A, an, some, any and the

A and an are used with singular countable nouns. A is used before consonants; an, before vowels. A cat An ocean An orange bike

Have a look at the following examples: An hour (Please note that the h is silent; therefore, hour starts with a vowel sound.) A hot dog (The h is not mute here.) A university student ("University" does not begin with a vowel sound, but, with a consonant sound. It is equivalent to saying you in English.) An unusual situation (The letter u has a vowel sound here.)

The plural of a or an is some: Some cats Some oceans

Some is also used with uncountable nouns: some milk.

In questions and in negatives sentences, any is used instead of some: There wasn't any milk. Has she sent you any photos?

However, when we expect a positive reply or when we are offering or asking for something, we use some instead of any:

It was __________ easy exam. 8. please? 4. an.Would you like some coffee? Is there some ham in the fridge. May I have __________ water. mum? I'm very hungry. Exercises: A. so he expects that his or her mother will say "yes".) The is used to refer to things previously mentioned or to refer to something unique: A man and a woman were walking along the path. Some. Milk is very good for children. (The speaker wants to eat some ham. "Are there __________ trees?" . some. a pink jacket. any or -. Let's buy __________ grapes for the party. any and the are omitted when the names express a general idea: I love bananas. 2. The man was wearing a red jumper and the woman. 5. She hasn't got __________ friends 9. 7. We don't have __________ coke. Everybody passed it. 3. There aren't __________ strawberries.(if no article is required). I would like to go to the moon. I need __________ volunteer to sweep the sitting-room and the kitchen. 1. There is __________ lady at the door who asks for you. 6. Fill in the gaps with a.

granny?" "Of course. 9. It's a desert place. but I love it. __________ whales and __________ elephant s are __________ biggest mammals on earth. I did not see anybody there. . __________ books were broken. in negatives and questions. + -where The compounds of some and any behave in the same way as some and any. 2. to ask for something or when we expect a positive response. Examples: I saw somebody there. B. although we use somein the interrogative to offer something. there aren't __________ (trees). __________ pollution is destroying __________ earth."No. We would like to spend __________ week in Barcelona. 10. 3. 8. There were __________ books and __________ comics." 10. as we saw in the previous unit. I've lost __________ crayons I bought yesterday. an. any-. 4. 1. they didn't. any + -body / -one. but __________ comics weren't. some-. the or -.(if no article is required). __________ onions aren't in __________ cellar. She hates __________ garlic. Let's buy __________ (apple juice). some. love!" 5. in affirmative sentences and. 7. any. Fill in the gaps with a. that is to say. "Did they drink __________ wine?" "No. + -thing." Some. "Could you give me __________ sweets. They are in __________ kitchen. There isn't __________ apple juice left. 6. __________ elephants never forget.

we can say I saw nobody there. Anybody can do it. I don't need anything. but we cannot use two negative words: *I did not see nobody there. Would you like something to drink? Is there anything in that drawer? I want to go somewhere else. Have you seen my car keys anywhere? . No-one can also be written no one. Let's see the following examples to end with: Somebody told me you were abroad. nobody and somebody mean the same as anyone.Did you see anybody there? Would you like something better? Instead of I did not see anybody there. Was there anybody in the house? I want something to eat. I didn't go anywhere. no-one and nobody respectively. I need nothing. Nobody came to the meeting. Any can also mean "every" or "it does not matter which / who": You can take any pencil. I went nowhere. It's very easy. Anybody.

Would you like __________ to wash your hands?. Please don't leave __________ behind at home. __________ can help them. We can do it ourselves. 15. There is no water. 10. It's very low. We do not need __________ else to run this department. __________ scares him. . 1. She needs __________ to love. They took him __________ in London. anybody. please? 9. and he never returned. nothing. anything. __________ is ringing the bell. 17. __________ could have jumped over this wall. 4. __________ lives here. __________ phoned while we were out. 13. 12. 5. They will not sing __________ in this city. I know _________ _ about this issue that you may find interesting. __________ tells me that there is __________ fishy going on . 7. She's very lonely. but they did not leave a message. Let's go __________ else to park. 8. May I have __________ for dessert. Go and see who it is. 11. 16. 6. but if I tell you. 3.Exercises: Fill in the gaps with somebody. 14. somewhere. We'll be away for a fortnight. nobody. anywhere or nowhere. you must promise to keep it (a) secret. 2. They said that they would never come back. I spent the night __________ near the beach. There is __________ to park here. He's very brave. something. There isn't __________ you can do to help them. and stole your rake.

