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Grammar practice.


Present Tense Simple Present tense Continuous

is used to express: is used to express:
1. Habits and routines 1. Events happening at or around the
e.g Karen usually deals with the clients. moment of speaking
I often get junk emails from unknown e.g. He is having breakfast at the moment.
. companies. It is snowing hard today.
2. Permanent/general situations 2. Temporary/particular situations
e.g I work for big foreign trade firm. e.g. I am working in Paris for two months.
My parents live in England. I am living in England for a while.
3. Facts that are always true 3. Annoying actions/complainits
e.g. The sun sets in the West. e.g. My car is always breaking down!
Water boils at 100 C. Yiu are always arriving late on
4. Timetables and programmes 4. Fixed future arangements
e.g. British Airways flight BA309 leaves e.g We are spending our holiday in Greece
Rome at 7.45 and lands in London at next summer.
8.55 They are moving to the new premises in
School starts on the 15th of September. April.
Time expressions : Time expressions :
- every day/week/month/year etc. - now, at the moment, at present, today,
- usually, always, ever, never, often, tonight etc.
seldom, sometimes.


Past Tense Simple Past Tense Continuous
Is used to express: Is used to express:
1.An action completed at a stated 1. An action that was in progress at
time in the past a particular moment in the past.
e.g. The merchant bank went e.g. At 9 o’clock last night she was
bankrupt in 1997. talking on the phone.
The first world war started in 1914. What were you doing this time
2. Actions which happened one after
another (a sequence of actions) 2. Two or more actions which were
happening at the same time in the
e.g. He entered the office, picked up
the phone and started to talk.
e.g. They were talking to the clients
while I was filling in a form.
3. With non-continuous verbs (like, 3. A past action that was in progress
love, hate, prefer, believe, when another action interrupted it.
remember, think, understand, forget,
e.g. While she was explaining her
know, want, mean, need, seem, see,
proposal somebody interrupted her.
feel, taste, smell etc).
e.g. She wanted to buy a mansion but
she couldn’t afford it.
4. Past actions which won’t happen 4. Past actions which describe the
again. background to the events in a story.
e.g. Charles Dickens wrote a lot of e.g. We were skiing on the slope. It
novels. was snowing heavily…

• The Past Tense Simple is often used with past time expressions:

a) with prepositions: - at two o’clock/the end of the month/on Christmas

- on Monday/the 15th of April/New year’s Day

- in May/winter/1996/the 1980s

b) without preposition: yesterday/yesterday morning/last week/last

night/a few days ago



1. Indefinite action: Somebody has broken the window.

I have got my driving-license.
2. Recent action:
- just – The taxi has just arrived.
- already – Have you already talked to him?
Yes, I have already talked to him.
- not…yet – I haven’t talked to him yet.
- lately/recently – I haven’t talked to him recently.
- up to now/so far – He has asked ten questions so far.
- before – Have you met before?
We haven’t met before.

3. A series of repeated actions in the past which may continue into

the present (adverbs of frequency)
- ever – Have you ever travelled by plane?
- never – I have never travelled by plane.
- always – She has always bought expensive clothes.
- often – They have often visited their grandparents.
- seldom (rarely) – They have seldom visited their grandparents.

4. An action taking place in a period of time which is not over yet.

- today – Where have you been today?
- this (week, month, year etc) – I have been very busy this week.

5. An action which is not over yet or which has a result for the
present moment.
- How long have you known Mary?
- I have known Mary for 5 years.
- I have known Mary since 2002.

FOR is used to express a period of time

SINCE is used to express a point in time.



1.Indefinite action: 1.Definite action:
e.g. Somebody has broken the window. e.g. Somebody broke the window on

e.g. I have got my driving-license.

e.g. I got my driving-license in June.

