as" SYNOD

ANGLICAN CHURCH OF AUSTRALIA

DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

SECOND SESSION

13-15MAY2011

Drouin, VIC

Section 1

Procedures Program

Synod Representatives Synod Elections Business Paper

Issued by the Registrar, Diocese of Gippsland, PO Box 928, Sale Vic 3853 Phone - (03) 51442044 Fax - (03) 5144 7183 Email- registrar@gippsanglican.org.au Website - http://www.gippsanglican.org.au

18 April 2011

SECTION ONE

ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY- SIXTH SYNOD

13-15 MAY 2011

DROUIN, VIC

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Notes on Synod Procedures

1

Synod Program

2

Synod Representatives

4

Synod Elections

9

Business Paper including motions

10

Appendices:

A - The Anglican Communion Covenant & Study Guide

B - Notice of Motion NMIl on Global Warming & supporting papers

C - Synod Elections - Nomination Form

16 25

54 66

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NOTES ON SYNOD PROCEDURES

The following notes are provided for the guidance of members of the Synod:

• When any member rises to speak she/he shall address the President only, and not the Synod, or any member thereof.

• When a member is speaking, no other member may rise to speak, nor may interrupt him/her, except through the President.

• No member should rise to speak unless he/she intends to move, support or oppose a resolution - save for the purpose of making an explanation or asking a question, and then only by the leave of Synod.

• Whenever a member enters or leaves the Synod, or crosses from one side of the House to the other, it is customary to bow to the Chair.

• The Attendance Book is to be signed by all Representatives at each session of the Synod.

• It when giving notice of motions, questions or moving motions or amendments, members must give copies in duplicate to the assistant secretaries.

Copies of Standing Orders of the Synod of the Diocese of Gippsland will be available at the Registrar's table during Synod.

DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH SYNOD

SYNOD PROGRAM 2011

Friday 13 May 2011

7.30 pm

Evensong - Christ Church, Drouin.

8.45 pm

First sitting of the Session in Christchurch, Drouin -

The President's Charge

Saturday 14 May 2011

8.30 am

Synod Eucharist - Christ Church, Drouin

Preacher: The Primate, The Most Reverend Phillip Aspinall, Archbishop of Brisbane

Dean, Archdeacons and Canons - Copes Clergy please robe - white stole

Lay Readers also please robe

10.00 am

Morning Tea

10.30 am

Synod sitting in the Parish Hall, Drouin. Commences with Prayers by the Chaplain

Synod Business

a) Procedural matters (including the giving of notices)

b) The Assistant Secretaries will advise the Synod of those

nominated for election to positions.

c) Legislation

d) Motions with the approval of Bishop-in-Council

e) Reports

11.30 am

Primate to Address Synod

1.00 pm

Lunch Recess

Lunch will be in the vicinity of the Parish Hall

2.00 pm

Resume - Continuation of Synod Business

3.30 pm

Afternoon Tea

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4.00 pm

Resume - Continuation of Synod Business

5.00 pm

Evening Prayer

7.30 pm

Synod Dinner and Fellowship Time, Parish Hall

Sunday 15 May 2011

8 - 9.00 am

Eucharist - Christ Church, Drouin

Parish Ministry team only to robe.

9.30 am

Morning Tea

10.00 am

Synod sitting commences with Prayers by the Chaplain

a) Procedural Matters

b) Reports

c) Motions on Notice

12.30 pm

Synod adjourns (no lunch will be provided)

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DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

THIRTY -SIXTH SYNOD - SECOND SESSION LIST OF CLERGY - SYNOD 2011

Surname Title, Initials & Qualifications Parish

ANDY The Rev'd Phyllis L ABORIGINAL MINISTRY-
LAKE TYERS
ASHLEY The Rev'd Edie M BSc BTh MPhil Master Mgmt PA YNESVILLE
(Priest-in-Charge)
BATT Th Rev'd John S ThL DipMin MMin MCD DMin NEERIM SOUTH
BLACKMAN The Rev'd Heather G BEd GradDipEd MStJ (Hon AVON
Deacon Assistant)
BURNEY The Rev'd Brenda BTh Dip Ang Ords DipT(EC) WESTERNPORT
(Priest-in-Charge)
CAHILL The Rev'd Heather B (Hon Deacon Assistant) HEYFIELD
CHARLES The Rev'd Bruce T BA MOE
DALTON The Rev'd Kathleen D A ABORIGINAL MINISTRY -
MORWELL
FLETCHER The Rev'd Tim F B ThDip BMin CORNER INLET
GEORGE The Rev'd Lloyd H (Honorary Priest Assistant) SALE
HOUGH The Right Rev'd Michael G BTh STL PhD (Priest BUNYIP
Evangelist and Teacher)
JACKA The Rev'd Sue M MEd BEd BTh TRAFALGAR
JACKMAN The Rev'd A Roger (Hon Deacon Assistant) CROAJINGOLONG
KILLINGBECK The Rev'd Tom (Deacon In Charge) BRUTHEN
LAWRENCE The Rev'd Erena S (Hon Deacon Asst) WESTERNPORT
LAWSON The Rev'd Stuart J DipAdmin ADipTh JP (Hon SALE
Priest Assistant)
LOGAN The Rev'd Barbara D BTh LAKES ENTRANCE & METUNG
LOWE The Rev'd Daniel A BA DipTh DipEd CHAPLAIN - SPAGS
LUNSON The Rev'd Bevil W DipDD (Welfare) Dip ORBOST
Counselling BA BibStuds (Priest-ill-Charge)
MAGEE The Rev'd Greg T D BA BD BTh GradDipMin BASS/PHILLIP ISLAND
MALUK The Rev'd Abraham M SUDANESE MINISTRY - MOE
MARTEN The Revd Heather R MMin ThDip DipMin VICAR GENERAL
MORWELL
MCDERMID The Rev'd Kenneth R Adv Cert Electronics ThDip YARRAM
MUSTON The Venerable Phillip B BA MA DipTh WARRAGUL
NANCARROW The Rev'd Canon Caroline BTh AVON
(Priest in Charge)
PERRYMAN The Rev'd A (Hon Priest Assistant) WONTHAGGI/INVERLOCH
PETERS The Rev'd Graeme J WONTHAGGI/INVERLOCH
PHILLIPS The Rev'd Lyndon M DipMin BTheol Dip ROSEDALE
AnglicanOrders (Priest-in-Charge)
PITTAWAY The Rev'd Geoffrey Pittaway MIRBOO NORTH
RAMAGE The Rev'd Jenny ABA GradDipTh (Priest-in- KORUMBURRA
Charge)
RICHARDSON The Rev'd Jeff R ThDip BMin TRARALGON
SAINES The Very Rev'd Dr Donald G BAgEc UNE Grad SALE
Celt H.Ed BTh DipMin PhD 4

TAYLOR

THOMPSON TOMS

TOOHILL TURNER WALLIS WHITE

WICKING WILLIAMS

The Rev'd Jonathan C BTheol GradDipSocSci DipTeach (Primary)

The Rev'd Neil R ThDip DipMin

The Reverend Heather W Dip CCFT (Hon Deacon Asst and Hospital Chaplain)

The Rev'd Graham J MB BS ( Han Deacon Asst) The Revd Amy ThL DipMin

The Rev'd Janet E BEd DipTh BTh

The Rev'd Jo S GradDipMusEd DipTPrim BTh (Asst Curate)

The Rev'd Antony R DipTchg DipTh DipMin The Rev'd Lyn F BTh BMin (Priest Assistant)

5

CHAPLAIN - GOS

NEWBOROUGHI YALL NTH ROSEDALE

LEONGATHA DROUIN LEONGATHA TRARALGON

BAIRNSDALE MORWELL

DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND THIRTY-SIXTH SYNOD - SECOND SESSION 2011

LIST OF EX-OFFICIO, LAY MEMBERS, YOUTH SYNOD MEMBERS AND SUPPLEMENTARY LAY MEMBERS

Ms R Armstrong AO QC MA

Mr B J Norris JP BA ThL GradDipLFAH

Chancellor

Registrar

Parish Lay Members

Supplementary Lay Members

2 Mrs Judy Tulloch

AVON Mrs Jan Cropley Enid Aurisch

BAIRNSDALE Mrs Peggie Arthur Mr Kim Eason

Dr Neale Taylor

Mr Alan Marchant

BASS/PHILLIP ISLAND

Miss Margaret Hancock Mrs Ida Hislop

Mr Robert McKay

Mrs Lillian Heflingers Mrs Margaret Gardiner Mr Denis Gardiner

BOOLARRAIYINNAR

Mrs Rose La Vie

Mrs Beverley Littlejohn

Mrs Sheila Crookston

BRUTHEN

Mrs Pam Answer Mrs Sue Saulle Mr Mario Saulle

BUNYIP

Miss Raelene Carroll Mrs Judy Collins

Mr Chris Bennie

Mrs Gladys Quigley

CHURCHILL

Mrs Anne Lyne Ms Ruth Place

Mrs Glenda Combridge Mr Ian Combridge

CORNER INLET

Mr David Allsop Mr Murray Dale Mr Robert Fulton

CROAJINGOLONG

Mrs Evonne Dubbeld

DROUIN

Mrs Alacia (Lacy) Biggs Mr Max Hine

Mr Ian Maxfield

Mrs Sue Lester

HEYFIELD

Mrs Margaret Beckett Mr David Chambers

Mrs Joan Hall

6

KORUMBURRA Mr Peter Gilbert Mr Andrew Wilson
Julie Hislop Mrs Susan Wilson
Dr Colin Thomby
LAKES ENTRANCE & Mrs Ruth Cross Mrs Fay Woodward
METUNG Mrs Kath Grandy
Mrs Val Jones
LEONGATHA Maryann Ashton (Resigned)
Mrs Marion Dewar
Heather Scott
MAFFRA Mr David Gover Mrs Deirdre Crawley
MIRBOO NORTH Mrs Lyn Eden
Mrs Denise Martin
Mr David Pearn
MOE Mrs Beryl Brien
Mrs Deidre McLean
Mr Graeme Nicholls
MORWELL Ms Janet Harris Mrs Dulcie Harris
Mrs Sandy Johnson
Mr Josef (Joe) Tettmann
NEERIM SOUTH Mr William (Bill) Mapleson
The Hon John Delzoppo
OAM
Mrs Elizabeth De1zoppo
OAM
NEWBOROUGHI Mrs Helen Davis
Y ALLOURN NORTH Mrs Jan Misiurka
Mrs Heather Quake
OM EO Mrs Beverley Cook OAM Mrs Joan Condon
Mr Brett Lee
ORBOST Mrs Barbara Lunson
Mrs Glenice White
PA YNESVILLE The Han Robert Fordham Mrs Sue Gibson
Mrs Sue Fordham
Mrs June Treadwell
ROSEDALE Mr Alan Dunkley
Mrs Sandra Dunkley
Mrs June Ross
SALE Ms Kate Campbell
Mr Philip Davis MLC
Mrs Pam Schmack
7 TRAFALGAR

Mr Bill Harrington Mr Geoff Savige Mr Nick Solohub

Mrs Pheobe Hicks Mr Len Makin

TRARALGON

Mr Trevor McLean Mr Robert Stacey Mr Mark Woods

Mr Ian Lusted

WARRAGUL

Mrs Dawn Clarke Mrs Tina Dent

Mr Andrew Ronalds

WESTERNPORT

Ms Patricia Chapman The Hon Eric Kent Mr Norm Scott

WONTHAGGI/INVERLOCH

Mr Peter Anderson Ms Juliet Bond

Mr David Perryman

YARRAM

Mr Lawrie Argus Mrs Thelma Hicks

Mrs Miriam Stackhouse

Mrs Olive Lang

Notes:

I. Seeking leave of Absence for this Session of Synod

2. Supplementary Members attending this session of Synod

NON-PARISH REPRESENTATION

Youth Representatives **

Mr Stanley Radford, Rosedale Ms Lydia Jacka, Peninsula Mr Jordan Breed, Traralgon

* * Invited but not yet accepted as at 18 April 2011.

PERSONS TO BE ACCORDED SEATS IN THE HOUSE WITH PERMISSION TO SPEAK

Braham, Mr Viv

Brown, The Rev'd Dr Robert

Wilcox, Mr David

Diocesan Solicitor

Incumbent, BoolarralYinnar/Churchill Co-operating Parish

Incumbent, Croajingolong Co-Operating Parish

Anglicare Community Development Officer

Diocesan Bushfire Community Development Worker

Harris, The Rev'd Rowena

Gover, Mrs Sarah

8

DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

Second Session of the Thirty-Sixth Synod

ELECTIONS TO BE HELD

The following positions will become vacant at this session of Synod. Where the position requires a person to be a member of Synod it must be filled by a current Synod member. Where no Synod qualification is required any person who is a member of the Anglican Church in the Diocese of Gippsland can be nominated. If you are not sure check with the Registrar.

A nomination is at Appendix C.

The following positions will need to be filled during this session of Synod.

2.1 Bishop-in-Council

The Council is responsible for managing the "temporal" affairs of the Diocese It is also the Bishop's main advisory body.

The Council usually meets on a Thursday at 1.30pm every second month and is chaired by the Bishop. The membership comprises a number of ex officio members as well as some appointed by the Bishop.

The normal meeting venue is the Board Room of the Registry Office in Sale. The meetings normally conclude by 5.30pm.

The scheduled meetings of the Council for the remainder of 20 11 following Synod are as follows:

16 June 2011

18 August 2011

20 October 2011

8 December 2011

Election ~ One clerical and two lay members of Synod to be elected. At this session of Synod, The Rev'd Barbara Logan's term expires and she is eligible for re-election. In addition, two lay vacancies need to be filled. These positions were previously occupied by Mr Peter Down and Mr Roger Jackman. Mr Down is eligible for re-election but as Mr Jackman has now been ordained deacon, he is not.

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DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND

SECOND SESSION OF THE THIRTY~SIXTH SYNOD

SATURDAY 13 MAY. 201l/SUNDAY 15 MAY 2011

- BUSINESS PAPER ~

1. Prayers by the Bishop's Chaplain.

(The President delivered his address after evensong on the previous evening).

2. President's Address - Response

Mrs Beth Delzoppo will move that the Bishop be thanked for his Presidential Address to Synod.

3. The President will announce the appointment of the two assistant Secretaries, one clerical and one lay person.

4. The President will advise that the Chairman of Committees, the Hon John Delzoppo and the Deputy Chairman of Committees, Mr Philip Davis will continue in office until the end of this 36th Synod.

5. The President will announce the appointment of one clerical and one lay person to peruse the minutes of the Synod and certify to the President within 30 days after the end of the Session whether the minutes are a true record of proceedings.

6. The President will call for nominations and the election of a Timekeeper.

7. The Assistant Secretary (Lay) will move "the suspension of so much of Standing Orders as will allow the business of the House to proceed in the order and at the times indicated in the Synod program circulated to Members and the time of sitting".

8. The President will advise that members will indicate their attendance at Synod by completing an attendance slip and handing it to the Synod Secretaries.

9. The President will announce the Elections that are required to take place during the Session, his own appointments (if made already) and the results of any uncontested elections.

1 O. The Assistant Secretary (Lay) to inform the house that the elections, if necessary, will be held from 11.00 a.m. to 2.00 p.m. today. (Standing Order 20)

11. The appointment of Scrutineers.

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12. The Assistant Secretary (Lay) to move "that the following persons be accorded seats in the House and that they be permitted to speak:

Braham, Mr Viv

Brown, The Rev'd Dr Robert

Diocesan Solicitor

Incumbent, BoolarralYinnar/Churchi II Co-operating Parish

Incumbent, Croajingolong Co-Operating Parish

Anglicare Community Development Officer

Diocesan Bushfire Community Development Worker

Harris, The Rev'd Rowena

Gover, Mrs Sarah

Wilcox, Mr David

13. The Registrar will table:

The Minute Book of the Bishop-in-Council and a report of the Parish and Diocesan Trusts.

