What are the problems/challenges that are affecting women

entrepreneurial activities?


Firstly we would like to thanks Allah who gave us strength to complete challenging tasks and His blessing that provided us confidence guidance and strength to complete this final report. Also thanks to group members to support in all problems. We tried our best to complete this task to the best of our capabilities. We are thankful to our Research Instructor Mr SAMI-ULLAH who help us a lot.


In Pakistan. On the basis of indicators/variables derived.2 million entrepreneurs in the country. it is estimated that women entrepreneurs presently comprise about 3 percent of the total 3. The separation of gender starts early and becomes a way of life. We collected the secondary data from the reading literatures and internet as well . Economic survey of Pakistan finds women entrepreneurship in Pakistan at the lowest among the developing countries.access to technology and many other factors must be focused to solve these problems faced by women entrepreneurs ´.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Now a days women empowerment has been increasing so rapidly all over the world and women are starting their own business to seek greater control over their personal and professional lives. The aim of our research is to find out the ³What are the problems along with socio cultural constraints that are affecting women entrepreneurial activities? From literature survey we found the indicators/variables that indicate the Problems / Barriers Faced by Women in Conducting Entrepreneurial Activities.communication skills . 3 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . The expected outcome of the research is that the variables we have identified are having significant impact on the problems faced by women entrepreneurs so these factors: ³ Information . women do not enjoy the same opportunities as men. leatherwork. tailoring. hypothesis will be generated and factors affecting the women entrepreneurial activities in Pakistan will be measured. pottery. ceramics and food processing having incredible skills and potential. shawl making.networking . The women are engaged in crafts such as embroidery. However. economic necessity is forcing more and more women to engage in economic activities employment or entrepreneurship. carpet or mat .

In low income countries.the business plan.The involvement level of women entrepreneurship is comparatively very low then the men.tectics and there are also some variables required to make strong relationship between dependent and independent variables which are women empowerment. there are also variables which support these dependent and independent variables called moderating variables 4 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES .smaller proportion of activities.acces to market.INTRODUCTION: Entrepreneurship is becoming an increasingly important source of employment for women across countries.So.It is also a fact that women owned businesses tened to be smaller and to grow more slowly than those owned by men.networking are 50% more likely than women to become entrepreneurs.experience and form.The research and our whole study shows some results according to which there are some variables who have crucial influence on the entrepreneurial activities of women. These variables are necessary and dominating and in the body of our report.skill development.acess to technology.population growth in female litracy are associated with higher level of entrepreneurial activity for both men and women.and more bank loan.without the presence of these variables women entrepreneurial activities cannot exist.It express the gender base differences in giving value or expansion of resourses.In average.As compared to men. Despite the rapid growth of women in professional and managerial jobs the gender gap in entrepreneurship remain significant.women entrepreneure use smaller amount of start up capital. In research we found that there are some variables on which whole women entrepreneurial activities are dependent which are finance. There are some variables which exist and are dependent on the existence of the independent variables which described above and those dependent variables are new business idea.Specifically women find themselves and entrepreneurial environment less favouriable than it is for man.

Currently there are some opportunities seeking for women entrepreneurs like Eco-friendly 5 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . Modern world has recognized the women but in India females have to face some constraints to become an entrepreneur like family restrictions. LITERATURE REVIEW: ARTICLE TOPIC: WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CHANGING ROLE OF WOMEN: AUTHOR: G. Women constitute the majority of population but still the entrepreneurial world is male dominated.and are discuss in detail and this vast division of variables is because of its vast applications in market. lack of awareness and other family obligations. The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. rather than dependent on wage employment . technically sound and professionally qualified should be encouraged for managing their own business. There are a lot of challenges and opportunities for women and by using these opportunities properly they are converting from job seekers to job creators. lack of funds. Skill. lack of resources. lack of institutions.JAYALAKSHMI INTRODUCTION: Women Entrepreneur¶ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically independent. knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures. Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries. ¼ Those women who are highly educated.

