. .

but frequently 4 0r 5 dips into the dyebath take place with an intermediate squeeze and skying between each dip. the reduced colour is applied in steps from large volume immersion boxes equipped with just enough nip pressure to remove liquid so that in doesn’t drip. after this cold washing. one may be used for bottom colour.BEAM YARDAGE=11. The treatment also reduces the unpleasant appearance of neps created by immature fibre. The other boxes are primarily used for washing but in some cases. in inches As many as 12 to 16 of these long chain warps. caustic treatment and mercerizing are two well known procedures used by dyers of cotton and cotton blended piece goods. Then the rope line moves in to an air oxidation section for partial oxidation and fixation. The rope dyeing ranges normally run about 30-35 yards per minute. If needed. In a rope dyeing range. one box can be used for top colour. depending upon the machine’s width and width of fabric to be woven are then passed down the range in a side by side manner. Due to this absorbency factor. as well as other factors. As we know.F x (D2 – d2) ENDS Where D is the beam flange dia. in inches BF is the distance between flanges. The air exposure time in each oxidation section is relatively short.78 x YARN COUNT x B. These treatments swell the cotton fibre and upon dyeing result upto a 20 % improvement in colour value. yarn lubrication and drying follows. The last wet section is washing and rinsing. a caustic treatment box is also attached before dyeing vats. ABOUT THE ROPE DYEING MACHINE USED IN MALWA INDUSTRIES LIMITED: . As many as eight to ten. in inches d is the beam barrel dia.

S.A. U. of dyebaths = 8 baths ➢ Steamer = for the fixation of sulphur dyes ➢ Total number of washing baths = 3 (2 for cold and 1 for hot wash) ➢ Total number of dry cans = 36 (4 teflon coated and 32 are stainless steel) MATERIAL FLOW IN ROPE DYEING MACHINE PRESCOURING HOTWASH COLDWASH .Malwa Industries Limited uses an imported modern rope dyeing machine manufactured by Morrison Textile Machinery Company. It has following features: ➢ Total length of yarn sheet in machine = 700 meters ➢ Maximum speed of machine = 60 meters per minute (average used 25-40 meter per minute) ➢ Scour box = for pretreatment and can also be used for top colour or sulphur dyeing ➢ Skying rollers = 40-55 rollers ➢ Skying time after every bath = 1 or 2 minutes or depends upon the speed of the machine ➢ Total no.



So there is a need of 5 to 6 dyebaths and to make the use of multi-dip & multi-nip facility to increase the penetration. To bring it back to its room temperature. It may be called a trash vat colour. removal of trapped air from cotton yarn and making yarn wet. yarn temperature is more. so we use sequestering agent to make the water soft. 1 litre of air decomposes 1. Generally. we take 2-4 % caustic soda. it is very difficult to find the desired softness in water (about 2-3 ppm). Sequestering agent: Even with the use of water softening. cold wash is given to it. This is done at 90 °C. 2 litres of air.7. It removes the wax by the action of saponification. If oxidizing agents are used. • • Wetting agent: It is anionic in nature and increase the absorbency of substrate. ➢ Coldwash: After hot wash. this yarn will go into the dyebath which will change the pH of the dye-bath.8 litres of Sodium Hydrosulphite. ➢ Indigo is insoluble in water so it is reduced with Sodium Hydrosulphite.Let us discuss the (above shown) process of passage of yarn through the rope dyeing machine: ➢ Pre scouring: The objectives of pre-scouring are the removal of wax content from cotton. It will cause uneven dyeing and more consumption of hydro. If this is not done. ➢ Hotwash: As some caustic is carried by the yarn after pre-scouring. so hot water is given at 70-80°C. Then caustic soda is added to make sodium salt of vat colour to make it water . We use the following ingredients at pre scouring stage: • Caustic Soda: Its quantity depends upon the quality of fibres used in the mixing. • Why trapped air should be removed? The reason for this can be understood as follows: In 1 kg of yarns there is approximately. for indigo it is only 2. The dyeing is done at room temperature as indigo belongs to Ik class of vat dyes where dyeing is done at room temperature and oxidation is done by air only and not by chemicals. they will cause stripping of colour. ➢ Indigo dyeing: Indigo is not a perfect vat colour. The constant of substantivity for other colours is 30.

