Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto Aff
Auto Aff.........................................................................................................................................................................................1 ***First Affirmative Constructive***..........................................................................................................................................4 Auto 1AC (1/17)............................................................................................................................................................................5 Auto 1AC (2/.................................................................................................................................................................................6 Auto 1AC (3/.................................................................................................................................................................................7 Auto 1AC (4/.................................................................................................................................................................................8 Auto 1AC (5/.................................................................................................................................................................................9 Auto 1AC (6/...............................................................................................................................................................................10 Auto 1AC (7/...............................................................................................................................................................................11 Auto 1AC (8/...............................................................................................................................................................................12 Auto 1AC (9/...............................................................................................................................................................................13 Auto 1AC (10/.............................................................................................................................................................................14 Auto 1AC (10/.............................................................................................................................................................................15 Auto 1AC (11/.............................................................................................................................................................................16 Auto 1AC (12/.............................................................................................................................................................................17 Auto 1AC (13/.............................................................................................................................................................................18 Auto 1AC (14/.............................................................................................................................................................................19 Auto 1AC (15/.............................................................................................................................................................................20 Auto 1AC (16/.............................................................................................................................................................................21 Auto 1AC (17/.............................................................................................................................................................................22 ***Inherency***.........................................................................................................................................................................23 Inherency Ext...............................................................................................................................................................................24 Transportation = Root Cause of Welfare.....................................................................................................................................25 Jobs Available.............................................................................................................................................................................26 Car Demand Low – Now Key.....................................................................................................................................................27 No Govt. Aid...............................................................................................................................................................................28 Pay Low Absent Car....................................................................................................................................................................29 *Auto Industry*...........................................................................................................................................................................30 Plan Key To Auto Industry..........................................................................................................................................................31 Plan Key To Auto Industry..........................................................................................................................................................32 Auto Industry Key To End Recession.........................................................................................................................................33 Cars Key – After Hours...............................................................................................................................................................34 Cars > Bus...................................................................................................................................................................................35 Cars > Bus...................................................................................................................................................................................36 Cars Key To Maintain Jobs.........................................................................................................................................................37 Assets...........................................................................................................................................................................................38 Government Intervention Key.....................................................................................................................................................39 Government Intervention Key.....................................................................................................................................................40 Key To Economy.........................................................................................................................................................................41 Key To Economy.........................................................................................................................................................................42 Key To Steel................................................................................................................................................................................43 IDA’s Solve.................................................................................................................................................................................44 Auto Industry Cant Sell Cars Now – Loan failure......................................................................................................................45 *Jobs*..........................................................................................................................................................................................46 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................47 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................48 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................49 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................50 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................51 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................52 Cars K2 Employment..................................................................................................................................................................53 I/L Jobs Key To Economy...........................................................................................................................................................54 Sector Spillover...........................................................................................................................................................................55 *Spatial Segregation*..................................................................................................................................................................56 Inherency Extension....................................................................................................................................................................57
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Regents Laboratory Automobile Aff Inherency Extension....................................................................................................................................................................58 Fed Key Warrant.........................................................................................................................................................................59 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................60 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................61 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................62 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................63 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................64 Segregation Internals...................................................................................................................................................................65 Leads To Perpetual Poverty.........................................................................................................................................................66 Stigma Attached..........................................................................................................................................................................67 Stigma Attached..........................................................................................................................................................................68 Stigma Attached..........................................................................................................................................................................69 Stigma Attached..........................................................................................................................................................................70 Impact Calc..................................................................................................................................................................................71 Solvency......................................................................................................................................................................................72 Solvency......................................................................................................................................................................................74 Solvency......................................................................................................................................................................................75 ***Solvency***..........................................................................................................................................................................76 Plan Solves..................................................................................................................................................................................77 ***Add-Ons***..........................................................................................................................................................................78 Air Power Add-On – 1AC Style..................................................................................................................................................79 Air Power Add-On – 1AC Style..................................................................................................................................................80 Compettitivness Add-On.............................................................................................................................................................81 Competition Add-On...................................................................................................................................................................82 Crime Add-On.............................................................................................................................................................................83 Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact.......................................................................................................................................84 Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact.......................................................................................................................................85 Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact.......................................................................................................................................86 Direct Energy Add-On – Somalia Pirates...................................................................................................................................87 Direct Energy Add-On – Somalia Pirates – Oil Impact..............................................................................................................88 Econ Add-On – Racism...............................................................................................................................................................89 Econ Add-On – Racism...............................................................................................................................................................90 Education Add-On.......................................................................................................................................................................91 Education Add-On.......................................................................................................................................................................92 Education Add-On – Economy...................................................................................................................................................93 Education Add-On – Transportation K2 Edu..............................................................................................................................94 Education Add-On – Uniquness..................................................................................................................................................95 Food Add-On...............................................................................................................................................................................96 Japan Economy Add-On..............................................................................................................................................................97 Japan Economy Add-On – Nationalism......................................................................................................................................98 Japan Economy Add-On – Brink Now........................................................................................................................................99 Military Vehicles Add-On.........................................................................................................................................................100 Military Vehicles Add-On.........................................................................................................................................................101 Military Vehicles Add-On Ext..................................................................................................................................................102 Pollution Add-On......................................................................................................................................................................103 Racism Add-On.........................................................................................................................................................................104 Steel Industry Add-On...............................................................................................................................................................105 Violence Add-On.......................................................................................................................................................................106 ***2AC Blocks***...................................................................................................................................................................107 *Topicality*...............................................................................................................................................................................108 Are Trained Professionals.........................................................................................................................................................109 *Counterplans*..........................................................................................................................................................................110 2AC – AT : Advantage CP........................................................................................................................................................111 2AC – AT : Public Transit CP...................................................................................................................................................112 2AC – AT : Public Transit CP...................................................................................................................................................113 1AR No Solvency – Cars Key...................................................................................................................................................114 1AR No Solvency – Cars Key – Time......................................................................................................................................115
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Regents Laboratory Automobile Aff 1AR No Solvency – Job Markets..............................................................................................................................................116 2AC – AT : States CP – No Solvency.......................................................................................................................................117 2AC – AT : States CP – Food Stamps Good.............................................................................................................................118 *Case Hits*................................................................................................................................................................................119 At : Congestion..........................................................................................................................................................................120 At : Dependency........................................................................................................................................................................121 At : High Food Prices................................................................................................................................................................122 At : High Food Prices................................................................................................................................................................123 At : High Food Prices................................................................................................................................................................124 At : New Citites Disprove.........................................................................................................................................................125 At : Not Qualified......................................................................................................................................................................126 At : Oil Dependence Bad...........................................................................................................................................................127 At : Oil Dependence Bad...........................................................................................................................................................128 At : Pollution.............................................................................................................................................................................129 At : Transportation....................................................................................................................................................................130 At : Warming – Link Defense...................................................................................................................................................131 At : Warming – Impact Defense................................................................................................................................................132 At : Warming – Co2 =/= Warming...........................................................................................................................................133 At : Warming – Co2 Good .......................................................................................................................................................134 At : Warming – Co2 Good .......................................................................................................................................................135 At : Warming – Co2 Good .......................................................................................................................................................136 *Politics Link Turns*................................................................................................................................................................137 Plan Popular...............................................................................................................................................................................138 Plan Popular – Bipart.................................................................................................................................................................139 Plan Popular – Democrats.........................................................................................................................................................140 Plan Unpopular..........................................................................................................................................................................141 Plan Unpopular – Republicans..................................................................................................................................................142 Plan Unpopular - Perception....................................................................................................................................................143 Plan Unpopular – Perception Ext..............................................................................................................................................144 *Impacts*..................................................................................................................................................................................145 Thayer........................................................................................................................................................................................146 *Util*.........................................................................................................................................................................................147 Moral Obligation.......................................................................................................................................................................148 Before Morality.........................................................................................................................................................................149 Kateb..........................................................................................................................................................................................150 Perm : Juxaposition...................................................................................................................................................................151
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff ***First Affirmative Constructive***
" n132 TANF funds can also be used for the "donation and repair of previously owned or reconditioned vehicles to eligible families. Candidate.
Many scholars have found strong relationships between access to a car and employment rates. In July 1999. University of Colorado. but are ineligible for food stamps. This results in a situation where recipients
remain eligible for benefits. and New York lost all or most of their funding in budget cutbacks. n129 The Access to Jobs grants notice
specifies that [*18] "programs for private automobile ownership and repair" are not eligible for Access to Jobs funds. n141
n142 n143 n144
who own a car could receive TANF. State and local budget decisions threaten funding for car programs. Social justice groups have long been interested in equitable transportation options for low-income communities. n128 Welfare-to-Work funds cannot be used to give "financial assistance. n134 It is clear that transportation assistance alone will not run the benefit clock for working families.650 and an asset limit of $ 2. many may have old company cars to donate for tax purposes.edu/views/papers/20051128waller. for innovative solutions to transportation problems faced by poor workers. President George W. or parking for welfare recipients.000. Businesses also should be approached. These resource allowances are more favorable than some states' TANF programs. Private charities are obvious partners. Nexis)
Many of these programs rely on privately or governmentally donated cars. n138 This allows recipients to own a reliable vehicle without risking ineligibility for benefits. however. Welfare-to-Work. county. and may resist efforts to increase the number of drivers on the roads.000. Other states have vehicle exemption amounts ranging from $ 1. Unfortunately.brookings.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (1/17) Contention One: Inherency –
First. but if an individual is not working or searching for work. In early 2000.A. Federal funding for such programs is not assured . Georgetown University Law Center. and Access to Jobs Funds for transportation purposes. and discounted or donated services such as car repairs. The use of TANF funds would be permissible as "financial assistance in the form of loans to eligible individuals for the lease or purchase of a vehicle to travel to/from work or work-related activities. generally requiring a financial contribution from participating families.
Second. insurance. tax incentives and more. Asset limits range upward from $ 1.
this still leaves families in states with vehicle and asset limits for TANF that are equal or lower than the food stamp limits with the choice of owning a reliable car or receiving TANF and food stamps. n136 Thus. 2000. but not as generous as others. states may use their segregated state TANF funds to provide assistance without running up against
the flexibility in TANF and the ability of states to provide state-funded transportation assistance make car programs more possible for recipients seeking employment. while demand-responsive options work better in less-dense places. programs in Arizona. n131 payments to individuals who may just need money for car repairs or insurance to keep their current job or secure employment. In
bills containing the provision. Bush proposed to eliminate the vehicle asset test in the food stamp program to ensure that owning a car was not a barrier to eligibility. The federal food stamp program has a vehicle exemption of $ 4. many state and local governments have supported creation of car ownership programs.
. they signal federal interest in supporting low-income workers with proven and promising services.500 vehicle exemption and a $ 1. in Washington. Twenty-five states have
time limits. n140 These limits and exemptions determine the type of car a recipient may have and still
A recipient with a $ 2. A joint paper from the Secretaries of Health and Human Services.100 and would not be eligible for benefits.. In their TANF plans. DC.” pg online @
A number of these researchers have called for investment in car ownership assistance." n133 In addition. student loans. Left to manage the transportation dilemma with limited federal support. Congress did not take up the savings proposal until after the Clinton administration ended and has not yet passed
In his first term.000. and $ 100 in a checking account would have assets totaling $ 1. Local entrepreneurs who create these programs are a long way from meeting existing need for automobiles. State. insurance. as they are able to accept tax-deductible donations of cars and may also be resources for financial
counseling. Labor. 6
need. “Job Access and Reverse Commute” (JARC). Congress and the Clinton Administration created a new fund. this type of assistance will keep their clock running.D.000 car. the Clinton
administration clarified the food stamp eligibility rules to allow families who received TANF but were ineligible for food stamps--due to ownership of a vehicle that has a value above the asset limit--to receive food stamps. B. many of these groups are also very active in environmental issues. These are all small programs.000 [*19] asset limit. and city governments could donate old vehicles to welfare recipients or county programs that "lease" out cars until the individual is able to purchase her own vehicle. President Clinton proposed a package of initiatives to address transportation barriers. JARC requires local officials to develop locally responsive transportation plans: for example. or they may be willing to provide discounted maintenance. the federal government has taken only small steps toward implementing policy in response to academic research on transportation. These programs can only be successful if they reach out to other groups. Congress did not pass that proposal and the administration has not renewed it. 2000
(J. Some programs use donated cars repaired by welfare recipients newly trained as mechanics. as part of transportation reauthorization legislation. others purchase cars at auction or assist welfare recipients with purchase decisions while subsidizing auto loans. improving fixed-route transit service can work well in dense urban areas. For the 18. or license fees would also be prohibited.pdf) and Family Economic Success. states can use TANF funds to make one-time "diversion"
Jobs or Welfare-to-Work funds can be used to help individuals purchase cars. For example. There are now at least 160 programs supporting car ownership for low-income households. However. However In 1997. $ 500 savings. and Transportation gives states some guidance on permissible projects utilizing TANF. n135 In addition. Confusion between TANF restrictions and federal food stamp restrictions prevents persons living in poverty from being able to purchase and own a vehicle without giving up access to federal services Frazer. car ownership. “License to Drive: Getting Welfare Recipients from the City to the Jobs”. His administration adopted rules making it easier for states to ensure that having a car did not prevent eligible families from receiving food stamps and increased the appropriation for JARC grants. Every state has an asset limit which caps the total assets a recipient may have to remain eligible for benefits. the prospect of owning a reliable vehicle is often more daunting. federal transportation policy is piecemeal and generally incoherent – local and state programs are unable to provide a clear and fully-funded mechanism to give the poor access to cars Waller 2k5
(“High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation http://www. Georgia. Monica Oui . including loans or down payments" to individuals to lease or purchase cars.500 to $ 12. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy. a recipient faces a $ 1. The federal government recognizes the investment value of an education and subsidizes post-secondary training with Pell Grants. federal and local agency practice makes it difficult to use the funding for solutions that involve car purchase.
exempted the full value of one vehicle from this asset limit. Clinton also proposed making federal funding available to match savings of low-income working families who need a car.5 million individuals who rely on food stamps. Federal policy acknowledges the need for child care and health coverage for low-income workers and increased funding for both after the welfare law changed. hours worked. states have included provisions which would allow welfare recipients to obtain vehicles without jeopardizing their benefits. While these investments fail to meet current
.n139 The remaining value of the vehicle is included when calculating the recipient's assets. and employment . and earnings. n130 Because Department of Transportation and Department of Labor officials have stated that no Access to
it is unclear whether other subsidies for maintenance. recent years. However.
Product quality has become
vehicle. essential for high-end. governmental aid programs have been too small – they’ve allowed Toyota and other overseas companies to decimate GM – failure to get GM up and running in immediate sales will forever decimate the U. But what is unclear is when supplier failures could threaten the industry’s federally funded recovery. The governments decision to downsize the car industry has produced a situation in which hundreds of billions of dollars in revenue over the next decade will be lost in this sector.To hear the auto suppliers tell it. Earlier this year." said Neil De Koker.” pg nexis//cndi-ef) The calculus of the domestic car business for American companies has come down to a terrible equation: Detroit cannot sell what it cannot make. The marginalization of the American car industry has nearly been assured by the modest size of the governments investment." De Koker said of the Obama auto task force.” pg online @ http://www. for the moment.S. say many can’t meet current loan terms for operating cash. and Chrysler Group LLC and face growing insolvencies the rest of the year." The Obama administration’s decision not to offer the auto supply sector any more money immediately leaves the entire industry on watch for signs of the chaos that could yet prompt the government to act. Wes Smith. When an automaker cuts production. but a percentage point of a 14 million-a-year car industry is worth $3. are hurt by dramatically reduced production at General Motors Corp.bostonherald. Since taxpayers will own a reasonable part of The Motor City. funneled through Chrysler Group LLC and General Motors Corp. BMW. At least 16 with U. A loss of another 5%. which last week sought up to $10 billion in federal aid for suppliers. it would be a reasonable goal to buy them a piece of something that might grow and not a set of businesses that will be constantly under siege from larger competition . " There’s no
question in my mind that things are going to get worse. where assembly lines are shut down due to lack of supplier parts. their industry might not survive without government help. its suppliers’ revenue falls. which could happen fairly quickly. a new wave of bankruptcies is imminent but Obama wont act – he’ll risk letting the auto companies collapse into chaos rather than provide necessary jumpstart to suppliers Boston Herald. Industry 24/7 Wallstreet 6/27/2k9 (“The Un-Detroiting Of America.
.com/news/us_politics/view. American car company domestic market share has already dropped to close to 50%.
automakers to suppliers. and Chrysler are not brands that are associated with the high end of the market and it would take years to change that if it could be changed at all.S.com 6/17/2k9 (“Auto suppliers say survival tied to more aid. and Mercedes. where it could outspend GM in every category from marketing to development to manufacturing . The governments response to any criticism of the size of the cuts it mandated in Detroit is that the bailout of the industry was getting too expensive. GM. they would look at this and step in to do what’s necessary. niche luxury companies like Porsche. the Treasury Department set aside $5 billion for suppliers. blocking access to loans.5 billion based on an average sales price of $25. It’s a chance President Barack Obama." he said. "My hope is that we’re going to catch it in time so we don’t have significant chaos in the industry before action is taken. though. operations already have gone bankrupt. "They recognize as things do get disorderly. There’s
no doubt in the industry that more suppliers will file for bankruptcy and go out of business -leading to more job losses. Auto suppliers also can sell those payments to the Treasury at a discount for an immediate cash infusion. president of Plymouth-based stampings maker E&E Manufacturing.
*****Second. Toyota reached the point.000 per
Shrinking Detroit will take away much of its capacity to compete across each niche in the market. The US market will only produce 10
million vehicle sales this year. especially in the upper Midwest." The supplier group proposed that the money primarily be used to boost lending into the sector and allow parts makers to be paid more quickly so they’re not starving for cash when
they need to spend money to ramp up production. largely in the form of loan guarantees to unlock credit and provide funding for consolidations in the shrinking auto supply world. said he understands Obama’s dilemma: "Outside the manufacturing base of the Midwest.bg? articleid=1179523&srvc=rss //cndi-ef) WASHINGTON -. His Treasury Department will let pass a plea for $8 billion to $10 billion.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (2/ Contention Two: the Auto Industry
First. The program guaranteed payments from
Suppliers are enduring steep production cuts with most of Chrysler’s plants still idled for the company’s bankruptcy and GM in the middle of an extended summer shutdown at many of its plants . is willing to take. His administration already has committed $5 billion to suppliers and isn’t convinced more is needed. during the last decade. aimed at easing the concerns of potential lenders. Ford (F). "there’s not a lot of support for this. Suppliers. GM will be so small at this point that it is hardly worth mentioning the two companies in the same breath. That may never rebound to the 16 million level of four years ago. That means that Detroit is left to compete in the large and crowded middle part of the market where the elbows are sharpest and the chances of success are based on size as much as quality. The Treasurys action will almost certainly end up having been too cheap. president of the Original Equipment Suppliers Association. moves almost $18 billion in revenue from the US firms to those based overseas .
sharp slowdown in China.
states of the UAE. Lexis) Steel is on edge and the global industry is cutting back hard. "It is encouraging that the inventory of steel products. She said the future of the steel industry depended on three factors -the impact of Chinese economic stimulus efforts. notably for real estate developers and builders. Furthermore.especially by the auto suppliers. The Chrysler debacle is all over the news. Unemployment is contagious right now in
You have to remember that the three auto giants support the entire economy. Morgan Stanley predicted "the current demand shock to lead to excess steel capacity." In addition. It is Automotive Industry Collapse Spreads to
Auto Suppliers some really interesting and sad times for Auto City! I must say that I grew up in Michigan. new credit for vast Middle Eastern building schemes or resurrection of the US auto industry. six auto suppliers were added to CreditWatch by Standard & Poors. The problems with GM and Chrysler may inadvertantly affect their competitors via the auto suppliers. Toyota. are damping down surplus furnace capacity while waiting for credit to flow. US auto turnaround”.html?cat=3 //ef) @
It's no secret that Auto City is on the brink of collapse Two of the three auto giants are
.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (3/
And. Thomas Albanese. worth 582 billion dollars or 45 per cent of the total value of the construction sector. once a thriving steel market but one in which two of its giant players." Analysts have said steel inventories are falling in China in anticipation of projects expected to emerge from the country's huge stimulus package. however. April 12. a Hong Kong-based economist for JPMorgan. according to Morgan Stanley. dramatises the extraordinary ride and role of steel in the last few years. Steel Industry – Full Failure of the Auto Industry would result in collapse of already at-risk steel companies Agence France Presse. and Hyundai. You also have the workers who work at all the auto suppliers that supply parts to actually make the cars . What you may not realize. The two companies are currently limping along thanks to billions of dollars in government aid. But property prices have collapsed in the Middle East as well. Their problems are going to be felt across the industry .9 percent to the country's economic growth. prices in the real estate sector have slumped by an average of 25 percent from their peak in September after rallying 79 percent in the 18 months to July 2008. hanging on for either a budget blast from China. GM.associatedcontent. It's no secret that GM and Chrysler are going to have long periods of shut down.
workers who actually work for GM. wrote in a research note.com/article/1722772/automotive_industry_collapse_spreads. have started to fall (since the end of March). In another report. Everyone is waiting for the Chinese stimulus package to see if it will revive demand. producers have been cutting production. However. This is not a good thing. especially in the Gulf. The Obama Administration has come up with a $5 billion program that will ensure that the auto suppliers get paid no matter what happens with GM and Chrysler. GM could miss a critical bond payment as early as June 1. and GM is not far behind. Demand has dwindled and steelmakers. or Ford. steel plants should operate at rates below 75 percent of capacity until 2012. is how bad this affects the rest of the industry. especially long products." analysts at Barclays Capital said in a study last week. but steel has reacted more rapidly and dramatically since September. When they sneeze." she said. "We are waiting to see if the auto sector in the US will get out of the crisis intact. This is because there will be no receivables to insure. For those of you unfamiliar with some of this terminology. In just months the global industry has gone from a boom driven largely by China. are staring at bankruptcy. As you can see
Auto Industry Collapse would be a disaster – the Auto Industry is a key supplier for the U." Frank Gong. likely suggesting that end-demand is gathering momentum." The Chinese government last month announced a four-trillion-yuan (580-billion-dollar) package of measures that it said could contribute 1. Industry experts have meanwhile spoken optimistically of China's prospects. Your credit card balance is a receivable for your credit card issuer. Imagine just how expensive it is to make sure you are getting parts from an auto supplier who is only operating at 20% capacity.and industry . demand for steel has dropped dramatically and. the big problem is a shortage of credit." Consequently.
." said commodities analyst Perrine Faye of London-based FastMarkets. cash flow is estimated to dry up for auto suppliers in August or Automotive Industry
federal aid will be moot if production shuts down
the problems surrounding the auto giants are just the tip of the iceberg. " at a standstill. You have to remember that you don't just have the
Auto City. In addition. said earlier this year that the company foresaw "a short. as a result. "They were hoping that Americans and Europeans would buy apartments. Chrysler. construction cranes to turn and factories to roll. On-the-ground evidence suggested that the Chinese industry had been re-stocking in the first two months of the year. General Motors and Chrysler. Typically. ArcelorMittal.