14. The Registrar will table:

The names of those who have been appointed to various offices of the Diocese since the last Ordinary Session of the Synod.

15. The President will ask for -

a) Petitions

b) The Assistant Secretaries will advise the Synod of those nominated for

election to positions.

c) Notices of Questions

d) Notices of Motions

e) Answers to Questions (Answers to questions submitted on Saturday will be answered during the course of Synod)

(Two copies of Questions and Motions are to be handed to the Secretaries as soon as they have been read. A form is provided for this purpose)

16. Formal Motions - Standing Order 14

Before the Orders of the day or Motions are proceeded with, the President at each sitting shall read over the Motions on the Business Paper and any Motion may be taken as a Formal Motion, unless objection be taken by the word "Object" being called by a person other than the mover or the seconder and such motion on being determined formal shall forthwith be put without debate.

17. Motions recommended by Bishop-in-Council under Standing Order 11 (10)

Motion on Procedure

The Registrar will move that:

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a) this Synod suspends it business at 11.30am to receive an address by the Primate to be followed by the consideration of BrC/5 Anglican Communion Covenant;

b) following the lunch adjournment Motion BICl5 (The Strategic Plan) Synod) be an order of the day; and

c) BIC/6 (A'Beckett Park Development) be an order of the day to follow mC/5.

BICII Bishop-in-Council Report (See Section 2 of the Synod papers)

That this Synod receives the report of the Bishop-in-Council covering the work of the Council since the last session of Synod.

Moved: Archdeacon Philip Muston

BIC/2 2009/10 Annual Accounts of the Diocese (See Section 2 of the Synod papers)

That this Synod adopts the Diocesan Accounts for 2008/09.

Moved: The Hon John Delzoppo

BIC/3 2011112 Diocesan Budget (See Section 2 of the Synod papers)

That this Synod adopts the Diocesan Budget for 2011112.

Moved: The Hon John Delzoppo

18. Bills for consideration (See Section 2 of the Synod papers)

18.1 Bishop-in-Council (Further Amendment) Bill

The Registrar will move that a Bill to amend the Bishop-in-Council Act be approved in principle.

18.2 Appointments Amendment Bill

Archdeacon Marten will move that a Bill to amend the Appointments Act be approved in principle.

18.3 Redundant Acts Repeal Bill

Mr Philip Davis will move that a Bill to repeal two Acts be approved in principle.

18.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Ministry Bill

IMSynod\2011\Synod Book\Section [\Section l.doc

Archdeacon Ashley will move that a Bill to make further provision for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Ministry in the Diocese be approved in principle.

18.5 Long Service Leave Canon (Assent) Bill

The Registrar will move that a Bill to assent to the Long Service Leave Canon 2010 of General Synod be approved in principle.

18.6 Constitution Amendment (Diocesan Council) (Assent) Bill

The Hon Robert Fordham will move that a Bill to assent to an amendment to the Constitution of the Anglican Church of Australia be approved in principle.

18.7 Constitution Amendment (Section 30) (Assent) Bill

The Hon Robert Fordham will move that a Bill to assent to an amendment to the Constitution of the Anglican Church of Australia he approved in principle.

19. Other Bishop-in-Council Motions

BIC/4 Anglican Communion Covenant

That this Synod receives the final draft of the Anglican Communion Covenant and encourages the General Synod to adopt the Covenant by resolution at its next session.

Moved: The Hon. Robert Fordham (See Appendix A for the Covenant and the Anglican Communion Study Guide)

BIC/S The Strategic Plan

That this Synod:

a) notes that current diocesan strategic plan is due to come to a conclusion at the Synod session of2013;

b) expresses its appreciation to the Bishop for his evaluation of the plan in his address to Synod;

c) requests Bishop-in-Council to undertake a review of the implementation of the plan; and

d) looks forward to receiving proposals for a new plan to be launched at the 2013 session of Synod.

Moved: The Yen Heather Marten

BIC/6 A'Beckett Park Development (See Section 2 of the Synod papers)

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That this Synod:

a) Receives the report on the development of the Centre for Spirituality & Environment at A' Beckett Park;

b) Welcomes the significant progress that has been made over the past year;

c) Reiterates its strong commitment to this important initiative in the life of the Diocese.

Moved: Archdeacon Edie Ashley

Blcn Aged Care in the Diocese

That this Synod:

a) Notes that Gippsland Anglican Aged Care Limited has commissioned a report from Clark Phillips Pty Ltd of Port Melbourne on the existing aged care operations at Clifton Waters Village at Bairnsdale and Botterill Court at Morwell;

b) Notes further that the report has been received recommending four options for development at Clifton Waters and some general strategies for aged care in Morwell; and

c) In light of the growing need for aged care facilities in the Diocese, encourages Gippsland Aged Care Limited, in partnership with Bishop-inCouncil, to continue to develop the capacity of the Diocese in this important area of ministry.

Moved: Dr Neale Taylor

BICtS Diocesan Website

That this Synod:

a) Welcomes the upgrade of the Diocesan website;

b) Encourages synod members to use the website;

c) Further encourages synod members to provide feedback to the webmaster, Dr Colin Thomby; and

d) Congratulates Dr Thornby for his excellent work on the website.

Moved: The Registrar

20. Reports and Motions

(See Section 3 of the Synod papers)

The persons shown against each report will table the report and move that it be received:

a) Anam Cara Community Gippsland

b) Anglican Women in Australia

c) Anglicare Gippsland

d) Bushfire Recovery - Community Development Officer

e) Cursillo Gippsland

Ms Kate Campbell TBA

Mrs Sarah Gover Mr David Wilcox

The Rev'd Amy

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I) St Paul's Cathedral

Turner

Mr Brian Norris Mr Brian Norris TBA

TBA

Mrs Jan Misiurka Archdeacon Philip Muston

Mr Philip Davis

f) Gippsland Anglican Aged Care Limited

g) Gippsland Grammar

h) GFS - An Anglican Ministry

i) Mission Support Group

j) Mothers Union

k) St Paul's Anglican Grammar School

21. Motions Submitted by Members of Synod

NM/l Call for a Royal Commission into Dangerous Human Induced Global Warming (DHIGW) theory and preparing for future climate change.

For motion and supporting papers see Appendix B. (The cost of printing these papers was met by the mover).

Moved: Mr Kim Eason, Bairnsdale Seconded: Mr Trevor McLean, Traralgon

NM/2 Synod Motions - Follow-up

That this Synod receives supplementary reports on follow-up action being taken on the following Synod motions passed in 20 I 0:

a) 123/10 - Impact of Alcohol on the Community

b) 126/10 - Foundations of the Faith (Synod Resolution 117/09)

Moved: The Rev'd Greg Magee, Bass/Phillip Island Seconded: The Rev'd Sue Jacka, Trafalgar

NM/3 Communications Strategy

That this Synod requires Bishop-in-Council to:

a) Develop a communication strategy for making members of the Anglican Church in Gippsland aware of the resolutions of this synod and subsequent work of Bishop-in-Council and other groups in actioning these resolutions

b) Articulate to the diocese the key objectives it is working on to strategically support the mission of the Anglican churches of Gippsland

c) Consider the use of the Gippsland Anglican as a key feature of this communication strategy

Moved: Mr David Gover, Maffra Seconded: The Rev'd Jon Taylor, Gippsland Grammar

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APPENDIX A

Introduction to the Covenant Text

THE ANGL1CAN COMMUNION COVENANT

"This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it, and declare to you the eternal life that was with the Father and was revealed to !IS - we declare to you what we have seen and heard so that YOli also may have communion with us; and truly our communion is with the Father and with his SOli Jesus Christ. These things we write so that our joy may be complete. " (1 John 1.2-4).

I. God has called us into communion in Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 1.9). This communion has been "revealed to us" by the Son as being the very divine life of God the Trinity. What is the life revealed to us? St John makes it clear that the communion of life in the Church participates in the communion which is the divine life itself, the life of the Trinity. This life is not a reality remote from us, but one that has been "seen" and "testified to" by the apostles and their followers: "for in the communion of the Church we share in the divine life" 1. This life of the One God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, shapes and displays itself through the very existence and ordering of the Church.

2. Our divine calling into communion is established in God's purposes for the whole of creation (Eph I: 10; 3 :9ff.). It is extended to all humankind, so that, in our sharing of God's life as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, God might restore in us the divine image. Through time, according to the Scriptures, God has furthered this calling through covenants made with Noah, Abraham, Israel, and David. The prophet Jeremiah looked forward to a new covenant not written on tablets of stone but upon the heart (Jer 31.31-34). In God's Son, Christ Jesus, a new covenant is given us, established in his "blood ... poured out for the many for the forgiveness of sins" (Mt 26:28), secured through his resurrection from the dead (Eph I: 19-23), and sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit poured into our hearts (Rom 5:5). Into this covenant of death to sin and of new life in Christ we are baptized, and empowered to share God's communion in Christ with all people, to the ends of the earth and of creation.

3. We humbly recognize that this calling and gift of communion entails responsibilities for our common life before God as we seek, through grace, to be faithful in our service of God's purposes for the world. Joined in one universal Church, which is Christ's Body, spread throughout the earth, we serve his gospel even as we are enabled to be made one across the dividing walls of human sin and estrangement (Eph 2.12-22). The forms of this life in the Church, caught up in the mystery of divine communion, reveal to the hostile and divisive power of the world the "manifold wisdom of God" (Eph 3:9-10). Faithfulness, honesty, gentleness, humility, patience, forgiveness, and love itself, lived out in mutual deference and service (Mk 10.44-45) among the Church's people and through its ministries, contribute to building up the body of Christ as it grows to maturity (Eph 4.1-16; Col 3.8-17).

4. In the providence of God, which holds sway even over our divisions caused by sin, various families of churches have grown up within the universal Church in the course of history. Among these families is the Anglican Communion, which provides a particular charism and identity among the many followers and servants of Jesus. We recognise the wonder, beauty and challenge of maintaining communion in this family of churches, and the need for mutual commitment and discipline as a witness to God's promise in a world and time of instability, conflict, and fragmentation. Therefore, we covenant together as churches of this Anglican Communion to be faithful to God's promises through the historic faith we confess, our common worship, our participation in God's mission, and the way we live together.

5. To covenant together is not intended to change the character of this Anglican expression of Christian faith. Rather, we recognise the importance of renewing in a solemn way our commitment to one another, and to the common understanding of faith and order we have received, so that the bonds of affection which hold us together may be re-affirmed and intensified. We do this in order to reflect, in our relations with onc another, God's own faithfulness and promises towards us in Christ (2 Cor 1.20-22).

1 The Church of the Triune God, The Cyprus Statement of the International Commission for Anglican Orthodox Theological Dialogue, 2007, paragraph 1,2.

l(~ :\Sy 11 oC!\20 II \Synod Book'Scction I \Section l.doc

The Anglican Communion Covenant: the Ridley Cambridge November Text, page 2

6. We are a people who live, learn, and pray by and with the Scriptures as God's Word. We seek to adore God in thanks and praise and to make intercession for the needs of people everywhere through common prayer, united across many cultures and languages. We are privileged to share in the mission of the apostles to bring the gospel of Christ to all nations and peoples, not only in words but also in deeds of compassion and justice that witness to God's character and the triumph of Christ over sin and death. We give ourselves as servants of a greater unity among the divided Christians of the world. May the Lord help us to "preach not ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, and ourselves as your servants for Jesus' sake" (2 Cor. 4.5).

7. Our faith embodies a coherent testimony to what we have received from God's Word and the Church's long-standing witness. Our life together reflects the blessings of God (even as it exposes our failures in faith, hope and love) in growing our Communion into a truly global family. The mission we pursue aims at serving the great promises of God in Christ that embrace the peoples and the world God so loves. This mission is carried out in shared responsibility and stewardship of resources, and in interdependence among ourselves and with the wider Church.

8. Our prayer is that God will redeem our struggles and weakness, renew and enrich our common life and use the Anglican Communion to witness effectively in all the world, working with all people of good will, to the new life and hope found in Christ Jesus.

The Anglican Communion Covenant

Preamble

We, as Churches of the Anglican Communion, under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, solemnly covenant together in these following affirmations and commitments. As people of God, drawn from "every nation, tribe, people and language" (Rev 7.9), we do this in order to proclaim more effectively in our different contexts the grace of God revealed in the gospel, to offer God's love in responding to the needs of the world, to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace, and together with all God's people to attain the full stature of Christ (Eph 4.3,13).

Section One: Our Inheritance of Faith

1.1 Each Church affirms:

(1.1.1) its conununion in the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church, worshipping the one true God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

(1.1.2) the catholic and apostolic faith uniquely revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds, which faith the Church is called upon to proclaim afresh in each generation". The historic formularies of the Church of England3, forged in the context of the European Reformation and acknowledged and appropriated in various ways in the Anglican Communion, bear authentic witness to this faith.

2 Cf. The Preface to the Declaration of Assent, Canon C 15 of the Church of England.

J The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, the 1662 Book of Common Prayer, and the Ordering of Bishops, Priests, and Deacons

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(1.1.3) the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as containing all things necessary for salvation and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith4.

(1.1.4) the Apostles' Creed, as the baptismal symbol; and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith".

(1.1.5) the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with the unfailing use of Christ's words of institution, and of the elements ordained by him".

(1.1.6) the historic episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the unity of his Church",

(1.1.7) the shared patterns of our common prayer and liturgy which form, sustain and nourish our worship of God and our faith and life together.

(1.1.8) its participation in the apostolic mission of the whole people of God, and that this mission is shared with other Churches and traditions beyond this Covenant.

1.2 In living out this inheritance of faith together in varying contexts, each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(1.2.1) to teach and act in continuity and consonance with Scripture and the catholic and apostolic faith, order and tradition, as received by the Churches of the Anglican Communion, mindful of the common councils of the Communion and our ecumenical agreements.

(1.2.2) to uphold and proclaim a pattern of Christian theological and moral reasoning and discipline that is rooted in and answerable to the teaching of Holy Scripture and the catholic tradition.

(1.2.3) to witness, in this reasoning, to the renewal of humanity and the whole created order through the death and resurrection of Christ, and to reflect the holiness that in consequence God gives to, and requires from, his people.

(1.2.4) to hear, read, mark, learn and inwardly digest the Scriptures in our different contexts, informed by the attentive and communal reading of - and costly witness to - the Scriptures by all the faithful, by the teaching of bishops and synods, and by the results of rigorous study by lay and ordained scholars.

(1.2.5) to ensure that biblical texts are received, read and interpreted faithfully, respectfully, comprehensively and coherently, with the expectation that Scripture continues to illuminate and transform the Church and its members, and through them, individuals, cultures and societies.

(1.2.6) to encourage and be open to prophetic and faithful leadership in ministry and mission so as to enable God's people to respond in courageous witness to the power of the gospel in the world.

4 The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 188611888 5 The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1886/1888

6 cf. The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral 1886/1888, The Preface to the Declaration of Assent, Canon C15 of the Church of England.

7 cf. The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral 188611888

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(1.2.7) to seek in all things to uphold the solemn obligation to nurture and sustain eucharistic communion, in accordance with existing canonical disciplines, as we strive under God for the fuller realisation of the communion of all Christians.

(1.2.8) to pursue a common pilgrimage with the whole Body of Christ continually to discern the fullness of truth into which the Spirit leads us, that peoples from all nations may be set free to receive new and abundant life in the Lord Jesus Christ.

Section Two: The Life We Share with Others: Our Anglican Vocation

2.1 Each Church affirms:

(2.1.1) communion as a gift of God given so that God's people from east and west, north and south, may together declare the glory of the Lord and be both a sign of God's reign in the Holy Spirit and the first fruits in the world of God's redemption in Christ.