Floriculture. Vermiculture. CONCLUSION: Women should be provided the opportunities and allow them to rise up in the every field of life and educate them.Bio-technology. Herbal & health care. They should be committed to their work and be responsible for their work. Food. RECOMMENDATIONS: y Women should take time and think and clear their vision before becoming an entrepreneur. Event management. y y y They should use resources other than their job to earn more easily with their own skills. By recognizing their skills and capability government should promote them to top level managers and professionals by avoiding the discrimination because if we want to develop the whole nation we cannot ignore or neglect them. Tourism industry. Plastic materials. aware them and give them the facilities and flexibility in work so that they can perform their family duties as . Develop themselves with their family and business so that they can actively develop the whole nation too. 6 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . Sericulture. Mineral water. Telecommunication. IT enabled enterprises. fruits & vegetable processing and education.

Also. barriers to start-up and growth).ARTICLE TOPIC: WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN THE ECONOMIC SCENARIO-CHALLENGES AHEAD AUTHOR: DR. Not only have women lower participation rates in Women Entrepreneurship than men but they also generally choose to start and manage firms in different industries than men tend to do. in some countries. women may experience obstacles with respect to holding property and entering contracts. Better qualitative information and quantitative data and statistics are required to profile Women Entrepreneurs (demographic information. Increased participation of women in the labor force is a requirement for improving the position of women in society and self-employed women. It is observed that Women Entrepreneur networks are major sources of knowledge about Women Entrepreneur and they are increasingly recognized as a valuable tool for its development and promotion. Policy makers must foster the networking of associations and encourage co-operation 7 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . SRINIVASAN INTRODUCTION: Women Entrepreneurship is both about Women pose in society and the role of Women Entrepreneurship in the same society. Using a frame of reference such as that developed in the report could be valuable for the analysis of this information. THE ROLE OF WOMEN ENTERPRENEUR: Women Entrepreneurship has been largely neglected both in society in general and in the social sciences. Women are faced with specific obstacles (such as family responsibilities) that have to be overcome in order to give them access to the same opportunities as men. This would also assist in promoting awareness of the role of Women Entrepreneurs in the economy. The industries (primarily retail. education and other service industries) chosen by women are often perceived as being less important to economic development and growth than hightechnology and manufacturing. R.

the Specific obstacles to Women Entrepreneur are: type of education.and partnerships among national and international networks and facilitate Women Entrepreneurial activities by women in the economy. More generally. organizing information seminars and meetings and/or providing web-based information to those wanting to start and grow a business. since they play an effective role for contributing a mite to the economic development of the country. Hence. gendering of Women Entrepreneurship. The creation of government offices of Women business ownership is one way to facilitate this. improving the position of women in society and promoting Women Entrepreneurship generally will have benefits in terms of Women Entrepreneur. Co-operation and partnerships between national and international networks can facilitate Women Entrepreneurial endeavors by women in a global economy. 4) Promote the development of Women Entrepreneur networks. This can be done by ensuring that the impact on Women Entrepreneur is taken into account at the design stage. RECOMMENDATION: 1) Increase the ability of women to participate in the labour force by ensuring the availability of affordable child care and equal treatment in the work place. These are major sources of knowledge about Women Entrepreneur and valuable tools for its development and promotion. weak social status. lack of role models in Women Entrepreneurship. Such offices could have programmed responsibilities such as providing Women business centers.e. the choice of becoming self-employed) and at the firm level (the performance of women owned and managed firms) in order to fully understand the differences between men and Women Entrepreneur. competing demands on time and access to finance. 3) Incorporate a Women Entrepreneurial dimension in the formation of all SME-related policies. 8 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . 2) Listen to the voice of Women Entrepreneurs. CONCLUSION: In a nutshell. Women Entrepreneur must be examined both at the individual level (i.