Collapse Spreads to Auto Suppliers September. A decision by ArcelorMittal last week to pursue temporary production cutbacks. and Ford don't typically make their own auto parts. chief executive at steel maker Rio Tinto. Construction planners had "counted on a higher price for oil and on credit to finance their huge projects." In the United Arab Emirates more than half the building projects. They get their parts from auto suppliers such as Delphi and Dana . all the details are not in tact and some experts say that the . the whole state . the bank said. according to Faye. slashing European output by more than half from
the end of April according to a union source. has died. "Chinese imports and exports are
property extravaganza in the Middle East to a narrow line between excess capacity and the costs of waiting for recovery. The Michigan I remember is a lot different that the Michigan that exists now. a pick-up in the Middle East construction sector and a revival of the once mighty US auto industry . Gong wrote.5 to 1.” pg online http://www. 2009 (“Global steel industry awaits China. as the fundamentals of Chinese economic growth remain sound. one of the
Faye said the fate of the steel sector was in addition tied to that of the struggling US auto industry . receivables are what a company expects to receive off their credit sales. with demand rebounding over the course of 2009. Chrysler. In the Middle East. emerging markets and a
Over the past six months. have been put on hold.S. The auto suppliers will
be working with less capacity.gets a cold.
in serious financial trouble. which are mostly used in construction projects. a study by Dubai-based market research group Proleads found in February. followed by a pause in March before major infrastructure projects were expected to start in the second quarter. this will spill-over to all areas of the auto industry including suppliers and overseas auto companies Associated Content Magazine 5/7/2k9 (“Automotive Industry Collapse Spreads to Auto Suppliers. Auto makers who are not surviving off government handouts are subsidizing their auto suppliers to help them get through this time. notably the giant of them all. you can only insure receivables that are 60 days or less past due. In Dubai. "The steel market is not very different from base metals as a whole. demand for such facilities. What's more is that these auto suppliers also supply other companies such as Honda.
. Depending on trusted friends and allies may not be wise. 2001. the integrity of the domestic and
global market is jeopardized. which from time to time is necessary. keeps this country at the top of the worldwide steel industry. I think it is apparent that we cannot accept a situation in which we are reliant on the kindness of strangers to meet our security-related steel needs . trade laws that lend to a skewed market and undercut the ability for fair competition to flourish in the global economy. of which Indiana is the second-largest producer among the states. the domestic market loses its ability to effectively compete with its global rivals.S. In either instance. we must be cognizant. technologically savvy.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (4/ The Impact is Extinction
Buyer. national defense has dominated public attention. These producers are heavily concentrated in northwest Indiana and at the end of 2006 they employed over19. the steel industry has invested billions of dollars in modernizing itself while simultaneously improving environmental compliance. Before the International Trade Commission. Indonesia.
continuous violations of international and U. 701TA-404-408 and 731-TA-898-908))
A robust steel industry is fundamental to the security and economic viability of this nation. Netherlands. To ensure that our nation's defense remains adequate and capable. We cannot project our force around the globe. If you were to contemplate the ten resources considered essential to the successful establishment of a nation. A fruitful domestic steel industry maintains its
viability by being adaptive. HUMMVEES. The United States is the only superpower in the world. South Africa. we must continue to enable mechanisms that will influence other countries to play by the rules Simultaneously. However. It has learned the hard way the benefit of cutting-edge technology. and flexible so that it can maintain its competitive edge in the world market. the defense of our nation depends on steel. to recognize those instances in which anti-dumping and countervailing duties are no longer required to safeguard our economic and security interests. since they have requirements of their own for steel. Member of the House of Representatives. To ensure their stature. We cannot become dependent on foreign sources for this material so vital to our national defense. we cannot allow to go unchallenged the
The preservation of the economic integrity of our domestic steel industry is fundamental to our ability to protect our very existence as a nation. When that occurs. are all made of steel. It is in our national interest to maintain a vigorous steel industry. if the competitive nature of this market is unfairly influenced by steel dumping or by illegal subsidies given to foreign producers by their governments or other entities. China. Taiwan. The nation's annual production of over 100 million tons of steel . When contemplating the tumultuous nature of this global war against terror in which we are immersed. In the years that have followed the tragic events of September 11. Our aircraft carriers. Both of those elements are vital ingredients to a nation's ability to develop and maintain an adequate defense . The efficient low-cost producers that comprise the membership of our domestic steel market can compete effectively against any foreign producer in the global economy. directly impacts our national security. and take appropriate action. That competitive edge lends itself to economic security and stability here at home.000 Americans in that region. practices. Kazakhstan. without the ability to move people and equipment quickly. tanks. India. I believe we must remain vigilant to protect ourselves from a future without a steelmaking infrastructure sufficient to meet our national defense needs. and our ability to remain competitive abroad. Thailand. it negatively impacts the economic stability of our domestic steel industry which
We need to ensure that companies like Nucor and Steel Dynamics have the opportunity to modernize and grow to adequately meet the demands of the global market without the fear of sustaining financial damage from unfair or illegal trade
in turn threatens our national security. Regarding the five-year sunset review on Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from Argentina. Simply put. The economic stability of the steel industry here at home. cruisers. In those instances. and Ukraine (Inv. steel would be high on that list . 7-31-7 (Steve. Nos. Romania. Companies like Nucor of Crawfordsville and Steel Dynamics of Pittsboro contribute substantially to the ensuring a healthy local economy and thereby contribute to a stable and healthy national economy.
could disrupt the global supply chain and idle their factories in the United States . problem ." Addicted to U. "We depend too much on the U. automobile industry has hit Japan like a tsunami.five months in a row so far.S. accounting for 10 percent of their total business. During the Japanese fiscal year that ended March 31.approximately 75 percent of the 22 million vehicles made by
But cars and trucks are not the only products crossing the Pacific.” pg online http://www.S. and Kojima said it
Japanese manufacturers here and abroad were sold outside of Japan. affects the Japanese economy quite a lot -.S. Demand for their cars and trucks in the United States. This is Tokyo. "Japanese automakers don't want to see GM or Chrysler disappear.is projecting profits. In the face of economic instability. one of Japan's biggest financial firms. "It would create social and political problems. and many are losing their homes. so did Japanese exports. Some consolidation already has occurred in the Japanese parts industry.S. and newly democratized states may find it impossible to maintain power. Auto Supplier Collapse would send shockwaves across the globe – it would collapse the Japanese Economy and trigger a full-blown trade war Detroit News 4/9/2k9 (“Detroit's auto pain hits Japan.is worried that it could get much worse if GM or Chrysler LLC fail. financiers are fretting about the impact of a General Motors Corp. some Japanese suppliers will go bankrupt. parts manufacturer.S. prompting many to drop their objections to a U.more than anyone else in the world.com/article/20090409/AUTO01/904090422/Detroit+s+auto+pain+hits+Japan //cndi-ef) Tokyo -.Honda Motor Co." Japanese parts manufacturers have a major presence in the United States.S. he said. For the first time in a generation. and then only because it is still making money from
Japanese suppliers are also in trouble. Just last week. Ltd. market. are watching sales decline and losses mount.particularly the parts suppliers. Americans bought nearly 5. "The shrinking of the auto market in the U. most notably China's. government to make aid available to Japanese parts manufacturers in the United States. Resident Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. They also provide parts to U. "To reduce their inventories in your market. car market. or even a major U.S auto industry is already having a major impact on public sentiment in Japan. integrated Asia is at risk. Japanese suppliers provided $35 billion worth of parts to manufacturers in North America . government bailout of GM and Chrysler
The Japanese are worried that the failure of either company. "If there is a major disruption among the tier one companies in the United States. mutually dependent.S. As demand for vehicles collapsed in
about the impact this would have on public sentiment." said Takehide Takahashi. The crisis in the U. There also is growing concern that such developments could trigger a protectionist backlash or spark a new trade war .S. "It is very serious.the most recent year for which numbers are available -." said Iwao Nakatani. director of research at Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co. with the potential for increased political tension in the world's most heavily armed region.4 million of these cars and trucks -.S. and the heads of once-invincible automakers like Toyota Motor Corp.
. and the Japanese slowdown is creating tremendous pressure on Chinese factories ." Tier one suppliers sell parts directly to automakers. Closer to home. Japanese manufacturers quickly began to reduce production. executive director of Japan
Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc. sales the United States. China is currently Japan's largest import provider.the engine of the nation's economy -. where laid-off auto workers are sleeping in parks. has plunged nearly 35 percent in the past year . During the same year. executive managing director of the Japan Auto Parts Industries Association. 2008 -. "Your problems have become our problems. Scores of suppliers are on the brink of bankruptcy. supplying not only Japanese plants but also American automakers . suppliers and rely on some of those same companies to provide parts for their components. ‘9 (Michael. February 17. adding that some suppliers are expected to ask the Japanese government for aid as early as this month. "The parts manufacturers are
its motorcycle and all-terrain vehicle operations.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (5/
Moreover. according to the Japanese government.S. And everyone in the Japanese auto industry -. Social stability in emerging. It is not only a U. Japanese economic collapse causes Asian instability and collapses trade and democracy Auslin. securities for years. we will be swimming in a sea of blood.even authoritarian -. But this is not Detroit. “Japan’s Downturn is Bad for the World” Wall Street Journal) If Japan's economy collapses. "If the situation lasts longer than a year or so.Five of Japan's eight automakers are expected to post significant losses in the next few weeks." The fear is palpable from here to Hiroshima. which ended here on March 31. They also began to cut temporary workers. The drop in sales also dealt a big blow to the bottom lines of automakers and suppliers. the Chinese government announced that 20 million rural migrants had lost their jobs. The political and social fallout from a Japanese depression also would be devastating. senior fellow at the Japan Center for Economic Research. middle-class societies will be severely tested. supply chains across the globe will be affected and numerous economies will face severe disruptions. -.control to try to limit the damage. Takahashi's group has welcomed the decision by the U.detnews. dealt a massive blow to consumer confidence in a country that still viewed employment as a lifetime guarantee. Japan's sin has been its dependence on the U.." Kojima said. Only one of Japan's major automakers -. Free-trade agreements may be rolled back and political freedom curtailed. Progress toward a more open. Five of Japan's eight automakers are expected to post losses for the last fiscal year. which it has used to purchase U." That began last fall. other Asian nations may feel forced to turn to more centralized -. their biggest market. bankruptcy on already weak parts makers. Thousands of workers have lost their jobs. Toyota and others are concerned
The crisis in the U.
for the sake of some stability in the auto industry." said Akira Kojima. If Detroit's sin was its over-reliance on big truck and sport utility vehicle sales." said Toshihiro Iwatake. Japan may also start running out of surplus cash.S. These are challenges Detroit has been struggling with for years. Tokyo is running trade deficits -.
This is the nightmare of governments in the region. Newly urbanized workers rioting for jobs or living wages. The economic collapse Japan is facing. February 6. “Averting Disaster” Daily Standard.
and that any aggressor will be met with a united front. Collapsing trade flows can lead to political tension. There is no reason to believe we are immune from the same types of miscalculation and greed that have destroyed international
systems in the past. led to instability and bursts of terrorist activity in Japan. But war. nationalist outbursts. of course. the world may be paying the price for years to come. further saber-rattling from North Korea. None of this may be needed. military presence since World War II. and China's potential slowdown.29339/pub_detail. the United States can also establish clear procedures to limit humanitarian crises that erupt from internal instability in Asian countries.S. This would be a political and humanitarian disaster turning the clock back decades in Asia. at the National Security Council. including the 1998 Asian Currency Crisis.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (6/ Asian economic stagnation causes global conflict escalation
Auslin. Without preparation now. military miscalculation. diplomatic initiatives. their sense of national honor. peace in Asia has been kept in good measure by the continued U. Yet policymakers need to remember that even during these decades of growth. Phenomenal growth rates in Japan. Possibly democracies like Japan and South Korea would link up to oppose any aggressor. Secondly. http://www. such as the 1973 Oil Crisis. How will overburdened political leaders react to internal unrest? What happens if Chinese shopkeepers in Indonesia are attacked. Asia's political infrastructure may not be strong enough to resist the slide towards confrontation and conflict. America has directly benefited as well. President Obama might express his determination to intervene at the first sign of possible conflict--even if that means putting U.S. This could be replicated in the region by an ad hoc mechanism tied to the ASEAN secretariat that would allow for immediate discussions between parties in confrontation. to keep tabs on possible flare-ups. and in many nations the move toward more democratic systems . Hong Kong. but it has happened repeatedly throughout history. could contain the crisis. while the uneven pace of growth in China has led to tens of thousands of armed clashes in the poor interior of the country. may coalesce into a toxic brew. Washington must get clear assurances from its allies that they will stand with us should hostilities erupt
Decades of economic integration and political discussion have made Asia a far more peaceful place. is local. Perhaps China would emerge as the undisputed hegemon.asp) As they deal with a collapsing world economy. or a Japanese naval ship collides with a Korean fishing vessel? Quite simply. as well. Today. to development and stability. India might decide it could move into the vacuum. All of this is guess-work. the most heavily armed region on earth and riven with ancient hatreds and territorial rivalries. moments of economic shock. growing distrust. but also from the general conditions of peace in Asia. Australia.org/publications/pubID. Working with Japan. and all interested nations in Asia can do to mitigate the possibility of the worst happening. President Obama might also establish an Asia crisis ad hoc committee in Washington. already stretched too thin by wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This has gradually led to increased political confidence. Australia. There have been terrible localized conflicts. Singapore. South Korea.
. Failure on our part to live up to those responsibilities could mean the end of America's credibility in Asia. The United States will have an opportunity to arrange a meeting of the region's top leaders on the sidelines of the APEC summit in Singapore later this year. Now imagine such instability multiplied region-wide. and not merely from years of lower consumer prices. dwarfs any previous economic troubles. worn out from war and economic distress. Resident Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. of course. and the Philippines should any of them come under armed attack. Perhaps most important. ‘9 (Michael. war can follow. The pain being felt in Asian countries. First of all. policymakers in Washington and around the globe must not forget that when a depression strikes. and it is unclear if the American military. Asia's political infrastructure may not be strong enough to resist the slide towards confrontation and conflict. South Korea. Nor is it clear that the American people. and fears about their future. conflict over natural resources. There. But it is also important to remember what has helped keep the peace in this region for so long. its allies. Nowhere is this truer than in Asia. and ultimately. and China. The result could be a historic changing of the geopolitical map in the world's most populous region. but nothing approaching a systemic conflagration like the 1940s. would be willing to shed even more blood and treasure for lands across the ocean. China and elsewhere since the 1960s have naturally turned national attention inward. forces in between ships aiming their guns at each other. such a conflict would be far more bloody.aei. The result would be disaster on top of an already dire situation. No one should think that Asia is on the verge of conflict. Here are some things America. like politics. and particularly of democracies from newer ones like Thailand and Mongolia to established states like Japan and South Korea. we have alliance responsibilities to Japan. all can take on lives of their own. It would almost certainly drag America in at some point.
In some instances.htm //cndi-ef) Two auto analysts suggest that spending some government auto aid money for direct-to-consumer incentives could boost sales and benefit the whole industry. while Iran may embark on overt colonization of its neighbors in the Mideast.” pg online http://www. and clearing mechanisms. which many commentators believe helped turn a serious economic downturn into a prolonged and devastating global disaster . overuse. Financial Armageddon: Protect Your Future from Economic Collapse. investment.6 billion more they're seeking. or trying to buy property and other assets on the (heap thanks to a rapidly depreciating dollar. economic conditions will serve as a convenient pretext for conflicts that stem from cultural and religious differences. and pollution of the environment and natural resources will become more commonplace. China will likely assume an increasingly belligerent posture toward Taiwan. bond. settlement. Turbulent conditions will encourage aggressive saber rattling and interdictions by rogue nations running amok. be acquired from less-than-friendly nations. Growing cultural and religious differences will be transformed from wars of words to battles soaked in blood. Eventually. bringing the threat of random violence to a whole new level. finance.
one country to the next by tourists and wildlife. cruise missiles. Many will interpret stepped-up conflicts between Muslims and Western societies as the beginnings of a new world war. fed by a mood of desperation and growing public anger. continue to undermine business confidence and consumer spending. Alternatively. Government aid to the auto industry in the form of assistance to consumers will boost the industry USA Today 3/11/2k9 (“Analysts suggest government auto money go direct to buyers. many nations will make transporting or sending funds to other countries exceedingly difficult. allowing customers to buy what they want. They say the government could provide discount vouchers for new car buyers. have even speculated that an "intense confrontation" between the United States and China is "inevitable" at some point. will be stymied by limits on investment by noncitizens. Terrorists employing biological or nuclear weapons will vie with conventional forces using jets. Some observers. Age-old clashes will also take on a new. any link that transmits systemic financial pressures across markets through arbitrage or portfolio-based risk management. and other key commodities as well as factors of production that must. of course. ABN Amro. restrictions on trade. disrupting global payment. Revised and Updated Edition. and lawmakers may even call for a general crackdown on nonessential travel. and currency markets who has worked in New York and London for HSBC.usatoday. 25-year veteran of the global stock. Those efforts will cause spasms to ripple across economies and markets.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (7/ Protectionism causes economic decline and global conflict
Michael J. and bunker-busting bombs to cause widespread destruction. Long-simmering resentments could also degenerate quickly. and energy. Israel. All of this will. or that otherwise facilitates unwelcome exchanges of any kind will be viewed with suspicion and dealt with accordingly. In a world of lockouts and lockdowns. or could underwrite the costs of a federal version of South Korean automaker Hyundai's successful Assurance Plan. 136-138 Continuing calls for curbs on the flow of finance and trade will inspire the United States and other nations to spew forth protectionist legislation like the notorious Smoot-Hawley bill. a political scientist at the University of Chicago. The key benefit of either plan: "The government fund would support the entire industry. like John Mearsheimer. More than a few disputes will turn out to be almost wholly ideological. Soros Funds. and immigration will almost certainly intensify. auto analyst at Citi Investment Research. gas. such tensions will give rise to full-scale military encounters. 2008. water. efforts to secure adequate supplies will take increasing precedence in a world where demand seems constantly out of kilter with supply. for its part. But if history is any guide. Around the world. spurring the basest of human instincts and triggering genocidal acts. Disputes over the misuse. Introduced at the start of the Great Depression. p. Enabled by cheap technology and the waning threat of American retribution. as is successfully being done in Europe. those lessons
will have been long forgotten during the next collapse. and an Obama administration task force is weighing whether they will get $21. foreign individuals and companies seeking to acquire certain American infrastructure assets. nations may look to divert attention away from domestic problems by channeling frustration and populist sentiment toward other countries and cultures." says Itay Michaeli. he says. Whether involving raw materials used in strategic industries or basic necessities such as food. they will introduce controls on foreign exchange. Dresdner Bank. and JPMorgan Chase. it triggered a series of tit-for-tat economic responses. A federal program similar to Hyundai's incentive would tap what could be pent-up demand for new cars among buyers numbering in the millions for $5 billion or less. As desperate officials try to limit the fallout from decades of ill-conceived. Authorities and ordinary citizens will likely scrutinize the cross-border movement of Americans and outsiders alike. or that allows diseases to be easily spread from
The rise in isolationism and protectionism will bring about ever more heated arguments and dangerous confrontations over shared sources of oil. corrupt. General Motors ( GM) and Chrysler are surviving on $17.4 billion in federal loans. he says. often with minimal provocation. Panzner 8. It would also be cost-effective. faculty at the New York Institute of Finance. terrorist groups will likely boost the frequency and scale of their horrifying attacks. out of necessity.com/money/autos/2009-03-10-auto-buying-incentives_N. may look to draw a dwindling list of allies from around the world into a growing number of conflicts. @
And. more healed sense of urgency. and reckless policies.
vice president of industry analysis and economics for the Original Equipment Suppliers
into a funk starting last year. Both Visteon Corp." said Timothy
Johnson said in a note to investors Monday that Lear Corp. If the factories aren't running. Before filing for bankruptcy.html?nav=rss_business/industries //cndi-ef) DETROIT -.com/wpdyn/content/article/2009/06/15/AR2009061502428. plants. creating a chain of companies that many thought would snap if payments were interrupted to firms already under extreme financial stress because of the U. While there have been about 20 supplier bankruptcies so far this year.. supply base. chairman and CEO of supplier ArvinMeritor Inc.
Now. is vulnerable for a bankruptcy protection filing by June 30.washingtonpost. automaker aid keeps parts makers alive.S.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (8/
And. which also helped cash-strapped companies avoid trouble.. which makes parts for cars and heavy trucks." said Bob McKenna. and possibly the European and global supply base. president of the Motor Equipment
Manufacturers Association. once a unit of Ford Motor Co. but government cash infusions and payment guarantees for GM and Chrysler kept most suppliers afloat . " Manganello. auto market went
Many thought the whole system would collapse because the automakers would be unable to keep making payments. but industry officials say more bankruptcies are coming as the effects of Detroit's temporary factory closures continue to ripple through the economy. CEO of supplier BorgWarner Inc. Ford and Chrysler have held off the predicted collapse of the nation's auto parts supply base. " There was not the Armageddon that
could have been there.
day lag between when they ship parts and when they are paid again. speaking at The National Summit in Detroit Monday. another industry trade group. shipping them to Detroit Three factories as well as those of foreign automakers with U. Suppliers already were hurting when the U. auto sales slump . though." Chip McClure.Government aid and timely payments by General Motors. and there's a 45Association. which already has missed interest payments.
.S. and still that company's biggest supplier. Some supply parts to makers of larger components.” pg online @ http://www. suppliers have no income. already have filed for Chapter 11. "It isn't over yet.. the next 3-10 weeks are CRITICAL – failure to protect the auto industries will completely collapse the global auto supply base – more assistance is necessary
Washington Post 6/15/2k9 (“Government. Barclays analyst Brian
The next three to 10 weeks are going to be a critical period to the U. and Metaldyne Corp. Andrea said.S. many are at risk of trouble again with GM and Chrysler temporarily shutting down some factories for up to three months due to growing inventories. most suppliers have managed to hang on despite Chrysler Group LLC and G eneral Motors Corp. Hundreds of companies large and small across the country make everything from bolts to axles to transmissions.. entering bankruptcy protection and shuttering their factories for weeks to keep inventory under control.S. said Dave Andrea. dropping to an annual selling rate of around 9 million after peaking at 17 million in mid-decade. GM made payments to suppliers early.