You need another blanket. We went with him. He wants to buy a new car. we place the auxiliary verb before subject pronouns in questions: Can you help me? Has she got the comic? Does he write very often? Personal object pronouns come after verbs and prepositions: She loves me. They are good friends. Mum and dad must have gone out.) We never eat garlic. However. It barks a lot. 19. We sent you a letter. (It is used to refer to things." 20. They want to find a quiet place to lead a quiet life. They are looking for __________ to settle down and have children. You read a lot. She is studying Catalan." Personal subject pronouns go before the verb: I stayed at home. "Is there __________ at home?" "I don't think there is __________. .18. "Where would you like to stay?" "__________ will do provided it is a clean place. animals and the weather: It is raining.

it stands alone: This book is mine. I've found hers. I saw it with my own eyes. Margaret believes in you.He adores her. Your son is very clever. They have just invited us to their wedding. . These are your notebooks and those are theirs. Your lorry is very big. Ours need watering. Her face is beautiful. His house is enormous. Our engagement will be announced tomorrow. Their work was excellent. Its wing is broken. Mary is a relative of his. This pencil case is yours. Yours are bigger than mine. A possessive adjective is followed by a noun: This is my van. A possessive pronoun is not followed by a noun. that is. We don't like them.

but comfortable. Peter and __________ family do not live in London. and this is __________ father. 6. Complete the following table: Subject pronouns: I ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ you ___ Object pronouns: ___ you ___ her ___ ___ ___ ___ Possessive adjectives: ___ ___ his ___ ___ our ___ ___ Possessive pronouns: ___ ___ ___ ___ (not possible) ___ ___ theirs B. We wish __________ would study harder. We love __________. "She met a boy yesterday. have you seen __________ money-box? I'd like to put a couple of coins in.Exercises: A. . and says that she loves __________ deeply. __________ say that __________ is too big a city for __________. 8. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate personal pronouns and possessives. 1." 5. 4. That dog is almost never in __________ kennel. Mum. This is Tom. __________ son is a very bad student. but __________ daughter is brilliant. there isn't anything you can do to help __________. 9. "Is there anything __________ can do to help you" "No. Can you lend __________ __________ rubber. 2. __________ house is very small. please? I've lost mine." "__________ can't love __________ deeply! __________ only met yesterday! 3. 7. __________ doesn't like __________.

Peter?" "No. We've been living there since 1999.10." ." 14." "Where do __________ live now?" 19. pleas e. "John and __________ family do not live here any longer. t hen?" "__________ is on the floor!" "OK! Thank you. sweetheart. 16. "Where is __________ sister. "Where shall I put this book?" "Put __________ on the table. "Is this __________ pen. mum and dad. "Please send __________ a postcard when you are on holiday?" "Don't worry. __________ is raining cats and dogs." "Where is __________. __________ isn't __________. so __________ had better stay at home." "Here is __________ leg. Paul?" "__________ sister is at home." 17. We can go to the cinema tomorrow." 15. 12. "I've just bought some big ice-creams for lunch. __________ is studying for an exam." "Put __________ in the fridge." 13. mum. We'll send __________ one. __________ is __________. "How do you know that your neighbours are at home?" "Because __________ car is over there. "This table has a missing leg." 11. This is a picture of __________ house. Would you like me to tell __________ something when I get home?" 18.

of course. we are talking about a reciprocal action. our (possesive adjectives) or him. "Can __________ give __________ a glass of water.) The queen herself was among the demostrators." "Yes. (That is. please? I'm very thirsty.) I cut myself when I was peeling a clove of garlic. in other words.20. nobody helped her. your. them (object pronouns). (Please note that himself refers to the president." Reflexive pronouns are formed by adding self (singular) or selves (plural) to my. If we say that John writes to Mary and that Mary writes to John. not to the subject. . They can also mean "in person" or "personally". We saw the president himself at the reception. her. Let us have a look at them now: myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourselves themselves Reflexive pronouns are used to refer back to the subject: She made this skirt herself. they act as intensifiers: The mayor himself spoke for the abolition of the dealth penalty. it. This sort of actions are expressed by each other or one another: They write to each other / one another once a month. or.