Cost is more. To reduce 1 kg of indigo 700 gms of hydro is required. sodium hydro-sulphide is added. If total capacity of dye bath for example is 15000 litres.soluble. some extra hydro is required to avoid decomposition of hydro. the strike rate of dye is very high. it is an exothermic reaction. Then to make it soluble again. Hydrosulphite. there will be a decomposition of sod. ➢ Core and ring dyeing effect: This effect is obtained by multidip-multinip facility. It will become partially soluble. of ends X Speed of m/c) Count X 1. It is allowed to cool down. It is very important that replenishment of indigo is there as any variation will result in the change of shade and also if level is more. If it is less then there are 100% chances of getting a lighter shade. It is also not advisable to take solubilised vat. then before sending it to feeder. (No. Practically it is prepared with following sequence: • • • Take indigo. At this pH . there is a problem of over-flow. as offered by some companies due to the following reasons: • If it is used after 6 months. Add caustic soda. sodium salt of Indigo is mono phenolic form.5. • • Transportation is difficult. However. Then hydros ➢ When caustic is added to indigo. At pH 11.5-11. more hydro has to be added. there will be a better dye effect. of ropes X No. so consumption of it will increase. Reducing agent is not added first as it will be decomposed first. So after washing.693 X 1000 (In kg of yarn per minute) ➢ Feeding system: Rate of flow of yarn is given by: So we can determine the rate of feed of indigo. then circulation must be 3 times the volume. At this form. pH of the Dye bath should be kept in between 10.5 .

If high temperature is used there is always some chance of tendering of yarn.5.5 gm/lit.5 gpl. Concept of Buffer pH is given by Virkler USA. 0. it is 2. ➢ Why softner? : The rope is going to be opened at Long Chain Beamer. they say by addition of this. Through the day. It is generally 1. ➢ Also hydro reduction capacity is measured by mV meter which measures the Redox Potential. It should be around 0. at this affinity is less.2% of the weight of the yarn. If it is more then the process control is a failure. then free hydro must be min. Softening is done at room temperature. As a thumb rule. It the softener is not used.20 mV of the norm.7. opening will be hampered. As air will decompose hydro. For testing we take 10 ml of dye solution and 30 ml of water and 5-6 drops of 40% formaldehyde and shake it for one minute. If 3 ml of water is required. So vacuum created will fetch the water from above.5 gms/ litre which acts as buffer. ➢ Testing of hydro: • Total hydro: We take 10 ml of indigo with hydro in 30-35 ml of water. 1. the redox potential should be +. concentration of total hydro should be min. then concentration of hydro is 3 gpl.7 ( 1000 kg of Indigo needs 700 kg of hydro to reduce it). • Reduced hydro: It is the hydro that is used for the reduction of 11. It is set for one minute and shaken. Washing is done to improve rubbing fastness. 1. ➢ Washing: Rubbing fastness of indigo is very important. there is 40% less consumption of Indigo for same shade depth. If Total hydro is min. It is always having pH in the range of 4 to 5. It is a cationic softener. The water that goes gives the readings of the reduced hydro. pH is controlled by the addition of caustic soda. so dye effect will be less prominent. PROCESS CONTROL OF ROPE DYEING FOR DENIM . On a scale of (1-4). The rope is washed twice with water at 60°C and then with softner. It should be around 760-800.

shores. ends=4100. as strike rate of the dye . At rope dyeing. ➢ Airing Time: It should be 60-75 seconds. High pH or Caustic Concentration --> Redder and lighter Low pH or caustic concentration --> greener and darker ➢ Dipping time: Longer the dipping time. i.5-12.5 ➢ Dye concentration in Dye bath: it is measured by spectrophotometer. ➢ Squeeze Pressure: High pressure will lead to lower wet pick up and result in lesser color and better penetration.➢ Concentration of Hydrosulphite: It is measured by “titrano meter”.5 gpl to 2. count=7s .5 to 11. which lead to higher color yield. of stock vat is g/l= 90 range.. Longer airing time results in high tension on the yarn and subsequent processes will become difficult.5. squeeze pressure is 5-10 tonnes. speed in yards/min=25. Surface of the squeeze rolls should be ground twice a year.5 gms ➢ Effect of pH: At pH of 10. there will be formation of more monophenolate ions. If squeeze rollers are too soft then shading will occur. Hardness of squeeze roller is about 70-75 deg. better will be the penetration and lesser will be the ring dyeing effect. Weight of yarn dyed per minute= (4100x25x1000) = 7924 gms (7x840x202) shade desired = 2% Amount of dye to be replenished/min= 158. or by redox potential of dye bath which should be from -730 mV to -860 mV. ➢ Drying: Insufficient or unevenly dried yarns will result in poor rebeaming ➢ Calculation of Replenishing Dye feed/min: If Conc.e. If squeeze rolls are too hard then there are chances of slippage and uneven yarn tension. wet pick up is as low as 60%. It should be in g/l ➢ Guidelines: • • • • High Indigo Concentration --> Shade is greener and lighter Low Indigo Concentration --> Shade is dull and Red.5gpl . It should be from 1. It varies from 15-22 seconds. ➢ Caustic Soda or pH value: It should be 11.