Several European social scientists assign a similar social as well as personal value to employment. Persistent unemployment and irregular employment hinder rational planning in daily life. Distinguished Professor in the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University. the life-span research of Levinson et al. and increase stress in spousal and parental relationships. and often lacking in energy to help the children. p. structure in daily living. Although a few years earlier he had deemed paid work to be the key
(1996). 1986). April 2009 was the fourth consecutive month that unemployment rose in all of the nation's 372 metropolitan areas compared with the same month in the prior year. 1976). and the community .com/2009/06/03/news/economy/metropolitan_area_unemployment/index. Regular employment determines where you are going to be and when you are going to be there. Studies like those reported by Cherlin (1979). undermine self-esteem. homicides were found to increase 5.7%. 338-340] Psychologiss and other social scientists have studied the benefits of employment over the course of more than half a century. In the absence of regular employment. 171). (1978) with men and Roberts and Newton's (1987) research with women. The connection between these essentials and employment has been variously reflected in Freud's characterization of normalcy in adulthood as "loving and working". Just a comparison between two types of families suffices to highlight the effects: The comfortable middle-class family where the parents have time and energy as well as the educational knowledge and skill to help their children learn. and Super's (1980) life-span. unemployment. employment status cuts deeply into the heart of family and community life. For the "temps. 1988. The rapid increase (over 200% between 1992-1994) in the United States in the use of temporary workers is likely to exacerbate feelings of insecurity. 1961). 144). work provides personal identity: It helps define who they are. The parent on welfare or struggling to keep the family afloat on a temporary. becomes less coherent. and deaths from stress-related disorders.com contributing writer.cnn. 4. purpose in life.htm ? postversion=2009060316) NEW YORK (CNNMoney. 1975).com) -.3 billion shortfall in order to pass a budget before the new fiscal year begins July 1. the report said. http://money. (p. the family. and marital disputes. to a considerable degree. “13 cities post unemployment above 15%” CNN Money. the Labor Department said in its report. who tend to feel impotent and as if they were victims of fate (Burris. including family life. had this to say on the effects of the disappearance of work from urban ghettoes: Work is not simply a way to make a living and support one's family. both to the entitlement structures of modern societies and to their growth potential. life-space approach to career development.9% in April. by examining the psychological and physiological consequences of unemployment (or. A former Italian labor minister said." as for all the others in disadvantaged positions in the labor market (or for those who have given up and are no longer in that market). Myers and Diener (1995) said: For many people. it imposes discipline. it is not surprising that people who are out of work or are underemployed are likely to be less satisfied with life than those productively engaged. life. lagging behind national unemployment statistics which this month showed the jobless rate was 8. A new nationwide report for May comes out Friday.3% for women. with a 1% rise in
meaning of paid work can be viewed from another perspective. 1997 [“Job Insecurity as Structural Violence: Implications for Destructive Intergroup Conflict. and social relationships. minimum-wage job is not a role model that motivates children to strive to learn. only seven cities reported unemployment rates above 10% in April 2008. It is not only the adult worker who is affected by employment status. 30) Recent studies on subjective well-being point up the important role of work. with present and future consequences for good or ill. significant increases were found in child abuse. Available Online to Subscribing Institutions via Academic Search Elite. p. December. p. In the United States. fearful of the future. by 1988 Dahrendorf described full time paid work as a "privilege" that would be available to ever fewer adults (Dahrendorf. The
Prolonged unemployment has been found to be a threat to the worker.There were 13 unlucky cities with unemployment rates topping 15% in April. the consequences due to insecurity about the future. "Having a job means having certain rights which are connected with participation in modern democratic societies" (de Michelis. and another 93 saw joblessness climb above 10%.
. Officials are now scrambling to close a $21. Second----Stable Employment Is Key To Individual And Social Well-Being – Increased Unemployment Constitutes A Systemic Harm That Impacts Millions Of Lives and Makes Everyday Life not worth living Milton SCHWEBEL. And work can add focus and purpose-a sense that one's life matters. 1987. In a review of research on happiness. From these studies we have learned that. Erikson's (1980) theory
of adulthood. a state ravaged by the housing meltdown and an unparalleled state budget crisis.” Peace & Conflict. CNNMoney. the necessary condition of adaptation to an industrial economy. stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman. can be understood in terms of such theories as those of efficacy (Bandura. 1983). Work also adds to a sense of community: It offers people a network of supportive relationships and a "we feeling. William Julius Wilson
a specialist in social policy. not only about a job but also about health insurance and other supports.
Children growing up in families experiencing the insecurity of unemployment or underemployment are likely to have a dim view of the future. 1984).3% for men and 2. Volume 3. Issue 4. self-esteem. Pines (1982)
in communities affected by major layoffs. Underemployment also poses threats to
reported that individuals. 6/3/09. By comparison. according to a government report released Wednesday.1 %." This sense of pride and belonging to a group helps people construct their social identity. work provides us with our identity. 4. almost 2% (Brenner. suicides. self-concept (Rogers. (p.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (9/ Contention Three: Welfare to Work
First—Urban unemployment is skyrocketing all over the country Pepitone 09 (Julianne Pepitone. The Bureau of Labor Statistics releases monthly metropolitan-area data. found low marital satisfaction in marriages with unstable employment. It also constitutes a framework for daily behavior. and the job-insecure working class family bordering on poverty where the parents are discouraged. the variables associated with it). parent-child conflicts. 15) For those reasons. at least. In sum. possibly encouraging drug abuse. and learned helplessness (Seligman. admissions to mental hospitals. Nine of the baker's dozen are in California.
With profit as the driving motive. In the violent conflicts or warfare that ensue they are likely to engage in oversimplified. opposing labor unions. religion. and benefit from the
(Lewis. race. 1968) and prejudice and scapegoating (Sherif.
create separate levels of oppression-a skillful terracing to stabilize the pyramid of wealth. and also with ethnicity. the frustrated. 44).. the hot tenements in the summer. the trade unions advocated restrictive immigration laws to bar those (e. Employers took advantage of potential enmity. In its latter form. 340-343]
The effects of unemployment and other forms of economic insecurity just enumerated are largely personal and familial. the Chinese were being used as cheap labor and even as strikebreakers (Tarbell. 247) This was structural violence. carpenters or plumbers) did they find strength in the unity of all the workers and gain enormous victories (e. 194811996). "That specter of devolution into social violence became one of the strongest themes of the era and strongly influenced the first restrictive legislation of 1882" (p. costly to individuals. Available Online to Subscribing Institutions via Academic Search Elite. and wealth for "our own. The linkage of structure and intergroup conflict was evident in the case of Germany's severe economic depression in the 1920s and the rise of the Nazis. they found the number of lynchings decreased during prosperous years and increased during harsher times. In conflicts around the world the economic factor is a major contributor. sex. The unavailability of jobs and the existence or the threat of economic insecurity may lead to aggression turned either inward. 1966). the historical record. White establishment that was responsible for the conditions of the immigrants. religious warfare against Catholics. egocentric thinking (Tetlock & McGuire. Milton SCHWEBEL. with the exception of Irish Americans.” Peace & Conflict. fierce and sometimes bloody competition for the available slices is likely to ensue . European immigrant labor. shows that structural violence has been associated with intergroup conflict and sometimes intergroup violence . unorganized uprisings against the rich. from the perspective of the ultra-nationalist political parties. Black labor. families and communities. Distinguished Professor in the Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology at Rutgers University. they turned against each other. immigrants had been rather warmly welcomed until about 1880. p. in the steel and auto industries in the 1930s). 216) Instead of striking out against the male
increases could cost them their jobs. encouraging immigration even to the extent of recruiting immigrants from their home countries. The long hours in the factories. p. when a prolonged depression coincided with the belated "recognition" that immigrants were inferior..g. Over almost the last two centuries. may find both by selecting popular scapegoats-in particular.g. (p. Sometimes it was organized into demonstrations and strikes. or in its socially violent form. However. Other studies also show that intergroup competition. in such a way as to
That relationships among groups are affected by economic conditions has been known at least since the landmark work of Hovland and Sears (1940). economic conditions that give rise to insecurity and anger. and social class. p. December.
Volume 3. 1997 [“Job Insecurity as Structural Violence: Implications for Destructive Intergroup Conflict. they do not recognize that the prime roots of the violence rest in structures that tolerate. 1994) jobs study hinted at the potential consequences of the high unemployment rate in the OECD nations. from southern and central Europe. At the time.
social benefits than attacks on the structure that creates those conditions. When unions in the northern Unites States succeeded in raising wages and improving working conditions. the epidemics of disease. When there is not enough pie for all to have a slice. many employers moved their production to unorganized areas in the South. Chinese labor. the sudden economic crises leading to high prices and lost jobs. employers seek to reduce expenses to the bone.
. justify. 2). displacing some workers and giving notice to others that future demands for wage
The historical record of the linkage between structural violence and intergroup conflict in the United States is ample. seeking a concrete target to strike out against. Zinn (1995) wrote that it was accomplished with the aid of. neither the restrictive immigration laws nor the rise of industry-wide unions prevented intergroup conflict and violence sparked by competition for jobs and other economic advantages." In the wake of these conflicts comes the hate-filled concept of ethnic cleansing and the emergence of self-styled militias. Whenever workers' livelihoods were threatened. 323). using strikebreakers. An Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. The Irish Americans opposed the freeing of the slaves because they feared the competition for the unskilled jobs that were open to them. 1995. employing children. It is intermeshed with issues over boundaries and ownership of land and natural resources. Ultimately. that led them to measures such as the following to keep wages low and to prevent and discourage workers from organizing: eliminating jobs through advanced technology. 194811996). and gender. 1986) and "groupthink" (Janis. the Congress of Industrial Organizations in the United States) rather than just narrow craft unions (e.g. Referring to the enormous industrial expansion in the United States starting in about 1880. 1995). in Europe) is. turned outward. Wages being a
major (if not the major) expense. Sometimes there were spontaneous. Native labor feared the competition of such immigrants and the upper classes feared class warfare. Issue 4. the freezing winters. rewarding them differently by race.g. national origin. White labor. So. and at the expense of. and limiting the size of any single immigrant group to prevent unified action (Schaefer. as historian William Appleman Williams (1961) said in regard to immigration. leads to hostile relationships. as well as Asia) who were accustomed to a meager livelihood. the conflicts are very much about economic advantages that provide work. especially for scarce resources.g. the persecution of immigrants (e. and allies with whom they can identify. For example. Studying the correlation between the lynchings of Blacks and the level of economic prosperity in the South between the years 1880 and 1930. employers have used every possible means to keep them at the lowest possible level. and the power and status accrued from those. In particular. which can only be fully understood when viewed as psychological attempts to cope with economic oppression... the lack of food and water. (p. would underbid others and perhaps join the ranks of strikebreakers (Slosson. the deaths of children-these led to sporadic reactions from the poor. In the words of historian Howard Zinn (1995). those who are seen as threatening their security. Only when unions became industry-wide (e. followed by World War I1 and the Holocaust. Currently. 1982). In many respects. income. 1961. they have moved to low-wage Third World nations. However.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (10/
Third—Unemployment Sparks Social Unrest And Violence – It Undermines The Fabric Of Society. nativist fury against immigrants. a "fear that was confirmed when free Blacks were used to break a longshoremen's strike in New York" (Schaefer. a more acceptable outlet for anger over unemployment and threats to
It seems that a profound understanding of the requirements for peace is impossible without linking economic and psychological factors. [and] soil to be employed for pasturage of trees whose fruit lay in dispute"
The relation between unemployment and violence can be conceptualized in various terms such as frustration and aggression (Berkowitz. as I describe here. There are other costly effects that may be more far reaching . More recently. Culminating In Ethnic Hatred And Genocide. female labor. 86). The undermining of social cohesion by the operation of the economic structure has a long history.. Sometimes the anger was deflected into racial hatred for blacks. the most common causes for brutal clan feuding in Morocco "involved disputations over water rights in lands parched as a result of inadequate rainfall. The persistence of this unemployment "is bound to undermine social cohesion and confidence in democratic institutions and market economies" (P.
Today we can see Marx’s egotism and ambition in Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez. and to unleash destruction
on somebody. The rosy vision of the economists doesn’t take any of this into account.” Financial Sense. How could it possibly survive a severe recession? And then there is a moral dimension to the emerging crisis. Weapons are always used. successful societies in history. The United States is thought to be one of the most stable. Jeffrey R.” According to the BIS Report. all reverse. And then look at the ever-growing welfare state.” Connected with this. They are used because they exist to be used.) A global financial crash. It will be one of its chief claims to notice in the moral history of humanity. along with rising energy prices. imagined hardships and conceits. “The concern is that this might
energy prices may not be able to cope indefinitely. The malicious nobodies of the world. mainly on account of the nuclear “balance of terror. Available Online at http://www. On a gut level we all know that something has to give. The average person feels his wallet shrinking faster than before. he looked forward to an economic crash and resulting social chaos as his window of opportunity. History records the lamentable success of figures like Lenin. which is obtained through a poll of economists.
to the extent that it knows no law but this interest – a child can give the answer. the founder of modern communism.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (10/
Fourth—The Risk Is High In The Status Quo – The Breakdown Of Social Cohesion Triggers Global Wars That Kill Hundreds Of Millions Of People. religious or ideological.html] The world is made up of armed nation states. wanted to become the revolutionary dictator of Germany. in which the
public has already been divided one from the other according to race.” Here lies the path of dissolution. But war did not come when the two sides were carefully watching one another. The reasons for hatred may be ethnic. First. (Probably as a salve to their own insignificance. If he goes looking for a house to buy. are having an impact. “especially in the mortgage market. People always seem ready to hate somebody. Global financial disaster – the so-called “crisis of capitalism” – has a special place in modern political thought. What happens to this spirit when genuine hard times begin? The rosy prediction of the economists sidesteps what has been taking place in our midst. however.
political hatreds. Their ambition is to take and hold power. Everyone knows that war plans were drawn up in Washington and Moscow long ago.
. and that global current account imbalances will gradually moderate. he is likely turned back by the asking price. would be occurring in a highly charged. from Latin American dictators and Chinese generals.” That much being admitted: “ The consensus forecast for the global economy. isn’t simply an economic problem. For example. on the level of the soul. whether it is a war of nations. We are not what we were. “Our age is the age of the intellectual organization of
Hatred fuels ambitious demagogues and revolutionary agitators. anticipates that recent high levels of growth will continue. full of excuses.” Credit inflation and the outright inflation of currency. 2007 [“The Path of Dissolution. trade deficit. but it’s safe to say they’ll be used all the same. His theoretical work was an intellectual armament for propelling his revolutionary career.
A global economic dislocation signals danger on a global scale. The Treason of the Intellectuals. A slacking spirit has emerged in our midst. The anti-Semite. The report concludes that “economics is not a science. They see it as an opportunity. “The latter.” Such balances. He was not the first of his kind and not the last. It is also a political problem. geopolitical columnist for Financial Sense. there will be a political implosion. and some of those states have nuclear and biological weapons that could easily kill several hundred million people.” encouraged more debt and higher housing prices. Karl Marx.S. We can see these reasons falling from the lips of al Qaeda spokesmen. therefore. inflation is now combined with declining productivity growth. the majority of economists failed to predict the Great Depression of the 1930s and the great inflation of the 1970 s.” Julien Benda wrote. Writing between the First World War and the Second. In fact. ideology and social class. In terms of the U. NYQUIST. We don’t like to think that these weapons would ever be used. however. This is not because of some dark conspiracy to use them.” Could such a “disruption” be around the corner? Consider the Bank for International Settlement’s 77th Annual Report.com/stormwatch/geo/pastanalysis/2007/0706. there is the “possible resurgence of global inflation. who dream of seizing power. partisan environment . It barely manages its budget in prosperous times. in turn. As the BIS Report noted . “Indeed. As Julien Benda pointed out in his book. Despite the prevailing economic optimism. Stalin and Mao. the BIS Report noted
forever. to blame somebody. A severe economic setback today. and makes its moralists tell it that it is sublime
This humanity is heading for the greatest and most perfect war ever seen in the world. And so. look forward to economic troubles and the resulting social chaos. “a further and perhaps substantial decline in the dollar might also be part of the adjustment process…. the fascist and the communist are all the same. Companies impacted by rising
In the world’s leading economy. America’s long prosperity has weakened something deep within the soul. the easy credit terms of the last few years. or a war of classes. July 6th.financialsense. provided both the collateral to justify more lending and the perception of increased wealth to justify more spending.” This would be good news if economic forecasters could actually forecast the future. global energy and commodity prices are continuing to rise. if we ask ourselves what will happen to a humanity where every group is striving more eagerly than ever to feel conscious of its own particular interests. some troubling developments in the world economy. do not last
a major economic disruption might overthrow the “balance of terror. and the occasion for using them – though unwelcome by most of us – nonetheless recurs through time. that global inflation will stay quite subdued. Any country that suffers an economic disaster is vulnerable to this species of opportunist. It propels the anti-Semitism of the neo-Nazi and the class hatred of the socialist firebrand . the United States. If the world suffers a serious economic setback in the near future. The creepy crawlies of the intellectual underworld look forward to a global economic fiasco.” Worse yet.
” Cascade Policy Institute. This exacerbates the national problem as people stop consuming and investing. 3/04.org/automobility/JConautoownership. when you have a difficult global economic climate. In fact. where people looked at low interest rates and GATT there is essentially no Western program today for jobs. Available Online via Lexis-Nexis] So.“ Car ownership improved the likelihood of being employed by 80 percent. it might be interesting to look at consumption subsidies for developing countries for hungry people.
And. if you -. the EBRD. He concluded. is the enormous gap between the gravity and
volleys in a trade war. you also need to have agencies in the world economy. But I think we need to clearly get beyond this notion of ever six months finance ministers sit down and issue a platitudinous communique saying. on agricultural subsidies for
There are ways in which institutions with a global mandate and whose basic charter is concern for the health and growth of the overall global economic system can relieve us of some of our problems and address even some of our particularly pressing political problems.and alarming. There have been a whole series of efforts to create some kind of international economic cooperation among the leading economies. Steve Raphael of University of California-Berkeley looked at how car ownership might lower the unemployment rate gap between whites and minorities. to draw in your horns. if I can say so. and ultimately led to war. job dispersal poses a major employment barrier. you know. international cooperation here. even among financial journalists. its own balance of trade. And yet somehow today this has
What is needed? Just as Keynes argued that you needed a macroeconomic policy agency looking at what is good for the entire national economy. widely considered in the '30s to be the most evil of all protectionist schemes. such as the chaos and desperation that is threatening to turn Eastern Europe into an arena of. the Inter-American Development Bank can all. Sullivan found. “Reduce unemployment through auto ownership. that the question of mass unemployment concentrated primarily among younger people and having an inevitable consequence of falling wages and work opportunities for the general population is also. Today we tend to say that if you can get full employment at all it will follow free trade. if
In the same way.
producers. senior policy analyst at Cascade Policy Institute. ongoing agencies for international cooperation. Walter? MR. where they said that free trade was actually a consequence of full employment rather than a cause of it. For the poor. in the long run. If we can't provide institutional. but to make Yugoslavia. here we are sitting in the international capital of competitive devaluation. Ms. rather than prescribing a lot of things. underfed people in the developing world. however. And the idea that full employment was central to concept of building peace after the second world war. This really goes to the heart of the question of the long-term survival of a lot of the values that we have and a lot of the
I'd like to add to that that unemployment is not unrelated to the question of world peace
institutions that we care about. sort of marginal improvements. in the global economy. nuclear war. essentially wasted. We've spoken of the former communist states of Europe. Nationally. I think. Kerri Sullivan of Portland State University recently examined the effects of car ownership on employment and wages for adults without a high school diploma in Portland. People have spoken about ideas like a global central bank.pdf) Job dispersal trends are not a problem for many households that can and do choose to move away from central cities. I think there is a reason for this. like an English soccer riot. Competitive devaluation is a tariff. as I listened to people talk this morning. I was very happy to hear that we're saying that unemployment is more than a national problem and more than a simple economic problem. to make the Bosnian mess look like nothing. well. play a constructive role in this. We've seen plenty of competitive devaluation. really since the Bretton Woods system broke down in the early 1970s. and there will be essentially a throwing up of the hands in despair about this thing. a fallacy of composition similar to the one that Keynes looked at. Indeed. a threat to the democratic legitimacy of Western governments. http://americandreamcoalition. the reason is the fallacy of composition. the study found that a high school diploma/GED played no significant role in explaining differences in employment rates. talking about how a nation can save itself into poverty. but they are so in-accessible by public transit that they may as well be on the moon. it makes sense for each country to try to bolster up its own finances. The same money now spent. MEAD: Okay. Those jobs may not be faraway in terms of geography (frequently five to fifteen miles). The World Bank and the
become a normal part of international economic planning. that when times are bad what makes sense for the individual household or firm is to cut back on expenses. To give you just a quick example. then we might as well just write the whole thing off. all of whom are looking for a place at this table. except for
system originated after the second world war with some very important insights. Senior Policy Adviser at the World Policy Institute. What is so interesting is the -. and so on. and then we all go home. We've been talking about this for a long time. “Raising minority car-ownership rates to the white carownership rate would eliminate 45 percent of the black-white employment rate differential and 17 percent of the comparable Latino-white differential. Charles. Our modern economic
why did the world get into World War II. while two-thirds of new jobs are located in the suburbs. The effect on average weekly wages was approximately $275.”
. And I think you can still see that in that the ink is hardly dry on the Uruguay Round agreement when the United States and Japan are firing opening
we are talking about the viability of our democratic systems of government and we are talking about world peace when we are talking about unemployment. And a big answer was the mass unemployment of the '30s that led to fascism.you know. if pumped onto the consumption side of the equation could reduce regulation. So intractability of the problem and the very small scale measures being proposed to deal with it.5weeks. The vast majority of suburbanites own cars.
. endorsed and praised to the skies by people who enjoy reputations.” Her work showed that auto ownership was much more important than education. This problem has gained the interest of scholars and a number of studies now show a stunning relationship between car ownership and employment. International Monetary Fund.” Federal News Service. 1994 [“Economic Policy Institute Seminar And News Conference Regarding G-7 Jobs Conference In Detroit.sometimes in both. today
you're a firm to defray any new investments. I would simply like to suggest here. it is an attack on free trade. that instead of the advanced countries spending their time squabbling with each other over agricultural subsidies. whose mandate is for the health of the overall global economy . Walter Russell MEAD. that there are ways in which a more demand-oriented. free up agricultural trade. We've had today hanging over us a couple of times mentions of hundreds of millions of people in developing countries who would like to join the advanced industrial democracies in their standards of living. and the effect on weeks worked was approximately 8. March 11th. as free traders. although they need to have somewhat larger resources and to take a broader view of their mandates in some cases. This is not simply a technocratic. that led to a climate of international confrontation. expansionary-oriented program can also be a more market-driven program and can reduce trade tensions as well as employment tensions among advanced countries. and even potentially raise incomes of farmers in developed and developing countries. and they have generally ended either in disaster or in platitude -. God forbid. All of us have spoken more or less this morning about the need for some kind of G-7 cooperation. three-fourths of welfare recipients live in central cities or rural areas.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (11/
Finally—Prefer Our Impact – History Proves That Unemployment Risks Catastrophic Global Conflicts. I suspect that we will see out of this job conference a very few recommendations coming forward on improving the efficiency of labor. basically all bad things should be reduced and all good things should be increased. only the plan can solve – providing the poor with cars allows them to be 80% more likely to get a job Charles 04 (John A. This is putting the cart before the horse in the view of the people who sort of originally designed the post-war system. economic problem that we want to adjust 2 percent here or 1 percent there.