(2.1.2) its gratitude for God's gracious providence extended to us down through the ages: our origins in the Church of the apostles; the ancient common traditions; the rich history of the Church in Britain and Ireland reshaped by the Reformation, and our growth into a global communion through the expanding missionary work of the Church; our ongoing refashioning by the Holy Spirit through the gifts and sacrificial witness of Anglicans from around the world; and our summons into a more fully developed communion life.

(2.1.3) in humility our call to constant repentance: for our failures in exercising patience and charity and in recognizing Christ in one another; our misuse of God's gracious gifts; our failure to heed God's call to serve; and our exploitation one of another.

(2.1.4) the imperative of God's mission into which the Communion is called, a vocation and blessing in which each Church is joined with others in Christ in the work of establishing God's reign. As the Communion continues to develop into a worldwide family of interdependent churches, we embrace challenges and opportunities for mission at local, regional, and international levels. In this, we cherish our mission heritage as offering Anglicans distinctive opportunities for mission collaboration.

(2.1.5) that our common mission is a mission shared with other Churches and traditions beyond this Covenant. We embrace opportunities for the discovery of the life of the whole gospel, and for reconciliation and shared mission with the Church throughout the world. We affirm the ecumenical vocation of Anglicanism to the full visible unity of the Church in accordance with Christ's prayer that "all may be one". It is with all the saints in every place and time that we will comprehend the fuller dimensions of Christ's redemptive and immeasurable love.

2.2 In recognition of these affirmations,

each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(2.2.1) to answer God's call to undertake cvangclisation and to share in the healing and reconciling mission "for our blessed but broken, hurting and fallen world'", and, with mutual accountability, to share our God-gi ven spiritual and material resources in this task.

(2.2.2) to undertake in this mission, which is the mission of God in Christ":

8 IASCOME Report, ACC-13

9 The five Marks of Mission are set out in the MISSIO Report of 1999. building 011 work at ACC-6 and ACC-8.

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(2.2.2.a)

(2.2.2.b)

(2.2.2.c)

(2.2.2.d)

(2.2.2.e)

"to proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom of God" and to bring all to repentance and faith;

"to teach, baptize and nurture new believers", making disciples of all nations (Mt 28.19) through the quickening power of the Holy Spirit'" and drawing them into the one Body of Christ whose faith, calling and hope are one in the Lord (Eph 4.4-6);

"to respond to human need by loving service", disclosing God's reign through humble ministry to those most needy (Mk 10.42-45; Mt 18.4; 25.31- 45);

"to seek to transform unjust structures of society" as the Church stands vigilantly with Christ proclaiming both judgment and salvation to the nations of the world II, and manifesting through our actions on behalf of God's righteousness the Spirit's transfiguring power";

"to strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and to sustain and renew the life of the earth" as essential aspects of our mission in communion 13.

(2.2.3) to engage in this mission with humility and an openness to our own ongoing conversion in the face of our unfaithfulness and failures in witness.

(2.2.4) to revive and renew structures for mission which will awaken and challenge the whole people of God to work, pray and give for the spread of the gospel.

(2.2.5) to order its mission in the joyful and reverent worship of God, thankful that in our eucharistic communion "Christ is the source and goal of the unity of the Church and of the renewal of human community" 14.

Section Three: OUf Unity and Common Life

3.1 Each Church affirms:

(3.1.1) that by our participation in Baptism and Eucharist, we are incorporated into the one body of the Church of Jesus Christ, and called by Christ to pursue all things that make for peace and build up our common life.

(3.1.2) its resolve to live in a Communion of Churches. Each Church, with its bishops in synod, orders and regulates its own affairs and its local responsibility for mission through its own system of government and law and is therefore described as living "in communion with autonomy and accountability" IS. Trusting in the Holy Spirit, who calls and enables us to dwell in a shared life of common worship and prayer for one another, in mutual affection, commitment and service, we seek to affirm our common life through those Instruments of Communion by which our Churches are enabled to be conformed together to the mind of Christ. Churches of the Anglican Communion are bound together "not by a central legislative and executive authority, but by mutual loyalty sustained through the common counsel of the bishops in conference"IG and of the other instruments of Communion.

(3.1.3) the central role of bishops as guardians and teachers of faith, as leaders in mission, and as a visible sign of unity, representing the universal Church to the local, and the local

10 Church as Communion n26

11 wee 1954 Evanston, Christ the Hope ofthe World 12 Moscow Statement, 43

I3 IARCCUM, Growing Together in Unity and Mission, 118 I~ Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry, wce,

15 A Letter from Alexandria, the Primates, March 2009 16 Lambeth Conference 1930

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Church to the universal and the local Churches to one another. This ministry is exercised personally, collegially and within and for the eucharistic community, We receive and maintain the historic threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons, ordained for service in the Church of God, as they call all the baptised into the mission of Christ.

(3.1,4) the importance of instruments in the Anglican Communion to assist in the discernment, articulation and exercise of our shared faith and common life and mission. The life of communion includes an ongoing engagement with the diverse expressions of apostolic authority, from synods and episcopal councils to local witness, in a way which continually interprets and articulates the common faith of the Church's members iconsensus fideliumi. In addition to the many and varied links which sustain our life together, we acknowledge four particular Instruments at the level of the Anglican Communion which express this cooperative service in the life of communion,

L We accord the Archbishop of Canterbury, as the bishop of the See of Canterbury with which Anglicans have historically been in communion, a primacy of honour and respect among the college of bishops in the Anglican Communion as first among equals (primus inter pares). As a focus and means of unity, the Archbishop gathers and works with the Lambeth Conference and Primates' Meeting, and presides in the Anglican Consultative Council.

II. The Lambeth Conference expresses episcopal collegiality worldwide, and brings together the bishops for common worship, counsel, consultation and encouragement in their ministry of guarding the faith and unity of the Communion and equipping the saints for the work of ministry (Eph 4.12) and mission.

III. The Anglican Consultative Council is comprised of lay, clerical and episcopal representatives from our Churches 17 . It facilitates the co-operative work of the Churches of the Anglican Communion, co-ordinates aspects of international Anglican ecumenical and mission work, calls the Churches into mutual responsibility and interdependence, and advises Oil developing provincial structures IK.

IV. The Primates' Meeting is convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury for mutual support, prayer and counsel. The authority that primates bring to the meeting arises from their own positions as the senior bishops of their Provinces, and the fact that they arc in conversation with their own Houses of Bishops and located within their own synodical structures 19. In the Primates' Meeting, the Primates and Moderators are called to work as representatives of their Provinces in collaboration with one another in mission and in doctrinal, moral and pastoral matters that have Communion-wide implications.

It is the responsibility of each Instrument to consult with, respond to, and support each other Instrument and the Churches of the Communion 20 . Each Instrument may initiate and commend a process of discernment and a direction for the Communion and its Churches.

3.2 Acknowledging our interdependent life,

each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(3.2.1) to have regard for the common good of the Communion in the exercise of its autonomy, to support the work of the Instruments of Communion with the spiritual and

17 Constitution of the ACC, Article 3 and Schedule

18 cf. the Objects of the ACC are set out in Article 2 of its Constitution. 19 Report of the Windsor Continuation Group, 69.

20 cf IATDC, Communion, Contlict and Hope, paragraph 113.

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material resources available to it, and to receive their work with a readiness to undertake reflection upon their counsels, and to endeavour to accommodate their recommendations,

(3.2.2) to respect the constitutional autonomy of all of the Churches of the Anglican Communion, while upholding our mutual responsibility and interdep:endence in the Body of Christ21, and the responsibility of each to the Communion as a whole 2.

(3.2.3) to spend time with openness and patience in matters of theological debate and reflection, to listen, pray and study with one another in order to discern the will of God. Such prayer, study and debate is an essential feature of the life of the Church as it seeks to be led by the Spirit into all truth and to proclaim the gospel afresh in each generation. Some issues, which are perceived as controversial or new when they arise, may well evoke a deeper understanding of the implications of God's revelation to us; others may prove to be distractions or even obstacles to the faith. All such matters therefore need to be tested by shared discernment in the life of the Church.

(3.2.4) to seck a shared mind with other Churches, through the Communion's councils, about matters of common concern, in a way consistent with the Scriptures, the common standards of faith, and the canon laws of our churches. Each Church will undertake wide consultation with the other Churches of the Anglican Communion and with the Instruments and Commissions of the Communion.

(3.2.5) to act with diligence, care and caution in respect of any action which may provoke controversy, which by its intensity, substance or extent could threaten the unity of the Communion and the effectiveness or credibility of its mission.

(3.2.6) in situations of conflict, to participate in mediated conversations, which involve face to face meetings, agreed parameters and a willingness to see such processes through.

(3.2.7) to have in mind that our bonds of affection and the love of Christ compel us always to uphold the highest degree of communion possible.

Section Four: Our Covenanted Life Together

4 Each Church affirms the following principles and procedures, and,

reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself to their implementation.

4.1 Adoption of the Covenant

(4.1.1) Each Church adopting this Covenant affirms that it enters into the Covenant as a commitment to relationship in submission to God. Each Church freely offers this commitment to other Churches in order to live more fully into the ecclesial communion and interdependence which is foundational to the Churches of the Anglican Communion. The Anglican Communion is a fellowship, within the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church, of national or regional Churches, in which each recognises in the others the bonds of a common loyalty to Christ expressed through a common faith and order, a shared inheritance in worship, life and mission, and a readiness to live in an interdependent life.

(4.1.2) In adopting the Covenant for itself, each Church recognises in the preceding sections a statement of faith, mission and interdependence of life which is consistent with its own life and with the doctrine and practice of the Christian faith as it has received them. It recognises these elements as foundational for the life of the Anglican Communion and therefore for the relationships among the covenanting Churches.

21 Toronto Congress 1963, and the Ten Principles of Partnership.

22 cf. the Schedule to the Dar es Salaam Communique of the Primates' Meeting, February 2007

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(4.1.3) Such mutual commitment does not represent submission to any external ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Nothing in this Covenant of itself shall be deemed to alter any provision of the Constitution and Canons of any Church of the Communion, or to limit its autonomy of governance. The Covenant does not grant to anyone Church or any agency of the Communion control or direction over any Church of the Anglican Communion,

(4.1.4) Every Church of the Anglican Communion, as recognised in accordance with the Constitution of the Anglican Consultative Council, is invited to enter into this Covenant according to its own constitutional procedures.

(4.1.5) The Instruments of Communion may invite other Churches to adopt the Covenant using the same procedures as set out by the Anglican Consultative Council for the amendment of its schedule of membership. Adoption of this Covenant does not confer any right of recognition by, or membership of, the Instruments of Communion, which shall be decided by those Instruments themselves.

(4.1.6) This Covenant becomes active for a Church when that Church adopts the Covenant through the procedures of its own Constitution and Canons.

4.2 The Maintenance of the Covenant and Dispute Resolution

(4.2.1) The Covenant operates to express the common commitments and mutual accountability which hold each Church in the relationship of communion one with another. Recognition of, and fidelity to, this Covenant, enable mutual recognition and communion. Participation in the Covenant implies a recognition by each Church of those elements which must be maintained in its own life and for which it is accountable to the Churches with which it is in Communion in order to sustain the relationship expressed in this Covenant.

(4.2.2) The Standing Committee of the Anglican Communion, responsible to the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting, shall monitor the functioning of the Covenant in the life of the Anglican Communion on behalf of the Instruments. In this regard, the Standing Committee shall be supported by such other committees or commissions as may be mandated to assist in carrying out this function and to advise it on questions relating to the Covenant.

(4.2.3) When questions arise relating to the meaning of the Covenant, or about the compatibility of an action by a covenanting Church with the Covenant, it is the duty of each covenanting Church to seek to live out the commitments of Section 3.2. Such questions may be raised by a Church itself, another covenanting Church or the Instruments of Communion.

(4.2.4) Where a shared mind has not been reached the matter shall be referred to the Standing Committee. The Standing Committee shall make every effort to facilitate agreement, and may take advice from such bodies as it deems appropriate to determine a view on the nature of the matter at question and those relational consequences which may result. Where appropriate, the Standing Committee shall refer the question to both the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting for advice.

(4.2.5) The Standing Committee may request a Church to defer a controversial action. If a Church declines to defer such action, the Standing Committee may recommend to any Instrument of Communion relational consequences which may specify a provisional limitation of participation in, or suspension from, that Instrument until the completion of the process set out below.

(4.2.6) On the basis of advice received from the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting, the Standing Committee may make a declaration that an action or decision is or would be "incompatible with the Covenant".

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(4.2.7) On the basis of the advice received, the Standing Committee shall make recommendations as to relational consequences which flow from an action incompatible with the Covenant. These recommendations may be addressed to the Churches of the Anglican Communion or to the Instruments of the Communion and address the extent to which the decision of any covenanting Church impairs or limits the communion between that Church and the other Churches of the Communion, and the practical consequences of such impairment or limitation, Each Church or each Instrument shall determine whether or not to accept such recommendations.

(4,2.8) Participation in the decision making of the Standing Committee or of the Instruments of Communion in respect to section 4.2 shall be limited to those members of the Instruments of Communion who are representatives of those churches who have adopted the Covenant, or who are still in the process of adoption.

(4.2.9) Each Church undertakes to put into place such mechanisms, agencies or institutions, consistent with its own Constitution and Canons, as can undertake to oversee the maintenance of the affirmations and commitments of the Covenant in the life of that Church, and to relate to the Instruments of Communion on matters pertinent to the Covenant.

4.3 Withdrawing from the Covenant

(4,3,1) Any covenanting Church may decide to withdraw from the Covenant. Although such withdrawal does not imply an automatic withdrawal from the Instruments of Communion or a repudiation of its Anglican character, it may raise a question relating to the meaning of the Covenant, and of compatibility with the principles incorporated within it, and trigger the provisions set out in section 4.2 above.

4.4 The Covenant Text and its amendment

(4.4.1) The Covenant consists of the text set out in this document in the Preamble, Sections One to Four and the Declaration. The Introduction to the Covenant Text, which shall always be annexed to the Covenant text, is not part of the Covenant, but shall be accorded authority in understanding the purpose of the Covenant.

(4.4,2) Any covenanting Church or Instrument of Communion may submit a proposal to amend the Covenant to the Instruments of Communion through the Standing Committee. The Standing Committee shall send the proposal to the Anglican Consultative Council, the Primates' Meeting, the covenanting Churches and any other body as it may consider appropriate for advice. The Standing Committee shall make a recommendation on the proposal in the light of advice offered, and submit the proposal with any revisions to the covenanting Churches. The amendment is operative when ratified by three quarters of such Churches. The Standing Committee shall adopt a procedure for promulgation of the amendment.

Our Declaration

With joy and with firm resolve, we declare our Churches to be partakers in this Anglican Communion Covenant, offering ourselves for fruitful service and binding ourselves more closely in the truth and love of Christ, to whom with the Father and the Holy Spirit be glory for ever. Amen.

"Noll' lI1ay the God of Peace, who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, hy the Mood of the eternal covenant, make you complete in everything good so that YOllli1ay do his 11m, working among us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom he the gloryforever and ever. Amen. " (Hebrews 13.20, 21)

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The Anglican Communion Covenant A Study Guide

In December 2009 the Secretary General of the Anglican Communion sent the text of The Anglican Communion Covenant to all the member churches of the Anglican Communion, asking that they consider it for adoption accordi ng to thei r own internal procedures. It is hoped that there will be wide consultation within those churches, so that Anglicans around the world will have an opportunity to understand and rejoice in the commitment which the churches are being asked to make.

This study guide is intended to hel p Anglicans engage with the text of The Anglican Communion Covenant: to understand it, to deepen their faith as Anglican Christians, and to become more committed to life together in the Anglican family.