2. An action taking place in a 2. An action taking place in a

period of time which is not over period of time which is over:
e.g. Where have you been today? e.g. Where were you yesterday?
e.g. I was busy last week.
e.g. I have been busy this week.

a) expressing a recent action:
- just
- already
- not…yet
- lately/recently
- up to now/so far.
- before
b) adverbs of frequency:
- always
- ever
- never
- often
- seldom (rarely)
c) - how long
- for
- since



1. An activity which began in the past and is still continuing now:

How long have you been driving the car?
I have been driving the car for 5 years.
I have been driving the car since 2004.
I have been driving the car since I was 18.

2. A past activity which has caused a present result:

I have been working all day. (I’m tired now).
She has been travelling all night. (She is exhausted).
Have you been crying? (Your eyes are red).
He has been swimming. (His hair is wet).
a past action taking place before another past action

E.g. We had just got into the car when it started raining.
She had already entered the house when the storm broke out.
She had not entered the house yet when the storm broke out.
He had finished the paper before I rang him up.
We arrived at the airport after the plane had landed.
He told me he had never travelled by plane before.



E.g. He had been speaking for an hour when we came. (he was still
speaking when we came).
They had been driving for an hour when the accident happened.




I shall leave tomorrow. We shall leave tomorrow.

You will leave tomorrow. You will leave tomorrow.
He They will leave tomorrow.
She will leave tomorrow.

2. Interrogative


Shall I leave tomorrow? Shall we leave tomorrow?

Will you leave tomorrow? Will you leave tomorrow?
He Will they leave tomorrow?
Will she leave tomorrow?

3. Negative

I shall not leave tomorrow/shan’t leave

You will not leave tomorrow/won’t leave
She will not leave tomorrow/won’t leave
We shall not leave tomorrow/shan’t leave
You will not leave tomorrow/won’t leave
They will not leave tomorrow/won’t leave


IF…I don’t go out so much IF…I stop smoking

do more work have more money

pass my exams save some every week

go to university rich when I’m thirty

study economics have my own business

become an economist make a lot of money

earn a good salary retire when I’m forty



- is used to express an activity that will be in progress at a particular

moment in the future.

E.g. This time tomorrow I will be flying to London.

At three o’clock tomorrow he will be attending a meeting.
This time next week I will be attending a training course in Rome.
What will you be doing tomorrow afternoon?
He will be travelling all night.
She will be working hard all week.


- It is used for an action that will be completed before a particulat time in the
future (together with the time phrase by)

E.g. We won’t have repaid the loan by March.

They will have sold all the goods by the time the Trade Fair closes.


1. Affirmative
I am going to spend my holiday in Spain.
You are going to spend your holiday in Spain.
He is going to spend my holiday in Spain.
She is going to spend her holiday in Spain.
We are going to spend our holiday in Spain.
You are going to spend your holiday in Spain.
They are going to spend their holiday in Spain.

2. Interrogative
Where are you going to spend your holiday?

3. Negative
I am not going to spend my holiday in Spain.

1. immediate action: Look at the sky! It is going to rain.
2. intention: We are going to spend our holiday in Greece next summer.
VI. Grammar practice.
Modal Verbs:
• are followed by an infinitive without “to”
• have only one form (there is no “-s” in the third person
singular and there are no forms with “–ing” or “-ed”)
• do not form the interrogative or negative with the help of
auxiliary verbs
• do not have forms for all the times and tenses; others
expressions are used instead
CAN – COULD - ability I can speak English fluently.
(TO BE ABLE TO) She can’t drive.
He could ski when he was
You can come if you want.
- possibility You could come by plane.
You can leave your coat
over there.
Can I speak to you for a
- permission(less formal) minute?
You can use my phone.
You can’t park over there.
Can you help me with my
- polite requests, offers and luggage?
instructions (“could” is Could you lend me your
more polite than “can”) dictionary?
Can I help you?
When you finish, you can
turn off the light.
I can’t see anything over
- with “see”, “hear”, Can you here me?
“smell”, “taste”, “feel” to I can smell something
speak about something burning.
which is happening now It can’t be Tom. He is in
Paris now.
- deduction (can’t) You can’t be hungry. You
have just eaten.