Exercises: A. Before starting to study it. 3. 2. 5. When you see your sister. She's. she may not love him. Make __________ at home. I'll be right back. 4. himself refers back to John. but if we say that he and Mary love each other. dream (dreamt or dreamed). but she hasn't replied to __________ yet. as she had promised. The pop star __________ attended the wedding ceremony. Ingrid. but we didn't say anything. John.. to have it always to hand. I sent __________ a letter. The following units will be about verb forms and their uses.When the action expressed by the subject falls on other people or things.. The list below will be very useful to form some verb tenses. 10. 9. in fact. give my regards to __________. that is to say. or failing that. 6. 1. I get on very well with __________. 8. I made a fool of __________ by saying that stupid thing. "He hurt __________ when he was playing soccer. please. We've known __________ since we were kids. 7. However. Paul! Please behave __________. learn (learnt or learned). my best friend. (2) that hang is regular (simple past and past participle: hanged) with the meaning of "killing . Fill in the gaps as appropriate. they are both in love. you must bear in mind: (1) that a few verbs have both regular and irregular forms : burn (burnt or burned). we employ personal object pronouns: He loves her.. We include it now because it is necessary for you to learn it by heart. We send letters to __________ regularly. John loves himself means that John loves John. We looked at __________ in amazement. We even were at school together .

INFINITIVE arise awake be beat become begin bend bet bite bleed blow break bring broadcast build burn burst buy catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go SIMPLE PAST arose awoke was.somebody by dropping him or her with a rope around his or her neck". (3) and that lie is regular (lied) to refer to the act of not telling the truth. were beat became began bent bet bit bled blew broke brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew fordad(e) forgot forgave froze got gave went PAST PARTICIPLE arisen awoken been beaten become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got given gone .

grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lay lead learn leave lend let lie light lose make mean meet mistake overtake pay put read ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep smell grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid led learnt left lent let lay lit lost made meant met mistook overtook paid put read rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept smelt grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known laid led learnt left lent let lain lit lost made meant met mistaken overtaken paid put read ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn shaken shone shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept smelt .

3. Did you remember a) locking b) lock c) to lock the car? 6.speak spell spend split spoil spread stand steal stick sting strike strive swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw understand upset wake wear weep win withdraw write spoke spelt spent split spoilt spread stood stole stuck stung struck strove swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw understood upset woke wore wept won withdrew wrote spoken spelt spent split spoilt spread stood stolen stuck stung struck striven sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood upset woken worn wept won withdrawn written Underline the right answer. I asked him a) to lend b) lend c) to lending me some money. Please note that only one is correct. 2. Oranges a) contains b) contain c) are containing vitamins. . 1. I a) have gone b) have been c) went to Da Nang last year. a) Go you b) Are you going c) Do you go to the cinema tonight? 4. 5. Water a) freezes b) is freezing c) freeze at 0º Centigrade.

I a) never been b) have never gone c) have never been to America. The people a) where b) _ c) which we visited were old friends. 9. 13. 12. 22. 11. 26. Exports of computers a) fell b) was falling c) have fallen last year. The latest news a) is b) are c) were bad. 23. 14. 17. We are near the street a) that b) which c) where he lives. He was born a) in b) at c) on 1982. 25. we ll go to the seaside. I ll tell her.7. I ve lost my glasses. If you a) asked b) had asked c) have asked me. . a) At b) In c)On spring the weather starts to get warmer. I ll look a) in b) after c) out the children while you are out. When I was at school I a) must b) _ c) had to wear uniform. If the weather a) was b) will be c) is fine. a) what b) which c) that is annoying. 21.30. Leaves a) fall b) are falling c) falls from the trees in the autumn. 19. 18. 16. There is too a) much b) few c) many sex and violence on TV. If I a) see b) will see c) saw her. 29. 28. They are coming a) in b) at c) on Monday. look a) up it b) it up c) them up in the dictionary. 20. 10. a) All b) Everyone c) All of people loves the spring. 15. 24. I have a) something b) anything c) some thing to tell you. 8. I saw him a) in b) on c) at 6. If you don t know the word. She promised not a) tell b) telling c) to tell anyone. I would have told you. I would tell you if I a) know b) knew c) had known. 27. The graph shows a) that b) _ c) why the growth in the number of cars.