Other resources that may be helpful are:

A brief history of the development of The Anglican Communion Covenant (which will soon be available on the Communion website)

The cover letter to the churches from the Secretary General www.anglicancommunion.org/commission/covenant/docs/

letter _from_the_secretary _general.pdf

The Commentary on the Ridley Cambridge Draft (an earlier version of the Covenant) www.anglicancommunion.org/commission/covenant/ridley_cambridge/ commentary.cfm

The Commentary on section 4 www.anglicancommunion.org/commission/covenant/final!commentary.cfm The video commendation of the Covenant by the Archbishop of Canterbury www.archbishopofcanterbury.org/2686

The Covenant can be understood as a description of life in the Anglican family. It contains an agreement about what the family's values are, what its purpose is, and how it lives together. As the introduction says (para. 5):

To covenant together is not intended to change the character of this Anglican expression of Christian faith. Rather, we recognise the importance of renewing in a solemn way our commitment to one another, and to the common understanding of faith and order we have received, so that the bonds of affection which hold us together may be re-affirmed and intensified. \X'e do this in order to reflect, in our relations with one another, God's own faithfulness and promises towards us in Christ (2 Cor 1.20-22).

The Anglican Communion Covenant contains a Preamble and four Sections: lOur Inheritance of Faith,

2 The Life We Share with Others: Our Anglican Vocation,

3 Our Unity and Common Life,

4 Our Covenanted Ufe Together; and a Declaration. It is accompanied by

a theological Introduction, which is not part of the text but which sets it in context.

A study programme might be designed for 5 sessions, one each on the Introduction and each of the Sections.

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Session A: Introduction

For each paragraph, read the Bible passages that are mentioned in the text, read the text and discuss it, and then ask 'How does this paragraph help me/us understand the Christian faith as Anglicans have received it?'

The first paragraph of the Introduction makes it clear that the church is not just a human institution that can be managed like a social or political institution. Its origin is in God, and its communal life is shaped by the very life of God who, as Father Son and Holy Spirit, lives in perfect communion. Our communion with one another depends on our first living in communion with God.

II This life is revealed, and we have seen it and testify to it, and declare to you the eternal life that was with the Father and was revealed to us - we declare to you what we have seen and heard so that you also may have communion with us; and truly our communion is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ. These things we write so that our joy may be complete. sr (1 John 1.2-4).

1. God has called us into communion in Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 1.9). This communion has been "revealed to us" by the Son as being the velY divine life of God the Trinity. What is the life revealed to us? St John makes it cleat that the communion of life in the Church participates in the communion which is the divine life itself, the life of the Trinity. This life is not a reality remote from us, but one that has been "seen" and "testified to" by the apostles and their followers: "for in the communion of the Church we share in the divine life". This life of the One God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, shapes and displays itself through the very existence and ordering of the Church.

The second paragraph of the I ntroduction traces salvation history, as described in the Bible, showing a number of times when God established a covenant with human beings in order to bring them back into communion with God.

2. Our divine calling into communion is established in God's purposes for the whole of creation (Eph 1:10; 3:9ff.). It is extended to all humankind, so that, in our sharing of God's life as father, Son, and Holy Spirit, God might restore in us the divine image. Through time, according to the Scriptures, God has furthered this calling through covenants made with Noah, Abraham, Israel, and David. The prophet jeremiah looked forward to a new covenant not written on tablets of stone but upon the heart (Icr 31.31-34). In God's Son, Christ Jesus, a new covenant is given us, established in his "blood ... poured out for the many for the forgiveness of sins" (Mt 26:28), secured through his resurrection from the dead (Eph 1 :19-23), and sealed with the gift of the Holy Spirit poured into our hearts (Rom 5:5). Into this covenant of death to sin and of new life in Christ we are baptized, and empowered to share God's communion in Christ with all people, to the ends of the earth and of creation.

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The third paragraph describes how people who live in communion with God and with each other are to live together in this world.

3. We humbly recognize that this calling and gift of communion entails responsibilities for our common life before God as we seek, through grace, to be faithful in our service of God's purposes for the world. Joined in one universal Church, which is Christ's Body, spread throughout the earth, we serve his gospel even as we are enabled to be made one across the dividing walls of human sin and estrangement (Eph 2.12-22). The forms of this life in the Church, caught up in the mystery of divine communion, reveal to the hostile and divisive power of the world the "manifold wisdom of God" (Eph 3:9-10). Faithfulness, honesty, gentleness, humility, patience, forgiveness, and love itself, lived

out in mutual deference and service (Mk 10.44-45) among the Church's people and through its ministries, contribute to building up the body of Christ as it grows to maturity (Eph 4.1-16; Col 3.8-17).

The fourth paragraph speaks ofthe specific Anglican community of faith and the need to work together within this family.

4. In the providence of God, which holds sway even over our divisions caused by sin, various families of churches have grown up within the universal Church in the course of history, Among these families is the Anglican Communion, which provides a particular charism and identity among the many followers and servants of Jesus. We recognise the wonder, beauty and challenge of maintaining communion in this family of churches, and the need for mutual commitment and discipline as a witness to God's promise in a world and time of instability, conflict, and fragmentation. Therefore, we covenant together as churches of this Anglican Communion to be faithful to God's promises through the historic faith we confess, our common worship, our participation in God's mission, and the way we live together.

The fifth paragraph says why Anglicans are making their commitment to each other through a Covenant.

5. To covenant together is not intended to change the character of this Anglican expression of Christian faith. Rather, we recognise the importance of renewing in a solemn way our commitment to one another, and to the common understanding of faith and order we have received, so that the bonds of affection which hold us together may be re-affirmed and intensified. We do this in order to reflect, in our relations with one another, God's own faithfulness and promises towards us in Christ (2 Cor 1.20-22).

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The sixth paragraph speaks of Anglicans as people engaged with Scripture, in worship, mission, service and proclamation.

6. We are a people who live, learn, and pray by and with the Scriptures as God's Word. We seek to adore God in thanks and praise and to make intercession for the needs of people everywhere through common prayer, united across many cultures and languages. 'We are privileged to share in the mission of the apostles to bring the gospel of Christ to all nations and peoples, not only in words but also in deeds of compassion and justice that witness to God's character and the triumph of Christ over sin and death. We give ourselves as servants of a greater unity among the divided Christians of the world. May the Lord help us to "preach not ourselves, but Jesus Christ as Lord, and ourselves as your servants for Jesus' sake". (2 Cor. 4.5)

The seventh paragraph says more about our mission and how we are to undertake it.

7. Our faith embodies a coherent testimony to what we have received from God's Word and the Church's long-standing witness. Our life together reflects the blessings of God (even as it exposes our failures in faith, hope and love) in growing our Communion into a truly global family. The mission we pursue aims at serving the great promises of God in Christ that embrace the peoples and the world God so loves. This mission is carried out in shared responsibility and stewardship of resources, and in interdependence among ourselves and with the wider Church.

The final paragraph is a prayer for God to give redeeming strength to our family so that it may live and work as God means it to do.

8. Our prayer is that God will redeem our struggles and weakness, renew and enrich our common life and use the Anglican Communion to witness effectively in all the world, working with aU people of good will, to the new life and hope found in Christ Jesus.

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Session B: Preamble and Section One: Our Inheritance of Faith

Read each paragraph separately and discuss it. How is each of these affirmations and commitments lived out in your church?

The Preamble says why the churches of the Anglican Communion are making a covenant together. It is for proclamation (kerygma), the offering of God's loving service (diakonia), and maintaining unity (koinonia), so that we and all God's people can grow in holiness.

Preamble

We, as Churches of the Anglican Communion, under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, solemnly covenant together in these following affirmations and commitments. As people of God, drawn from "every nation, tribe, people and language" (Rev 7.9), we do this in order to proclaim more effectively in our different contexts the grace of God revealed in the gospel, to offer God's love in responding to the needs of the world, to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace, and together with all God's people to attain the full stature of Christ (Eph 4.3,13).

The first three sections ofThe Anglican Communion Covenantare laid out with a series of affirmations followed by a series of commitments that arise from those affirmations. In each case, it is each church of the Communion that is making the affirmation and the commitment.

Section One: Our Inheritance of Faith, speaks of our core principles, what we believe as Anglican Christians. Many of these affirmations could in fact be made by most if not all Christians, but they reflect the particular way in which the churches of the Anglican Communion have spoken about their faith and the key marks of that faith.

Section One Affirmations

Each church affirms:

Its participation in the one Church, worshipping God the Holy Trinity the faith of the Church and its sources

1.1.3-1.1.6 the four clauses of the (Chicago) Lambeth Quadrilateral. This statement was adopted by the I .ambcth Conference of 1888 and by the churches of the Communion. It was originally intended as a statement of the 'basis for negotiation' in ecumenical discussions, but has evolved into a kind of basic statement of four key Anglican values.

1.1.7 that the Communion has a shared pattern of worship.

1.1.8 its participation in the mission of God, along with other churches and church families.

1. tEach Ch urch affirms:

(1.1.1) its communion in the one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church, worshipping the one true God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,

(1.1.2) the catholic and apostolic faith uniquely revealed in the Holy Scriptures and set forth in the catholic creeds, which faith the Church is called upon to proclaim afresh in

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each generation. The historic formularies of the Church of England, forged in the context of the European Reformation and acknowledged and appropriated in various ways in the Anglican Communion, bear authentic witness to this faith.

(1.1.3) the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments as containing all things necessary for salvation and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith.

(Ll.4) the Apostles' Creed, as the baptismal symbol; and the Niccne Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith.

(1.1.5) the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with the unfailing use of Christ's words of institution, and of the clements ordained by him.

(1.1.6) the historic episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the unity of his Church.

(1.1.7) the shared patterns of our common prayer and liturgy which form, sustain and nourish our worship of God and our faith and life together.

(1.1.8) its participation in the apostolic mission of the whole people of God, and that this mission is shared with other Churches and traditions beyond this Covenant.

Section One Commitments

The churches of the Anglican Communion live out this shared faith in many different contexts. The application of the faith may vary, depending on the needs of the mission of God in these different places. Each church, then, seeks the guidance of the Holy Spirit, and also makes commitments to a common approach to the application of the shared faith.

These include:

1.2.1 a way of teaching and action that is consonant with our shared faith and agreements

1. 2.2 a way of teaching and disci pline that rooted in Scripture and tradition

1.2.3 a way of witnessing for renewal and holiness

1.2.4 a way of reading Scripture

1.2.5 a way of interpreting Scripture

1.26 a way of leadership

1.2.7 a way of upholding communion

1.2.8 a way to seek the truth together

(1.2) In living out this inheritance of faith together in varying contexts, each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(1.2.1) to teach and act in continuity and consonance with Scripture and the catholic and apostolic faith, order and tradition, as received by the Churches of the Anglican Communion, mindful of the common councils of the Communion and our ecumenical agreements.

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(1.2.2) to uphold and proclaim a pattern of Christian theological and moral reasoning and discipline that is rooted in and answerable to the teaching of Holy Scripture and the catholic tradition.

(1.2.3) to witness, in this reasoning, to the renewal of humanity and the whole created order through the death and resurrection of Christ, and to reflect the holiness that in consequence God gives to, and requires from, his people.

(1.2.4) to hear, read, mark, learn and inwardly digest the Scriptures in our different contexts, informed by the attentive and communal reading of - and costly witness to - the Scriptures by all the faithful, by the teaching of bishops and synods, and by the results of rigorous study by lay and ordained scholars.

(1.2.5) to ensure that biblical texts are received, read and interpreted faithfully, respectfully, comprehensively and coherently, with the expectation that Scripture continues to illuminate and transform the Church and its members, and through them, individuals, cultures and societies.

(1.2.6) to encourage and be open to prophetic and faithful leadership in ministry and mission so as to enable God's people to respond in courageous witness to the power of the gospel in the world.

(1.2.7) to seek in all things to uphold the solemn obligation to nurture and sustain eucharistic communion, in accordance with existing canonical disciplines, as we strive under God for the fuller realisation of the communion of all Christians.

(1.2.8) to pursue a common pllgrimage with the whole Body of Christ continually to discern the fullness of truth into which the Spirit leads us, that peoples from all nations may be set free to receive new and abundant life in the Lord Jesus Christ.

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Session C: Section Two: The life We Share with Others: Our Anglican Vocation

Read each paragraph separately and discuss it. How do you understand the work of your church in furthering the mission of God in the world?

Section Two sets out our purpose as Anglican churches. What are we for? What is our particular commitment to the mission of God in the world?

Section Two Affirmations

The affirmations in this mission section say that

2.1.1 communion is not an end in itself. It is for proclaiming and witnessing to God's reign.

2.1.2 God has been at work through our history shaping us for our worldwide mission.

2.1.3 we confess our failure to live up to our calling.

2.1.4 we cooperate with other Anglicans throughout the world as we engage in mission at all levels.

2.1.5 we cooperate with other Christians in this mission and are committed to the ecumenical task.

2.1 Each Church affirms:

(2.1.1) communion as a gift of God given so that God's people from east and west, north and south, may together declare the glory of the Lord and be both a sign of God's reign in the Holy Spirit and the first fruits in the world of God's redemption in Christ.

(2.1.2) its gratitude for God's gracious providence extended to us down through the ages: our origins in the Church of the apostles; the ancient common traditions; the rich history of the Church in Britain and Ireland reshaped by the Reformation, and our growth into a global communion through the expanding missionary work of the Church; our ongoing refashioning by the Holy Spirit through the gifts and sacrificial witness of Anglicans from around the world; and our summons into a more fully developed communion life.

(2.1.3) in humility our call to constant repentance: for our failures in exercising patience and charity and in recognizing Christ in one another; our misuse of God's gracious gifts; our failure to heed God's call to serve; and our exploitation one of another.

(2.1 A) the imperative of God's mission into which the Communion is called, a vocation and blessing in which each Church is joined with others in Christ in the work of establishing God's reign. As the Communion continues to develop into a worldwide family of interdependent churches, we embrace challenges and opportunities for mission at local, regional, and international levels. In this, we cherish our mission heritage as offering Anglicans distinctive opportunities for mission collaboration.

(2.1.5) that our common mission is a mission shared with other Churches and traditions beyond this Covenant. We embrace opportunities for the discovery of the life of the whole gospel, and for reconciliation and shared mission with the Church throughout the world. We affirm the ecumenical vocation of Anglicanism to the full visible unity of the Church in accordance with Christ's prayer that "all may be one". It is with all the saints in every place

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and time that we will comprehend the fuller dimensions of Christ's redemptive and immeasurable love.

Section Two Commitments

Because we recognize that we are called by God to be in mission together, each church makes commitments:

2.2.1 to share our resources in order to evangelize, to heal and reconcile a broken world. 2.2.2 to engage in mission through the Five Marks of Mission adopted by the

Anglican Communion.

2.2.3 to be humble and open to our own conversion.

2.2.4 to renew our structures for mission.

2.2.5 to root our mission in the worship of God.

2.21 n recognition of these affirmations, each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(2.2.1) to answer God's call to undertake evangelisation and to share in the healing and reconciling mission "for our blessed but broken, hurting and fallen world", and, with mutual accountability, to share our God-given spiritual and material resources in this task.

(2.2.2) to undertake in this mission, which is the mission of God in Christ:

(2.2.2.a) to proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom of God" and to bring all to repentance and faith;

(2.2.2.b)

(2.2.2.c)

(2.2.2.d)

(2.2.2.e)

to teach, baptize and nurture new believers", making disciples of all nations (Mt 28.19) through the quickening power of the Holy Spirit and drawing them into the one Body of Christ whose faith, calling and hope are one in the Lord (Eph 4.4-6);

to respond to human need by loving service", disclosing God's reign through humble ministry to those most needy

(J'vlk 10.42-45; Mt 18.4; 25.31-45);

to seek to transform unjust structures of society" as the Church stands vigilantly with Christ proclaiming both judgment and salvation to the nations of the world, and manifesting through our actions on behalf of God's righteousness the Spirit's transfiguring power;

to strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and to sustain and renew the life of the earth" as essential aspects of our missron in communion.

(2.2.3) to engage in this mission with humility and an openness to our own ongoing conversion in the face of our unfaithfulness and failures in witness.