Independent Variables: i. Finance ii. Moderating Variables: i. Skill development iv. Access to technology 3.VARIABLES: 1. Education ii. Networking and trust building v. Access to Market iii. Experience 9 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . Dependent Variables: Women Entrepreneurial activities 2.

networking and trust building. Direction of variable: Experience. Finance: It indicates that the lower availability of finance. social. knowledge and empowerment (spiritual. Networking and trust building: Lack of trust on themselves to develop their own business and also lack of relationships with business partners(logistics etc). due to which women stay away from businesses like manufacturing plants or factories. and these two factors creates problems for the women. political. and that the independent variables are finance. or economic strength of women) are the moderating variables which strengthen the dependent and independent variables relation. the greater the challenges women will face. Skill development: There are no availability of physical institution for women to enhance skills and courage. ready to take risk and ability to solve problems. 10 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . and access to technology. Access to market: Lack o0f information about the markets create more difficulties to start new business for women. The nature and the direction of the relationship of each independent variable directly affect the dependent variable. The education and experience are the moderating variables which strengthen the relationship of dependent and independent variables. access to market. Access to technology: Women have lack of awareness about the advancement in technology.THEORATICAL FRAMEWORK: RELATIONSHIP AMONG THE VARIABLES: The relationship among the variables indicating that five independent variables are related to dependent variable. it makes women to face problems that how to deal business. skill development.

how to negotiate and what are the discount facilities available. 11 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . for being women. the women entrepreneurs are sincere in repayment of loan. without putting unrealistic conditions. the woman should find a solution for the opposition in the family for doing a business and try to get full moral and financial support from them.ARGUMENTS:  Many girls who study well are denied of good education. The family members should understand them and give way for continuing their efforts for becoming and being a woman entrepreneur. in spite of taking much effort. Not only for studies. The women should not be treated as supplementary income providers.  The family members may hesitate to invest money in business started by woman or permit to avail bank loan. But. all the property may be in the name of male persons and they may not be ready to put security for availing a bank loan. They should not give up even if the loss is more. First.  The women are expected to spend more time for the family and more responsibilities are thrust on them so that they can not even think of doing any business. In the young age itself. They should not allow anybody to cheat them in anyway.  The women should learn to analyze the different and small factors in business field like how to get raw materials of good quality at a cheap rate. The local government and banks should come forward to help the women to get loans in an easy way. They should try to come up successfully again. they should be given full freedom. The parents should not restrict them and they should be allowed to choose the field of education as per their choice. Sometimes. for marriage and choosing their career also.  To earn confidence from bank for getting a loan is much more difficult task for women entrepreneurs. the decision making quality and freedom to choose make them grow well.  The women should not lose hope if they face failure.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM FOR THE WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES Finance Access to market Women Entrepreneurial activities Skill development Networking and trust building DEPENDENT VARIABLE Access to technology Experience Education INDEPENDENT VARIABLE Empowerment MODERATING VARIABLE 12 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES .

ELEMENTS: y y y EXPORTING JOINT VENTURE DIRECT INVESTMENT 13 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . Simply. ACCESS TO MARKETS: The openness of a national market to foreign products and services is called access to markets. ELEMENTS: y y INHERITED WEALTH(PROPERTY) SAVINGS  DEBT FINANCING: It is basically money that females borrow to run their business. acquisition and investment. finance deals with matters related to money and the markets. In this way females can bring investment to their company. shareholders receive ownership interests in the corporation. In return for the money paid.  EQUITY FINANCE: The act performed by females of raising money for company activities by selling common or preferred stock to individual or institutional investors. Not only their own money but loan also helps to establish the business.OPERATIONALIZATION: INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: 1.  INTERNATIONAL MARKETS: International marketing refers to marketing carried out by companies overseas or across national borderlines. ELEMENTS: y y SHORT TERM BORROWINGS LONG TERM BORROWINGS 2. Females may involve into international marketing to promote the business. FINANCE: A branch of economics concerned with resource allocation as well as resource management.

and pure science. and the environment. Women thereby follow and work according to the actions taken by government and make contribution towards their economy. ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY: The branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life. applied science. Today a lot of females are capable of working on computers so 14 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . working online for women is much easier. Women can keep pace with the modern and latest technology by keeping themselves updated with the modern world. engineering. and networks for the processing and distribution of data. ELEMENTS: y y y y y y INTEREST RATES ECONOMIC GROWTH TAX REVENUE GOVERNMENT BUDGET LABOR MARKET NATIONAL OWNERSHIP  INTEGRATED MARKETING: Integrated marketing attempts to create synergy among various online and offline channels and adopt a holistic approach to their marketing efforts. GOVERNMENT ECONOMIC POLICIES: The actions taken by a government to influence its economy. software. ELEMENTS: y y y y y y ETHICS SALES REVENUE LEGAL BRAND AND CUSTOMER EQUITY COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT 3. society.  INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: The technology involving the development. Its aim is to ensure all marketing and communications messages are consistent and compliment the brand. maintenance. In this way they can improve their brand positioning and work with the help of holistic approach towards marketing efforts. However. and use of computer systems. drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts.