According to one recent report. firms have spread their operations around the world. “In the Cleveland region. 253 Of course. have largely suffered from the negative associations with the notion of sovereignty. This combination of suburban power and city powerlessness has had disastrous consequences for American life. this introduction is designed to serve as a contrasting background to the ensuing account of the decisive role that the notion of the centered subject now plays in the structure of local government law. workers completely bypass the central city by commuting from one suburb to another. But nevertheless. parks. less than one-third of workers commute to a job in the central city and over half (55 percent) begin and end in the suburbs. Then. For example. and racism have been treated as threatening the rights of citizens . both organized in terms of a decentered subject.the freedom gained from the ability to participate in the basic societal decisions that affect one's life. Winter 2008-09. fast food servers. As a result." n10 Yet [*257]
And.and undesirable -. Kennedy School of Government.40 The lack of feasible transportation options exacerbates this mismatch . which has transformed traditional industries and brought about changes that range from streamlined information technology to biomedical engineering. the creativity generated by the capacity to experiment in solving public problems and to tailor possible solutions to local needs. employment increased by 25 percent between 1991 and 2001. such as banks. n12 [*258] a literature that has focused primarily on the individual rather than on collective entities such as cities.as long as decentralization is understood in the traditional way. making it almost impossible to move out of the ghetto William Julius Wilson. and technology. for example. In
my view. POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY Volume 123 Older urban areas were once the hubs of economic growth and activity . Rust Belt cities. like cities.are better defended by basing decentralization on alternative theories of the subject. “Spatial mismatch” is a term that social scientists use to capture the relationship between inner-city residents and suburban jobs: the opportunities for employment are geographically disconnected from the people who need the jobs . It has segregated many of America's metropolitan areas into "two nations": rich and poor. I analyze two alternative versions of local government law.44
The move to the suburbs exacerbates racial and financial inequities creating a sub-class of persons relegated to the inner city Jerry Frug Professor of Law. L. many suburbs have profited greatly from the positive associations with the notion of sovereignty. however. Rev. the economies of many of these cities have since been eroded by complex economic transformations and shifting patterns in metropolitan development. but also the ways in which a legal doctrine based on the concept of a decentered self would transform the institutional structure of decentralized power in America. However. almost all improvements in productivity have been associated with technology and human capital. In these sections. 80 percent of the entrylevel jobs are located in the suburbs. those for workers with low to modest levels of education in the retail and service industries provide lower wages. Local government law has denied cities the power to confront their problems in their own way.000 abandoned and vacant properties in Philadelphia. and lack the benefits and worker protections— such as workersʼ health insurance. have become employment centers in themselves . I address not only how the definition of city power would change under a revised local government law. many with run-down physical plants. Harvard University John F. and carried higher wages. In the last several decades. For example. the notion of subjected sovereignty has always allowed some degree of decentralized power . In this Article. an important traditional measure of economic performance. Proponents of decentralization. in the process. are subject to state control. This shift has accompanied the technological revolution. especially for younger and less-experienced minority workers. thereby drastically reducing the importance of physical capital. Nationally. and 26.”39 Sprawl and economic stagnation reduce inner city residents’ access to meaningful economic opportunities and thereby fuel the economic decline of their neighborhoods. n13 I offer below a brief introduction to this critique. medical leave.
Major American cities. I redefine decentralization of power by building on the vast literature of critique of the centered subject. City
city policies on crime.36 most visible indicators of neighborhood decline are abandoned buildings and vacant lots. although entry-level workers are concentrated in inner-city neighborhoods. Increasingly. Harvard University 1993 60 U. in Detroit. By dividing prosperous suburbs
policies dealing with the exodus of local businesses and unemployment.42 Typically. In addition. The Political and Economic Forces Shaping Concentrated Poverty. store cashiers. on the other hand. or ideologies that explicitly reflect racial bias. Indeed. the employment balance between central cities and suburbs shifted markedly to the suburbs.000 in Baltimore.S. and were therefore major destinations for people in search of economic opportunity. custodial work). and wholesale and retail trade is just under 70 percent.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (12/ Contention Four: the Urban/Suburban
Shift of jobs to suburban areas results in “spatial mismatch. Since the midtwentieth century. In addition to the challenges in learning about and reaching jobs. Baltimore. These neighborhoods offer few jobs and typically lack basic services and amenities. homelessness. the values of decentralization -. tend to be unstable. the mode of production in the United States has shifted dramatically from manufacturing to one increasingly fueled by finance. services.38 Accompanying the rise of suburban and exurban economies has been a change in commuting patterns.35 With the decline in manufacturing employment in many of the nation’s central cities.43 These inner-city properties have lost residents in the wake of the out-migration of more economically mobile families and the relocation of many manufacturing industries.” where in low-income inner city workers who need these jobs become geographically disconnected from them. it has denied the poor access to jobs and increased interracial inequality. they have accelerated neighborhood decline in the inner city and widened gaps in race and income between cities and suburbs. and Pittsburgh perform poorly on employment growth. and paid vacations— typically offered through unionization. see. millions of people have escaped city problems by crossing the boundary between city and suburb. in Parts II and III. Detroit. Two of the
when residents have fewer dollars to spend in their neighborhoods. the least upwardly mobile in society—mainly low-income people of color—are left behind in neighborhoods with high concentrations of poverty and deteriorating physical conditions.
from decaying inner cities. developed originally as bed. Philadelphia. often relocating their production facilities to developing nations that have dramatically lower labor costs. These economic forces are typically considered nonracial—in the sense that their origins are not the direct result of actions.
.000 in Detroit. 40. expanding and contracting . there is persistent racial discrimination in hiring practices. it has destroyed millions of acres of natural beauty and fostered a "cliche conformity as far as the eye can
decentralizing genuine power to both cities and suburbs seems inconceivable -.32 In other words. retirement benefits. these communities also suffer from substandard schools. there are 60. need not attribute to cities the subjectivity of the centered self. over two-thirds of employment growth has occurred outside the central city: manufacturing is now over 70 percent suburban. customer service representatives. white and black.room localities for commuters to the central business and manufacturing districts. Whereas jobs in manufacturing industries were unionized. the relationship between technology and international competition has eroded the basic institutions of themass production system. For example. processes. They have separated themselves from the city and promoted their own self-interest regardless of the impact on city residents. and quality transit.33 With the increased globalization of economic activity. Philadelphia. and Baltimore. although suburbs. relatively stable. in Cleveland.41 With the departure of higher-income families. This means that workers relegated to low-wage service and retail firms are more likely to experience hardships as they struggle to make ends meet. most of the jobs for lower-skilled workers are now in retail and service industries (for example. for example. and the energy derived from democratic forms of organization n11 -. Cleveland. yet job growth in these older central cities either declined or did not exceed 3 percent. Since 1980. have been treated as undermining the national economy .37 The suburbs of many central cities. less than 20 percent of the jobs are now located within three miles of the city center.34 These global economic transformations have adversely affected the competitive position of many U. Chi. grocery stores and other retail establishments. the local economy suffers
Beginning in the mid-1970s.
and stigmatization making genocide inevitable Scales-Trent. property. At least one government official warned the
government not to condemn Nazi oppression of Jews officially. The similarities in theory. and work. In essence. gender roles. We can understand her notions of relationship as gendered cultural stereotypes: separateness. and allocated. and competitiveness are commonly imagined as masculine. because caught in a smothering relationship or humiliated by rejection and deceit. p 292. this reading of the suburbs can be combined with the Gilliganesque reading rather than understood as its opposite: the cult of domesticity can itself be seen as male. 258 The responses were so strong that I decided to address them in this article. While I was researching and thinking about this article. Geographic boundaries have helped organize America's metropolitan areas in terms of gender roles as well. it should be clear that confronting the issue of exclusionary zoning will challenge not only separation by race and class but also the ways in which our forms of urban life have built upon. It fosters what M. while openness." they said. self-interest. 257 [End Page
this article reversed its earlier comparison of Jews in Nazi Germany and black people in the United States to look at Africans and Afro-Germans in Nazi Germany. This comment often led to strong debate.
Furthermore. the United States has always wanted to count two groups of people--white people and everyone else. rhetoric. ethnic. those with full citizenship rights: it means the group on top. What does this teach about how these states conceptualize racial purity? It has been shown that Nazi statutes explicitly referred to "colored. legal structure. this country did not target them for exploitation and oppression: indeed. 252 They are lazy. victims of sterilization in Nazi Germany were not able to get reparations for this harm : sterilization ordered by the state could not be a war crime. and distanced social ties. if the categories "black" and "white" did not exist?
a focus on labels alone is a red herring." Although this suggests some differences between the United States and Nazi Germany. As a result." and included those of African ancestry in the term "non-Aryan. The Nazi regime excluded them from housing." 256 The black press pointed out the similarities as early as 1933. a "sorority house with kids" as William Whyte called them in the 1950s. since it awarded them citizenship. after the defeat of the Nazis. Not only does the city/suburb line often divide whites from blacks. as they were needed to remedy racial oppression. Indeed. "White" means. the traditional father. They also have in common steadfastness of purpose. Project MUSE
It is not surprising. 255 The US government also noticed the similarities. as that "could lead to German denunciation of American treatment of the Negro. fears of racial and class integration. the suburbs have contributed to the creation of the cult of domesticity. a fear that in standing out or being set apart by success. Rev. racial." and allegiance to suburban separateness define and reinforce each other. as well as the upper-middle-class from the middle-class and working-class.
. They have chased people from the cities into the suburbs. Both countries were obsessed with racial purity. but boundaries between suburbs also separate racial and ethnic groups. in fact. as usual. women [*282] perceiving danger in impersonal achievement situations and construing danger to result from competitive success. a similar rhetoric to justify similar cruelty against another targeted group . and. since both men and women can have suburban consciousness. the danger women portray in their tales of achievement is a danger of isolation. but many others were upset and angry. “Racial Purity Laws in the United States
and Nazi Germany: The Targeting Process”. it only underlines the similarities. This suburban consciousness combines the felt legitimacy of suburban separation with an acceptance of the benefits of race and class privilege. "when there is still lynching in the United States? When thirty American states still prohibit miscegenation? When segregation is common and lawful?" 254 Indeed. park" -. The categories themselves do not matter. 253 One might think that these comments are about African-Americans. Suburban consciousness emphasizes boundaries not only between city and suburb but also between houses and between people.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (13/ Societal segregation is perpetuated through the spacial gap Jerry Frug Professor of Law. To put the matter in Carol Gilligan's terms. and simply don't want to work. it is clear that the US considered them "white. n151 Indeed. There were three basic responses to this comparison between the United States and Nazi Germany. racism. that person would be gendered male: men and women may perceive danger in different social situations and construe danger in different ways -. it sterilized them. I had no preconceived ideas of what questions might be raised. a place where worries and cares must remain outside the gate" -. to hear similar rhetoric about the two target groups : These people have criminal instincts: there wouldn't be any crime if they weren't around. schools. n150 The classic suburb has been the domain of the domestic virtues associated with the role of the mother in the traditional nuclear family. local government law's centered conception of suburban identity has done more than promote segregation: it has fostered a suburban consciousness that has become part of the identity of millions of Americans. but they are not: this is Nazi rhetoric about Jews. the underlying ideology behind isolating ghettos is a form of structural violence that reinforces poverty. Some people were surprised by the comparison. n148 Of course." thereby creating a statutory target. n152 But no matter which reading is adopted. if the
in the interests of their own residents with little regard to their effect on outsiders. The danger men describe in their stories of intimacy is a danger of entrapment or betrayal. they will be left alone. Chi. It is the use of the categories to create targets that counts. The impact on America of this aspect of local government law has been profound: as Weiher argues. The suburbs can be understood not as male but as an extended women's sphere. 250 They are thieves and drug dealers. 253
Current local government law has rejected this understanding of local identity in its treatment of exclusionary zoning. and has always meant. the interdependence associated with a recognition of the situated nature of the self would be understood as opening them to vulnerability. The [End Page 301] federal government has changed census categories dozens of times over the past 150 years. When some suggested doing away with the categories of "race" in order to eliminate racial oppression. L. caring and vulnerability are treated as feminine. however. desires to protect "home and family. many people would feel personally threatened by a loss of the effectiveness of suburban boundary lines. Indeed. since the United States Supreme Court had held such laws constitutional. it denied them the right to marry Germans. a willingness to ruin millions of lives to achieve their terrible goal. they are so obvious that when international public opinion condemned Germany for the way it was treating Jews. others answered that it was impossible to do away with racial categories. the recognition of the legitimacy of jurisdictional boundaries has been a critical ingredient in the fragmentation of [*281] America's metropolitan areas. I discussed these ideas with others.men seeing danger more often in close personal affiliation than in achievement and construing danger to arise from intimacy. then. then. The United States Supreme Court and most state courts have allowed localities to decide their zoning policies
n140 Residents who desire to make their suburb into what Gregory Weiher has called a "theme a place of escape. and
300] Finally. This is my usual practice. commutes to the city to work. The first was to focus on the racial categories created by the state on the labels themselves: if creating such labels causes harm.are entitled to do so as long as they do not intentionally discriminate on the basis of race and meet other minimal requirements. cruelty. and practice show. In contrast. then. Indeed. we need not read Gilligan as suggesting that there is a single male or female reaction to relationships. professor of law at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Baumgartner calls a "moral minimalism": an avoidance of conflict. and Jews in the United States. Of [*283] course. that Nazi Germany and the United States have much in common when it comes to the dream of "white" racial purity. the group that gets to target
Yet. 251 They are immoral: they engage in prostitution. and both targeted people of African descent in order to emphasize and maintain that purity. the Nazis defended themselves by pointing to the United States. The similarities between the two countries are easy to see. how could there be affirmative action based on race. perhaps the labels should be eliminated. but not the traditional mother. Harvard University 1993 60 U. It has fostered not only the suburbs' ability to exclude potential residents but also their ability to recruit them: in a country where people frequently move. They treated them in many of the same ways that they treated Jews. by making it more difficult for women to combine family life with working outside the home."
n141 n142 n143 n144 n145 n147
centered subjectivity of the suburb were an attribute of a person. The only difference is that they conceptualized "white" to include different groups. and their men want to rape our women. an emphasis on privacy and separation. but the hierarchy of exclusion and exploitation has not changed because the underlying value system in the United States has not changed. and community. 2001. and class segregation can survive only if there are clear indications where "the right" kind of people live. When Jews arrived in the United States. How could there be statutes prohibiting racial discrimination. "Why criticize us.P. and it sent them to slave labor camps and concentration camps. n149 An opposite gendered understanding of the city/suburb distinction is also possible.
the caremployment effect for Latino workers is significantly greater than the comparable effect for non. closing racial and ethnic gaps in employment and earnings requires improving the access of spatially-isolated minority workers to the full set of employment opportunities
housing segregation in U. We test this proposition using data from several sources. this spatial disadvantage literally removes many suburban locations from the opportunity sets of inner-city minority workers. Latino workers physically isolated from ever-important suburban employment centers.2 Among the latter set of options. Improving accessibility can be accomplished through some combination of community development. Los Angeles. though to a degree considerably less than the level of segregation between blacks and whites (Massey and Denton
If mismatch reduces minority employment probabilities. suggesting that moderate 2 subsidies may significantly increase auto access for racial and ethnic minorities. From the 1990 5 % Public Use Micro Data Sample (PUMS). In this paper. then the black-white difference in the car-employment effect should be larger in metropolitan areas where blacks (relative to whites) are particularly isolated from employment opportunities. We find strong evidence
. changing categories or eliminating labels will make no difference.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Regents Laboratory Automobile Aff others for oppression. to a lesser extent. (1994) analyzing a national sample of youths show that car owners search greater geographic areas and ultimately travel greater distances to work than do searchers using public transit or alternative means of transportation.
two metropolitan-area level variables. from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). al. Latino households are also segregated. The hypothesis posits that persistent racial
the spatial decentralization of employment have left black and. To the extent that mismatch is important. Moreover.russellsage. 2000). we construct corresponding metropolitan-area measures of the relative spatial isolation of black workers from employment opportunities using data from the 1992 Economic Census and zip-code population counts from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing. If this underlying dynamic does not change. Can Boosting Minority CarOwnership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?.1 Given the difficulties of reverse-commuting by public transit and the high proportions of blacks and Latinos that do not own cars. and if auto-ownership can partially undo this effect. comparable in magnitude to the black-white difference in home-ownership rates documented by Oliver and Shapiro (1997). we assess whether boosting minority car-ownership rates would narrow interracial employment rate differentials. Second. We then test for a positive 3 3Stoll (1999) analyzing a sample of adults in Los Angeles and Holzer et. considerable effort has been devoted to assessing the importance of spatial mismatch in determining racial and ethnic differences in employment outcomes. School of Public Policy and Social Research University of California. the employment effect of auto ownership should be greatest for the most segregated workers . Next. we assess whether the differences in the car-employment effect between black and white workers increases with the severity of spatial mismatch. Our estimates indicate that raising minority car ownership rates to the car ownership rate for whites would narrow the black-white employment rate differential by 45 percent and the comparable Latino-white differential by 17 percent. Finally. Berkeley and Michael Stoll. Moreover. The literature on racial housing segregation clearly demonstrates that blacks are highly segregated from the majority white population (Massey and Denton.we estimate the black-white difference in the car-employment effect for 242 metropolitan areas in the U. We pursue two empirical strategies. a
potential tool for enhancing accessibility would be to increase auto access for racial and ethnic minorities. June 2K. we explore whether the effect of auto ownership on the probability of being employed is greater for more spatially isolated groups of workers.Latino white workers yet significantly smaller than the effect for black workers. car-ownership rates for low-skilled workers are quite sensitive to small changes in operating costs (Raphael and Rice 2000). al. the difference between the car-employment effect for black workers and white workers is greatest in metropolitan areas where the relative isolation of black workers is most severe.S. metropolitan areas coupled with within regional economies. We test this proposition Using microdata
1999). Goldman School of Public Policy University of California. http://www. 1993) and in a manner that spatially isolates blacks from new employment opportunities (Stoll et. We find a difference in employment rates between car-owners and non car-owners that is considerably larger among black workers than among white workers .org/publications/workingpapers/Can%20Boosting%20Minority%20Car-Ownership%20Rates %20Narrow%20Inter-Racial%20Employment%20Gaps/document
Over the past three decades. and transportation programs. If spatial mismatch yields a caremployment effect for black workers that is larger than that for white workers.S. Auto 1AC (14/ Studies prove that raising the car ownership rate of low-income minority families would significantly lower the unemployment rate for these families and end special mismatch Steven Raphael. First. Racial differences
in car-ownership rates are large. residential mobility. relationship between these
that having access to a car is particularly important for black and Latino workers.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (15/
Thus the Plan: The United States federal government should add cars to the list of eligible purchases for the Individual Development Accounts tax credit program and eliminate the vehicle asset test in federally funded. Plan #2: The United States federal government should pass House Resolution 3599 from the 110th congress. meanstested work support programs.
IDAs are savings accounts for low-income workers that
provide an incentive to save by matching deposits with public and private funds. the Plan Solves – CAR Act would generate funds for the purchase of automobiles. there is no mandate that state agencies consider the transportation needs of low-income families and welfare recipients as they make funding recommendations and decisions on TANF block grant and matching state funds. A number of states (Connecticut. The
The current TANF statute effectively limits using IDA accounts matched with TANF funds to three qualified expenses: homeownership. and Tennessee. Maine. The federal AFIA funds a demonstration of IDAs in which eligible uses are a home. such as food stamps. example) have created such programs. and starting a microenterprise. when IDA contributions are matched using AFIA funds. and can choose to allow worker withdrawals from IDAs for the purpose of purchasing a car. localities. Also. A technical amendment to the statute would eliminate this barrier and allow more flexible use of state TANF funds. However. means-tested work support programs to allow a family to own one car for every adult in the household capable of working.S. The CAR Act would eliminate the possibility that a
. Other federal programs already give program operators this flexibility. and starting a business. Public and private funding provides operating resources to organizations that support low-income workers who participate in an IDA program. others interested in AFIA reauthorization found that most observers recommend expanding the eligible purchases.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto 1AC (16/ Contention Four: Solvency
Clarifying IDA uses and eliminating the vehicle asset test for federally funded programs allows the poor to purchase cars while continuing to receive necessary services life food stamps. requiring that states identify transportation barriers and plans to address these needs as part of the state TANF plan could lead to better understanding and cooperation at the state level. Brookings Institute . Adding cars to the list of qualified expenditures simply creates another option for local operators and low-income working families—not a mandate. it should add cars to the list of eligible purchases for the IDA tax credit program included in the act. Congress adjourned without implementing the change. public and private human service agencies. the IDA might be considered an asset in eligibility determinations for other federal benefits.” pg nexis//cndi-ef) In an effort to help low-income workers finance the purchase of cars for better access to critical job opportunities. • Require states to address transportation gaps in state TANF plans and create incentives for human service agencies to better understand and address the role of transportation barriers in welfare-to-work outcomes. postsecondary education. House of Representatives. Workers who own a reliable car are still barred from certain benefits in some places despite efforts to reduce the vehicle asset limit barrier to eligibility for work supports such as health insurance. Policymakers should strengthen these work support programs by ensuring that every able worker has access to a reliable car without being forced to forgo other services . an
President Clinton proposed amending the act in 2000 to add car purchases.
http://www. and nonprofits could apply for funding to strengthen existing lowincome car ownership programs or create new ones.pdf)
Clarify state and local options to use TANF funds to match Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) used for car purchase without jeopardizing the account holder’s eligibility for other federally funded support services. Los Angeles.S. states can also use their Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds to match IDA contributions made by workers." Congresswoman Gwen Moore said. or vehicles purchased wholesale from dealerships that have been repaired to good working order .D." In recent years. Under existing laws. IDA funds administered as part of the HHS Office of Refugee Resettlement are used to match IDA savings for car purchases. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has clarified that states may use TANF funds to match IDAs for other purchases such as cars. Director of The Mobility Agenda. Congresswoman Gwen Moore introduced the Creating Access to Rides (CAR) Act today in the U. Moore Introduces Bill To Boost Low-Income Car Ownership For Better Access To Jobs. while allowing low-income families to retain federal welfare benefits Federal News Service 9/19/2k7 (“Rep. These programs also work with local lending institutions to obtain car loans for low-income workers while providing financial education and promoting financial literacy. and TANF-funded services. for
nonprofit organizations generally offer financial literacy training in addition to other management services.brookings. fund. The bill would establish a 5-year. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. At a minimum. lease-donated vehicles. "This legislation would help in removing a huge obstacle workers face on their path to steady employment . in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Staff from these agencies frequently works together to plan.71 • Eliminate the vehicle asset test in all federally funded. withdrawals may be used for only three qualified expenses: homeownership. and starting a business. as an incentive to save. the bill would also encourage car ownership through the use of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). Oklahoma. Create an option to use Assets for Independence Act (AFIA) federal funds and the new CARE Act program to match savings for a car in IDAs. in the Office of Refugee Resettlement. as President Bush proposed such a change as part of changes in the Food Stamp program. but the implementation is difficult owing to the TANF statutory problem.or you work in a neighboring town's factory. a number of states and non-profit organizations have developed programs to assist the working poor with the purchase of a car by making available for-subsidized sale. In 2001. post-secondary education. Although the U. The other federal funding stream for IDAs. The programs also help to improve a low-income family's credit and connect them to a savings institution. and operate new transportation programs and services.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation _waller/20030801_Waller. The CAR Act would expand permissible IDA uses under AFIA matching rules to include the purchase of a car. Ph. Although Congress did not adopt the change for reauthorization. and workforce development agencies. Although the administering agency and the lead national organization agreed to the amendment. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . For example. A recent survey of AFIA programs and
eligible use when the law is updated. “A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families” . The legislation was prompted by studies which show that people are more likely to find steady employment and earn a decent wage when they have access to a car. Pennsylvania. At the local level. And Waller . including for cars. States can use federal funds authorized by a little-known law called the Assets for Independence Act (AFIA) to match participant contributions to IDAs. food stamps. However.