(2.2.4) to revive and renew structures for mission which will awaken and challenge the whole people of God to work, pray and give for the spread of the gospel.

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(2.2.5) to order its mission in the joyful and reverent worship of God, thankful that in our eucharistic communion "Christ is the source and goal of the unity of the Church and of the renewal of human community".

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Session 0: Section Three: Our Unity and Common Life

Read each paragraph separately and discuss it. How do you experience each of these as equipping Anglicans for common life and mission?

Section Three addresses the way we live together as a family of churches, and the people and structures that exist to strengthen our common life.

Section Three Affirmations

3.1.3 we are called by Christ to live together in peace

3.1.2 as Anglicans we do not have a central authority structure; each church governs itself, but we belong to and are accountable to one another so we have some common 'Instruments of Communion' that help shape and sustain our common life

3.1.3 we affirm the role of bishops and the threefold ordained ministry in leading and equipping the ministry of all God's people

3.1.4 we acknowledge 4 Instruments of Communion that serve our life in communion: the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Consultative Council, and the Primates' Meeting

3.1 Each Church affirms:

(3.1.1) that by our participation in Baptism and Eucharist, we are incorporated into the one body of the Church of Jesus Christ, and called by Christ to pursue all things that make for peace and build up our common life.

(3.1.2) its resolve to live in a Communion of Churches. Each Church, with its bishops in synod, orders and regulates its own affairs and its local responsibility for mission through its own system of government and law and is therefore described as living "in communion with autonomy and accountability". Trusting in the Holy Spirit, who calls and enables us to dwell in a shared life of common worship and prayer for one another, in mutual affection, commitment and service, we seek to affirm our common life through those Instruments of Communion by which our Churches are enabled to be conformed together to the mind of Christ. Churches of the Anglican Communion are bound together "not by a central legislative and executive authority, but by mutual loyalty sustained through the common counsel of the bishops in conference" and of the other instruments of Communion.

(3.1.3) the central role of bishops as guardians and teachers of faith, as leaders in mission, and as a visible sign of unity, representing the universal Church to the local, and the local Church to the universal and the local Churches to one another. This ministry is exercised personally, collegially and within and for the eucharistic community. \X'e receive and maintain the historic threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons, ordained for service in the Church of God, as they call all the baptised into the mission of Christ.

(3.1.4) the importance of instruments in the Anglican Communion to assist in the discernment, articulation and exercise of our shared faith and common life and mission. The life of communion includes an ongoing engagement with the diverse expressions of apostolic authority, from synods and episcopal councils to local witness, in a way which continually interprets and articulates the common faith of the Church's members

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(consensus fidelium). In addition to the many and varied links which sustain our life together, we acknowledge four particular Instruments at the level of the Anglican Communion which express this co-operative service in the life of communion.

I We accord the Archbishop of Canterbury, as the bishop of the See of Canterbury with which Anglicans have historically been in communion, a primacy of honour and respect among the college of bishops in the Anglican Communion as first among equals (primus inter pares). As a focus and means of unity, the Archbishop gathers and works with the Lambeth Conference and Primates' Meeting, and presides in the Anglican Consultative Council.

II 111e Lambeth Conference expresses episcopal collegiality worldwide, and brings together the bishops for common worship, counsel, consultation and encouragement in their ministry of guarding the faith and unity of the Communion and equipping the saints for the work of ministry (Eph 4.12) and mission.

III The Anglican Consultative Council is comprised of lay, clerical and episcopal representatives from our Churches. It facilitates the co-operative work of the Churches of the Anglican Communion, co-ordinates aspects of international Anglican ecumenical and mission work, calls the Churches into mutual responsibility and interdependence, and advises on developing provincial structures.

IV The Primates' Meeting is convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury for mutual support, prayer and counsel. The authority that primates bring to the meeting arises from their own positions as the senior bishops of their Provinces, and the fact that they are in conversation with their own Houses of Bishops and located within their own synodical structures. In the Primates' Meeting, the Primates and Moderators are called to work as representatives of their Provinces in collaboration with one another in mission and in doctrinal, moral and pastoral matters that have Communion-wide implications.

It is the responsibility of each Instrument to consult with, respond to, and support each other Instrument and the Churches of the Communion. Each Instrument may initiate and commend a process of discernment and a direction for the Communion and its Churches.

Section Three Commitments

Each church commits itself to live and learn together with all the others:

3.2.1 to support the work of the Instruments and take their counsel seriously 3.2.2 to respect the autonomy of every other church

while upholding mutual responsibility and interdependence

3.2.3 to try to discern God's will through listening, prayer, study and debate

3.2.4 to seek a shared mind with the churches of the Communion

3.2.5 to take due care in acting on controversial matters

3.2.6 to participate in mediation in situations of conflict

3.2.7 to live in the highest degree of communion possible

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3.2 Acknowledging our interdependent life, each Church, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself:

(3.2.1) to have regard for the common good of the Communion in the exercise of its autonomy, to support the work of the Instruments of Communion with the spiritual and material resources available to it, and to receive their work with a readiness to undertake reflection upon their counsels, and to endeavour to accommodate their recommendations.

(3.2.2) to respect the constitutional autonomy of all of the Churches of the Anglican Communion, while upholding our mutual responsibility and interdependence in the Body of Christ, and the responsibility of each to the Communion as a whole.

(3.2.3) to spend time with openness and patience in matters of theological debate and reflection, to listen, pray and study with one another in order to discern the will of God. Such prayer, study and debate is an essential feature of the life of the Church as it seeks to be led by the Spirit into all truth and to proclaim the gospel afresh in each generation.

Some issues, which are perceived as controversial or new when they arise, may well evoke a deeper understanding of the implications of God's revelation to us; others may prove to be distractions or even obstacles to the faith. All such matters therefore need to be tested by shared discernment in the life of the Church.

(3.2.4) to seek a shared mind with other Churches, through the Communion's councils, about matters of common concern, in a way consistent with the Scriptures, the common standards of faith, and the canon laws of our churches. Each Church will undertake wide consultation with the other Churches of the Anglican Communion and with the Instruments and Commissions of the Communion.

(3.2.5) to act with diligence, care and caution in respect of any action which may provoke controversy, which by its intensity, substance or extent could threaten the unity of the Communion and the effectiveness or credibility of its mission.

(3.2.6) in situations of conflict, to participate in mediated conversations, which involve face to face meetings, agreed parameters and a willingness to see such processes through.

(3.2.7) to have in mind that our bonds of affection and the love of Christ compel us always to uphold the highest degree of communion possible.

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Session E: Section Four: Our Covenanted Life Together

Read each subsection (4.1.,4.2, 4.3). What might this mean for your church?

Section Four sets out the procedu res for adopti ng the Covenant and I iving together by it. It says who may adopt it and includes practical mechanisms for seeking resolutions in the case of disputes, for withdrawal from the Covenant, and for amending it. It seeks to strengthen relationships within the Anglican family.

4. Each Church affirms the following principles and procedures, and, reliant on the Holy Spirit, commits itself to their implementation.

4.1 describes who may adopt the Covenant and how:

4.1.1 each church makes a commitment to the others when it adopts the Covenant

4.1.2 each church affirms the statements about faith, mission and common life

in the first three sections

4.1.3 nothing in the Covenant limits the autonomy of any church

4.1.4 every church in the Anglican Communion is invited to adoptthe Covenant

4.1.5 the Instruments of Communion may invite other churches to adopt the Covenant

4.1.6 the Covenant becomes active for each church when it adopts it

4.1 Adopti on of the Covenant

(4.1.1) Each Church adopting this Covenant affirms that it enters into the Covenant as a commitment to relationship in submission to God. Each Church freely offers this commitment to other Churches in order to live more fully into the ecclcsial communion and interdependence which is foundational ta the Churches of the Anglican Communion. The Anglican Communion is a fellowship, within the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church, of national or regional Churches, in which each recognises in the others the bonds of a common loyalty to Christ expressed through a common faith and order, a shared inheritance in worship, life and mission, and a readiness to live in an interdependent life.

(4.1.2) In adopting the Covenant for itself, each Church recognises in the preceding sections a statement of faith, mission and interdependence of life which is consistent with its own life and with the doctrine and practice of the Christian faith as it has received them. It recognises these clements as foundational far the life of the Anglican Communion and therefore for the relationships among the covenanting Churches.

(4.1.3) Such mutual commitment does not represent submission to any external ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Nothing in this Covenant of itself shall be deemed to alter any provision of the Constitution and Canons of any Church of the Communion, or to limit its autonomy of governance. The Covenant does not grant to anyone Church or any agency of the Communion control or direction over any Church of the Anglican Communion.

(4.1.4) Every Church of the Anglican Communion, as recognised in accordance with the Constitution of the Anglican Consultative Council, is invited to enter into this Covenant according to its own constitutional procedures.

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(4.1.5) The Instruments of Communion may invite other Churches to adopt the Covenant using the same procedures as set out by the Anglican Consultative Council for the amendment of its schedule of membership. Adoption of this Covenant does not confer any right of recognition by, or membership of, the Instruments of Communion, which shall be decided by those Instruments themselves.

(4.1.6) This Covenant becomes active for a Church when that Church adopts the Covenant through the procedures of its own Constitution and Canons.

4.2 provides a process for trying to reach agreement on disputed matters

4.2.1 each church recognizes and seeks to live by the common commitments made in the Covenant

4.2.2 the Instruments of Comm union monitor the Covenant through the Standing Committee

4.2.3 when a question arises in the life of the Communion, each church seeks to live out its commitments

4.2.4 when there is not a common mind, the Standing Committee seeks to facilitate agreement and may seek advice from the Instruments (ACC and Primates)

4.2.5 if a church takes a controversial action against advice, the Standing Committee can recommend interi m relational consequences

4.2.6 on the basis of advice, the Standing Committee many declare something incompatible with the Covenant

4.2.7 on the basis of advice, the Standing Committee shall recom mend relational consequences to the churches and/or the Instruments

4.2.8 only churches that have adopted the Covenant can participate in the decision-making of this process

4.2.9 each church agrees to put means in place to oversee its own participation in the Covenant

4.2 The Maintenance of the Covenant and Dispute Resolution

(4.2.1) The Covenant operates to express the common commitments and mutual accountability which hold each Church in the relationship of communion one with another. Recognition of, and fidelity to, this Covenant, enable mutual recognition and communion. Participation in the Covenant implies a recognition by each Church of those elements which must be maintained in its own life and for which it is accountable to the Churches with which it is in Communion in order to sustain the relationship expressed in this Covenant.

(4.2.2) The Standing Committee of the Anglican Communion, responsible to the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting, shall monitor the functioning of the Covenant in the life of the Anglican Communion on behalf of the Instruments. In this regard, the Standing Committee shall be supported by such other committees or commissions as may be mandated to assist in carrying out this function and to advise it on questions relating to the Covenant.

(4.2.3) When questions arise relating to the meaning of the Covenant, or about the compatibility of an action by a covenanting Church with the Covenant, it is the duty of

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each covenanting Church to seek to live out the commitments of Section 3.2. Such questions may be raised by a Church itself, another covenanting Church or the Instruments of Communion.

(4.2.4) Where a shared mind has not been reached the matter shall be referred to the Standing Committee. The Standing Committee shall make every effort to facilitate agreement, and may take advice from such bodies as it deems appropriate to determine a view on the nature of the matter at question and those relational consequences which may result. Where appropriate, the Standing Committee shall refer the question to both the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting for advice.

(4.2.5) The Standing Committee may request a Church to defer a controversial action. If a Church declines to defer such action, the Standing Committee may recommend to any Instrument of Communion relational consequences which may specify a provisional limitation of participation in, or suspension from, that Instrument until the completion of the process set out below.

(4.2.6) On the basis of advice received from the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting, the Standing Committee may make a declaration that an action or decision is or would be "incompatible with the Covenant".

(4.2.7) On the basis of the advice received, the Standing Committee shall make recommendations as to relational consequences which flow from an action incompatible with the Covenant. These recommendations may be addressed to the Churches of the Anglican Communion or to the Instruments of the Communion and address the extent to which the decision of any covenanting Church impairs or limits the communion between that Church and the other Churches of the Communion, and the practical consequences of such impairment or limitation. Each Church or each Instrument shall determine whether or not to accept such recommendations.

(4.2.8) Participation in the decision making of the Standing Committee or of the Instruments of Communion in respect to section 4.2 shall be limited to those members of the Instruments of Communion who are representatives of those churches who have adopted the Covenant, or who are still in the process of adoption.

(4.2.9) Each Church undertakes to put into place such mechanisms, agencies or institutions, consistent with its own Constitution and Canons, as can undertake to oversee the maintenance of the affirmations and commitments of the Covenant in the life of that Church, and to relate to the Instruments of Communion on matters pertinent to the Covenant.

4.3 says that any church may withdraw from the Covenant though it may trigger relational consequences.

4.3 Withdrawing from the Covenant

(4.3.1) Any covenanting Church may decide to withdraw from the Covenant. Although such withdrawal does not imply an automatic withdrawal from the Instruments of

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Communion or a repudiation of its Anglican character, it may raise a question relating to the meaning of the Covenant, and of compatibility with the principles incorporated within it, and trigger the provisions set out in section 4.2 above.

4.4 clarifies what the text of the Covenant is and provides an amendment procedure.

4.4 The Covenant Text and its amendment

(4.4.1) The Covenant consists of the text set out in this document in the Preamble, Sections One to Four and the Declaration. The Introduction to the Covenant Text, which shall always be annexed to the Covenant text, is not part of the Covenant, but shall be accorded authority in understanding the purpose of the Covenant.

(4.4.2) Any covenanting Church or Instrument of Communion may submit a proposal to amend the Covenant to the Instruments of Communion through the Standing Committee. The Standing Committee shall send the proposal to the Anglican Consultative Council, the Primates' Meeting, the covenanting Churches and any other body as it may consider appropriate for advice. The Standing Committee shall make a recommendation on the proposal in the light of advice offered, and submit the proposal with any revisions to the covenanting Churches. The amendment is operative when ratified by three quarters of such Churches. The Standing Committee shall adopt a procedure for promulgation of the amendment.

Our Declaration

The churches declare themselves to be in Covenant and offer their life together to God.

With joy and with firm resolve, we declare our Churches to be partakers in this Anglican Communion Covenant, offering ourselves for fruitful service and binding ourselves more closely in the truth and love of Christ, to whom with the Father and the Holy Spirit be glory for ever. Amen.

"Now may the God of Peare, who brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant,

make you complete in everything good so that you may do his will,

working among us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Chrlst, to whom be the glo!}' forever and ever. Amen. II

(Hebrews 13.20,21)

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The Anglican Communion Covenant: Questions and Answers

1. What is a covenant?

In the Bible, 'covenant' refers to a solemn agreement or promise which binds two parties together. However, is there more to be said about the character of 'covenant'? In his address to the Lambeth Conference in 2008, the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, Lord Sacks, reminded us that a covenant is a kind of relationship.' Two relationships which dominate many of our lives concern our employers and the government. These are about wealth (earning money, working) and power (the government's rule enforced through the law).

Rabbi Sacks suggested that a covenant is not about taking power or earning wealth. It is about sharing, based on promises and commitment. In particular, it is about sharing life, love and friendship. We usually find this kind of relationship in a family. With our husband, wife, children and parents, we share life, love and friendship. The same could be said of the family of our local church where we share the life, love and friendship of Jesus Christ with our Christian brothers and sisters. All these relationships are based on promises and commitments made in baptism, at confirmation, in marriage or at ordination. The Chief Rabbi talked about 'covenantal goods' in this way:

The state is about power. The market is about wealth. And there are two ways of getting people to do what we want them to do. One of them is to force them to do it - the way of power. The other one is to pay them to - the way of wealth.