Women are very much courageous and once they decide to do something they complete their task. So in this way. Women are less prone towards advanced technology. They should develop the interest in robortic world. ELEMENTS: y y y y y ISDN MODEM SOFTWARES HARDWARES INTERNET  ADVANCEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY: A forward step in technology. Women can make social relations with a lot of people with the help of their intellect and admirable personality.obviously they can have an easy approach to information technology and they are capable enough to understand the new terms and applications. However. 15 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . women maybe week in making contracts but they can surely approach to other companies with the help of their good will and develop their interest to invest in the company. they can complete every task related to their field. NETWORKING AND TRUSTING: A trust network is a social network in which a social relationship connecting individuals. ELEMENTS y y LACK OF INFORMATION ABOUT COMPETITORS TECHNOLOGY LACK OF INFORMATION ABOUT MANUFACTURING PLANTS AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY 4.  RELATIONSHIP WITH OUTSOURCERS: Outsourcing is the process by which a company contracts with another company to provide particular services. ELEMENTS: y y y FORWARD INTEGRATION BACKWARD INTEGRATION HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION  MOTIVATION: The general desire or willingness of someone to do something.

ELEMENTS: y y NO GOVERNMENR PLATFORM NO GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT AND RESOURSES 5. SKILL DEVELOPMENT: Skills development is the training and development that the employer provides to his employees in the workplace. Women can compete in any field. energy. Women always encourage to learn more so they will always pursue towards learning more and more. Women somehow have to face problems relating to government.ELEMENTS: y y y REWARDS AND INCENTIVES(VALUE OF GOAL) CARRIER DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY OF DESIRE  GOVERNMENT NEGLIGENCE: Government discharges one¶s responsibility. in Pakistan women are not encouraged very much so they have to face many barriers to perform well and expand their business.  TRAINING: It refers to the acquisition of knowledge. and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. women need a push towards learning more. skills. 16 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . ELEMENTS: y y y LEARNING ENHANCE KNOWLEDGE TRAINING INSTITUTES  SKILLS: A skill is the learned capacity to carry out pre-determined results often with the minimum outlay of time. Women have some inborn skills which have to be polished from time to time. or both. They can learn more and quickly as compared to males.

to take advantage of their knowledge and creativity you must get them to participate. they are risk takers. ELEMENTS: y y OUTGOINGNESS USE IN NON-THREATENING WAY 1. political. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in women¶s own capacities. or economic strength of individuals and communities. ELEMENTS: y y y y y NEW BUSINESS IDEA THE BUSINESS PLAN LEGAL FORM FINANCIAL RESOURSES TACTICS MODERATING VARIABLES: EMPOWERMENT: It refers to increasing the spiritual.  ENCOURAGE PARTICIPATION: Females are storehouse of ideas. Women can surely keep pace with the risk and manage the decrease in failure rate and lead to success. 17 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . social.ELEMENTS: y y y CONCEPTUAL TECHNICAL HUMAN DEPENDENT VARIABLE: WOMEN ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES:  ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES: Entrepreneurs are individuals who differentiate between success and failure. and they are motivated to take the steps need to achieve the goals and running the new business. When women start to participate in things they always make them better and appreciable. But.