And. the required collaborative process in competing for JARC funds has forged important new institutional relationships between transit agencies. "Just imagine being a low-income worker with a job in the suburbs but you can't physically get there because the local bus doesn't run near your work site . it can amend the law at any time. IDAs are special savings accounts for very low-income individuals through which.70 AFIA is scheduled for reauthorization in 2003 and Congress should add car purchase as an
Congress considers the new IDA program proposed in the Senate’s Charity Aid Relief and Empowerment (CARE) Act of 2003. In addition to providing funding to low-income car ownership programs. currently permits car purchases with IDA savings. $50 million grant program through which states. a person's contributions to the account are matched by public and private funding . Blumenberg.or you work the graveyard shift when public transportation is shut down . This legislation would assist these workers in getting to their job on time and ready to work.
If these welfare expansions are made permanent -. For the first time since 1996. Indeed.
Cars are the only way to solve for the transition from welfare to work Sarkar . recognizing the perverse incentives this could entail. The welfare reform of 1996 replaced the old Aid to
Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with a new program named Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). The stimulus bill will overturn the fiscal foundation of welfare reform and restore an AFDC-style funding system. in office. car pools and door-to-door shuttles. ‘6 (Sreya .
a major barrier to job search. the Stimulus added BILLIONS in Social Service Spending that will continue on a yearly basis and create MORE dependence on the state for persons living in poverty Rector 2k9
(Robert Rector is Senior Research Fellow in the Domestic Policy Studies Department and Katherine Bradley is a Research Fellow in the DeVos Center for Religion and Civil Society. is new means-tested welfare spending. Prior to reform. transportation.such as Food Stamps. states more heavily to increase their caseloads. one of their crucial needs. Instead.
Car ownership programs for low-income people represent an innovative response to address the
. Under the old AFDC program. The cost of the new welfare spending alone amounts to nearly $8. at The Heritage Foundation. the transportation needs
of the working poor
are complex. http://www.” 2/21/09. one child in seven was receiving AFDC benefits. (Note: The existing contingency fund ties increased financial support to states to the objective external factor of unemployment. are not always economically sustainable.the added welfare cost will rise to nearly $650 billion over 10 years.
transportation needs of some of these families. While some of the increases in the bill will terminate after two years.org/Press/Commentary/ed022309g. The transportation needs of this group of
people have frequently
. Of the $791 billion in new spending and tax cuts in the stimulus bill.) If the authors of
the stimulus bill merely wanted to provide states with more TANF funds during the recession. states were given the goal of reducing welfare dependence (or at least of requiring welfare recipients to prepare for employment). Director of the Wheels to Wealth Project . food. 28 percent. or $224 billion. Under existing TANF law. But overturning welfare reform is just the beginning. the federal government will begin paying states bonuses to increase their welfare caseloads . the new welfare system created by the stimulus bill is actually worse than the old AFDC program because it rewards the
to swell the welfare rolls. including bus. promoting a massive spending bill riddled with secret provisions unrelated to economic stimulus. the federal government will pay 80 percent of the cost for each new family that a state enrolls in welfare _ a matching rate far higher than in the old AFDC program. This new spending amounts to around $18. there are half a dozen provisions (including hikes in food stamp benefit levels. by contrast.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Regents Laboratory Automobile Aff TANF-funded IDA might count against a person's eligibility for other federal assistance programs . this perverse financial incentive to increase dependence was eliminated. Under the stimulus bill. increases in Pell grants and the creation of three new refundable tax credits) that will almost certainly become permanent. and permanently "spread the wealth. The real long-term cost of expanded welfare is actually hidden by a budgetary gimmick: The stimulus bill pretends that nearly all of its welfare expansions will lapse after two years. In addition. it specifically avoids a policy of funding states for increased welfare caseloads.cfm //ef)
Welfare reform in the mid-1990s was a major public policy success. “Secretly ending welfare reform as we knew it.500 for every poor person in the United States.heritage. The stimulus bill eliminates the reform goal of reducing dependence.pdf) The transformation from welfare to work is a rather bumpy process .org/pdf/pub/newsletter4_06. Second. massively expand long-term welfare spending. Each state was given a flat funding level that did not vary whether the state increased or decreased its caseload. the bill will add nearly $650 billion in new means-tested welfare spending over the next decade. states were given more federal funds if their welfare caseloads were increased. housing. Candidate Barack Obama promised to make government "more open and
transparent.” Empowerment Through Car Ownership” . providing cash. The state assists them with subsidies for housing and food stamps to ease this transformation. medical care and social services to poor and low-income Americans. the welfare-to-work transition is nearly impossible. they could have increased funding in the existing contingency fund. remains unaddressed. fallen into policy blind spots for two main reasons. This is not true. Yet. the different modes of public transportation used to cater to their needs .
First Many poor families in Oregon today are struggling to make this shift. federal funds to a state were cut whenever the state caseload fell. The stimulus bill is being used as a Trojan horse to secretly overturn welfare reform. Little-noted provisions in the just-passed stimulus bill will actually abolish this historic reform.as history indicates they will -. leading to a dramatic reduction in welfare dependency and child poverty. President Obama has done the opposite. they completely overturned the fiscal and policy foundations of welfare reform . The search for the right mix of transportation options for low-income families has become a perfect labyrinth that never seems to get untangled in spite of the availability of
” Without access to reliable transportation. And it's only the tip of the iceberg." The public and taxpayers deserve far better than this exercise in deception. since they
do not have much control over the location of their subsidized accommodation. employment and self-sufficiency .cascadepolicy. The key to welfare reform's reduction in dependency was the change in the funding structure of AFDC. Several evaluations of welfare-towork reforms have cited lack of transportation as
federal funds to support programs that facilitate access to jobs and the “reverse commute." But.500 for each taxpaying family. childcare and employment. Proponents of the stimulus plan might argue that these changes are necessary to help TANF weather the current recession. In addition. But they deliberately did not do this. Auto 1AC (17/ Contention Five: Disads Inevitable First. the federal government operates a TANF "contingency fund" with ample funding that can be quickly funneled to states that have rising unemployment. This created a strong incentive for states
When welfare reform replaced the old AFDC system with TANF. pg online @ http://www.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff ***Inherency***
Welfare reform was spawned in a climate of hostility to welfare itself and sprang in particular from a notion that too-generous government programs were compounding poverty by creating an endless cycle of complacency and entitlement (Cloward and Piven 1987. Murray 1984).D.13 Lastly.650.12 For example.
. P.D. maintains an asset limitation of $4.Nexis) Even if welfare recipients could afford better cars. student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California. which prohibits anyone on welfare from owning a vehicle worth more than a certain value.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Inherency Ext. 11 -‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal . While the asset limitation for at least one vehicle has been lifted in approximately 50 percent of all states. there are political barriers to assisting welfare recipients with the purchase of automobiles. Los Angeles. The veracity of these notions may be debatable. A still frequent component to state welfare programs is the vehicle asset limitation. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. and programs designed to help welfare recipients own automobiles would need to contend with them. the remaining states still impose some type of limit (The Urban Institute 2002). “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” . Ph. but their prevalence is not. California. in many states they are not allowed to have them. And for people living in inner cities—a category that includes the majority of welfare recipients—automobile insurance is prohibitively expensive. Ph. And Manville . of course. the state with more welfare recipients than any other.
Welfare blocks automoblie purchases Blumenberg. Los Angeles. Glazer 1971.
and increased employment stability (Blumenberg 2002. 2000.D. Although constantly evolving. service. distant from suburban employment opportunities and without the resources to overcome this difficulty (Cutler and Glaeser 1997. Congress 1996). Some of these programs focus on providing transportation to welfare recipients on the assumption that lack of mobility is a significant barrier to employment. to “end welfare” by mandating employment. Much of the existing literature focuses on the “spatial mismatch” hypothesis. Ong 1996. however. Thus. enabling them to remain at home and care for their children (Gordon 1994). Los Angeles. And researchers studying the relationship between transportation and employment find that reliable transportation leads to increased access to job opportunity. Ross
1998). within five years at most (and often much faster). Ph. Raphael and Stoll 2000). Our purpose in this review is not to revisit yet again the voluminous mismatch literature. In a survey of randomly selected public housing residents. Because this was never a central concern of traditional welfare programs. Los Angeles. Sugrue 1996). Ong and Blumenberg 1998. Jackson 1985. Cervero. welfare is no longer a program designed to protect vulnerable populations from the uncertainties of the labor market. as a result. been accompanied by other programs and services designed to prepare welfare clients for entry into the workforce. higher earnings. Sandoval. There is a substantial empirical literature on transportation’s relationship to both poverty and employment and a more recent and growing literature about its relationship to welfare use. Advocates of the spatial mismatch hypothesis argue that low-income residents
have been left behind in urban areas. as former President Clinton put it. In the aftermath of the Personal Responsibility andWork Opportunity Reconciliation Act (U. few mechanisms existed to facilitate the transition to employment. Among unemployed former recipients. While the literature reviews have been written by scholars sympathetic to the hypothesis— and anyone reading them should bear in mind the potential biases of their authors—they nevertheless summarize and analyze the mismatch debate and leave no reason for us to do the same (Holzer 1991. Henle and Kinsella (1996) find that transportation is second only to child care as an obstacle to employment. in contrast. Beneath the broad umbrella of agreement about transportation’s importance to employment. not least of which is transportation. student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California. Danziger et al. among other factors. Ihlanfeldt and Sjoquist 1998. The central challenge of welfare reform lies in connecting its recipients to the labor market. an idea first put forward in 1968. 2002. As the United States economy has restructured itself in the postwar years. manufacturing. 11-‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal . the separation of employment and housing and the “surplus of workers relative to the number of available jobs in those areas where the black population is concentrated” (Ihlanfeldt and Young 1994. into the very realm from which they had once been defended. 221).S. Deka 2002. and Beckett 2002). Most studies consistently find that transportation is a barrier to employment for the poor in general and for welfare recipients in particular. Rather it is a vehicle for putting them to work and inserting them. this figure was 41 percent. And Manville . This assumption is not unreasonable. 1992. Perle. A host of obstacles stands in the way of welfare reform’s success. welfare reform was initiated. For example. among the employed.Nexis) The passage of welfare reform legislation in 1996 dramatically altered the way the United States dispenses social services.D. Kain 1992. more than 25 percent of former Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)1 clients interviewed reported having transportation problems. and the reform law has. Norton and Rees 1979. Ph. welfare reform set out to do what the original welfare program had been designed to prevent. four reviews of the spatial mismatch research have been recently published and a number of recent studies have highlighted the thorny methodological issues associated with this body of scholarship (Cooke and Ross 1999. Over the years. Preston and McLafferty 1999). P. and retail employment has shifted away from central cities. and Landis 2002. Bauder. the spatial mismatch hypothesis attributes growing inner-city poverty to. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Transportation = Root Cause of Welfare
The disparity of jobs and the poor are the reason welfare fails Blumenberg. Welfare was established to buffer “suitable” women from the labor market. is considerable discord about the specific nature of the problem and about where andhowtransportation solutions should be applied. in a study conducted in Illinois (Julnes and Halter 2000). however. Ihlanfeldt and Sjoquist 1998. oftentimes locating in the suburbs and sometimes moving overseas (Bluestone and Harrison 1982.
. the spatial mismatch hypothesis has been put to test by a host of skeptical scholars. DeRango 2001. Kain 1968. Piore and Sabel 1984. it was nine percent. “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” .
aspx) This analysis sheds light on the decentralization of employment that took place in almost all of the leading metropolitan areas in the country between 1998 and 2006. and Charlotte. New Mexico. as in
Albuquerque. as in Dallas. As those regions grow. 6-23-‘9 ( Stephen . followed by Alabama.com. Texas and Washington should recover first. Stateline. only half of that new development occurs as low-density new construction. we can expect to see a continued shift of employment share away from downtowns across the country. But this downturn is different from the past because it could be the worst for states since World War II. “Job Sprawl Revisited: The
Changing Geography of Metropolitan Employment” .bostonherald. will jobs become even more decentralized.brookings. 4-6-‘9 ( Elizabeth . http://www. said in an interview that states with a high concentration of high-tech industries could recover faster from the downturn than other states because that sector is more likely to see job growth. While many once declining central-city downtowns have captured visible new residential and commercial vitality in recent years.46 Even if.
http://news. In particular. The current recession isn’t the first time that state economic development officials have had to defend foreign trips and recruitment of companies as they slash other programs and services. Oregon. Atlanta. the United States will add over 90 billion square feet of commercial and industrial development — nearly twice as much as existed in 2000—to accommodate a projected 60 million new jobs. “Aggressive efforts to create jobs paying off in some states” .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Jobs Available
New jobs will be needed and will be in the suburbs – over 60 million jobs will be available Kneebone. or will they shift to a more compact form. Idaho. an economist at Moody’s Economy. Georgia. Colorado.edu /reports/2009 /0406_job _sprawl_kneebone. North Carolina and South Dakota.org . San Jose. as anticipated. and Tucson?
News jobs are being created Fehr . Gledhill said. the southern and western regions of the United States are projected to experience the most significant growth.com/news/national/general/view.Metropolitan Policy Program. Nebraska. By 2030.
. Senior Research Analyst .bg? &articleid=1180705&format=&page=2&listingType=nat#articleFull) Andrew Gledhill. the dominant trend across metropolitan
areas and industries has produced further spreading out of jobs toward the metropolitan fringe.
and prompted renewed calls for the Government to intervene and provide support formotor manufacturers . director of the RetailMotor Industry Federation's National Franchised Dealers Association. an automotive-market consultancy firm.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Car Demand Low – Now Key Demand for new cars low and government must intervene to boost consumer confidence. December was one of the worst months of the year for new car sales. and the lowest level since 1996 . The findings
will come as a blow for motor manufacturers. including imports. Another auto analyst predicts that. “According to CSM Worldwide. Yesterday.and warned that this year will be "considerably worse". with an anemic capacity utilization rate of 56 percent. the world could produce about 94 million cars a year — about 34 million more than it is buying.795 .monthlyreview. Auto is a classic example of how the profit-seeking drive of capital — along with limitations on working peoples’ capacity to buy goods — leads to the production of more goods than can be consumed.404.14 Actual output is forecast to be just 9. http://www. The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) said that sales last year totalled 2. The high point of the market — around sixteen million units — is not
Finally. “The North American Auto Industry in Crisis”.
nstructor in the Labour Studies Department at McMaster University. " she said.
not plummet as low as had been feared. January 8. even with the plant closures. The Economist notes that. called for Government help to reassure both the sector and consumers.3%”. capacity will be something like 16. Managers at Nissan Sunderland are drawing up a production plan for the first quarter of this year. this is even more problematic. including Nissan. expected to return until possibly 2013. In the context of the current downturn. alongside other motor companies across the world.
The auto industry is producing much more cars compared to demand. which has its UK headquarters in Sunderland and has been forced to take measures to prevent over-supply to the weakened market.3 per cent last year . " The full-year new car sales figures for 2008 clearly show that demand was strong until consumer confidence dropped sharply during the final few months of the year as a result of worsening economic conditions.php)
there is overcapacity in North American and world auto markets. in 2008.131.”13 Even with the wealth and depth of the North American market there is a huge imbalance between capacity to produce vehicles and the market for them . battles to overcome the effect of the downturn. Deborah Johnson.org/090608rosenfeld.
The Northern Echo. creating an imbalance.5 million. Sales of a little over thirteen million light vehicles. were down 18 percent from 2007.down on 2. Sunderland car parts company Unipres said it was being forced to cut 296 jobs as a knock-on effect of the sector slowdown. with the SMMT saying that some consolation could be drawn from the fact that last month's sales did
Sue Robinson. according to the Michigan-based Center for Automotive Research.007 in 2007. lexis) THE full extent of the slowdown in the motor industry was revealed yesterday. and other problems Herman Rosenfeld June 2009 (Herman Rosenfeld worked on the line and as an elected union representative at GM. driving and sharpening competitive pressures. down 21. as the business.2 per cent compared with 2007. 2009 (“NEW CAR SALES FALL BY 11. "This highlights how important it is for Government to enact measures to help boost confidence. Other glimmers of hope were offered for the sector yesterday.9 million units in 2009. with new car sales down 11.
Dura Automotive Systems Inc. but that at the present time we believe everything is working. "They felt that." De Koker. nor is needed at this time'. Mich. recalled them saying. no changes have
been made to funding. elected to use a 30-day grace period to skip and interest payment of about $38 million.S. Trade groups warned that hundreds of suppliers could collapse without further government aid as the bankruptcy filings of GM and Chrysler deepen the suppliers' troubles. its going to be tough. Staff Reporter.-based company is currently trying to negotiate new terms with its lenders. Mitchell. http://online." De Koker said." The administration "will continue to monitor the situation. “Obama Admin Turns Down Auto Suppliers' Aid
Request”." "'We all recognize that and we don't think that having a general program of assistance to all suppliers would help that. Auto suppliers had asked for the government to guarantee between $8 billion to $10 billion in loans so banks will lend to the suppliers.wsj. said Obama adviser Ron Bloom turned down the suppliers' request in a meeting last week. There are already some small signs of recovery such as Ford Motor Co. Lear has until June 30 to reach a new deal with its creditors. Bloom
added that the administration didn't feel that the prospect of more supplier bankruptcies in coming months posed a systemic threat to the auto industry. The Southfield.wsj. (DRRAQ) Chief Executive Tim Leuliette said Wednesday he expects a flurry of supplier bankruptcies over the next 60 days after the Obama Administration declined to provide the industry with more federal aid.html) WASHINGTON (Dow Jones)--The Obama administration has turned down
a request by auto-parts suppliers for up to $10 billion in new aid. 2009 (Josh. Aid
No new aid going to the Auto Industry from Obama The Wall Street Journal. Neil De Koker. The aid would be on top of a $5 billion support program for suppliers that the administration put in place earlier this year. in an interview with Dow Jones Newswires. The move also
indicates that the administration is confident that its multibillion-dollar effort to save General Motors Corp. Staff Writer. "There is just no cash out there and until that changes. "You will see bankruptcies but I also believe that the summer will be the bottom. concluding that the government shouldn't further interfere in the industry's contraction." she said in a statement. In rejecting the request late last week. June 17. "There is no more money out there and that is the reality. De Koker said. (GMGMQ) and Chrysler LLC has stabilized the car industry. Task force officials told industry leaders they had already provided plenty of support but didn't see the need for further action." said Leuliette who joined Dura after the company exited from its own bankruptcy in June 2008. In the meantime. on June 1. the Treasury Department appears to have drawn a line in how much taxpayer money it is willing to spend on saving the U. unless we see chaos or a disorderly situation arising where we have assembly-line shutdown due to lack of ability to get parts or stuff like that. suppliers must traverse the financial squeeze from auto maker customers and its smaller supplier base. A Treasury spokeswoman said this week that "at this time. (F) decided to boost production in the third quarter. president and chief executive of the Original
Equipment Suppliers Association. The Obama administration on Tuesday turned down a
request by auto suppliers for up to $10 billion in additional federal aid. The company. (LEA). http://online. Bennett." One of the biggest bankruptcy candidates is automotive seat and
electronics maker Lear Corp." Leuliette said. Leuliette said
those suppliers that survive the summer will see a strengthening in the industry. Bloom and several of his staffers told De Koker "that consolidation for the industry needs to take
. then we would relook at this situation. “Dura CEO: Lack Of Aid Will Push More Suppliers Into
Decline of aid from Obama could lead to Auto Industries becoming bankrupt. "I have companies calling me telling me that they have parts sitting on their dock but they want me to send them a check for $1 million. June 16.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff No Govt. auto industry. The Wall Street Journal.
those who worked within four miles of home had median earnings of $634 per quarter.
. UC Berkeley.. Jobs in restaurants or stores or as janitors in public and corporate buildings pay no premiums to cover travel costs.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Pay Low Absent Car
Minimum-wage workers decrease earnings with longer-distance jobs. UCLA. Wachs. 1998.cgi?article=1000&context=uctc) Labor market studies indicate that middle and upper income people tend to increase their earnings by accepting longer commuting distances. Director of UC Transportation Center. and those with commutes over ten miles earned only $433 per quarter. while those who worked between four and ten miles earned $620. and Taylor. Martin. we are still left with the dilemmas of linking new workers to new jobs. Ong and Blumenberg (1996) found that among AFDC recipients in Los Angeles County who worked in 1995. Assistant Professor of Urban Planning. Brian D. (“Can Transportation Strategies Help Meet the Welfare Challenge”
http://repositories. and workers who accept such employment far from home see their wages reduced substantially by costs measured either in dollars or hours of travel time.org/cgi/viewcontent. Leaving aside the numerous and weighty questions associated with our economy’s ability to create the millions of new jobs needed to absorb welfare recipients and the problems of equipping current welfare recipients with necessary job skills. but there is increasing evidence that people who work at or near the minimum wage do not increase their earnings by accepting longer journeys to work.cdlib.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Auto Industry*
June 1. and many have filed for bankruptcy.Indiana.
Auto part suppliers are in major trouble.730 small businesses that are lower-tier suppliers to the auto industry. Many parts supply companies have had to file for bankruptcy and many more are on the verge. Oklahoma. Michigan. All of this is for the short term.000 jobs may be on the line. “Survival Advice for Auto Parts Suppliers”. “Car Parts Supplier." says Dan Luria. http://blogs. but the issue is since then —and the fact that the smaller people may not be getting paid by their Tier One customers.
