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Full Information about Centrifugal


Most cooling systems, from residential air conditioners to large commercial and industrial chillers,
employ the refrigeration process known as the vapor compression cycle. At the heart of the vapor
compression cycle is the mechanical compressor. A compressor has two main functions: 1) to pump
refrigerant through the cooling system and 2) to compress gaseous refrigerant in the system so that it
can be condensed to liquid and absorb heat from the air or water that is being cooled or chilled .

There are many ways to compress a gas. As such, many different types of compressors have been
invented over the years. Each type utilizes a specific and sometimes downright ingenious method to
pressurize refrigerant vapor. The five types of compressors used in vapor compression systems are
Reciprocating, Rotary, Centrifugal, Screw and Scroll.

We can classify compression process into to types :

(a) Compression by decreasing volume:-

Required pressure is developed by trapping a gas in a chamber, reducing the volume of the chamber
and increasing the pressure of the gas by the ratio of initial chamber to the final volume.

(b) Compression by accelerating fluid :-

The second method of compressing gases is based on the conversion of kinetic energy into the Popular Posts
potential energy. Accelerating fluid to a higher velocity and then decelerating it by changing its
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Introduction of Areodynamics ( Bernoulli’s Principle

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) was a Swiss scientist
who studied fluid flows. From his work emerged
“Bernoulli’s Principle.” This law sta...


A pattern is a shaped form of wood or metal around
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We are going to talk about Centrifugal Compressor
Full Information about Centrifugal Compressor

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Centrifugal Compressors Most cooling systems, from residential air
Centrifugal compressors use the rotating conditioners to large commercial and industrial
action of an impeller wheel to exert chillers, employ the refrigeration process know...
centrifugal force on refrigerant inside a round
chamber (volute). Refrigerant is sucked into Aluminium Alloy and aircraft
the impeller wheel through a large circular Aluminium Alloy There are many kinds of Alloys to
intake and flows between the impellers. The choose from but often, Aluminium is chosen as it
impellers force the refrigerant outward, is lightweight (about ...
exerting centrifugal force on the refrigerant.
The refrigerant is pressurized as it is forced Ski board for 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics .
against the sides of the volute. Centrifugal The 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics Are Coming!
compressors are well suited to compressing SO we’re going to talk about Ski boards . A high
large volumes of refrigerant to relatively low performance ski base material is made ...
pressures. The compressive force generated
by an impeller wheel is small, so chillers that use centrifugal compressors usually employ more than Sand casting
one impeller wheel, arranged in series. Centrifugal compressors are desirable for their simple design and Expendable mold casting is a generic
few moving parts. classification that includes sand, plastic, shell,
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Most Common Steel Types of Tools

Steel is a ferrous metal . Ferrous metals include
Centrifugal compressor works on the principle
steel and cast iron . Most of the tools are made
of accelerating a gas to a high velocity and
from one of seven different types ...
converting its KINETIC ENERGY (velocity) into
POTENTIAL ENERGY (pressure) by decelerating
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the gas. The gas enters the eye of the impeller
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and is accelerated to the outward edge of the
Recently, as the world celebrated
impeller as it rotates. It then enters a diffuser
the first lunar landing, Apollo 11
where its direction is changed, causing
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deceleration. This deceleration converts the KE
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into the PE, pressure. If the gas is to be further
compressed, then a return chamber directs it from
the diffuser to the eye of the next impeller in
series. The gas enters a collector or volute when it is to leave the compression stage. It is discharged
to the process through a discharge nozzle.

§ The centrifugal compressor has no connecting rods, pistons and valves; so the shaft bearings are the
only points subject to wear. The compressor discharge pressure is a function of gas density, impeller
diameter and design, and impeller speed. Centrifugal compressor impellers rotate very rapidly: Archive
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High speed above 9,000 RPM Full Information about Centrifugal Compressor

Power is supplied by an electric motor or steam turbine. Vapor enters the on the center of impeller Casification of the compressors
around the shaft and is directed through the impeller blades. As the impeller accelerate the gas, by the
► October (1)
kinetic energy of the impeller is converted to the kinetic of fast moving gas. As the gas enter the volute,
it is compressed, and the kinetic energy is converted to the potential energy of compressed gas. The ► August (3)
velocity of the gas leaving the impeller is extremely high.
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In order to pass from the low pressure in impeller to the higher pressure of the diffuser, the refrigerant
necessarily needs high velocity In absence of sufficient velocity, the refrigerant will stuck in the impeller
and the compressor will stall (surge) .
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Therefore one of the fundamental parameter of centrifugal compressor design is the “tip speed ‘ Roshdy
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Which must be in the range of 240 to 231 m/sec. This parameter power (8)
determines the speed and the
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dimension of the impeller:
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A centrifugal compressor must

be specifically designed for
the right pressure difference
we want to achieve.

Part load conditions are the most critical for centrifugal compressors

Gas speed is even more critical in unloaded condition, when the gas flow decreases and therefore could
not be able to overpass differential pressure to the diffuser. If this happens, the flow can go back into the
impeller bringing compressor to stall .

One of the most innovative technologies which allows to keep sufficient gas speed also in strongly
unloaded conditions and extends unit working range, is the movable impeller discharge technology.

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Based on the type of casing design,centrifugal compressors are classified into two types:

1) Horizontally split casing design(MCL/MCH type):- This design is used for low working pressure
below 40ata.These casings are in two halves with horizontal parting plane.DMCL Compressor have two
stages of compression in parallel in a single casing.The solution is most balanced.The other aspects of
construction are the same as for the MCL Compressor.

2) Verically Split Casing design (BCL/BCH type):-This design is made of barrel construction closed
on the sides by end covers with help of studs.This type of construction is suitable for high pressure
operations up to 750kg/cm2. Another type of compressor is the PCL(Pipeline compressor),which has
casing in the form of a cup with a single closing flange in the vertical plane instead of two as with the

Example of Designation of BCL


Example : 2 BCL 40 7
/ b

2 BCL 40 7 / b

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Compressor Components

§ Casing

§ Counter Casing (If Applicable)

§ Diaphragm

§ End Cover (If Applicable)

§ Shaft

§ Impellers

§ Shaft Seals

§ Journal Bearing

§ Thrust Bearing

§ Coupling


Construction of centrifugal compressor:

§ Every centrifugal compressor consist of two parts:- An impeller which forces the gas into the rotary
motion by the action of blades, and the casing which directs the gas to the eye of the impeller and then
leads it away from the impeller perimeter at a higher pressure. For most multistage compressors, shaft
end seals are located inboard of the bearings. The internal passages are formed by a set of diaphragms.


Rotor Assembly

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Assembly of Diaphragms in Counter Casing

Assembly of Journal Bearing

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There exists some amount of thrust generated at each impeller because of the differential pressure
prevailing across it. The cumulative thrust generated across all the impellers is huge and it needs to be
supported by the thrust bearing. The thrust bearing size becomes huge if all the gas thrust has to act on
the bearing. For this purpose a rotating element called “Balancing Drum” is incorporated on the rotor.
The drum is acted upon by a pressure differential which pushes the rotor in a direction opposite to that
of the gas thrust. The thrust so generated balances the thrust produced by the impellers. Amount of
balancing depends upon the size of the drum and pressure differential created across it. The pressure
differentiated is maintained by an efficient seal placed over the balancing drum.

Cross-section of a BCL Compressor

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