ELEMENTS: y y y y y y WORK ENVIRONMENT COMMUNICATION REWARDS ACCOMMODATION TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE SECURITY 2.TEAMS AND ORGANIZATION) PROCESS AND METHODOLOGY  FACILITATION: The term facilitation is broadly used to describe any activity which makes tasks for others easy. It becomes easier to discuss the pros and cons of the decision and can make it better and more effective by mutual cooperation. or practice derived from direct observation of or participation in events or in a particular activity. Women try their very best to reduce the difficulty level and make the work easy and less time consuming for employees. They try and appreciate new things and are attracted towards innovations. EXPERIENCE: A practical knowledge. Women make best decision when they see a lot of people involved with them in the process of decision making. Women encourage practical work. skill. Easy work always attracts people. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT: Direct participation by the highest level executives and employees in a specific and critically important aspect or program of an organization. ELEMENTS: y y y SKILLS KNOWLEDGE LEARNINGS 18 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . ELEMENTS: y y y y ASSESSMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT TRAINING COACHING (INDIVIDUALS. They facilitate their employees to the greatest extent.

No one compete women in educational field. ELEMENTS: y y y y y y INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE PERSONALITY IMPROVEMENT POLISH OF CHARATER PHYSICAL ABILITY INTELECTUALISM 19 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . EDUCATION: It is the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind. character or physical ability of an individual.y PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES 3. Women are getting involved in various educational fields as the world is moving towards progress.



TYPE OF INVESTIGATION: Causal study: As in purpose of study. articles.RESEARCH DESIGN: PURPOSE OF STUDY: Explanatory Research: our topic of research is explanatory is nature. magzines. As there are different variables we have selected in our research. The reason for selecting explanatory research is that we want to test the relationship between hypothesis that we have designed related to women entrepreneurship. Therefore in types of investigation. because by this we will be more able to gather data through most of the people. We have also mentioned the direction of the variables. EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE: In our research topic we can use all the methods of gathering data because we can conduct interview from women who are enterpreneur. We can also make questionaire and can distribute it in different areas to know the response of women in different areas. But in the ways the most appropreiate is interview type research. we have selected explanatory research to test the relationships of different variables. the causal study will be best for determining the cause and effect relationships of different variables than correlational study. Same is the case with observation we can also observe all these problem that women facing in today¶s world according to business field. In it general public( women and 22 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . And we also know that our research topic is not new. Many secondary data is also available in the internet. Interview type research: Interview type research will be most appropreiate in women entrepreneur topic. In the above section theoratical framework we have discussed the variables and relationship among variables. books. There is one way relationship. Because one variable cause its effect on other variable.

We also collect the data once in time and develop the result. STUDY SETTING: Field Experiment: In our reseach topic we can gather the data in natural and routine environment. UNIT OF ANALYSIS: Individual and groups: The unit of analysis in our research topic is individual women and groups. We gathered most of the data by discussing in groups. 23 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . We gathered most of the data by disscusing things from different women without any arranging any proper meeting. It will also save our time. By using this type our research will have moderate interference. TIME HORIZON: Cross sectional study: The collection of data once in time and develop result. So there is no need to create any specific environment for and people who are doing their own businesses will be included who will help us to better understand the failure of women in business.

CONCLUSION:    After this Research we find that most of the respondents believed that they are facing a lot of problems regarding their entrepreneurial activities. 24 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES . social support.  We found that due to lack of awareness of these women. We have come to know that mostly women are involved in services not in manufacturing or something like that. experience. According to mostly respondents the most important problem that they are facing to start or run any business is Finance. training. they are unable to avail the opportunities from the Government sides. mobility and communication respectively.

Awareness should create among them how to get success in business life. women entrepreneurs easily came to know that how to start their entrepreneurial activities. Government should provide them relaxation in getting finance. Through this plat form lower class women entrepreneurs can easily show their work. Government should arrange conferences and training sessions so. 25 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES .     Government should not only support but also encourage them by providing incentive.RECOMMENDATIONS:  Government should arrange exhibition to promote the work of women entrepreneurs provide them a platform.

CHAND ALI 26 WOMEN ENTERPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES .com http://www.investorwords.asp http://www.html#ixzz1JOaAwElC GROUP MEMBERS: y y y y y y y MEMOONA HUMAIRA BATOOL ALI WAQAS SABA HAMEED YABINDA MUSAVIR HIRA ASLAM y y y y y http://www.html#ixzz1JOSr2TSH

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