But far less attention has been paid to the struggling. For example. South Carolina and Tennessee. Helping it helps the economy as a whole. “Small auto-parts firms struggle with GM move”. For the long haul. Moreover. Moreover. and tool-and-die firms that are at risk of closure if they worked primarily for GM and Chrysler. they want a coordinated program between the industry. June 10 2009. Manufacturing looking for more
Financial Aid”. June 16. Kentucky. Groups involved with the auto parts trade have also been calling for a speed up in the distribution
of money from existing aid programs.html)
For small manufacturers dependent on automakers for their livelihoods. The auto parts suppliers have taken a major hit due. and on their so-called Tier One suppliers.com/smallbiz/content/jun2009/sb20090616_816915. U.S. They want the SBA to come up with a program that would provide aid to manufacturers during periods of economic hardship. a not-for-profit that supports and advises small manufacturers. experts say. 2009. the spotlight has shined brightly on the extensive layoffs at large automakers.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Key To Auto Industry
Auto parts manufacturers are dependent on car companies for their survival
Brubaker 09 (Harold Brubaker Inquirer Staff Writer.
http://www. With U. automakers have been closing plants for long periods of time and this has reduced the number of parts being ordered. it's also a time of unprecedented opportunity for entrepreneurs willing to shake up their firms and think creatively. say these groups. 2009.
. Businessweek. http://www. the financial sector and the government to provide aid in the future whenever the economy is distressed. and close to 400.automotive. Everybody big has been paid through Apr.
Auto part suppliers are in a tight financial situation because of auto industry crash.com. both of which are shutting down some of their production lines this summer. Ohio.businessweek. Survival key to economy Staffwriter Automotive 09 (Automotive. Klein. and that has gone mainly to mop up the large Tier One receivables through April. As a
It is adapt-or-die time for many of the 10. and many businesses are on the line Klein 09 (Karen E.philly. The Philadelphia Inquirer.S. parts suppliers. auto production down about a third over the past year. the Department of Energy has a fund for retooling and expansion and the Small Business Administration and the Department of Agriculture offer rural development loans. parts supplier groups want the government to offer incentive programs to get commercial lenders to invest in auto parts suppliers. 30. yesterday's General Motors Corp. In short. But while the situation is daunting. family-owned machine shops. bankruptcy was one more blow in a series that has had many of them clinging to a single hope :
outlasting their rivals to emerge with orders in hand when the auto industry turns around. many of which are publicly owned subsidiaries of corporations that rival the big automakers in size.com/philly/business/homepage/46668702. Missouri. Many have not been paid for their products and many had to wait beyond their contract agreements to get paid .com/6552893/miscellaneous/car-parts-supplier-manufacturing-looking-for-morefinancial-aid/index. "A lot of them are not partaking in the $5 billion government bailout that was arranged through GM and Chrysler.html) Let’s face it. These groups are calling for a slight modification of these programs to provide parts suppliers with aid more quickly. research director of the Michigan Manufacturing Technology Center. including the bankrupt General Motors and Chrysler. The reach of the auto parts supply trade can be better understood when you discover that it is the largest manufacturing sector in eight states -. these companies have been put in a financial squeeze. suppliers would like to see more involvement by the Small Business Administration (SBA).
.19. 30 in U.. warned investors Oct. “Automakers: Rescue a matter of U. which also supplies parts for heavy-duty trucks used by the U. securities filings that the economic meltdown could further damage the auto industry. Carl Levin. D-Mich.S.com/dailystar/267871) Sen.azstarnet.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Key To Auto Industry
Strong commercial industry key to auto part supplier’s survival Richard Lardner. making a strong commercial industry key to their survival.S. the influential
chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. military. which could hurt its own sales or profit margins. 11.
http://www. TRW Automotive Holdings Corp.. said the defense market alone isn't large enough to sustain most auto-parts suppliers. The Associated Press. security”.2008 (Staff writer.S.
we will be in recession forever Jesse Jackson. Richard Wagoner Jr. capture the gains of conservation and reduce this country's addiction to foreign oil. such as steel.a concerted drive to develop renewable energy.S.of human rights -. We need a new economic strategy in the global economy. At the center of this must be energy independence -.
General chief executive G.
. September 16. The Federal Reserve has just bailed out Bear Sterns and opened lines of credit to the unregulated shadow banking system. they arrogantly focused on building trucks and SUVs. Short-term stimulus isn't enough. We can either rebuild manufacturing in this country or get ready to survive as a cheap place to visit for the European and Asian tourists from manufacturing nations. but low-interest loans that can help the auto industry retool its assembly lines to build the cars of the future.must go hand in hand. according to government figures for June. the auto companies don't exactly evoke sympathy. It will be difficult to avoid a deep recession if the auto industry remains in decline. First. The timing couldn't be worse. This economy is in trouble. 2008 The Chicago Sun-Times (writer.9 percent drop in production of motor vehicles and parts.who employ more people than the manufacturers -. more efficient cars. Labor and management are on the same side of the table. a slowing economy will drive down tax receipts and drive up spending. this is the heart of America's industrial system. is looking for help from Washington.
So why even think about providing help to these mastodons? I think there are two big reasons why Congress should act. The Treasury just absorbed Fannie Mae Freddie Mac essentially adding $5 trillion directly to U. are responsible for nearly 3 million jobs. this can make America a leader in the green technologies and alternative energies that will be the growth markets of the future. the U. The plunge in industrial output in August was far worse than expected. Done well. global warming was an image problem. “Two reasons to give loans to automakers”. For them. where a combination of heavy subsidies for local industry and high tariffs to keep out
foreign competition put American companies at a serious disadvantage. Detroit is a basket case -. Moreover. And dealerships -. They used their lobbying clout to block higher mileage standards at the federal level for years. these layoffs will devastate the retail and service sectors in towns where the jobs are lost. as is their interest in protecting it from unfair competition abroad. low-mileage vehicles that generate higher profit margins than smaller. debt and putting at risk $200 billion directly. p 23. Second.
Lexis. Not a bailout. economy is in trouble. the auto industry should be at the center of America's economic future. their interest in saving the industry is the same.
The globalization of capital and the globalization of workers' rights -. And. but for the country itself.but it isn't just Detroit that's in trouble. led by a staggering 11. Cuts on assembly lines lead to even more layoffs at auto parts makers and other suppliers to the industry. not a national imperative. The deficit will soar to more than $400 billion this year. along with their suppliers and dealership networks.S.
A loan is not a bailout. Combined. These loans aren't just for the auto industry.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto Industry Key To End Recession
If auto industry stays bad. They spent more energy on suppressing electric cars and battery technology than on developing it. For years.are starting to shed people as sales decline. aluminum and chemical manufacturers. The automakers. of course. If the auto industry goes into decline. Regaining a lead in building the green cars of the future should be at the center of that effort.com)
We've had nine straight months of job losses. Ford and General Motors are laying off workers across the country.
cars provide door-to-door service.D. transportation solutions include improving access to private automobiles for working poor families. Cars also allow commuters to more easily travel during off-peak hours when transit service may be limited.
. regardless of purpose. This is particularly important given that only 15 percent of all trips are for work. and the circuitous routes of public transit. http://www.brookings.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars Key – After Hours
Cars are key to accomidate for jobs after hours Blumenberg. Los Angeles. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Finally.pdf) Increasingly. And Waller .edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation _waller/20030801_Waller. Ph. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . allowing people to avoid isolated bus
stops and travel in greater safety after dark. are made in automobiles. accommodating schedules that may include complicated nonwork travel and unforeseen travel requirements.56 Cars allow flexibility. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. which is why more than 86 percent of all trips.57 Cars also decrease travel time by avoiding long waits at bus stops. Brookings Institute . multiple stops. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . Director of The Mobility Agenda. Cars have many obvious benefits.
Los Angeles. Ph. Despite significant public investment in public transit.
providing a rationale to invest in public transit for densely populated urban areas with a high concentration of employers and housing. more and more research reveals that access to reliable transportation
can improve employment outcomes for inner-city residents. such as child care and the Earned Income Tax Credit. While
many new jobs are located in the suburbs.
Building on the still inadequate system of work and family supports by addressing transportation needs is an imperative that should wait no longer. Nevertheless. Nevertheless. flexibility in our policy response is essential. there are still many jobs for entry-level workers in cities.pdf) http://www. extending rail service does little to
Making do without a reliable car requires poor households to rely on others or on the local public transit system. Unfortunately. The media now regularly covers the issue. When the media’s featured low-income worker says (as she almost always does) that she cannot wait until she can afford a car. Consequently. and a higher percentage of subway riders than commuter rail riders. In recent years. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . much of the public
investment for capital expenses has targeted rail transit rather than buses. “High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and
Family Economic Success” . Unfortunately. Brookings Institute . This year. Congress and the administration have numerous
opportunities to make at least incremental improvements in the system of services that reduce transportation barriers. Cars are key due to econmic reasoning and the paths bus’s take – studies proves cars are what is neeeded to maintain a job Waller . and suburban commuters over city riders. Yet.brookings. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . oftentimes by riding along with a single mothers on their long rides on public transit from center-city homes to suburban entry-level jobs. a car or another means of transportation is required to take workers from the rail stop to the suburban job. Public transit can work well for poor workers in dense urban areas. Moreover.
but the new culture of work for welfare recipients has focused greater attention on this problem.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2005/12poverty_waller/pb35. And Waller . Sound transportation policy is also an investment in our nation’s economic success. Director of The Mobility Agenda. enhanced. The poor represent a higher percentage of bus riders than subway riders. Despite the existing and growing body of evidence. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. and implemented according to the transportation needs of lowincome communities living in diverse settings. usage continues to decline as a percentage of urban travel. the federal government has been much slower to invest in transportation services for working poor families than other work supports. while nearly 88 percent commuted by car. public transit rarely takes central city residents all the way to the door of suburban employers.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars > Bus
Cars are key to supporting low income parents goal of achieving better jobs public transportation simply wnot cut it Blumenberg. paratransit. low-income riders are often underserved by central city transit systems as
policymakers cut funds for heavily utilized inner-city bus lines in order to subsidize the more costly suburban commute. http://www. transit investment has tended to focus on rail services over buses. A 1981 study revealed that the per passenger public operating subsidy for commuter rail was at least three times more than for bus service. Transit-dependent low-income households often pay a high price for going without a personal vehicle as transit often fails to meet their needs . fewer than 5 percent of workers took public transportation to work. and automobile access—must be developed.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
The 1996 work-based welfare law did not create transportation barriers for lowincome parents and others. as well as low-income rural and suburban poor residents. we now know that she says this with the intuitive knowledge of what the research bears out : Car ownership is a much more powerful predictor of employment than public transit . Since then. poor workers are more likely to commute by public transit— especially bus—than are higher income workers. A menu of transportation solutions —transit.brookings.D. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore . former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. Fortunately. and its advocates proclaim that transit reduces
sprawl and congestion and leads to better air quality. _waller/20030801_Waller. Brookings . 12-‘5 (Margy . in 2000. Director of The Mobility Agenda.
Most transit systems use these flat fares. The General Accounting Office (now the Government Accountability Office) determined that during the 1990s almost three-fourths of all welfare recipients lived in central cities or rural areas. it often does not go to suburban job locations. and car ownership is positively associated with higher earnings and more work hours. In Los Angeles. Other research suggests that access to better public transit service has a small effect on employment outcomes for welfare recipients who do not have access to a car. Improving inner-city transit service would better serve those residents who remain transit dependent. hours of service do not always match the commuting needs of entrylevel workers who are assigned night and weekend shifts.
. Thus. Further. Even when there is bus service. It would be prohibitively expensive to expand public transportation sufficiently to meet the needs of all lowincome workers. In rural areas. while in over 100 metropolitan places three-fourths of all jobs were located in the suburbs. the effect of access to public transit on the likelihood of employment for welfare recipients is mixed at best. rather than distance fares that adjust to reflect distance traveled. bus riders successfully challenged the local transit agency’s decision to spend 70 percent of its budget on rail services when 94 percent of its customers were bus riders. public subsidy is relatively high because public transportation can rely heavily on rider fares only when there are many paying riders getting on and off at frequent stops. it’s not surprising that local decisions to invest heavily in rail expansion over improving bus service have created controversy and civil rights objections. Low-income transit users travel shorter distances than others and thus pay more per mile than higher-income riders. Flat fares for
public transit present another example of the high transportation cost of being poor. public transportation options are scarce and have limited hours of service. subsidizing the commute of those with higher incomes. By
comparison. One recent study in six metro areas finds that better access to public transit had no effect on employment for welfare recipients. In both cases.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars > Bus
meet the needs of lowincome commuters. people with cars are more likely to work. while improving frequency of service on heavily traveled inner-city bus and subway routes can do more to meet the needs of transit-dependent low-income workers than increasing reversecommute options. When public transit does go from
city to suburbs.
identify transportation as one of the key employment barriers they face. Data from a quality control
survey administered by the California Department of Social Services show that 18 percent of welfare participants in Los Angeles own automobiles compared with 35 percent of recipients statewide. In contrast. According to data from the U. Not surprisingly. However. Moreover. For example. the spatial mismatch may not be as relevant in Los Angeles as in other cities such as Atlanta. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA . a growing number of studies show the relationship between transportation barriers and employment outcomes. themselves. Other studies also find widespread transportation problems among welfare participants (19). many welfare participants identify transportation as a major obstacle to their employment. and 22 percent borrowed a car ( 15). public transit—stations and vehicles—do not typically incorporate design elements that allow women to physically travel with strollers. For these recipients. Some studies find that public transit does not adequately serve job-rich destinations (1. and Jobs . Finally.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars Key To Maintain Jobs
Absent acccess to automobiles those on welfare can’t maintain a job – transportation is not adequate and it presents a perticular danger to women Blumenberg. Estimates of
cent to approximately 25 percent (12–14). Milwaukee. and small children (17). However. P. the existing network o
. Buses. ‘1 (Evelyn and Paul. is uncertain. Chicago. multiple stops on the way to and from work. commuting even short distances is made difficult by limited access to fast and reliable forms of transportation. they often face more localized spatial mismatches that require them to commute to destinations outside their immediate neighborhoods. Of the 50 percent that arrived by car. the survey data show that welfare participants have fewer reliable transportation options than do higher-income commuters. Relatively high percentages of recipients commute to work by either borrowing cars or carpooling with others. from 7 per
percent nationally and 19 percent in California. Ph. 5). transportation provides a vital link to the labor market. bus stops. particularly African-American men.S. limited night and weekend service may make it difficult for welfare recipients to commute to jobs that require off-peak travel. Many welfare participants face a spatial separation from jobs. The relevance of the spatial mismatch literature to welfare
participants. despite declining crime rates. The results of a 5-day transportation survey of recipients traveling to the offices of the county’s employment program show that one-half of the recipients traveled to the offices by car ( 15). Most of the literature on the spatial mismatch hypothesis focuses on the economic opportunities of men. Los Angeles . Other California surveys place automobile ownership among recipients at approximately 25 percent (13.
the percentage of welfare recipients in California who own cars vary widely. Additionally. In a 1996 job readiness survey conducted by the California Department of Social Services. parcels. however. shopping carts.Nexis) Most welfare participants commute outside their neighborhoods to find employment. First. only 4. which makes it difficult for them to find and keep employment (6). Additionally.D. 44 percent used their own cars. and Philadelphia (2. in many cities commuting even short distances is made difficult by limited access to fast and reliable forms of transportation. automobile ownership among welfare recipients is 6. Public transit does not easily accommodate trip chaining. As a result. 34 percent asked for a ride. whether on public transit or in cars. Professor of Urban Planning. Given the many transportation obstacles facing welfare participants. are a surprisingly weak proxy for travel by automobiles among welfare recipients. distant from job vacancies disproportionately located in suburban communities. a predominantly female population. 14 ). And Ong. and parking lots (18).5 percent of all Los Angeles commuters traveled to work on public transit (16). most welfare participants do not own automobiles. a growing number of studies show an empirical relationship between welfare participants’ access to transportation and their employment outcomes. it is not surprising that they. Those participants who do not travel by car are largely transit dependent. 19). Department of Health and Human Services (12). Automobile ownership data. For the transit-dependent
f buses and trains may not adequately accommodate their complicated travel patterns . even if welfare participants are not commuting long distances from central cities to suburbs. Welfare participants often complain of the difficulty of using public transit to transport not only themselves but also their children. Spatial access to jobs increases the employment and earnings of welfare participants (20–23) and reduces welfare use rates (24).Welfare Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles”. Typically. For many participants. relying on the existing public transportation system for their travels around the region. for example. this spatial separation is
characterized as a mismatch between welfare participants living in inner-city neighborhoods. Additionally. 24 percent of participants who had problems finding jobs said that transportation was a barrier to their employment success. Studies also find a positive relationship between the employment rates of welfare participants and access to cars (14. 5). and the literature with respect to women has been both scanty and inconclusive (7–11). issues of public safety can be a concern. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. women often express safety concerns related to dark and deserted transit stations.
They are what people accumulate and hold over time. They are what people receive as a return on their labor or use of their capital. homes.pdf) Outside of education. Most income is spent on current consumption. such as Medical Savings Accounts).D.pdf) Holdings of Low-Income Families” .urban.S.
Savings and assets can cushion families against sudden income losses and can bolster long-term economic gains. they also generate returns that generally increase aggregate lifetime consumption and improve a household’s well-being over an extended time horizon.org/UploadedPDF/411558_ida_program.
. tax breaks for contributions to a variety of retirement accounts. which is based on an income standard. Economics. These savings. these operate through the tax and employer-based systems. and benefits for other emerging policies.
Assets are blocked by certain welfare programs wich are key to economic gains Mkernan Et Al . however. These include policies to promote the accumulation and preservation of financial wealth. businesses. These asset-based policies have grown rapidly in recent years and today represent a significant proportion of overall federal expenditures and tax subsidies.org/UploadedPDF/411558_ida_program. “The Effects of
Welfare and IDA Program Rules on the Asset http://www. Assets provide for future consumption and are a source of security against contingencies. Economics.. tangible property. Economics.urban. The Urban Instittue . it is useful to begin by distinguishing income from assets. social and economic development of these households may be limited by a lack of investment in education. http://www. Brown University. Ph. 9-‘7 ( Signe-Mary . Assets are stocks of resources.D. Ph. are significantly different when approached from an assets perspective. To the extent that low resource holdings limit the potential for social and economic development. which have been essential to the well-being of families and children. Ph. Those with a low stock of resources to draw on in times of need are asset
poor. social capital. human capital. as opposed to an income perspective. “The Effects of
Welfare and IDA Program Rules on the Asset Holdings of Low-Income Families” .D. Most means-tested programs restrict eligibility to families with assets that fall below a set threshold. If asset restrictions have the unintended consequence of discouraging low-income families from saving.pdf) In describing why assets are important.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Assets
Cars are a form of poverty alleviation neccesary to keep people out of poverty through the availability of assets Mkernan Et Al . The United States and many other countries already have large asset-based policies. Many U. “The Effects of
Welfare and IDA Program Rules on the Asset Holdings of Low-Income Families” . this series of reports focuses on building financial wealth and tangible nonfinancial assets for household social and economic development.. families.. Also.. political participation and influence. illness. traditional social programs that assist low-income populations have focused mainly on income and social services that fulfill basic consumption needs. or other income shortfall.
While all of these meanings have value. An asset-based approach could complement this traditional approach and could shift
the focus to the long-term development of individuals. The Urban Instittue . or as a public program transfer. households have little financial cushion to sustain them in the event of a job loss. Incomes are flows of resources. thereby providing benefits only to those most in need. The dimensions of poverty. understanding how those with
limited assets can build up their asset base is likely to be an important policy issue.
and natural resources. As investments. This focus provides a broader picture of the dynamics of poverty among the low-income population Asset-based policy has many potential meanings. 9-‘7 ( Signe-Mary .urban. In many cases. http://www.org/UploadedPDF/411558_ida_program. 9-‘7 ( Signe-Mary . cultural capital. tax-preferred education accounts and College Savings Plans. can make a low-income family ineligible for benefits from means-tested programs when they encounter economic difficulties. Brown University. home mortgage interest deduction.
Asset Based approaches are key to alieve poverty Mkernan Et Al . or other assets . Brown University. Many studies have found that the rate of asset poverty exceeds the poverty rate as calculated by the traditional measure. asset tests may run counter to the often cited government goal of promoting self-sufficiency.g. This asset poverty may leave them vulnerable to unexpected economic events and unable to take advantage of the broad opportunities a prosperous society offers. and its relative distribution among different social classes. and communities. so that public transfers occur via tax benefits (e. The Urban Instittue .
for recipients to get. California. 2000. 2000 (J.D. “License to Drive: Getting Welfare Recipients from the City to the Jobs”. n125The program also provides car loans. n126 One of the most difficult hurdles for recipients is coming up with their portion of the car's costs." n133 In addition. the Job Opportunity Transportation Programs purchases used vehicles and sells them at minimal cost to welfare families. if not impossible. and discounted or donated services such as car repairs. n124 In Ventura. n127 Many of these programs rely on privately or governmentally donated cars.. gas. and parking costs. Nexis) Another strategy is to provide individual recipients with assistance in purchasing their own vehicles. Labor. n136 Thus. this type of assistance will keep their clock running. n131 it is unclear whether other subsidies for maintenance. Virginia runs a grant program where it provides half of the funding for a car. University of
Colorado. In Wisconsin. the flexibility in TANF and the ability of states to provide state-funded transportation assistance make car programs more possible for recipients seeking employment. The use of TANF funds would be permissible as "financial assistance in the form of loans to eligible individuals for the lease or purchase of a vehicle to travel to/from work or work-related activities. and Access to Jobs Funds for transportation purposes. The welfare recipient must come up with the rest of the money. Fairfax County. including loans or down payments" to individuals to lease or purchase cars. B. maintenance. states may use their segregated state TANF funds to provide assistance without running up against time limits." n132 TANF funds can also be used for the "donation and repair of previously owned or reconditioned vehicles to eligible families. recipients can receive low interest loans to buy used cars or to make repairs on their cars. but the county provides financial advice and counseling on managing maintenance and insurance costs. Candidate. however. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy. Federal funding for such programs is not assured. insurance. Welfare-to-Work. n134 It is clear that transportation assistance alone will not run the benefit clock for working families. Monica Oui . or license fees would also be prohibited.A. A joint paper from the Secretaries of Health and Human Services.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Government Intervention Key
Programs to assist those in purchasing a car needs access and aid from the government Frazer. n130 Because Department of Transportation and Department of Labor officials have stated that no Access to Jobs or Welfare-to-Work funds can be used to help individuals purchase cars. states can use TANF funds to make one-time "diversion" payments to individuals who may just need money for car repairs or insurance to keep their current job or secure employment. n135 In addition. n128 Welfare-to-Work funds cannot be used to give "financial assistance. but if an individual is not working or searching for work. and the expenses increase with insurance. Loans may be difficult. n129 The Access to Jobs grants notice specifies that [*18] "programs for private automobile ownership and repair" are not eligible for Access to Jobs funds. and Transportation gives states some guidance on permissible projects utilizing TANF. Georgetown University Law Center.