computerised colour matching is used to maintain shade consistency.P.0 ml of vat liquor into 100ml of distilled water in a 150 ml beaker.b*.40 ➢ Hydro in Dye bath Liquor: Add 2 ml of 37% HCHO to 150 ml beaker.e. with lack of hydrosulphite.B. Add 2 ml of starch/KI indicator. At pH higher than this.. TESTING ➢ Alkalinity in Dye Bath Liquor: Pipette 10.D deptt. 100% reflectance by using a standard white tile and for black i. L*. On the other side. the leuco indigo is less dissolved and thereby adheres to a greater extent to the fibres. Calculate NaOH gpl = A x 0.a*. ➢ Computerised Colour Matching: In Malwa Ind. Titrate with tenth normal HCl ( 0.c*.S. G/l of hydro= mo of 0. A computerised colour matching system is used here which consists of a computer. of hydrosulphite. With lack of hydrosulphite furthermore. 0 % reflectance the port is left open for the light to pass through. At regular intervals during the dyeing the rope is taken and scanned at the port of the spectrophotometer to get the A.e.h* values which must match with the standards already set for the particular style by the P.0 (ml = A).1 N Iodine to one litre ) solution until the colour changes from emerald green to bluish purple. Place under continuous agitation and insert the electrodes of a pH meter calibrated at pH 7. Add ml of water.046 N ( prepared by diluting 460 ml of 0. Add 6 ml of 25% glacial acetic acid solution prepared by diluting 1 part acid with 3 parts water. and wash down activities will be very good. Titrate with 0. the amount of unreduced dyestuff by .1 HCl) to pH 7. The spectrophotometer is calibrated for white i. Ltd.046N of Iodine ➢ Importance of High Concentration of Free Hydrosulphite: The clearest shades with minimum reddish streaks are observed at by relatively high conc. Add 2 ml of dye range liquor. dye penetration will be less and wash down characteristics are also poor. a spectrophotometer and a Premier Colorscan Colourlab+ colour matching software.0 with standard buffer the yarn bundle is very high.

STYLES OF DYEING The following styles of dyeing are generally employed in this mill.92% o. A reaction time exceeding 60 seconds should be avoided as the amount of dyestuff again get reduced and released may again supersede that of additionally take up dye stuff.oxidation at the upper level of the liquor and through activation of unfixed dyestuff. gets separated from the fibrous material would constantly rise as the reducing agent for creating leuco form would be missing. ➢ INDIGO BASE SULPHUR TOPPING (IBST) . an adequate liquor exchange ( i. Also to avoid the lack of hydrosulphite or Indigo at certain places in the immersion. 5 dipfollowed over here.m) and for normal shade (1.5 gpl in case of rope dyeing and 3-4 gpl in case of sheet dyeing. In addition to this the time available for diffusion of dyestuff until oxidation commences is too short.45% o. The min. vat. ➢ INDIGO DYEING In rope dyeing machine tow methods are employed for indigo dyeing. the whole quantity of the liquor should be circulated 2-3 times every hour. Under these circumstances a reddish bronze like shade results due to dispersion of not reduced dyestuff in the yarn. the immersion path should be maximum 3.75% o. at a speed of 20m/min for a reaction time of 10 seconds.m) ➢ SULPHUR DYEING In case of sulphur dyeing the caustic treatment is generally done at a higher concentration (40-60 gpl) at room temperature and is thus referred to as mercerisation.3 to 1. resulting in higher shades. In this high percentage sulphur colours are used. proportion of hydrosulphite should be around 1. such as Dark shade (2. the amount of chemicals consumed and replaced by fresh addition of reduced indigo) is not assured.w.w.m) medium shade (2.w.3 meters). This has a negative influence on dyeing and depth of dye penetration.e. To ensure an even and good depth of dye penetration by dyeing in several passages. the reaction time should be 2030 sec. for each vat (eg. ➢ Reaction Time: At very short reaction time.