But there is a third way, and to see exactly what makes the third way different from the other two ljust want to do a little elementary arithmetic with you, because elementary arithmetic is about as much as I can do. Even my mobile phone gives me an inferiority complex, so higher mathematics is not my style, but here it is. Imagine, for a moment, you have total power, and then, in the fit of craziness you decide to share it with nine other people. How much power do you have left? You have 1/10 of what you began with. Supposing you have a thousand pounds, and you decide to share it with nine other people. How much do you have left? 1110 of what you had when you began. But now supposing that you decide to share not power or wealth, but love, or friendship, or influence, or even knowledge and you decided to share those, with nine others. How much would you have left? Would you have less than when you began? No, you would have more. Why? Because love, friendship and influence are things that only exist by virtue of sharing them with others. And those are the goods I call covenantal goodscovenantal goods are the goods that, the more I share, the more I have. And that makes covenant different from wealth and power.

I Jonathan Sacks, 'The Relationship between People and God', Lambeth Conference 28 July, 2008 available at: http://www.lambethconference.orgldaily/news.cfin1200817/29 / ACNS4484

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We leam about covenants in the Bible. The Old Testament uses the word 'covenant' more than 250 times. In the first two books of the Bible, we learn about three particularly important covenants between God and the world. First, in Genesis 9, we have God's covenant with the whole of creation immediately after the flood.

Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him, 'As for me, I am establishing my covenant with you and your descendants after you, and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the domestic animals, and every animal of the earth with you, as many as came out of the ark. I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of a flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth.' God said, 'This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: I have set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth. (Genesis 9.8-13)

The second covenant we [earn about is in Genesis 17 when God promises Abram that he will make of him a great nation which will become God's people:

When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said to him, 'I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless. And I will make my covenant between me and you, and will make you exceedingly numerous.' Then Abram fell on his face; and God said to him, 'As for me, this is my covenant with you: You shall be the ancestor of a multitude of nations. No longer shall your name be Abram, but your name shall be Abraham; for I have made you the ancestor of a multitude of nations. (Genesis 17.1-4)

In Exodus chapters 19 to 24 we learn about God's covenant with the Israelites: they will be God's people for the world, living under the Law:

Then Moses went up to God; the Lord called to him from the mountain, saying, 'Thus you shall say to the house ofJacob, and tell the Israelites: You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to myself. Now therefore, if you obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession out of all the peoples. Indeed, the whole earth is mine. but you shall be for me a priestly kingdom and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the Israelites.' (Exodus 19.1-6)

There are other covenants in the Bible, for example the promise of God to David and his royal dynasty in 2 Samuel 7.8-16.

A covenant is a promise which binds creation to God so that we might share God's life, love and friendship through good times and bad. For Christians, God's promise to his people is expressed most fully in the new covenant in Jesus Christ. We find this new covenant spoken of throughout the New Testament, particularly in St Paul's letters to the Corinthians and the letter to the

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Hebrews. God binds us so closely to himselfthat God comes to dwell amongst us as one of us. It is through the new covenant in the person of Jesus that we share God's life, love and friendship.

As Christians, this is what we have received: a sharing in the life of God in Jesus Christ by the grace of the Holy Spirit. It is such a wonderful gift that we want to share it not only with those in our local church, but with our brothers and sisters all over the world. As God binds himself to us in the covenants of the Old Testament and the new covenant in Jesus Christ, so we want to bind ourselves to each other in his love as we share God's grace.

However, do covenants properly belong between God and people, rather than between peoples? Are covenants between peoples likely to fail because of our sin? In the Bible, we can find instances of covenants between peoples which are fruitful, while others fail. Our Christian faith, however, gives us a particular perspective on the nature of covenant and human relations. We believe that our relationship with God has been healed through the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. If God's covenant with us in Jesus heals our relationship with God, it also heals our relationships with each other. In the Lord's Prayer, for example, we pray 'forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us.' When we place our life under God's care, sin no longer divides. Any covenant between peoples, such as that proposed in the Anglican Communion, is therefore best understood as a participation in the saving covenant of God in Jesus Christ. Our covenant with each other in the Christian family is not something of our own making. It looks always to God's covenant in Christ as its source of power and grace. There is, then, only one true covenant: that which we receive in Christ as God binds us to himself. Our covenant is a sharing in this one saving grace of God.

Within the worldwide Christian community, we have long been members of the family known as the Anglican Communion. Our Anglican Communion Covenant, proposed for adoption, is an expression of the faith we have received and the faith we share through good times and bad within that family. Our Covenant uses words from the Bible and our Church tradition. It is an expression of our relationship as Anglicans: sharing the life, love and friendship of Jesus Christ around the world.

2. How and why has the Covenant been written?

The Lambeth Commission on Communion was established in October 2003 by the Archbishop of Canterbury at the request of the Anglican Primates, in response to developments in North America with respect to same-sex relationships. The mandate requested consideration of ways in which communion and understanding could be enhanced where serious differences threatened the life of a diverse worldwide Church. In short, how does the Anglican Communion address relationships between its component parts in a true spirit of communion?

The Commission was chaired by the Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, The Most Revd Robin Eames. The Commission delivered the Windsor Report in 2004, which recommended the adoption of an 'Anglican Covenant' to rebuild trust at a time of great strain on the Anglican Communion worldwide. For almost five centuries Anglicanism has tried to hold together diverse elements which, in other traditions, have failed to remain in unity. The Covenant can be seen as part of that process. The Covenant is not intended to be a detailed doctrinal

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confession. Neither is the aim to change current Anglican structures or to amend doctrine. Rather, the Covenant aims to restate long-established Anglican teaching by affirming what the provinces of the Communion have in common, and, therefore, to build a foundation for a future where the Churches live together in mutual care and affection as one Communion. Love, charity and unity form the basis of the Covenant (John 13:34-35; 17:21). It is hoped that the Covenant will allow the Communion to order its common life to witness first and foremost to the biblical commands of charity and unity.

It should be mentioned that, while the issue of human sexuality brought tensions within the Communion into particular focus in 2003, other controversial issues have affected our common life in recent years. The Covenant is intended to express clearly the Communion's Christian life, and the process which must be undertaken when disputes arise.

This Covenant text has been arrived at only after a thorough process of consultation at every stage of its development. The first draft text of the Covenant was formulated by the Covenant Design Group (COG). chaired by the Archbishop of the West Indies, The Most Revd Drexel Gomez. The Covenant went through three drafts and at each stage the text was sent to provinces for feedback and comment. The Primates' Meeting, the Lambeth Conference, and the Anglican Consultative Council all gave consideration to it; a Commentary by the bishops at Lambeth 2008 was particularly considered in the redrafting process. In December 2009 the final text of the Anglican Communion Covenant was agreed by the Standing Committee of the Anglican Communion. The Secretary General of the Anglican Communion has sent the Covenant to the Churches of the Communion to be considered for adoption through their particular formal processes. The timescales and legal processes vary considerably amongst the provinces of the Communion. The Provinces of Mexico, Myanmar and the West Indies have already adopted the Covenant. Provinces are to report progress to the meeting of the Anglican Consultative Council in late 2012.

3. What does the Anglican Communion Covenant say?

The Covenant has an introduction which discusses the Scriptural understanding of 'covenant' and 'communion'. Although not formally part of the Covenant, the Introduction 'shall always be annexed to the Covenant text' and 'accorded authority in understanding the purpose of the Covenant' (4.4.1). The Introduction states that 'We recognise the wonder, beauty and challenge of maintaining communion in this family of Churches, and the need for mutual commitment and discipline as a witness to God's promise in a world and time of instability, conflict, and fragmentation' (Intro, 4).

The Introduction begins by describing what we mean by 'communion'.

God has called us into communion in Jesus Christ (1 Cor. 1.9). This communion has been "revealed to us" by the Son as being the very divine life of God the Trinity. What is the life revealed to us? St John makes it clear that the communion of life in the Church participates in the communion which is the divine life itself, the life of the Trinity. This life is not a reality remote from us, but one that has been "seen" and "testified to" by the apostles and their followers: "for in the communion of the Church we share in the divine

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life". This life of the One God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, shapes and displays itself through the very existence and ordering of the Church. (Intro. I).

This unity of the Church is expressed in the New Testament through the image of the Church as the body of Christ. As St Paul explains, the reality of the Church as the body of Christ means that we cannot say to another member of the body, 'we have no need of you'. (I Corinthians 12)

Following the Introduction, the Covenant is divided into four sections. The first three sections take the form of an affirmation of our shared faith followed by a series of commitments.

Section 1

The first section is entitled 'Our Inheritance of Faith'. It describes the nature of the Anglican Communion as part of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church. This section also looks to the two founts of our Communion: the sharing of Word and Sacrament. Wc arc asked to commit ourselves 'to teach and act in continuity and consonance with Scripture and the catholic apostolic faith, order and tradition.' (1.2.2). There is a stress on the faithful, coherent and respectful interpretation of Scripture. Similarly, we arc asked to commit ourselves to nurture and sustain Eucharistic communion.

Section 2

The second section, entitled 'The Life We Share with Others: Our Anglican Vocation', is particularly concerned with the mission of the Churches of the Anglican Conununion. This is a sharing in God's mission in Christ "'to proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom of God" and to bring all to repentance and faith' (2.2.2.a). This section also refers to our own 'ongoing conversion' as we deepen our life in Christ. The emphasis on mission in the Covenant is a helpful reminder of Christ's Great Commission to make disciples of all nations (Matthew 28.18- 20). This part of the text also refers to 'the five marks of mission': To proclaim the Good News of the Kingdom; to teach, baptise and nurture new believers; to respond to human need by loving service; to seek to transform unjust structures of society; to strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life of the earth.

Section 3

The third section is entitled 'Our Unity and Common Life'. It asks the question, 'what is the source of our unity?' The immediate answer is 'our participation in Baptism and Eucharist' by which we are incorporated into the body of Christ, the Church. The gift of Christ in the Eucharist, and Baptism as the gateway to that Eucharistic life, is the crucial source of our unity as we receive 'the Bread of Life' and share Christ's risen life. This section of the Covenant stresses the importance of bishops as guardians and teachers of the faith who are visible signs of unity, joining the local Church to the universal Church. The four 'Instruments of Communion' which facilitate our common life are also described: the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Lambeth Conference, the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting.

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Section 4

The fourth section, entitled 'Our Covenanted Life Together', deals with practical matters. It describes how the Covenant may be adopted by a particular Church. It also deals with how the functioning of the Covenant will be overseen and what happens if a particular Church is deemed to have broken the Covenant. This process is described in the answer to question 7 below.

4. How will the Covenant deepen our Communion?

The Anglican Communion is more than a federation of churches. It is a 'Communion' with a shared life, not simply a shared set of beliefs. The Anglican Communion Covenant is not therefore only a doctrinal statement. It reminds us of the practice of Christian life in the form of certain virtues and disciplines (openness and patience; prayer, study and debate - section 3.2.3). We are also reminded of the need for mediated conversations in times of conflict (section 3.2.6). These aspects of our shared Christian life reflect the lives of the earliest Christians described in the book of Acts who 'shared all things in common' and 'devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers.' (Acts 2.42,44)

The Covenant will deepen our Communion by providing a constant reminder of our shared life and mutual responsibilities while renewing our commitment to the mission of the Church in the world. Nevertheless, just as in the early Church, disputes arise amongst Christians. This has particularly been the case within the Anglican Communion in recent years. The early Christians would meet together to discuss their disputes and, guided by the Holy Spirit, find a measure of peace and resolution as they journeyed together (Acts 15). In times of turmoil, the shared life of the early Christians described in the Bible had to be ordered and prayerful. In many of his letters, St Paul describes to his readers in various churches the way in which they are to behave towards each other in times of tension and conflict. The Anglican Communion Covenant seeks to provide an order to our Communion by describing how our disputes are to be dealt with, patiently, prayerfully and collectively, thereby deepening our shared life and mutual commitment. It does this at the prompting of Scripture and through faith in the guiding power of the Spirit.

5. Is the Covenant Anglican?

The tradition of 'covenant theology' is often associated with the Reformation and particularly those churches which are influenced in various ways by the Presbyterian tradition. The importance of the biblical notion of covenant for the Christians of the early Church has been reemphasised by Anglican and Roman Catholic thinkers in recent decades. It would therefore be a mistake to associate covenant theology with any particular Church tradition or branch of Christianity.

As with any Christian understanding of covenant, the Anglican Communion Covenant finds its basis within Scripture's witness to God's covenant with creation. It also looks to the tradition of the Church as an authoritative source for our self-understanding. Within this wider context, the character of Anglicanism is made distinctive and clear particularly in the first three sections of the Covenant. It explores afresh those core aspects of Anglican identity, many of which we share with other churches. Other elements of Anglicanism make our Communion unique. For example, the Covenant refers to those founding documents of the Church of England from which the

47

Anglican Communion grew, as well as more recent expressions of Anglican identity such as the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral and the five Marks of Mission. The threefold ministry of bishop, priest and deacon is emphasised in section 3 with a particular focus on the 'bishops in synod' as teachers of the faith and visible symbols of unity (3.1.2 and 3.1.3). The distinctive Anglican understanding of authority and the autonomy of each Church within the Communion is stressed throughout the Covenant. One important characteristic of the Anglican Communion is that it has no central legislative and executive authority. Instead, Anglicans 'are bound together "by mutual loyalty sustained through the common counsel of the bishops in conference" and of the other instruments of Communion' (3.1.2). The Instruments of Communion are another unique aspect of Anglican identity and order. They are described in section 3.1.4 of the Covenant. You can find out a little more about the Instruments in the glossary at the end of this guide.

The Anglican Communion Covenant therefore finds its basis in Scripture and tradition and articulates the inheritance we share with other Christian churches and those aspects of our life which make our Communion distinctive.

6. Will all churches associated with the Anglican Communion adopt the Covenant?

It is hoped that all the provinces of the Anglican Communion will adopt the Covenant. However, it is possible that some will not. It is important to recognize that if a province does not adopt the Covenant, this does not mean that it is no longer a part of the Anglican Communion. Likewise, if a particular church community affirms the Covenant and it is not currently part of the Anglican Communion, its affirmation of the Covenant does not automatically make it part of the Anglican Communion. There may be other Churches not currently in the Communion, or individual dioceses within existing provinces or local churches, which wish to affirm the Covenant, and which could be invited by the Instruments of Communion to adopt it formally. Currently, only those Churches which are members of the Anglican Communion (that is, those on the Schedule of Membership of the Anglican Consultative Council) are being invited to adopt the Covenant. The means by which Churches will adopt the Covenant will vary according to their respective procedures.

7. What will happen if the Covenant is broken?

Section Four of the Covenant describes what happens if a Church is deemed to have broken the Covenant. The responsibility for monitoring the functioning of the Covenant belongs to the Standing Committee on behalf afthe Instruments of Communion (see the Glossary at the end of this document).

When a question arises concerning fidelity to the Covenant, section 4 immediately calls the Churches of the Communion to the form of life described in section 3.2: to have regard for our common life; to spend time with openness and patience in matters of theological debate and reflection; to listen, pray and study with one another in order to discem the will of God; to seek a shared mind with other Churches, through the Communion's councils, about matters of common concem; to act with diligence, care and caution in respect of any action which may provoke controversy; in situations of conflict, to participate in mediated conversations, which involve face to face meetings, agreed parameters and a willingness to see such processes through.

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If agreement conceming a particular dispute is not reached, the matter is referred to the Standing Committee which may request a Church to defer a controversial action. If that request is ignored, the Standing Committee may recommend to any Instrument of Communion (for example, the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Primates' Meeting) the relational consequences of that action.