[*20] Providing cars to welfare recipients does present difficulties.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Government Intervention Key
Federal Limitations on Assets Key Part of Car Ownership Frazer. and $ 100 in a checking account would have assets totaling $ 1. This results in a situation where recipients who own a car could receive TANF. as they are able to accept tax-deductible donations of cars and may also be resources for financial counseling. The federal food stamp program has a vehicle exemption of $ 4. And like van pools.A.n139 The remaining value of the vehicle is included when calculating the recipient's assets. n143 the prospect of owning a reliable vehicle is often more daunting. n146 Cars are also costly. and other services. University of Colorado.. states have included provisions which would allow welfare recipients to obtain vehicles without jeopardizing their benefits. In addition. many may have old company cars to donate for tax purposes. Clearly.650 and an asset limit of $ 2. the Clinton administration clarified the food stamp eligibility rules to allow families who received TANF but were ineligible for food stamps--due to ownership of a vehicle that has a value above the asset limit--to receive food stamps. Also. large costs for replacement parts or repairs.000. cars often have unexpected.000. and welfare recipients must be able to strike a balance so that the car does not eliminate all of the income it helps the recipient generate.500 to $ 12. and city governments could donate old vehicles to welfare recipients or county programs that "lease" out cars until the individual is able to purchase her own vehicle. DC.100 and would not be eligible for benefits. Georgetown University Law Center. Asset limits range upward from $ 1.
“License to Drive: Getting Welfare Recipients from the City to the Jobs”. In July 1999. n138 This allows recipients to own a reliable vehicle without risking ineligibility for benefits. n141 A recipient with a $ 2. Every state has an asset limit which caps the total assets a recipient may have to remain eligible for benefits.D. this still leaves families in states with vehicle and asset limits for TANF that are equal or lower than the food stamp limits with the choice of owning a reliable car or receiving TANF and food stamps. cars allow individuals to be more self-sufficient. Private charities are obvious partners. welfare recipients with cars would be more attractive to employers who seek workers with reliable and flexible transportation to accommodate night shifts. or parking for welfare recipients. 2000 (J. State. Other states have vehicle exemption amounts ranging from $ 1. and must secure employment with wages sufficient to cover these additional costs. These programs can only be successful if they reach out to other groups.000 car.500 vehicle exemption and a $ 1. county. in Washington. or they may be willing to provide discounted maintenance. n140 These limits and exemptions determine the type of car a recipient may have and still remain eligible for benefits. and may resist efforts to increase the number of drivers on the roads. health care. n137 Twenty-five states have exempted the full value of one vehicle from this asset limit. For example. a recipient faces a $ 1. but are ineligible for food stamps. but not as generous as others. and overtime. many of these groups are also very active in environmental issues. Many recipients do not have driver's licenses. Businesses also should be approached. B. However.000. Candidate. n144 These resource allowances are more favorable than some states' TANF programs. Recipients must be able to budget for additional expenses. Social justice groups have long been interested in equitable transportation options for lowincome communities. n142 For the 18. $ 500 savings. Nexis) In their TANF plans. 2000.
. serving only that portion of the welfare population that cannot be served by mass transit or reverse commuting. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy. as would access to child care.5 million individuals who rely on food stamps. insurance. Housing and employment opportunities would also increase. addressing the transportation needs of each segment of the welfare community is the only way to successfully move from welfare dependency to self-sufficiency. The amount of time spent commuting and running errands would decrease dramatically with car ownership.000 [*19] asset limit. n145 However. multiple locations. Monica Oui . however. these programs likely will be small.
Every auto plant job generates another five jobs among suppliers and the surrounding community. 1000 dealers closed their doors. “Automotive industry provides $13 million jobs. according to a report released on Nov. communities big and small rely on the greater auto industry. (Dave McCurdy. the UK van maker. The domino effect of one parts
supplier bringing down another was demonstrated by Wagon. 5 by the Center for Automotive Research. retail sales and generate tax revenues of more than $10 billion. The entire industry's condition affects far more than just a dozen automakers.html)
The move into Chapter 11 by Chrysler last week. starting with a new car. signalled a move into administration while UK domestic car sales fell 30 per cent in March – reflecting a continuing downturn in many other European territories.dwp_uuid=a491f060-b57f-11ddab71-0000779fd18c.grist. a volume provider of panels and door parts. just-in-time manufacturing systems now prevalent in the sector. a Wall Street job generates two additional jobs. over the threat to trading volumes and profits this year . competitive auto industry. economy to have a healthy. So far. http://www. plastics. Nationwide. May 4 2009. The Financial Times. in spite of Fiat’s ambition to merge its core car arm with Chrysler and GM Europe to create a publicly traded business. many of which are used to making relatively modest margins during a long boom in car making that had seen many working at close to full capacity. a former member of the House of Representatives from Oklahoma. lenders or customers made failure inevitable. the US billionaire. The failure of Wagon in the UK – though some of its European operations continue to trade or have been sold –
prompted Sonas. lead. and generates enormous tax revenues McCurdy 08. In September alone. Just like bank failures rippled through the economy. Grist.... The deteriorating environment has already claimed at least two UK-based “tier 1” suppliers . and 90 percent of new autos are financed. says a 30 per cent drop in demand from key customers and a failure to secure
further backing from either shareholders.org/article/why-the-health-of-the-auto-industry-matters-to-you) When the economy sinks. http://www. has also put its main UK division into administration . Alastair Beveridge. by comparison.S.com/cms/s/0/bd342ff6-38de-11de-8cfe-00144feabdc0. Consumers who want to buy may not get credit. 13 million jobs are autorelated.org. copper. so the plunge in auto sales is affecting your state's treasury right now. Even if there is no auto plant nearby. (Michael Kavanagh.
. steel. partner at Zolfo Cooper. textiles. “Car parts suppliers in drive to head off
failure”. the sharp decline in car
and van demand has resulted in prolonged plant shutdowns across the world as car companies have cut or delayed orders for parts used in the lean. The auto industry is one of the biggest purchasers of aluminum. the highly indebted Wagon
Automotive. and the next 100 days are critical. Auto sales account for 20 percent of U. was put into administration. the parts maker spun out of Ford in 2000. Wagon’s administrators. Last December. Auto industry failure in the US has caused world wide auto part makers to collapse as well The Financial Times. October auto sales
were the lowest in two decades.ft. provides 13 million jobs.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Key To Economy
Automotive industry is key to economy. vinyl. computer chips and more . a UK-listed company backed by Wilbur Ross. the auto industry has a large ripple effect . 2008 auto sales may fall to post-World War II levels. The potential failure of one or more automakers would cut up to 2. When adjusted for population growth. to follow it into administration. Last week. It is vital to the U. Visteon. one that reaches to your community . consumers delay purchases . down 32 percent from a year ago. one of its own UK suppliers. It's a depression in the auto industry today.S. Conditions in the UK and Europe are little better
than the US. iron.. rubber. generates $10 billion in tax revenue”. questions about GM’s future and Ford’s continuing trading difficulties will have deepened concerns at GKN and Tomkins. is president and CEO
of the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers. the global parts suppliers listed in London. In all 50 states.5 million jobs in the first year as production ground to a halt throughout the industry. 12 Nov 2008. Kavanagh 09. your community may depend on auto manufacturing. That in itself has put intense pressure on car part makers. LDV.
Ford. Nov. and has a strong political influence.S. have jobs in related supply industries. the world.industryweek. has heavy linkages with supplier industries (which gives it an oversized role in economic development). ABC news. The industry also provides well-paying jobs with good benefits. Granholm et al. The president and CEO of Ford Motor Co.politico." Mulally told "Good Morning America. 18. Alan Mulally. Jennifer M. CH2M HILL. including waiters. retailers and doctors -. the automotive industry retains very strong influence and importance.com/news/stories/1208/16578. The Big Three automakers -. It makes 60 million cars and trucks a year." To rebuild their world.a plan they believe could prevent millions of jobs from being lost. None of us ever
anticipated we'd be in a world where our sales for the industry have fallen off 45 percent in the first nine months. P. Papatheodorou and Harris.com/GMA/story?id=6278396&page=1) Despite widespread criticism that Detroit automakers had been making poor business decisions for years leading up to the current auto industry crisis.S..
. Industry Week. http://abcnews. and Michelle. Auto Industry is a major economic force. for all of us. auto industry.aspx) The automotive industry is a major industrial and economic force worldwide. Ford Motor Co. senior project manager. We know that jobs in every state – as many as 6 million of them – are tied in some way to the auto industry.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Key To Economy
Auto industry failure can wipe out 13 million jobs Golodryga and Ferran 08 (Bianna Golodryga and Lee Ferran. Ford president and CEO Alan Mulally said today.
http://www. “Failure in the Auto Industry
Could Affect 13 Million Jobs”. we had gotten back to profitability in the first quarter of this year. We therefore urge Congress and the administration quickly approve federal bridge loans to the U. Collapse of Auto Industry will lead to depression Michigan Gov. 2008 (“Auto industry ties economy together”. Beyond that are the jobs in communities that depend on auto factories to survive. needs government loans.go. CH2M HILL. An additional 2. 2008. http://www. auto industry. January 10. we are not just casual observers of the plight of the U. came undone with the slowing economy and the banking and credit crisis. The industry employs 4 million people directly.000 workers. We know the fate of our budgets and those of our towns and cities is tied to what happens to our domestic automakers .html. And we know – because it is so pervasive and interconnected – that allowing the industry to collapse could mean a depression for our country.roughly 13 million jobs from coast to coast. Project
Consultant. or 2 percent of the nation's work force. In our states." "And then. More Photos "If everybody can remember.. never saw it coming. three major automakers are in Washington today to plead for a $25 billion rescue plan -. 2007 (Yorgos. “The Automotive Industry: Economic Impact And Location Issues”. pg.E.3 million Americans. we know that the industry impacts far more than big manufacturing plants and the people who work in them.com/articles/the_automotive_industry_economic_impact_and_location_issues_13363. 12/18/08. General Motors and Chrysler -. and they are responsible for almost half the world's consumption of oil. and many more indirectly.employ about 240.1) As governors and governors-elect. Despite the fact that many large companies have problems with
overcapacity and low profitability.
there’s likely going to be little demand for the steel ArcelorMittal could make here. Granakis’ members are still drawing most of their pay from the company. April 13) It could be quite some time before Cleveland’s ArcelorMittal steel mill is back on line and at least a portion of its 1. That’s where the bad news for the Cleveland mill comes in. president of United Steelworkers Local 979. automotive needs to turn around.. ArcelorMittal’s Cleveland plant reopening depends on counterparts’ revival. the economy as a whole would need to recover enough that a spot market developed for steel. 2009 (Dan. auto industry rebounds. Mr. Granakis said. Mr. But neither Messrs. There are many other steel mills shut down around the country — and some of those will need to be reopened and reach nearly their full capacity before there’s a need to reopen the ArcelorMittal mill in Cleveland. he said.” Waiting in a long line Mr. Granakis said. It’s smaller than some other ArcelorMittal mills that now are running at less than full capacity. lump-sum severance payment. say. McLaughlin said. Granakis estimates a rebound in the auto industry would result in about 75% of his union’s members being called back to work. Granakis said. the industry is running at about half its total capacity of about 17 million cars per year.” Mr. Crain's Cleveland Business. the mill in Cleveland is heavily dependent on the U. auto industry recovery”.” Steelmakers. “In the U..400 workers are called back to work after the plant closes in May. auto industry will recover — and right now.” Mr. about 75% of the plant’s workers have 20 years of service or more. it will be a good sign that the company needs the Cleveland mill back up and running. auto industry for its business — and until that industry rebounds. which ArcelorMittal says on its web site is the most productive in the world and able to produce a ton of steel for each man-hour worked by Mr. there are 36 blast furnaces and currently nine of them are operating. That entitles them to receive 80% of their pay for six months. they say. Mr. Mr. “The biggest thing is. so that their plant moves closer to the front of the line of 27 mills waiting to be reopened around the country.S. McLaughlin said is running at about half its capacity. would require knowing when the U. ArcelorMittal owns nine. Whenever they can. One saving grace. “Automotive and appliances — that’s the biggest portion of large orders that we have. and they are currently running three. But that’s not expected to happen any time soon. including ArcelorMittal. When that mill begins to reach its maximum capacity.” Mr. Granakis’ members. Mr. Granakis said ArcelorMittal is not keeping the furnaces in Cleveland warm.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Key To Steel
Recovery of US Auto industry is needed for the recovery of the steel industry. scrap prices are so low that electric-arc mini-mills are able to produce new steel from recycled materials for less than blast furnaces such as the one in Cleveland could turn out new steel from iron ore. Granakis said. Meanwhile. McLaughlin said. both men said. Mr. Granakis said. “I would say we’re probably somewhere in the middle of the line. Unfortunately. Mr. are trying to run their plants as profitably as they can in the current economic environment. Shingler.
. which Mr. Since the average age of a USW member of the plant is 53 and the average seniority is 23 years. Mr. Right now. Granakis said he is closely watching ArcelorMittal ’s larger blast-furnace mill in Burns Harbor. For all the mill’s steelworkers to be called back. Officials at ArcelorMittal did not respond to written questions. might be the efficiency of the Cleveland mill. companies will run their most efficient and flexible plants at or near full capacity — and they’ll keep online the plants making the types of steel most in demand. senior manager and steel industry specialist for Deloitte Consulting in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. thick plate steel used to build and repair bridges. To do that. “There’s only nine up and running. Ind. Experts who follow the industry and the plant itself say it’s a matter of simple math. represents the bulk of ArcelorMittal’s employees at the plant and agrees that they won’t be back to work until the U. “Local steel mill’s wait likely long. Ace in the hole. Mark Granakis. which would enable them to restart faster. McLaughlin predicts the most efficient mills will come back online first.S. or rebar used in infrastructure construction. Granakis and the other steelworkers have little choice but to wait and hope that capacity is used up elsewhere. which would mean steel service centers that distribute the metal again would be ordering steel to resell to smaller customers. Granakis nor McLaughlin would speculate on when the Cleveland mill might eventually reopen.” said Richard McLaughlin. however. staff writer.S. “Of those 36 furnaces. Mr. with no recovery in sight. at which time they are eligible for a large.S. and its product — flat-rolled steel for the automotive and appliance industries — is expected to be less in demand than.
Ph.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff IDA’s Solve
Cars bought using IDA Money Blumenberg. it should add cars to the list of eligible purchases for the IDA tax credit program included in the act. The other federal funding stream for IDAs. including for cars.brookings. Although the administering agency and the lead national organization agreed to the amendment. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy .edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
The federal AFIA funds a demonstration of IDAs in which eligible uses are a home. President Clinton proposed amending the act in 2000 to add car purchases. Also. in the Office of Refugee Resettlement. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Brookings Institute .pdf) http://www.D. And Waller .70 AFIA is scheduled for reauthorization in 2003 and Congress should add car purchase as an eligible use when the law is updated. and starting a microenterprise.71
. Director of The Mobility Agenda. as Congress considers the new IDA program proposed in the Senate’s Charity Aid Relief and Empowerment (CARE) Act of 2003 . former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. Los Angeles. A recent survey of AFIA programs and others interested in AFIA reauthorization found that most observers recommend expanding the eligible purchases. Congress adjourned without implementing the change. currently permits car purchases with IDA savings . _waller/20030801_Waller. an education. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” .
"About twice as many people as before are getting turned down for loans.1 billion in the same period last year. the auto lender -.cnn. (Mina.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Auto Industry Cant Sell Cars Now – Loan failure
Banks are not giving out loans in status quo making it harder for companies to sell cars CNN. down from $13.com/2009/06/09/news/companies/auto_loans_scarce.reborn as a bank -. "The guidelines continue to get stricter. But once they get customers through the door." Some lenders have said in recent months that they would try to cut more deals.announced plans to set aside $5 billion for new contracts and promised to consider applicants with credit scores as low as 621.htm?section=money_latest) Auto dealers are using rebates. dealers are still battling an issue that has troubled the industry for months: a lack of financing. Kimes. 2009. After GMAC received TARP money in December. Maryland. the owner of Nationwide. writer-reporter.4 billion worth of loans for new vehicles in the first quarter.fortune/index. Brandon Schaefer. but lending has not. and other incentives to lure buyers back into their showrooms. says foot traffic has improved. http://money. But despite having lower standards. GMAC still originated just $3. June 10.
." he says. discounts. “Why you can't get a car loan”. a string of dealerships in Timonium.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Jobs*
policy solutions must consider the difficulty of traveling to distant.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/07transportation_waller/20030801_Waller. Margy. especially for those families without automobiles. Blumenberg and Waller ‘3 (Evelyn Blumenberg is assistant professor of urban planning at the University of
California Los Angeles School of Public Policy and Social Research.brookings. Nor does transit easily accommodate the need to “trip chain. writer for Brookings Institution. a car or another means of transportation is required to take workers from the rail stop to the suburban job. http://www. For example. Consequently. they tend to be dispersed over large areas and can be inaccessible to low-income residential neighborhoods. unfamiliar destinations. Even for those low-income residents facing the central-city–suburban mismatch.brookings. July 2003. “The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families”. While many new jobs are located in the suburbs. a mother who takes two buses and more than an hour to get to a suburban job is in no position to depart quickly to pick up a sick child at school. however. can be the most isolated from employment. December 2005.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Low-income workers can’t access the new jobs in the suburbs due to lack of transportation. “High Cost or High Opportunity Cost?
Transportation and Family Economic Success. Margy ‘5 (Waller. Similarly.
. and so forth.pdf)
For the suburban and rural poor. there are still many jobs for entrylevel workers in cities. rural employment often remains many miles from a dispersed rural population. Lower densities in these areas typically do not support the extensive transit networks found in many central cities. Single parents may have the most difficulty with
these trips given that paid work is in addition to household responsibilities that they must manage without the help of a spouse.” to make multiple stops at the child care center.” http://www. unreliable. low-income riders are often underserved by central city
transit systems as policymakers cut funds for heavily utilized inner-city bus lines in order to subsidize the more costly suburban commute. Long distance travel on public transit is unlikely to be the best option for some low-income adults. public transit rarely takes central city residents all the way to the door of suburban employers. and inconvenient.edu/papers/2005/12poverty_waller. forcing most rural and suburban lowincome commuters to rely on personal vehicles. Fortunately. Cars are key to employment.36 Although most jobs are in the suburbs. and a higher percentage of subway riders than commuter rail riders. the grocery store. public transit can’t support the commute. Those without cars. providing a rationale to invest in public transit for densely populated urban areas with a high concentration of employers and housing. Margy Waller is a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy.aspx) The poor represent a higher percentage of bus riders than subway riders. Travel on transit from central cities to suburbs can be time-consuming. access to employment may be most difficult. Unfortunately.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Transportation is key to employment. Blumenberg and Waller ‘3 (Evelyn Blumenberg is assistant professor of urban planning at the University of
California Los Angeles School of Public Policy and Social Research. Margy Waller is a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. July 2003, “The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families”, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/07transportation_waller/20030801_Waller.pdf) Low-income adults frequently mention the importance of transportation in their work lives. In a study conducted in
Illinois, over 25 percent of former welfare recipients interviewed reported problems in getting or paying for transportation to work.12 A similar study of welfare leavers in North Carolina found that 22 percent of unemployed respondents believed that transportation would be a problem if they were to find employment.13 An overwhelming 61 percent of long-term welfare recipients in Iowa reported transportation barriers to work.14 Welfare administrators and employers also acknowledge the importance of
transportation to the success of welfare-to-work programs. In Indiana and California, more than threequarters of county welfare administrators surveyed reported that transportation is a significant barrier to the self-sufficiency of their clients.15 In a Minnesota survey, 28 percent of employers identified transportation as the main barrier to hiring and retaining welfare recipients, with rural employers more likely than urban employers to identify transportation as a problem for their workforce.16 (?)
People with cars are more likely to access employment Garasky, Fletcher, Jensen ‘6 (Steven Garasky is an associate professor in the Department of Human
Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, IA; Cynthia Needles Fletcher is a professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, Ames, IA; Helen H. Jensen is a professor in the Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IAl Journal of Consumer Affairs, Summer 2006, Transiting to Work: The Role of Private Transportation for Low-Income Households, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3250/is_1_40/ai_n29274909/pg_4/?tag=content;col1) Establishing the causal order of transportation access and employment is a challenge because car ownership and employment are likely to be endogenous decisions. Using panel data on welfare recipients in three California counties,
Cervero, Sandoval, and Landis (2002) provided strong evidence that car ownership influenced work outcomes. All study participants were unemployed and on welfare when initially interviewed. Results from a multinomial logit analysis showed that car ownership, along with educational attainment, significantly increased the odds that someone switched from welfare (and unemployment) to work. Three other studies also suggested that transportation problems predicted employment outcomes based on analysis that
used instrumental variables for car ownership to address the causality issues. Raphael and Rice (2002) and Raphael and Stoll (2001) used state-year level variation in state gasoline taxes and average automobile insurance premiums as instruments for car ownership in analyses of Survey of Income and Program Participation data. Ong's (2002) analysis of data from a survey of TANF recipients in the Los Angeles metropolitan area used insurance premiums and population density as instruments for car ownership. However, finding appropriate instruments for car ownership can be difficult. Commenting on Raphael and Stoll's approach, Small (2001) describes their instruments as "weak ones and using them greatly reduces the statistical confidence in the results" (p. 139).
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Transportation increases chance of employment for poor. Blumenberg and Waller ‘3 (Evelyn Blumenberg is assistant professor of urban planning at the University of
California Los Angeles School of Public Policy and Social Research. Margy Waller is a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. July 2003, “The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families”, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/07transportation_waller/20030801_Waller.pdf) Numerous scholars find that reliable transportation leads to increased access to employment, higher earnings, and greater employment stability among the poor. The most compelling evidence centers on the positive relationship between access to automobiles and employment rates, hours worked, and mean monthly earnings.37 Low-
income households without cars are also more likely to experience unmet food and housing needs and have greater difficulty traveling for medical care.38 So far, most low-income car ownership programs remain relatively new and small, so that research evaluating their impact is limited.39 However, surveys of workers who obtained cars from subsidized car-ownership programs report higher wages and better jobs, improved quality of day care, more involvement with family and community, and more frequent participation in worship services.40 In one study of a car ownership program in Vermont, researchers found that program participation significantly increases the probability of employment, as well as earned income.41 People close to jobs still need cars to access employment. Blumenberg and Waller ‘3 (Evelyn Blumenberg is assistant professor of urban planning at the University of
California Los Angeles School of Public Policy and Social Research. Margy Waller is a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy. July 2003, “The Long Journey to Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families”, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports/2003/07transportation_waller/20030801_Waller.pdf) For transportation policy purposes, however, it is important to look beyond the spatial mismatch. Although many low-
income adults live far from employment opportunities, many others live closer to jobs, yet still face transportation barriers. Among the metropolitan poor, 44 percent live in the suburbs.28 Yet high concentrations of employment remain in some inner cities.29 Although some metropolitan areas, particularly in
the Northeast and Midwest, have experienced a dramatic hollowing out of the urban core, this experience is far from universal. The decline in central-city Cleveland or St. Louis looks vastly different from that of Boston, San Francisco, New York, or Minneapolis.30 Not surprisingly, studies find metropolitan variation in the extent and effects of the spatial mismatch.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Cars give low-income families opportunities for finding jobs. Waller, Margy, writer for Brookings Institution. 12/05. “High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and
Family Economic Success.” http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2005/12poverty_waller.aspx
Research suggests that having a car is a worthwhile investment in better outcomes for low-income families. Recent reports quantify the additional money required to own and operate personal vehicles, as compared to the lower cost of traveling on public transit. However, this method of accounting fails to consider the fact that poor workers without a car may not be able to search for or accept a better-paying job because public transit doesn't take them there, causing these workers to lose income or benefits as a result. This report outlines opportunity
costs experienced by transit-dependent poor households, and concludes that when all costs are considered along with benefits of private vehicles, it makes sense to press for more assistance and policies that reduce car ownership costs for poor workers. CCF Brief # 35 The typical parent who leaves welfare for work earns about $8 an hour. Many such parents are eligible for publicly funded work supports like child care, food stamps, Medicaid, and the Earned Income Tax Credit, but few poor families get all
the support they are eligible to receive. In addition, as they struggle to meet family needs, poor parents face transportation complications, including lengthy commutes on public transit. For these financially stressed families, the cost of buying and maintaining a car can create difficult financial tradeoffs. Yet, the opportunity cost of going without one weighs heavily on these poor households.