Sulphide Caustic EH DEKOL INITIAL gpl 20 15 3 4 1 FEEDING gpl 45 30 6 6 2 INITIAL ADDITION : 400 LTR INDIGO COLOUR FROM STOCK VAT TO M/C Parametrs: NIP PRESSUR E PSI 45 80 75 70 75 85 80 75 75 75 75 80 75 75 temprature 0 c BOX NO DRAW NIP WB-1 WB-2 WB-3 DB-1 DB-2 DB-3 DB-4 DB-5 DB-6 DB-7 DB-8 WB-4 WB-5 PROC. ➢ SULPHUR BASE INDIGO TOPPING (SBIT) In this type of dyeing the ropes are first dyed with sulphur dye and then and indigo topping is given on it.In this process as quite clear from the name itself. The ropes are firstly dyed with indigo a by 3 dip .IBGT. Recipe for the style DYIB Recipe for wash box 1 Chemicals S. S.YELLOW S. In this no scouring is required.BBIT etc.1 nip method. Some other styles are which are less dyed are: IBYT.BLACK EMPTY SODA SOAPING Hot wash 90 50 RT RT RT RT RT RT RT 90 RT 50 60 . SEQ.YELLOW Hot wash cold wash indigo indigo indigo indigo indigo cold wash S.3 nip method and is followed with sulphur dyeing with 1 dip .

BLACK SHADE= 3.1 GPL Softner GP Chemicals L Swpi 40 Spg 10 Acetic Acid 3 S.4% INITIAL ADDITION :Add 900ltr.1 Redox = 620 ± 11 RECIPE: indigo shade% _ 5.5% Redox = -800--810 PH = 12.0 ± 0.B-7 Chemical s S.WB-6 WB-7 85 60 Hot wash softner 60 40 RECIPE FOR D.Sulphid e Caustic EH INITIAL gpl 45 35 7 3 FEEDING gpl 280 50 10 5 OTHER PARAMETERS: INDIGO Speed = 20mpm Indigo = 3.0 ± 0.BLACK S. Stock solution in initial indigo bath Deep Indigo RDNI Dekol primasol Caustic S.3% PH = 13.1 Hydro = 2 ± 0.hydro. indigo 4 2 2 75 130 100 M/C Parametrs: .

T.1 Hydro gpl -2.T. R.7± 0. R.T. R.5 3 Scouring Chemicals Dekol EH Caustic Initial 2 8 20 feeding 2 8 30 In wash box no.770 ±10 ph -12. R.T.T.T.T. Temprature 0 c Scouring Hot wash Cold wash indigo indigo indigo indigo indigo indigo indigo indigo Cold wash dtci hot wash Hot wash Softner 70 60 R.BOX NO DRAW NIP WB-1 WB-2 WB-3 DB-1 DB-2 DB-3 DB-4 DB-5 DB-6 DB-7 DB-8 WB-4 WB-5 WB-6 WB-7 Speed = 18mpm NIP PRESSURE PSI 45 80 70 75 85 80 85 85 90 90 90 85 60 60 85 60 PROC. R. R.5 DTCI :-DTCI (6 gpl) THE PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR SULPHUR BLACK IS: Log .9 ± 0. R. R.T. R. SEQ.1 Softner Chemicals SWPI Spg Acetic Acid GPL 50 12.T.T. 60 70 45 OTHER PARAMETERS: INDIGO redox .

Creel Draw nip Scouring Washings(2) Dye-boxes(2) Cold-Wash Detergent Washes(2) Hot Wash Softening Drying Coiling THE PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR SULPHUR BOTTOMING INDIGO TOPPING (SBIT) IS: Log Creel Draw nip .

Sulphur Black Dyebath-1 Hot Wash Cold Wash Indigo Dyebaths(3) Hot Washes(2) Cold Wash Softening Drying Coiler .

& PROCESSING .THE PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR INDIGO BOTTOM SULPHUR TOPPING (IBST) IS: Log Creel Draw nip Scouring Indigo Dyebaths(3) Overflow Washing Sulphur Dye bath Wash-Boxes(3) Softening Drying Coiler DIFFERENT DYES & CHEMICALS USED IN PREP.