MAY – MIGHT - permission (very formal) May I use your phone?

(TO BE ALLOWED May I leave now?
TO/TO BE PERMITTED - possibility It may rain later in the
TO) afternoon.
She might be at school but I
am not sure.
MUST (TO HAVE TO) - strong obligation (due to You must do something
some personal about it.
- strong obligation (due to We have to wear uniforms
some external at school.
- interdiction You mustn’t park your car
over there
- lack of obligation You don’t have to come
with me.
- probability She must be at the office
- advice, opinion, You should see a doctor if
SHOULD (OUGHT TO) recommendation you don’t feel well.
They should invest more in
A) Complete the sentences with can, can’t, could, couldn’t or be able to:

1. I’m afraid I ………. join you on the trip.

2. He ……………….. arrive in time last night as he was stuck in a traffic-jam.
3. I don’t think ……………….. to accompany you tomorrow.
4. I …………… skate really well when I was younger.
5. He ………………………to conclude a contract.
6. Do you think ……………………. to take up that job?
7. I’m sorry, ………….. attend the meeting last Friday.
8. I find Dutch very difficult. I …….. understand it but ………….. to speak it.

B) Complete the sentences with may, might or be allowed to/be permitted to:

1. You ……….. leave the office earlier today.

2. Do you think …………………to travel alone next year?
3. She ………….. be reading in the library but I’m not sure.
4. I ……. … not come to your party as I’m very busy.
5. The secretary ………………………….. to take any decisions.
6. You ………. recoup your investment but I doubt it.
7. You ………………… to drive before you get your driving-license.
8. They ………. agree on the price if you accept their terms.

C) Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t, have to/had to or don’t have
to/didn’t have to:

1. You ……………… remember to send out the letters by the end of the programme.
2. She …………. go home earlier last night because she still had some work to do.
3. You ……….. park your car over there because it is a private parking place.
4. ……………….. pay for the course in advance?
5. I …………… take part in the meeting last night so I could go to the concert.
6. I ………………. write lots of reports and I find it quite annoying.
7. ……………………..attend that training seminar on Monday?
8. You ……………… tell anyone that we concluded the business.

D) Underline the correct modal verbs:

1. You should/must talk to him seriously.

2. I don’t believe you; it can’t/mustn’t be true.
3. Your partners may/must be very pleased with this agreement.
4. I’ afraid I may not/won’t be able to arrive at the airport in time.
5. You shouldn’t/mustn’t talk to him like that.
6. They ought to/must buy that house because it has a very good price.
7. I can’t/may not come to your presentation as I already have an appointment.
8. My opinion is that you should/must

VII. Grammar practice. Passive Voice.

Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. The causer of the action, however, is
not important or not known. (In contrast, active voice focuses on the causer of an action)
Form of Passive:
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:

• the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
• the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
• the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is

Mr. Smith writes the delivery Simple Present The delivery notes are written
notes. (by Mr. Smith).

Mr. Smith is writing the Present Progressive The delivery notes are being
delivery notes. written (by Mr. Smith).

Mr. Smith wrote the delivery Simple Past The delivery notes were
notes. written (by Mr. Smith).

Mr. Smith was writing the Past Progressive The delivery notes were
delivey notes then. being written then (by Mr.

Mr. Smith has written the Present Perfect The delivery notes have been
delivery notes. written (by Mr. Smith).

: Mr. Smith had written the Past Perfect The delivery notes had been
delivery notes. written (by Mr. Smith).

Mr. Smith will write the Future The delivery notes will be
delivery note. written (by Mr. Smith).

Mr. Smith must write the Modal Verbs The delivery notes must be
delivery notes. written (by Mr. Smith).
You should follow his advice His advice should be