Could you a) tell b) say c) inform me the time please. Where did you put my bicycle a) to b) _ c) in ? 45. 51. He a) must pass b) must have passed c) must be passing the exam. We stayed in Dalien a) for b) during c) when two weeks. We ll pick you a) _ b) up c) in outside the station. 44. I a) wouldn t b) couldn t c) mustn t do that if I were you. Mercury is a) a b) _ c) the nearest planet to the Sun. 46. Could you tell me a) the b) _ c) to way to the station? 43. . 34. I came to the Netherlands a) for studying b) to study c) for study Economics. You must a) to work b) work c) learn hard to pass the IELTS test. 42. 49. 39. It s fine and a) the b) _ c) warm sun is shining. 36. 47. 38. We will be able a) go b) to go c) to going there tomorrow. a) Its b) It c) It s easy to do this test. I went to a) _ b) the c) near seaside for my holiday. We must find a) out b) in c) house where he lives. 41. The little boy can a) ride b) rides c) to ride a bicycle. 37. I don t know a) why b) what c) which she said that. We don t have a) much b) many c) little time left. 31. 33.30. 40. 50. You should not a) to leave b) left c) leave rubbish in the park. 35. 32. He looks happy. How a) much b) a lot of c) many times have you been to Amsterdam? 48. She a) bought b) purchased c) brought the food home from the supermarket. It is not a) warm enough b) enough warm c) enough warmer to go outside.

67. They turned a) up b) in c) _ late at the airport. 69.52. c) In comparison. 58. 59. I don t know where a) he be b) is he c) he is. Our teacher told us a) to do b) do c) to doing our homework. Have you tried to give a) in b) by c) up smoking? 66. 53. I ll make him a) to pay b) pay c) paying back the money. 70. 64. 57. 63. b) In contrast. I wish I a) don t have to b) didn t have to c) mustn t do this test. Consumption of fast foods is a) higher b) more highly c) more higher in the UK. . He s mean. 74. I stopped a) smoke b) smoking c) to smoke last year. I m sorry I haven t replied a) to b) _ c) on your letter. 73. a) On the contrary. I wish you a) would stop b) stop c) stopped smoking. 71. 62. I want you a) help b) helping c) to help me. a) A b) _ c) Very difficult situation has arisen at the UN. to a) _ b) fast c) the development of manufacturing industry in the nineteenth century. 72. It is difficult to get used to a) live b) living c) _ in a foreign country. I wish you a) would tell b) had told c) told me yesterday. 55. The percentage of car owners a) was b) _ c) were higher in 2002. he s very generous. I asked her what a) did she think b) she thought c) does she think. We are looking forward a) to finish b) to finishing c) to have finished our exams. 54. 68. Come in and a) put b) take c) wear off your coat. When I get up in the morning I a) have b) am having c) am eating breakfast. When I was at school we used to a) wearing b) _ c) wear uniform. 56. 61. The invention of electricity made a) an b) _ c) some important contribution. 65. 60.

Someone broke into our house and a) stole b) burgled c) robbed d) took our comput r. e 89. She a) reminded b) told c) said d) explained us about the time of the test. I stayed in Shanghai a) during b) _ c) for d) in 3 years. I would be grateful if you a) will b) would c) can d) could help me with this test. The government is spending a lot of money a) by b) for c) on public health. We told the children to a) put in b) put away c) put off their toys. Oh dear! We ve just run a) over b) into c) out of a cat. I a) never have been b) have never been c) never been to the US. You are pulling my a) ear b) leg c) arm! 80. . That can t be true. 81. I have a) some b) _ c) any d) many news for you. I a) have been knowing b) have known c) know him for a long time. 86. The book a) _ b) what c) who d) that I m reading is about the Vietnam war. 82. 87. Now underline two right answers. Be quick! The police a) _ b) is c) are coming! 77. 90. Oh dear! We ve run a) into b) out of c) over petrol. I suggest a) you apply b) to apply c) applying d) applies for the job. 79. I started a) to study b) study c) studying d) learn English when I was 8.75. 76. 85. 78. 83. Will you please help me a) doing b) do c) I do d) to do this test? 84. 91. 88.

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