CHEMICAL USED FUNCTION Caustic soda Sod. Hydrosulphide Setamol ws Siligen TX-2471 Sulphur Navy Blue PR/LF Sulphur Black PR/LF Indigo Powder Sodium Sulphide Soda ash Antioxidant PRS liquid Mercersal RWLF Sandapor RSK liquid Sandozin NITI Direful OLIVE Delal FB-sm Primasal NF Ceranivl LINI PVA Diresul yellow/khaki Texoplast -86 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Alkali Reducing agent Dispersing agent Softener Dye Dye Dye Reducing agent Alkali Oxidizing agent Mercerising agent Wetting agent Improve sew ability Dye Wetting Wetting Softener (cationic) Binder Dye Modified starch .

One set tension. The no of ends (around360) in a rope is the same as set in Ball warping machine. This wrapper’s beam is positively . After coming out of the accumulator the rope passes around the beater bar on the tension stand. while the beam is being reversed to maintain the desired tension. It works on the principle of gate type tensioning. There is no accumulator & thus an extra person is employed to pull the rope. depending on the count of the yarn. The path of yarn is some what different in the mill made machine.Sicoflex-100 QWNI DTCI Sand soft SPG liquid Lyacol RDNI liquid Bilbind PS Dirsul Black R Dt Liquid : : : : : : : Binder Softener Wetting agent Cationic softener Dispersing agent Binder Sulphur Black dye LONG CHAIN BEAMING The dyed ropes in the cans coming from the rope dyeing machines are converted into pre beams. The ropes are withdrawn from the can by means of a pair of drawing rollers as it passes over a guide and through a trumpet guide to enter the nip of drawing rollers. where it wraps (usually3) around the falling rollers on then passes with in a number of guides and around roller to enter the accumulator. After this it enters the tension stand. The tension at the tension stand (model 315-2) is kept between 20-40 psi. From this point itself the ends are individualised and goes onto pass through the dents followed by the warping section (model 103). At the accumulator (model 203) the tension is generally set at 60-80 psi and it is used to accumulate the length (max length of 25m) of rope that is reversed drying detection of any broken end.

driven and the speed is controlled by means of a feed back sensor. The pressure roll presses with a pressure of 7-15 psi on the package i.e. the pre beam. The denting is made easier with the help of lease threads, which separates the adjacent end in two levels. These lease threads are taken out of the shed before the end crosses the dent. MACHINE DATA Maker Year of manufacture Running speed Pressure Efficiency : : : : : Mc Coy Elision (U.S.A) 12/12/2002 250-300m/p 7-15 psi 35-40%

Sizing is the “Heart of the weaving” especially for modern weaving. It is also said that “Sizing done is half cloth woven”. Sizing is done to increase the strength of the yarn. This helps to reduce the breakage during weaving. Sizing also reduces the hairiness of the yarn & increases its smoothness. Due to sizing the opening and closing shed become easy. The beams made from LCB are placed on the creeling zone of the sizing m/c. 10-12 beams at a time are feed to the m/c. The yarn from the beam passes under the several guide rollers to the tension roller & nipping roller & then yarn in the sheet form is feed to the sizing box. In sizing box three rollers are placed, feed roller, immersion roller & squeezing roller. The feed roller the material & immersion roller immersed the yarn sheet into the sizing liquor. The material dried by cylinders, there are 12 drying cylinder. After the material is material is passed through separator,

which separate the each yarn end then it pass through the finally the sized yarn wound the beam. There are two sizing machines.

➢ Maker ➢ Year of mfg. ➢ No. of machines ➢ Maximum speed ➢ Total Creel Capacity ➢ Beam tension ➢ Viscosity of size ➢ Moisture Present in ➢ Temperature of size box


Griffin (U.S.A) 1997 2 60-80 mt/min 24 Beams 98 g/end 8% 7% 90°C

Squeezing pressure at the size box: Count 16s 2/40s 7s Mix Slow (psi) 14 14 25 24 Fast (psi) 16 16 27 26


Textilose B Maize Starch Anilose E Mutton Tallow PVA Potassium permengnate Sulphate

: : : : : :

Modified starch Raw Starch Mod. Starch Lubricant Binder solvent

➢ Size pickup ➢ Size pickup

: :

6.8% for 7s 12% for 16s

THE DIFFERENT OPERATIONS FOR MAKING THE WEAVERS BEAM: ➢ The empty beam is lifted by lifting the arm to a predetermined position & the mounting heads on either end of beam gets fitted with beam or box ➢ After tying the ends on the beam, it is positioned in line with the end. ➢ The squeezing roller at the back of beam press on it. ➢ The dents/unit length and its position are adjusted according to requirement. ➢ The machine is started with a micro motion (1-3mpm)& then switched on to slow motion(3-30mpm). But generally at 10mpm & then transferred to normal motion of about 50-60 m/m. ➢ As the machine stops automatically the set length is would by pressing the switch which disengages the mounting heads and lowers the arm carrying beam.