It is important to stress that there are already 'relational consequences' of certain decisions made by particular provinces of the Anglican Communion. Those consequences are frequently chaotic in nature. The Covenant provides a description of the form of life by which the Church has historically expressed its mission and a flexible structure for collectively recognising and facing shared tensions and difficulties. As the Archbishop of Canterbury has said:

The last bit of the Covenant text is the one that's perhaps been the most controversial, because that's where we spell out what happens if relationships fail or break down. It doesn't set out, as I've already said, a procedure for punishments and sanctions. It does try and sort out how we will discem the nature of our disagreement, how important is it? How divisive does it have to be? Is it a Communion breaking issue that's in question - or is it something we can learn to live with? And so in these sections of the Covenant what we're trying to do is simply to give a practical, sensible and Christian way of dealing with our conflicts, recognising that they're always going to be there.2

8. Will the Covenant prevent the Church from moving forward?

The Church is continually prompted and led by the Holy Spirit in ways which we cannot anticipate or foresee. Rather than quench the Spirit, the Covenant will help us to discem the Spirit's leading more effectively together, as a Communion of Churches and a body of Christians. The earliest disciples of Jesus, as described by Luke in the book of Acts, had to work hard together, through shared worship and conversation in a spirit of mutual care, to discem the promptings of the Spirit which had been given to them at Pentecost. By using Scripture and our inheritance of faith, the Covenant describes this same form of life by which the Church has, down the ages, sought to discover the will of God.

Nothing in the Covenant describes how the life of a particular Anglican Church should proceed. Each local Church must be free to develop its life and mission within its particular context. However, the Covenant reminds us that it must do so while being mindful of other Anglican Christians around the world. The process of disceming the prompting of the Spirit and the future of the Church is therefore not only a local or regional matter; the Covenant reminds us that such discernment belongs to the whole Church, local and global.

By drawing us towards a more collective discermnent of the Holy Spirit as members of a local and universal Church, the Covenant will help the Anglican Communion to discern more clearly and collectively the will of God as we move into God's future.

1 Message, 17 December 2009; at http://www.archbishopofcanterbury.orgI2687.

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9. Will the Covenant strengthen central control within the Anglican Communion?

It is sometimes said that the Covenant will increase central control within the Anglican Communion. However, it must be stressed that the Covenant continually emphasises the autonomy of the provinces of the Communion. This helps to ensure that local and regional churches will not be swamped by any central power. Here are some examples of the way in which the Covenant expresses the importance oflocal and regional churches.

Each Church, with its bishops in synod, orders and regulates its own affairs and its local responsibility for mission through its own system of government and law and is therefore described as living "in communion with autonomy and accountability". Trusting in the Holy Spirit, who calls and enables us to dwell in a shared life of common worship and prayer for one another, in mutual affection, commitment and service, we seek to affirm our common life through those Instruments of Communion by which our Churches are enabled to be con fanned together to the mind of Christ. Churches of the Anglican Communion are bound together "not by a central legislative and executive authority, but by mutual loyalty sustained through the common counsel of the bishops in conference" and of the other instruments of Communion. (3.1.2)

Such mutual commitment does not represent submission to any external ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Nothing in this Covenant of itself shall be deemed to alter any provision of the Constitution and Canons of any Church of the Communion, or to limit its autonomy of governance. The Covenant does not grant to anyone Church or any agency of the Communion control or direction over any Church of the Anglican Communion. (4.1.3)

Although the Covenant does not in any way suggest the creation of a centralised authoritarian structure, it does affirm the importance of our interdependence and mutual responsibility. A common life means that each Church of the Communion should be mindful that its life and decisions impact positively and negatively on the lives of other Churches. Therefore, the Covenant commits us 'to have regard for the common good of the Communion in the exercise of autonomy' while 'upholding our mutual responsibility and interdependence.' (3.2.2)

10. Why might people be nervous about the Covenant?

Although the Covenant is part of a long history of our need to understand the diversity and growth of the Anglican Communion while maintaining its unity, it does represent a new venture and another stage in the life of our Churches. Anything new of this kind brings with it a certain degree of anxiety concerning future developments. However, we can be confident that the Covenant is the result of a careful process of consultation, debate and prayer.

Some are concerned that the Covenant makes new and considerable demands on the Instruments of C0111111union. Much may depend on how the Covenant is received and used. Others suggest that the Covenant will make tensions and divisions within the Communion even more visible. At present, the Anglican Communion has no way of collectively identifying which disputes might potentially lead to the fracture of our Christian body, and which are less damaging and divisive. If we are to enhance the unity of the Communion and work towards the healing of the Church,

50

we need a way of identifying which are the really serious problems. We also need a description of how we are going to set about dealing with those problems. The Covenant tries to do just that. The Covenant describes and clarifies the nature of our mutual commitments and the form of life required to begin the process of discernment towards deeper communion and a more intense participation in the life of God made known in Jesus Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit.

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Glossary of Terms

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral

The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral is a four-point expression of Anglican identity passed by the House of Bishops of the American Episcopal Church in 1886 and, in slightly amended form, at the third Lambeth Conference in 1888. It was written at a time of rapid expansion for the Anglican Churches and it has been a highly influential expression of Anglican identity. lt reads as follows:

That, in the opinion of this Conference, the following Articles supply a basis on which approach may be by God's blessing made towards Home Reunion:

(a) The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, as "containing all things necessary to salvation," and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith

(b) The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the Niccne Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith

(c) The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christ's Words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him

(d) The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs of the nations and peoples called of God into the Unity of His Church.

The Covenant uses the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral at sections 1.1.3-1.1.6.

Instruments of Communion

The Instruments of Communion are the four bodies in which all Anglican Churches participate. They work to mediate and promote Communion and unity between Anglican Churches. They are:

The Archbishop of Canterbury who functions as the spiritual head of the Communion. He is the focus of unity. He is the bishop of the See of Canterbury with which Anglicans have historically been in communion

The Lambeth Conference (first held in 1867) is the oldest international Anglican consultation. It is a forum for bishops of the Communion to express unity and collegiality through manifesting the episcopate, to discuss matters of mutual concern, and to pass resolutions intended to act as guideposts. It is held roughly every ten years. The Lambeth Conference last met in 2008.

The Anglican Consultative Council (first met in 1971) was created by a resolution of the 1968 Lambeth Conference. It meets usually every three years. It will next meet in 2012. The Council consists of representative Bishops, clergy, and laity chosen by the provinces of the Communion. The Primates' Meeting (first met in 1979) is the most recent manifestation of international consultation and deliberation. It is a meeting of all the Primates, Presiding Bishops and Moderators of the Anglican Communion. A primate is the senior bishop in a province.

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The Standing Committee

This is an elected body of fourteen members. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the President. The members of the Standing Committee are elected by the Anglican Consultative Council and the Primates' Meeting. They are drawn from provinces from all over the Anglican Communion. The Standing Committee will oversee the working of the Covenant on behalf of the Instruments of Communion and make recommendations to the Instruments.

The five Marks of Mission

The five Marks of Mission were developed by the Anglican Consultative Council between 1984 and 1990. They have since become widely discussed and accepted within the Anglican Communion as an expression of our Churches' mission in the world. The five Marks of Mission are:

1. To proclaim the Good News ofthe Kingdom

2. To teach, baptise and nurture new believers

3. To respond to human need by loving service

4. To seek to transform unjust structures of society

5. To strive to safeguard the integrity of creation and sustain and renew the life of the earth

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APP]~NDIX B

Call for a Royal Commission into Dangerous Human Induced Global Warming (DHIGW) theory and preparing for future climate change.

MOTION:

That this Synod calls! on the Australian Parliament to establish a Royal Commission, prior to setting any price on carbon, with terms of reference to enquire into:

1. Whether global temperature change over the last 100 years is historically unprecedented or remarkably unusual compared to the last 10,000 years.

2. Whether human produced carbon dioxide is a significant threat to life on Earth.

3. What is the most efficient, effective and fair way to address future climate change risks (including both warming and cooling risks).

In making this determination the Synod notes that:

1. There is now a large body of credible international scientific opinion (more than 31,000 scientists in the US alone) that rejects the Dangerous Human Induced Global Warming (DHIGW) theory and which asserts that:

a. there is nothing unprecedented, unusual or dangerous in the global temperature record over the last 100 years

b. the Earth has been cooling since about 2001, contrary to DHIGW theory.

c. global warming predictions made by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), based on DHIGW theory, have all proved conspicuously erroneous.

d. carbon dioxide is not a pollutant but is beneficial, in fact essential, for the growth of plant life.

2. Based on IPCC estimates of climate sensitivity to carbon dioxide variation, it appears that if the government achieved it's target to cut Australian carbon dioxide emissions by 5% by 2020, the effect on global temperature would be a futile 0.00005 degree Celsius at best [i.e., one twentieth of one thousandth of a degree Celsius).

3. Some estimates of the impact of a climate policy based on "a price on carbon" give rise to grave concern that such a policy may result in substantial adversity for many Australian families and individuals, particularly the poor, and Australian businesses.

4. Should the international community follow such a policy, it would seem inevitable that food prices will increase making the plight of the poorest people in the world worse.

5. It is not clear that any government (Federal, State or Local) has given due attention to climate cooling risks which, historically, appear to have been the more destructive of living organisms generally.

Moved:

Kim Eason, Synod Representative, Anglican Parish or Bairnsdale

Seconded:

Trevor Mclean, Synod Representative, Anglican Parish or Traralgon

1 This call shall be made by sending this motion and associated notes immediately to all Senators and

Members of Parliament and media organisations nominated at Appendix D. The diocesan contact for all resultant enquiries shall be Kim Eason

J :\Synod\20 II \Synod Book\SectiOIl I \Section l.doc

54

Call for a Royal Commission into Dangerous Human Induced Global Warming (DHIGW) theory and preparing for future climate change.

Background

Scientific Opinion

More than 31,000 scientists across the U.S. alone, including more than 9,000 with PhD. qualifications, have signed a petltion/ rejecting the DHIGW theory. The basis for rejection is set out in a summary of peer reviewed research at :

http://www. petition project.org/review _article.ph p

Likewise, a 255 page US Senate report:' records the names, qualifications and dissenting statements of more than 700 prominent international scientists who reject the DHIGW theory. They include Nobel prize winners and dozens of professors.

Some pertinent facts pointed out by dissenting scientists can be shown most succinctly by referring to Figures 1 to 3 below.

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va lue of 0 .25 ·C, which is the cha nge in Sargasso Sea temperature between 1975 and 2006, has been added to the 1975 data in order to provide a 2006 tem peratu re value.

Figure 14 shows results of a typical study of the Earth's surface temperature clearly showing several periods warmer than the zo" century. The Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has analyzed more than 200 peer reviewed research papers produced

2 Their names and qualifications may be viewed at http://www.petitionproject.org/

3 See rep art a t http://e pw .senate.gov/p ubi ic/i nd ex. cfm ?FuseAction =F iI es. View&Fil eStore_id=8394 7fSd· d84a·4a 84·a dSd· 6e2 d71d b52d9&CFI D=53 692062& [FTO KEN=8241822 7)

4 Arthur B. Robinson et al., Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, ppl- see http://www.pet itionproj ect. org/

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Page 2 of 12 pages

by more than 660 individual scientists working in 385 separate institutions from 40 different countries that comment on the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), The analysis confirms a MWP warmer than the Current Warm Period."

Clearly then, there is nothing unusual or dangerous in the global temperature record over the last 100 years

One reason for this is that at least 99.5% of the postulated "greenhouse effect" is not due to human carbon dioxide emissions at all (it is due to other greenhouse gases 6, mainly water vapour}'. Obviously, and irrefutably, a carbon tax or Emissions Trading Scheme cannot possibly affect the natural 99.5% of greenhouse gases.

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Figure 2. Measured surface temperature from 1880 to 2000 (,Observational Data' in yellow box) followed by IPCC model projections 0 f fuuire temperature made in200 I (red dolled line plus pink envelope), \R~d dot (indicati,4 with !?1:een.arrowfrcnresents Ute global te]l1Perjlture,in200Sl (DrSyun Akasofu 2009 International Conference on Climate Change. New York, March 2009-

Figure 2 shows that:

1. The world's climate has been coolingsince 2001 (see data shown at green arrow), In this period carbon dioxide levels have risen about 5%, Scientists point out that the data is irreconcilable with DHIGW theory.

2. All climate change computer models devised by the UNO's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been proved conspicuously wrong even in the first few years of their predictions. (The range of IPCC prediction is shown in the pink area labelled "IPCC Prediction"). Tragically, Australia is still adhering to such erroneous predictions for public policy making [e.g. the carbon tax, Shire Councils' dire predictions of rising sea levels, etc.).

5 Singer SF & Ideo C 2009, Climate Change Reconsidered - 2009 Report of the Non-governrnental lnternational Panel on Climate Change {NIPCC) 880 pp, at http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/2009/pdf/CCR2009FuIIReport.pdf

6 'Greenhouse gases absorb then re-ernlt Earth's space bound infrared heat radiation thereby producing atmospheric warming

7 Climate: The Counter Consensus, Prof. RM Carter, pp 70·72

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Page 3 of 12 pages

Costs of a price on carbon to Australia

Professor Bob Carter (James Cook University, Queensland) has warned of the possible costs of price on carbon as follows":

"Assuming a BAU [business as usual] usage of 560 Mt of carbon dioxide emissions in the first year after the introduction of an ETS, an Australian population of 22 million persons, and a carbon dioxide tax level of $301t of carbon dioxide on introduction, and of $2501t later when the "floating price" (Gamaut) is reached, then the following costs ... will be imposed on the taxpayer:

• For $301t - an amount of $3,054Ifamilylyr,' rising progressively to

• For $2501t - an amount of $25, 455lfamilylyr,a

Other increased indirect costs associated with emissions trading include unemployment caused by replacing coal-fired [power} with wind power, transitional economic costs (estimated in the U.K. as roughly 1% of GNP), contributions towards the huge aid sums now being demanded by 3rd world countries (another 1% of GNP) and the economic growth foregone because of the whole exercise (Australian treasury estimate, 1. 8% of GNP). These wIll result in an overall cost to the Australian community of more than double the direct charge levied upon carbon dioxide emissions. II

Alarmist Predictions have all proved false.

The increasingly dramatic and dire predictions of DHIGW proponents have all proved false. Journalist Andrew Bolt provides an informative and entertaining expose titled "The Ten Worst Warming Predlctions.v'" which rebuts alarmist assertions that" our cities will die of thirst, our reef will die, goodbye north pole, beware huge winds, giant hailstones will smash through your roof, no more skiing, Britain will swelter, islands will drown, we'll be hotter" (Bolt's phraseology). Since then during 2010-11, contrary to DHIGW predictions, vast areas of the Northern hemisphere have been buried in snow and Queensland has had the worst floods in 40 years inundating an area the size of France and Germany combined. One classic example of DHIGW alarmism:

Within a few years "children just aren't going to know what snow is." Snowfall will be "a very rare and exciting event." Dr. David Viner, senior research scientist at the climatic research unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia, interviewed by the UK Independent, March 20, 2000.

Contrary to this "expert opinion", in December 2010, London was hit by the heaviest snowfall seen in 20 years including a snowstorm which forced Heathrow airport to shut down, stranding thousands of Christmas travellers. Seven more such ludicrous and erroneous alarmist forecasts by "environmental experts" are available at a Fox News piece "Eight Botched Environmental Forecasts"!'

But now, even heavy snow and floods are attributed to global warming" by alarmists such as AI Gore. The media can always find every day somewhere in the world where there is a

8 RightSideNews.com 04 May 2009. Obviously, the actual amount which will be borne by individuals and households will vary widely. But these figures do clearly highlight the potential enormity of a carbon tax or ETS.

9 The Garnaut Review's Supplementary Draft Report "Targets and Trajectories" (Report), 5 September 2008

10 http://blogs.news .C 0 m.a is] hera Id s u n/ and rew bolt/i ndex. ph p/ hera Ids u n/ co mmen ls/ col u mn _the _10_ wo rst _ war m i ng_pre di c tions/

11 htt p :ljwww.foxnews.com/scitech/2 0 1 0/12/30 /botc he d-e nvi ron menta I· fo recas ts/lli xzz lA 1 ugNTB b

12 AI Gore, New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/2B/opinion/28gore.html?hp=&pagewanted=all

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Page 4 of 12 pages

notable or disruptive drought, fire, flood, snow fall, rain, hurricane etc. which is then touted, with no scientific evidence whatever, as proof of DHIGW. But Gore's theories are not scientific or credible. When his theories were tested in a British court they were found to be scientifically flawed." The fact is that there is no scientific evidence that man made carbon dioxide is responsible for disruptive climate events or has exacerbated their frequency of severity." History is littered with disruptive weather events long before the advent of power stations and motor vehicles.