The object of drawing-in process is to draw the yarn through draw pins ( drop pins) and heald eyes according to weaving plan.

improperly wound or when there is more than 150 m of yarn left in the packages used for ball warping. The drawing order or reed count is given by P.e. OF STANDS TYPE OF DRAWING LABOUR (SHIFTWISE/BEAM) AVERAGE NO. m/c 60 (30 on both sides) 300(mpm) 4(inch) 5 per double traverse 5057’ 340 WEAVING GENERAL INFORMATION Weaving is the interlacement of two type of thread. To which loom which beam has to be gaited is pre-planned. of crossings Package conicity Winding angle : : : : : : : : Rajesh Industries.C. Ahmedabad Grooved drum (ebonite) wdg. when the package supplied from the spinning machines are in a deform shape. These packages are taken for rewinding and cones are made on this machine. The different characteristics and parameters of this winding machine are as follows: ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Maker Type No. of wdg heads Winding speed Drum diameter No.P. OF WORKERS/SHIFT : : : : : 3 Manual 2 8000-9000 3x2=6 REWINDING INTRODUCTION There is only one winding machine. NO. OF ENDS DRAWN/SHIFT/OPERATOR TOTAL NO. one a continuous sheet of thread known as ‘warp’ wound on a beam called weavers beam runs continuously and .The heald frame for different looms are of different types and sizes according to the manufacturer. which is used only optionally i.

There are two loom sheds having 95 looms.I There are total 71 looms in loom shed I. ➢ Total no. of looms ➢ Picanol Delta X (Air jet) ➢ Picanol Omni -2P (Air jet) ➢ Picanol Gamma-2P (Rapier) : ➢ Sulzer (Projectile) : : : 25 : 95 30 16 24 LOOM SHED .another thread called ‘weft’ is in the form of a cheese and passed through the tunnel of thread formed by warp sheet according to predetermined pattern. Picanol Delta X (Air jet) Picanol Omni-2p (Air jet) Picanol Gamma-2p (Rapier) : 30 : : 16 25 PICANOL – OMNI MANUFACTURER MADE LOOM RPM REED WIDTH : : : : Picanol (Belgium) 1997 750 rpm 190 cm .


continuous. . +ve. Total no. +ve continuous. The selector no.LOOM SHED-II In loom shed II there are only 24 looms. of looms:-24 SULZER (Projectile looms):-24 Specifications of projectile looms: Manufacturer Model Weft insertion media Shedding Take up motion Let off motion Warp stop motion Reed width : : : : : : : : Sulzer TM P7300 HP. Electrical. If the counts of the warp in the exiting beam and that of the fresh beam are different. then the selector no. no. Projectile +ve cam shedding. drop wire type 360 cm (double width) 4 Max. of colour mixing possible : KNOTTING When the reed count is not changed on a specific loom. is set according to the count of warp in the beams. the ends of the fresh beam are tied with that of the exiting one with the help of TODO-knotting machine.

It involves 4 steps: ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ inspection grading cutting plan packing faults observed PROCEDURE: Cloth roll Inspection machine Folding machine . skewing and sanforizing unit where the fabric is singed. FINISHING After weaving. mercerised and heat set by using a stenter. Malwa Industries Limited has a combined singeing. Fabric so obtained is inspected and packed for selling purpose. skewed and sanforized to remove protruding fibres and make the fabric shrink proof. Coating is also done on some fabrics with the help of a Gaston Systems’ foam coating machine. INSPECTION AND FOLDING The main function of this department is fabric inspection and folding or rolling of fabric. One knotting machine is sufficient to serve all the 95 looms. The fabric is further desized.for the warp sets at the two levels are kept accordingly. This department consists of testing. Two persons set the beam in position while one runs the TODO machine. This is the department where the quality of the raw material and the finished product is checked. inspection & folding. the fabric is finished as per quality of fabric. The m/c can work at a speed of 200-500 knots/min and it is a Fisherman knot.

A total of 38 points per 100 m cloths are acceptable. So.Grading Packaging Mending (reworking) VARIOUS INSPECTION SYSTEMS ➢ 10 – point system ( JAPANESE system ) ➢ 4 – point system ( AMERICAN system ) here.. MACHINES IN FOLDING . The faults with 4 points are considered as major damages and that with single point are considered as miner damages. 4 major and 22 minor damages are the acceptable limit beyond which the piece is rejected. the faults are categorized on the basis of fault length as show below: 0-3 inches 3-6 inches 6-9 inches 9 inches & above : : : : 1 point 2 point 3 point 4 point Hence. In this system. in 100m of cloths. the system used is 4 point system. each fault is assigned respective points. according to the length of the faults. The piece with more than 38 points per 100 m is rejected.

e. ➢ MENDING TABLE – There are two mending tables for reworking i.e. Frend name is given to piece if length is in between 60-90cm.There are 2 folding machines used for forming the bale of the fabric. ➢ ROLLING MACHINE – There is one rolling machine for forming the roll of cloth. FRC : It is given to the small pieces which can also be sold in 50Kg bag. Chindi name is given to piece if length is in between 0-30cm. Different grade which are given to the denim fabric are: . Rags name is given to piece if length is in between 30-60cm. The speed of the inspection is kept 20 – 25 mpm. for mending the damages if possible. The manufacturer is ALMAC. 6-9 inch damage is considered as 3 point. 0-3 inch damage is considered as 1 point. 9 inch above damage is considered as 4 point.➢ INSPECTION MACHINES – There are total 9 inspections machines for the fabric inspection. ➢ BALE PRESSING MACHINE – There are two bale-pressing machines for pressing the bale. ➢ ➢ FOLDING OR FLATTING MACHINES . GRADING: Grading is done in order to differentiate between good quality material and poor quality material. 3-6 inch damage is considered as 2 point. INSPECTION : It is done in American style i. 4 points system.

Package is done mechanically by the machine named after the company PENGUIN-COIMBATORE having rpm 1500. The threading diagram is as follows: .P/100yd2 10 10 20 40 40 60 60 continous defect Major point/LMN -1 3 5 6 15 15 NA NA Peace Length Allowed 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 part 1 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-4 NA NA NA 2S3V shade variation CUTTING PLAN : Cutting plan is made in accordance with the number and type of defects.Grades Ultmo Platinum Gold Fresh SSI 2ND 2SL 2SV D. PACKING Packing for despatchable material is done in continuous process by machine of LDPE sheet which is used for protecting the material from moisture and damage.

one the physical testing lab and the other is chemical testing and washing lab. It comprises of two department.This include the faults like bent pick. oily weft. It also looks after the various processing parameters and the extent of utilization of resources.D St Fil Insert film an re m & jug to ci tc Ro advance n h ll g Ro Ro lle lle rs rs FAULTS NOTED IN FOLDING : ➢ MINOR FAULTS – This includes slubs. thick pick. ➢ MAJOR FAULTS . double pick. stain mark. . QUALITY ASSURANCE This department takes care of the quality aspect of the raw materials (fibre or yarn) and other auxiliaries for processing of the raw material . stains and contamination. either produced from outside or that being produced over here (at different stages of the process).

➢ Labour disputes details if any & industry steps for staff development. ➢ Work load distribution details (operational staff & work men only). ➢ Mandatory provision of labour welfare as per factory act. ➢ Delegation of responsibility & authority among employees. ➢ Management hierarchy of the organization as well as decision making system of the organization. ➢ Safety measures adopted in the industry. which is used to retain coarse solids found in waste water. is concerned. workmen training. ➢ Welfare of staff.) As far as the HR & ADMN. It is a device with opening generally of uniform size. officers & work men. Screens are of two types: ➢ Bar screen type ➢ Perforated metal plate type depending on size & nature of matter to be retained. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT Screening : The first unit operation encountered in waste water treatment plats is screening. the following points are taken into consideration. Grit Removal Chamber: . ➢ Employment details of employees & work men.HUMAN RESOURCE & ADMINISTRATION (HR & ADMN. ➢ Salary/wages structure of the company.