What does cause climate change?

Five important factors which are known to contribute to climate change are described briefly at Appendix A. They a re solar variation, orbital variation, plate tectonics, volcan ic action, and thermohaline circulation. The strong correlation between sun spot activity and air temperature shown at Figure 3 is of particular interest to many scientists.

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Prudence: the rational response to climate change

Because of the com plex causes above mentioned, science has no means at present of forecasting climate change. Certainly, the bizarre IPCC predictions at Figure 2 prove irrefutably that DHIGW proponents cannot predict the direction or severity of climate change even for a few years. It is therefore reckless notso have a climate change policy which caters for bolhglobal warming andglobal cooling (cooling being historically the

13 Inaccuracies in AI Gore's An Inconvenient Truth, at http://www.newparty.co.ukJarticlesfinaccuracies-gore.html 14 For example, Arthur B. Robinson et al., Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at http://www.petitionprOject.org/attestedtobythe31.000·scientists

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Page S of 12 pages

more destructive of I ife on Earth),

In his book Climate: The Counter Consensus" Professor Carter discusses this topic of prudence at length, He proposes a comprehensive plan to manage future climate change risks rationally and scientifically, The application of well known risk management techniques are needed to cope with climate change - just as we do for everything from hu rricanes to bush fires that we expect to occur in the future, Regrettably, such commonsense preparations are not bei ng taken, but are paralysed by the fear-based politics of the DHIGW theory,

The demonisation of carbon dioxide and feeding t he hungry people of the world Proponents of the DHIGW agenda have through massive PR campaigns sought to convince the public that carbon dioxide is a "pollutant" (e.g, the Rudd government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme), The fact is that carbon dioxide is as essential to plants as oxygen is to humans and animals. Without carbon dioxide plants die, Moreover, the increase in carbon dioxide caused by industrialisation has increased the growth of vegetation vital forfood and shelter for both animals and humans".

Of even greater importa nce is the fact that the use of fossil fuels, the cheapest energy source by far, has and continues to be a vital factor in maximising food production and minimising its cost. The significance of this for feeding the increasing numbers of undernourished peoples of the world cannot be overstated, Taxing the use of fossil fuels for food production, under the DHIGW agenda, will not affect climate change one iota, but it will grievously exacerbate the plight of the hungry people of the world,

What will be achieved for the pain of a price on carbon?

Journalist Andrew Bolt asked Australia's Climate Commissioner, Tim Flannery, several times recently about the governments policy of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 5% by 202017 :

"cutting our emissions by 5 per cent by 2020, what will that lower the world's temperatures by 7"

Mr. Flannery would not, or could not, give an answer in degrees Celsius. He replied that the effect "will be a very, very small increment" and that the effect will not be seen for "perhaps as much as a thousand years"."

The answer to the question is a futile 0,00005 degree Celsius at best." That is, one twentieth of one thousandth of a degree Celsius. Is it any wonder the Commissioner was reticent to answer a perfectly straight forward question that he ought to know the answer to?

The above figure is based on the United Nations Organisation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates of climate sensitivity to carbon dioxide variation, The full details of the calculation are attached at Appendix B.

15 Climate: The Counter Consensus, Prof. R M Carter, Chapter 10

16 Arthur B. Robinson et al., Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, pp8 http://www .p etit io nproj ect.org/review ~artide.php

17 http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/ gilla rd-to-reveal-cli ma te-pol icy-today/ story-e6frg6n6-12 26011223441

18 http://blogs, n ews.com ,3 u/h era Idsu n/ and rewbol t/index. php/heraldsu n/comments/the~a nswer ~ fl a nn ery ~refused~ to _give ~ just~000005~ degrees/

19http://blogs. news .com .au/hera Id su n/andrewb olt/i ndex. ph p/h eraldsu n/eo mments/ths ~ a nswer ~fla nnery _ref ussd , to ~g ive ~ j ust~ 000005 ~ degrees/

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Page 6 of 12 pages

The Need for a Royal Commission

Clearly, the above information has not been treated fairly or seriously in the media generally. Consequently, the public is somewhat confused and polarised. For this reason several eminently qualified and experienced Australian climate scientists'" believe that nothing less than a Royal Commission into the DHIGW theory is needed, Only a Royal Commission, with its strict rules of evidence, competent expert cross examination, and its power to institute contempt proceedings against untruthful witnesses, can expose the truth in a manner in which the community can have confidence, We employ such commissions routinely to find the truth regarding matters of great public importance, such as train wrecks and bush fire tragedies, where scientific, technical and organisational complexities are very considerable.

As Christians, we are vitally concerned about the well being of the planet, and the well being of the underprivileged in the world community. But we have a higher duty: namely, to strive for Christian values of truth, justice and love to underpin our governance. This is, in fact, the best way the underprivileged andthe planet will be cared for. The call for a Royal Commission proposed herein is therefore entirely consistent with that duty.

Further Quality Information

For sources of further quality information on this subject please see Annex C

20 Climate: The Counter Consensus, Prof. R M Carter, pp 298 Ref. 284

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Page 7 of 12 page,

Appendix A: Some Known Climate Change Factors

Solar variation

There are a number of variations in solar activity that have been observed through the study of sunspots and beryllium isotopes. The sun provides the Earth with heat energy, an integral part of our climate.

Orbital variation

The elliptical path taken by the Earth around the sun plays a significant role in the distribution and amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface. These Milankovitch cycles have a direct impact on glacial activity. The eccentricity, precession and axial tilt of the Earth, along the elliptical path, creates changes in seasons.

Plate tectonics

The land mass on the planet is made up of plate tectonics that shift, rub against one another and even d rift a part. This results in the repositioning of conti nents, wear and tear of the mountains, large-scale carbon storage and increased glaciation.

Volcanic action

In the course of volcanism, material from the Earth's core and mantle is brought to the surface, as a result of the heat and pressure generated within. Phenomenon like volcanic eruptions and geysers release particulates into the Earth's atmosphere, that affect climate.

Thermohaline circulation

Climate changes also result from the atmosphere-ocean relationship. Climate fluctuations such as the EI N ina Southern asci lIation a nd the Arctic oscillation act as heat reservoirs within the oceans. Thermohaline circulation refers to the redistribution of heat via slow and deep oceanic currents.

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Appendix B

The answer Flannery refused to give: just 0.00005 decreesAndrew Bolt, Tuesday, March 29, 2011 at 12:03am

Extract:

Lord Monckton has been kind enough to give me the straight answer that Flannery et al will not - and his answer explains exactly Flannery's embarrassed silence:

Q. What is the central estimate of the anthropogenic global warming, in Celsius degrees, that would be forestalled by 2020 if a) Australia alone and b) the whole world cut carbon emissions stepwise until by 2020 they were 5% below today's emissions?

Answer a). Australia accounts for (at most) 1.5% of global carbon emissions. A stepwise 5% cut by 2020 is an average 2.5% cut from now till then. C02 concentration by 2020, taking the IPCe's A2 scenario, will be 412 parts per million by volume, compared with 390 ppmv now. So Man will have added 22 ppmv by 2020, without any cuts in emissions. The C02 concentration increase forestalled by almost a decade of cap-and-tax in Australia would thus be 2.5% of 1.5% of 22 ppmv, or 0.00825 ppmv. So in 2020 C02 concentration would be 411.99175 ppmv instead of 412 ppmv ...

So the proportionate change in C02 concentration if the Commission and Ms. Gillard got their way would be 411.99175/412, or 0.99997998. The !PCC says warming or cooling, in Celsius degrees, is 3.7-5.7 times the logarithm of the proportionate change: central estimate 4.7. Also, it expects only 57% of manmade warming to occur by 2100: the rest would happen slowly and harmlessly over perhaps 1000 years (that's the real meaning of Flannery's 1000-year point, and it doesn't do him any favours).

So the warming forestalled by cutting Australia's emissions would be 57% of 4.7 times the logarithm of 0.99997998: that is - wait for it, wait for it - a dizzying 0.00005 Celsius, or around one-twenty-thousandth of a Celsius degree. Your estimate of a thousandth of a degree was a 20-fold exaggeration - not that Flannery was ever going to tell you that, of course.

Answer b) . Mutatis mutandis, we do the same calculation for the whole world, thus:

2.5% of 22 ppmv = 0.55 ppmv. Warming forestalled by 2020 = 0.57 x 4.7In[(412-0.55)/412J < 0.004 Celsius, or less than four one-thousandths of a Celsius degree, or around one-twohundred-and-eightieth of a Celsius degree. And that at a cost of trillions. Whom the gods would destroy ...

If you'd like chapter and verse from the IPCC's documents and from the peer-reviewed for every step of this calculation, which takes full account of and distils down the various complexities and probabilities Flannery flannelled about, you'll find it in this paper ... 22

A cautionary note: the warming forestalled will only be this big if the I PCe's central estimate of the rate at which adding C02 to the atmosphere causes warming is correct. However, it's at least a twofold exaggeration and probably more like fourfold. So divide both the above answers by, say, 3 to get what will still probably be an overestimate of the warming forestalled.

21 http://blogs. news .com.a u/heraldsu n/a ndrewbolt/index. ph p/heraldsu n/comme nts/the _a nswer _fl a nn ery _refused_to _give_ j ust , 000005 _ degrees/

22 A cost-effectiveness metric for climate mitigation policies - Lord Monckton https://senate.aph.gov.au/submiss!ons/co mitt ees/viewdocu me nt .as px?id =3 b3caa 14·a 63 7 ·4dfc·90fd·022d5303d eaO

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Appendix C . Further Quality Information

A must read reference is "Climate: The Counter Consensus" by Professor Bob Carter. Tom Stacey's introduction to the book is a superb recommendation:

'~t last the scientists with the right to be heard are writing for the general reader and for the common voters. Outstanding among them is Professor Carter ... No other palaeoclimatolagist stands abave him in the range, precision of knowledge, and ability to communicate it. He writes with balance, humour and caution, and the courage to define the boundaries of both the known and the unknown. But he knows the sophisticated world has been massively deceived. This work tells the measured truth of that deception"

The UK Telegraph award wi nning colu mnist James Dingpole writes of the book:

" .. it s a cracker. By the end you're left feeling that the scientific case against AGW [DHIGW} is so overwhelming that you wonder how anyone can still speak up for so discredited a theory without dying af embarrassment. sr

In regard to further quality information not detailed previously, I cannot improve on Professor Carter's recommendations and document surnmaries'":

First is an important single-source scientific compendium that carries the same weight with independent scientists as the IPCC assessment reports do with IPCC supporters. Edited by Craig Idso and Fred Singer, who were assisted by a panel of 22 other climate scientists, the report of the Non-Intergovemmental Panel on Climate Change (NlPccj4 is a tour de force. It summarises many important papers that are missing from the IPCC reports, and contains a measured appraisal of most of the major, controversial topics of climate science. Though a total of only 24 scientists participated, science progresses by testing hypotheses, not by counting heads. Throughout the NIPCC report are scattered many independent tests of the hypothesis of the day -which is that human-sourced carbon dioxide emissions are causing dangerous warming - and the hypothesis fails nearly all of them.

Another similarly balanced though less detailed alternative to the IPCC's SPM is an excellent summary document produced by the Canadian Fraser tnstitute."

Moving on to shorter statements that carry a larger number of signatories, two of the most important were letters written to the secretary general of the United Nations at the time of the Bali (December 2001) and Copenhagen (December 2009) climate conferences,

The Bali tetter" contained the following statements:

Recent observations of phenomena such as glacial retreats, sea-level rise and the migration of temperature-sensitive species are not evidence for abnormal climate change, for none of these changes has been shown to lie outside the bounds of known natural variability

The average rate of warming of O. 1-0. 2°C/decade recorded by satellites during the late twentieth century falls within known natural rates of warming and cooling over the last 10,000 years,

Leading scientists, including some senior IPCC representatives, acknowledge that

23 Climate: The Counter Consensus, Prof. R M Carter, pp 203

24 Singer SF & Ideo C 2009, Climate Change Reconsidered· 2009 Report of the Non-governmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) 880 pp, at http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/2009/pdf/CCR2009FullReport.pdf

25 McKitrick R (ed.), 2007 Independent Summary for Policy makers at http://www.uoguelph.ca!-rmckitri/research/ispm.html 26 http://www.nationalpost.com!news/story.html?i d=164002

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Page 10 of 12 pages

today's computer models cannot predict climate. Consistent with this, and despite computer projections of temperature rises, there has been no net global warming since 1998. That the current temperature plateau follows a late twentieth century period of warming is consistent with the continuation today of natural multidecadal or millennial climate cycling.

The distinguished list of 103 signatories to this letter included many winners of awards, medals and prizes in meteorology, climatology or cognate sub-disciplines, and 24 are Emeritus Professors.

The 2009 Copenhagen tetter" was accompanied by a similar but longer ( 143) list of signatories, and included the comment:

Climate change science is in a period of 'negative discovery' -the more we learn about this exceptionally complex and rapidly evolving field the more we realise how little we know. Truly, the science is NOT settled.

Therefore, there is no sound reason to impose expensive and restrictive public policy decisions on the peoples of the world without first providing convincing evidence that human activities are causing dangerous climate change beyond that resulting from natural causes. Before any precipitate action is taken, we must have solid observational data demonstrating that recent changes in climate differ substantially from changes observed in the past and are well in excess of normal variations caused by solar cycles, ocean currents, weather cycles (EI Nino, etc.), changes in the Earth's orbital parameters and other natural phenomena.

A third recent public statement on climate change, the Manhattan Decterstion", was first declared at a Climate Change meeting in New York in March 2008, and concluded:

That current plans to restrict anthropogenic C02 emissions are a dangerous misallocation of intellectual capital and resources that should be dedicated to solving humanity's real and serious problems.

That there is no convincing evidence that C02 emissions from modern industrial activity has in the past, is now, or will in the future cause catastrophic climate change.

That attempts by governments to inflict taxes and costly regulations on industry and individual citizens with the aim of reducing emissions of C02 will pointlessly curtail the prosperity of the West and progress of developing nations without affecting climate.

At the end of 2009, the Manhattan Declaration had attracted 1,301 Signatories, of whom 101 are persons with professional qualifications in a science or policy-related area.

27 http://www.copenhagenclimatechallenge.org

28 http://www.climatesciencei nternational.org/i nd ex. ph p ?option=com conte nt&task=vi ew& id=6 3&1 te mid= 1

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Page 11 of 12 pages

Appendix 0 - Media Organisations

1. All Australian major metropolitan press, radio & TV

(this service can be provided, for example, by OzMedia Press Release Distribution for about $130)

2. All press, radio & TV throughout Gippsland

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Page 12 of 12 pages

APPENDIXC

PLEASE COMPLETE A SEPARATE FORM FOR EACH POSITION

ANGLICAN DIOCESE OF GIPPSLAND FIRST SESSION OF THE THIRTY-SIXTH SYNOD I3-15MAY2011

NOMINATION FORM

We the undersigned nominate: .

(print full name - surname last)

of (Parish)

for election to ..

Proposer: Parish ..

Seconder: Parish .

I accept nomination: .

(signature of candidate or proxy)

BRIEF PARTICULARS OF NOMINEE

(Please indicate if a form has already been completed for the nominee in relation to another position.

Occupation: .

Current church positions or appointments held: .

Previous church positions or appointments held: ..

Other relevant information: .

Signature of proposer or seconder

6g:\Synod\2011\Synod Book'Scction I\Section I.doc

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