Secondary Clarifier (SC): It is provided for the separation of concentration of sludge for effluent. Here the sludge settles down to be recirculated again with fresh incoming effluent and chemicals while clear effluents with few particulates low to the clarification zone. Objective: To receive the effluent from dyeing unit. gravel or other heavy materials that have specific gravities or settling velocities considerably these of organic putrescible solids. BOD (Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand): . Here sedimentation takes place.These are required in sewage treatment plant. Aeration Tank : Its objective is biological treatment of waste water for reduction of organic matter & suspended solids. Equalization Tank: It is used to minimize the variability of waste flow rates and composition. The grit chamber is provided to: ➢ Protect moving mechanical equipment from abrasion and accompanying abnormal wear. after screening the effluent through BSC (bar screen chamber) it is used to equalize the flow before taken to subsequent units and also avoids the anaerobic conditions with the help of floating aerators in tank. The untreated effluent from generation source is collected in equalization tank. ➢ Reduce formation of heavy deposition in pipe lines/channels. Grit consists of sand. SCC (solid content clarifier ): The effluent from the EQT-1 is dosed with chemicals in a draft tube to bring about effective coagulation and flocculation of water at reduced chemical composition (alum & polyelectrolyte).

.It is an empirical test to determine relative oxygen requirement of effluents. The BOD measures the oxygen utilized during a incubation period for the bio-chemical degradation of organic matter.

Different grade which are given to the denim fabric are: Grades D.P/100yd2 Major point/LMN Peace Length Allowed part Ultmo Platinum Gold Fresh SSI 2ND 2SL 2S3V 2SV 10 10 20 40 40 60 60 shade variation continous defect -1 3 5 6 15 15 NA NA 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 80-125 1 1 1-2 1-2 1-2 1-4 NA NA NA CUTTING PLAN : Cutting plan is made in accordance with the number and type of defects.GRADING: Grading is done in order to differentiate between good quality material and poor quality material. Package is done mechanically by the machine named after the company PENGUIN-COIMBATORE having rpm 1500. The threading diagram is as follows: . PACKING Packing for despatchable material is done in continuous process by machine of LDPE sheet which is used for protecting the material from moisture and damage.

thick pick.This include the faults like bent pick. . one the physical testing lab and the other is chemical testing and washing lab. QUALITY ASSURANCE This department takes care of the quality aspect of the raw materials (fibre or yarn) and other auxiliaries for processing of the raw material . oily weft.  MAJOR FAULTS . stains and contamination. double pick. It also looks after the various processing parameters and the extent of utilization of resources. stain mark. either produced from outside or that being produced over here (at different stages of the process). It comprises of two department.Film Roll Insert film & jug to advance Stretch Rollers Dancing Rollers FAULTS NOTED IN FOLDING :  MINOR FAULTS ± This includes slubs.

Screens are of two types:  Bar screen type .  Management hierarchy of the organization as well as decision making system of the organization. is concerned.  Salary/wages structure of the company. the following points are taken into consideration.  Employment details of employees & work men.HUMAN RESOURCE & ADMINISTRATION (HR & ADMN. officers & work men.) As far as the HR & ADMN.  Safety measures adopted in the industry. It is a device with opening generally of uniform size. EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT Screening : The first unit operation encountered in waste water treatment plats is screening. which is used to retain coarse solids found in waste water.  Work load distribution details (operational staff & work men only).  Welfare of staff.  Mandatory provision of labour welfare as per factory act.  Delegation of responsibility & authority among employees. workmen training.  Labour disputes details if any & industry steps for staff development.

The grit chamber is provided to:  Protect moving mechanical equipment from abrasion and accompanying abnormal wear. Here the sludge settles down to be recirculated again with fresh incoming effluent and chemicals while clear effluents with few particulates low to the clarification zone. The untreated effluent from generation source is collected in equalization tank. Grit Removal Chamber: These are required in sewage treatment plant. Perforated metal plate type depending on size & nature of matter to be retained. gravel or other heavy materials that have specific gravities or settling velocities considerably these of organic putrescible solids. Objective: To receive the effluent from dyeing unit. Here sedimentation takes place. SCC (solid content clarifier ): The effluent from the EQT-1 is dosed with chemicals in a draft tube to bring about effective coagulation and flocculation of water at reduced chemical composition (alum & polyelectrolyte). Aeration Tank : . Grit consists of sand.  Reduce formation of heavy deposition in pipe lines/channels. Equalization Tank: It is used to minimize the variability of waste flow rates and composition. after screening the effluent through BSC (bar screen chamber) it is used to equalize the flow before taken to subsequent units and also avoids the anaerobic conditions with the help of floating aerators in tank.

The BOD measures the oxygen utilized during a incubation period for the bio -chemical degradation of organic matter. BOD (Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand): It is an empirical test to determine relative oxygen requirement of effluents.Its objective is biological treatment of waste water for reduction of organic matter & suspended solids. Secondary Clarifier (SC): It is provided for the separation of concentration of sludge for effluent. .

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