The High Cost of Public Transit
Making do without a reliable car requires poor households to rely on others or on the local public transit system. Public transit can work well for poor workers in dense urban areas, and its advocates proclaim that transit reduces
sprawl and congestion and leads to better air quality. Yet, in 2000, fewer than 5 percent of workers took public transportation to work, while nearly 88 percent commuted by car. Despite significant public investment in public transit, usage continues to decline as a percentage of urban travel. Nevertheless, poor workers are more likely to commute by public transit —especially bus—than are higher income workers. Transit-dependent low-income households often pay a
high price for going without a personal vehicle as transit often fails to meet their needs.
The poor represent a higher percentage of bus riders than subway riders, and a higher percentage of subway riders than commuter rail riders. While many new jobs are located in the suburbs, public transit rarely takes central city residents all the way to the door of suburban employers. Consequently, a car or another means of transportation is required to take workers from the rail stop to the suburban job. Fortunately, there are still many jobs for entry-level workers in cities, providing a rationale to invest in public transit for densely populated urban areas with a high concentration of employers and housing. Unfortunately, low-income riders are often underserved by central city transit systems as policymakers cut funds for heavily utilized inner-city bus lines in order to subsidize the more costly suburban commute. In recent years, transit investment has tended to focus on rail services over buses, and suburban commuters over city riders. A 1981 study revealed that the per passenger public operating subsidy for commuter rail was at least three times more than for bus service. Since then, much of the public investment for capital expenses has targeted rail transit rather than buses. Unfortunately, extending rail service does little to meet the needs of low-income commuters, while improving frequency of service on heavily traveled inner-city bus and subway routes can do more to meet the needs of transit-dependent low-income workers than increasing reverse-commute options.
and residential segregation have all contributed to the geographic isolation of the urban poor. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.brookings. and more prone to needing expensive repairs • Even in cities with good transit service. the vast majority of metropolitan travel today is by private vehicle. transit travel times.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 _waller/20030801_Waller.city neighborhoods). but while most low-income families own vehicles. even among the poor. for those who live in more isolated residential areas—whether in the central city. Tampa. no one-size-fits-all transportation policy exists for working families. on average. Suburban areas continue to capture the lion’s share of population and employment growth. By contrast.” make stops for child care or shop along the commute Numerous studies suggest that improved transportation services can improve economic outcomes among the poor. the lack of affordable housing. Los Angeles. links families to their livelihoods. Detroit. they tend to be older. structure of metropolitan areas. and air quality. Not surprisingly. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” .2 Consequently. on average. However. new sources of federal funds have helped agencies initiate transit services aimed at moving low-income adults into the labor market. and environmental quality of 21st century metropolitan America. Brookings Institute . In recent years. Metropolitan areas are diverse. rural areas. waits at stops and for transfers. and Chicago those percentages exceed 60 percent. Across the 100 largest metropolitan areas. who live in a wide array of neighborhoods and who have varied transportation resources. then. Transportation . about 22 percent of people work within three miles of the city center. transportation policies for working families must be developed in the context of broader
efforts to help improve the mobility. So too are low-income families.4 Spatial isolation has also been exacerbated by the lack of viable transportation options to meet the changing . which means that sound transportation policy is also sound economic policy.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Spatial isolation is exacerbated by the lack of automobiles among the poor – cars for the poor would allow for massive job creation and the overall economy Blumenberg. Of course. more and more of
all travel moves from suburb to suburb—a far cry from the stereotype of suburbs as simply bedroom communities for workers commuting to traditional downtowns. In view of this. auto-oriented suburbs has shifted job markets farther away from lowincome families who remain concentrated in central city neighborhoods • Job decentralization is especially problematic for low-income households without access to reliable automobiles because traditional. In metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles. policymakers have paid far less attention to increasing automobile access among
the poor. Years of urban disinvestment.pdf) Evidence from Census 2000 and elsewhere underscores that the decentralization of economic and transportation
residential life remains the dominant growth pattern in the United States. economic vitality. Meanwhile. rural employment is often many miles from a dispersed rural population. urban neighborhoods are often within a short walk. These slower travel speeds are especially difficult for parents who must “trip chain.
. meeting the transportation needs of working families will require a mix of transportation solutions and the federal funding flexibility to creatively pursue varied regional and local policy strategies. less reliable. Director of The Mobility Agenda. Ph. America has rapidly become an “exit ramp” economy with office. federal transportation reform efforts have already ushered in a new era defined by novel and integrated thinking about how transportation connects to other community priorities such as housing. or bus ride to most destinations.D. far exceed automobile travel times because of walking to and from stops. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. retail. 5 And indeed. and commercial facilities increasingly located on the suburban fringe. and more than 35 percent work more than ten miles from the center. and frequent vehicle stops along the way. fixed-route public transportation is not well-suited to increasingly dispersed metropolitan travel patterns • Not surprisingly. or the suburbs—jobs and services can be remote. Families that live in dense. However. And Waller . Given the strong connection between cars and employment outcomes.3 Low-income families have also dispersed (although many remain concentrated in central. auto ownership programs may be one of the more promising options and one worthy of expansion. the transportation challenges facing working families are numerous: • The decentralization of jobs away from central cities to lower-density. after all. economic development. http://www. particularly for families without access to automobiles. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . drive.
have experienced a dramatic hollowing out of the urban core. New York. more than threequarters of county welfare administrators surveyed reported that transportation is a significant barrier to the self-sufficiency of their clients. Transportation Is a Major Barrier to Employment Low-income adults frequently mention the importance of transportation in their work lives. Louis looks vastly different from that of Boston.costly and fails at providing them with what they neeed Blumenberg. Director of The Mobility Agenda.28 Yet high concentrations of employment remain in some inner cities.brookings. Los Angeles. three strategies can increase welfare recipients’ geographic access to employment . many others live closer to jobs. Relocation —whether jobs or people—requires longer lead times. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . they do not necessarily eliminate transportation needs. And Waller . or Minneapolis.brookings. In a study conducted in Illinois.14 Welfare administrators and employers also acknowledge the importance of transportation to the success of welfare-to-work programs.11 Although each strategy has different collateral benefits and costs. 36 percent of employers reported entry-level jobs inaccessible by public transit. However. although the relocation strategies have benefits
unrelated to the work commute. living and
working in the same part of the city. The decline in central-city Cleveland or St. http://www. 28 percent of employers identified transportation as the main barrier to hiring and retaining welfare recipients. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . the Economic and Social Research Institute conducted a nationwide survey of employer attitudes toward entry-level workers.29 Although some metropolitan areas. this experience is far from universal. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. The evidence suggests that transportation solutions can provide an essential link between low-income workers and employment. In Indiana and California.D. however. Los Angeles.30 Not surprisingly. studies find metropolitan variation in the extent and effects of the spatial mismatch. transportation policies. show substantial variation across metropolitan areas. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.D. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . Among the metropolitan poor. particularly in the Northeast and Midwest. Brookings Institute .12 A similar study of welfare leavers in North Carolina found that 22 percent of unemployed respondents believed that transportation would be a problem if they were to find employment. 16 Finally. And Waller . A. Brookings Institute . Low-income workers tend to commute relatively short
. Overall. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore.17 The survey included 500 employers in industries that hired a greater than average number of entry-level workers as well as two smaller samples of 100 each in Los Angeles and Milwaukee. These include: 1) urban reinvestment strategies designed to bring jobs closer to low-income communities. In 1997. it is important to look beyond the spatial mismatch. Furthermore. whether in the suburbs or the central city.
Cars are needed – low income families cant get them to get jobs and public transportation is to dangerous. and 3) transportation-based strategies intended to enhance mobility. although they may reduce them. does not necessarily reduce or eliminate transportation problems. The subsamples. Although many low-income adults live far from employment opportunities.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation _waller/20030801_Waller. Ph. Only 13 percent of employers in Los Angeles were inaccessible by public transit compared with 30 percent in Milwaukee. San Francisco. over 25 percent of former welfare recipients interviewed reported problems in getting or paying for transportation to work.pdf) Generally. Ph. Director of The Mobility Agenda.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation _waller/20030801_Waller. many employers report that their entry-level jobs are inaccessible by public transit .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
Lack of cars is the number one impedment to jobs – and public transit fails Blumenberg. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . if properly targeted. can
have a more immediate impact— which is important given the time limits on welfare receipt. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. http://www.pdf) For transportation policy purposes. however.13 An overwhelming 61 percent of long-term welfare recipients in Iowa reported transportation barriers to work. 2) housing mobility strategies that move low-income residents closer to jobs.15 In a Minnesota survey. with rural employers more likely than urban employers to identify transportation as a problem for their workforce. 44 percent live in the suburbs. yet still face transportation barriers.
Auto ownership rates vary substantially by income and race and ethnicity.36 Although most jobs are in the suburbs. Not all low-wage workers. have access to automobiles. unreliable. can be the most isolated from employment. policy solutions must consider the difficulty of traveling to distant. in as much as they comprise 12 percent of all households but 35 percent of those without cars. the grocery store.000 comprise 65 percent of households without vehicles. and so forth. and inconvenient. Nor does transit easily accommodate the need to “trip chain. poor workers who are dependent on public transit—even when traveling within the central city—may live close to bus stops but often face lengthy commutes resulting from long waits at transit stops. a mother who takes two buses and more than an hour to get to a suburban job is in no position to
depart quickly to pick up a sick child at school. most low-income adults commute by car. households with incomes below $25. unfamiliar destinations. access to employment may be most difficult. Specifically.33 Further.34 For their part. they tend to be dispersed over large areas and can be inaccessible to low-income residential neighborhoods. Single parents may have the most difficulty with these trips given that paid work is in addition to household responsibilities that they must manage without the help of a spouse. For example. however. Even for those low-income residents facing the central-city–suburban mismatch. however. Those without cars. Data from the Census 2000 show that 10 percent of all households lack vehicles.
Contrary to popular perception. Similarly. forcing most rural and suburban lowincome commuters to rely on personal vehicles. Lower densities in these areas typically do not support the extensive transit networks found in many central cities. than higherincome commuters.32 Those workers fortunate to have access to automobiles can reach many employment opportunities within a reasonable commute time regardless of where they live. Longdistance travel on public transit is unlikely to be the best option for some low-income adults. and those without vehicles are more likely to be in the lowest income brackets.31 Still. on average. Travel on transit from central cities to suburbs can be time-
consuming.” to make multiple stops at the child care center.35 For the suburban and rural poor.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Cars K2 Employment
distances—far shorter. especially for those families without automobiles. black households are especially likely to lack vehicles. as Table 1 shows. and infrequent service during off-peak hours. cumbersome and timeconsuming transfers.
. most low-income workers find employment outside of their immediate neighborhoods and require some form of reliable transportation. rural employment often remains many miles from a dispersed rural population.
http://www. "But when they start hiring you know something is going on. and affordable transportation that lower income families and individuals need in order to prosper in today’s decentralized economy.html. U. So here's a second job-related indicator that economists are watching: monthly temporary employment. Dan (writer for TIME Magazine). 6/26/09) We’ve seen what happens when you rely on debt and inflated assets to keep the economy afloat. and a network of 150 nonprofit entities promoting car ownership called Opportunity Cars—that facilitate private vehicle ownership for low-wage workers. But the key is to just change the direction.32 Congress could also fund state-specific public education materials for consumers on how to research.3 hours in January. Secretary of Transportation. When it swings positive you can be sure that better times will follow. “Getting By or
Getting Ahead? Public Policies to Help the Poor Build http://www.S.edu/~/media/Files/events/2008/0428_transportation/20080428_transportation. At this moment. Private sector average weekly hours worked stuck at a record low 33.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff I/L Jobs Key To Economy
Federal transportation key to employment for the poor and improving the economy. A federal transportation policy supporting vehicle ownership would increase employment opportunities. local community initiatives for license reinstatement. Date not given.com/time/specials/packages/0." says Bernard Baumohl.nytimes. temporary hiring went from net job losses to net job gains almost to the month that the recession ended. and because companies typically cut hours before cutting heads the slide means more layoffs are coming. 2008.1876737. and maintain a vehicle." In 2002. New York Times ‘9 (“No Recovery in Sight”. Peters ‘8 (Mary. hours worked. and wages earned—and improve community economic outcomes. buy.pdf)
We can promote economic vitality by eliminating the $72 billion drain on our economy that results when workers can’t get to their jobs and when inefficient transportation systems make American goods less competitive in the global marketplace.html
The employment scene is a disaster. "Companies can always ask their employees to work a little longer.33
Jobs are key to the economy.com/2009/06/27/opinion/27herbert. “Oppurtunity 08: Transportation and
theEconomy”.28757. chief global economist at Economic Outlook Group. President of Woodstock Institute and Law School Student. Kadlec. Look for this number to stabilize over a period of two or three months and then begin to inch upward for an early indicator that the economy is recovering.6 million jobs since the recession began.pdf and Protect Assets?”
Automobiles are the reliable. We won't hit a normal reading of around 35 hours for a long time. the monthly change in temporary employment has been negative for 25 months running. Dory Rand and Brian Clappier. We've shed 3. “Economic Indicators – How to Know When the
Economy is Turning Up” http://www. http://www. April 28.00.31 The Mobility Agenda recommends policy and programs
—such as improved access to credit for car loans. You can find private sector average weekly hours worked on the Bureau of Labor Statistics web
site. 12/08.org/clearinghouse-review/issues/2008/2008-12-01/rand. and temporary hiring typically picks up well before permanent hiring.brookings.
. The economy can’t be re-established on a sound basis without aggressive efforts to put people back to work in jobs with decent wages.
A recovery in employment is crucial.time. flexible. We save $72 billion by accessing job employment and providing cars. Jobs are key to improving the economy.povertylaw.
Thus. and Rural Economic Development” A second important reason for understand. In North Carolina. In particular.ployment growth in one location that leads to significant residential development in a nearby "bedroom" community can give rise to con. Mitch (writer for American Journal of Agricultural Economics) .siderable strains on the fiscal resources of the latter community. Local public expenditures in North Carolina's rural counties currently av.pecially important to many rural communities lying adjacent to rapidly growing urban areas.pacts to other communities. Renkow.ing the spatial allocation of new jobs relates to local public finance considerations. a very rough measure of the fiscal spillovers of exurbanization associ. ACCESSED FROM JSTOR
“Employment Growth. em.cated adjacent to metropolitan counties hold jobs in those metropolitan counties.ated with urban employment growth would be $2. 5/ 03. Worker Mobility.600 x 0.000 (m$3.56) times the number of new workers
. about 44% of which is funded by residential property taxes.600 per household per year.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Sector Spillover
Employment growth in one part of the economy spills over to the rest. then employment growth in one location may give rise to substantial spillovers of fiscal im. for example. This
is a phenomenon that appears to be es. and there is considerable evidence that many of those commuters are fairly recent migrants (Renkow and Hoover).nificant share of labor market adjustment is accounted for by changes in commuting flows.erage around $3. approximately 20% of workers residing in rural counties
lo. If a sig.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Spatial Segregation*
such as banks. those for workers with low to modest levels of education in the retail and service industries provide lower wages. Philadelphia. These neighborhoods offer few jobs and typically lack basic services and amenities. and lack the benefits and worker protections— such as workersʼ health insurance.000 abandoned and vacant properties in Philadelphia. thereby drastically reducing the importance of physical capital. employment increased by 25 percent between 1991 and 2001. less than 20 percent of the jobs are now located within three miles of the city center. This shift has accompanied the technological revolution. relatively stable. 80 percent of the entry-level jobs are located in the suburbs. But nevertheless. custodial work).42 Typically. in Cleveland. these
communities also suffer from substandard schools.S.40 The lack of feasible transportation options exacerbates this mismatch. in Detroit. and quality transit. Baltimore. the least upwardly mobile in society—mainly low-income people of color—are left behind in neighborhoods (card continued) with high concentrations of poverty and deteriorating physical conditions. fast food servers. services. and Baltimore. for example. 40. “Spatial mismatch” is a term that social scientists use to capture the relationship between inner-city residents and suburban jobs: the opportunities for employment are geographically disconnected from the people who need the jobs . Increasingly. grocery stores and other retail establishments. Since 1980.36
employment growth has occurred outside the central city: manufacturing is now over 70 percent suburban.38 Accompanying the rise of suburban and exurban economies has been a change in commuting patterns. they
have accelerated neighborhood decline in the inner city and widened gaps in race and income between cities and suburbs. and 26. parks.32 In other words. the relationship between technology and international competition has eroded the basic institutions of themass production system.000 in Detroit. although entry-level workers are concentrated in inner-city neighborhoods. retirement benefits. Harvard University John F. For example. Nationally. workers completely bypass the central city by commuting from one suburb to another. have become employment centers in themselves. less than one-third of workers commute to a job in the central city and over half (55 percent) begin and end in the suburbs. making it almost impossible to move out of the ghetto William Julius Wilson. Detroit.000 in Baltimore. there are 60. POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY Volume 123
Older urban areas were once the hubs of economic growth and activity.”39 Sprawl and economic stagnation reduce inner city residents’ access to meaningful economic opportunities and thereby fuel the economic decline of their neighborhoods. the local economy suffers when residents have fewer dollars to spend in their neighborhoods. almost all improvements in productivity have been associated with technology and human capital. which has transformed traditional industries and brought about changes that range from streamlined information technology to biomedical engineering. Two of the most visible indicators of neighborhood decline are abandoned buildings and vacant lots. Cleveland. medical leave. there is persistent racial discrimination in hiring practices. and were therefore major destinations for people in search of economic opportunity. In addition to the challenges in learning about and reaching jobs. especially for younger and less-experienced minority workers. and paid vacations—typically offered through unionization. Kennedy School of Government.” where in low-income inner city workers who need these jobs become geographically disconnected from them. processes. Rust Belt cities. yet job growth in these older central cities either declined or did not exceed 3 percent. the mode of production in the United States has shifted dramatically from manufacturing to one increasingly fueled by finance. The Political
and Economic Forces Shaping Concentrated Poverty. firms have spread their operations around the world. This means that workers relegated to low-wage service and retail firms are more likely to experience hardships as they struggle to make ends meet. the employment balance between central cities and suburbs shifted markedly to the suburbs. Philadelphia. Whereas jobs in manufacturing industries were unionized.44
. tend to be unstable. most of the jobs for lower-skilled workers are now in retail and service industries (for example. customer service representatives. an important traditional measure of economic performance. store cashiers. For example.33 With the increased globalization of economic activity. However.room
localities for commuters to the central business and manufacturing districts.34 These global economic transformations have adversely affected the competitive position of many U. These economic forces are typically considered nonracial—in the sense that their
origins are not the direct result of actions. According to one recent report. over two-thirds of
addition. “In the Cleveland region.35 With the decline in manufacturing employment in many of the nation’s central cities.43 These inner-city properties have lost residents in the wake of the out-migration of more economically mobile families and the relocation of many manufacturing industries. many with run-down physical plants.41 With the departure of higherincome families. In
Beginning in the mid-1970s. often relocating their production facilities to developing nations that have dramatically lower labor costs. and carried higher wages.37 The suburbs of many central cities. and Pittsburgh perform poorly on employment growth. developed originally as bed. or ideologies that explicitly reflect racial bias. For example. Winter 2008-09. Since the mid-twentieth century. and wholesale and retail trade is just under 70 percent.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Inherency Extension
Shift of jobs to suburban areas results in “spatial mismatch. In the last several decades. the economies of many of these cities have since been eroded by complex economic transformations and shifting patterns in metropolitan development.
either through the reauthorization of the existing programs or through a restructuring that would place these
equity outcomes at the center of a new system of national transportation goals. transportation policy must direct benefits to low-income communities and communities of color by prioritizing these communities for capital expansion grants for public transit. These levels of support are inadequate to the need and must be increased. Research shows that low-income communities and communities of color enjoy fewer of the
advantages of efficient transit systems. More affluent neighborhoods are also more likely to have the infrastructure and safety features that make
walking and cycling more feasible. who tend to have significantly lower incomes. 2009. creating more walkable communities.policylink. and bolstering financial support for transit operating costs. Eighty percent of federal
transportation expenditure goes toward highways. It is therefore not
surprising that people of color. to the next reauthorization must shift federal spending away from the current bias toward highway building and into a “mode-neutral” system that can diversify regional transportation offerings by enabling a “fix-it-first” approach for maintaining existing facilities and otherwise emphasize spending in transit and other modes in which we have underinvested in the past.pdf Improving community health The impact of transportation policy on health is unevenly distributed from one community to the next. national research and action institute. and an automobile-focused pattern of metropolitan development has become entrenched. The simplest formulation for understanding equitable transportation investment and planning is to evaluate: Who benefits? Who pays? And who decides? Who Benefits? Car users have been the primary beneficiaries of federal and state transportation investment. use public transportation to travel to work at rates that are up to four times higher than whites. states and regions would have greater flexibility in how they meet these goals and would be accountable for the results. March 24. who rely more on public transit for mobility and access since they have significantly lower rates of car ownership. The
existing array of 108 federal programs includes some key sources of support for improving public transit. and bear a disproportionate burden of the negative health impacts which transportation facilities and air pollution can inflict. increasing access to suburban jobs. such as access to jobs and healthcare facilities. In order to eliminate health disparities. Making Equity Central to Federal
Transportation Policy. To ensure non-car users benefit from transportation investment. have not fared nearly as well as higher income and white Americans . As a result of these funding disparities. Under this kind of reform. the outcomes should improve as well. while the infrastructure for all other modes of travel competes for the remaining 20%.
. http://www.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Inherency Extension
Current federal appropriation further exacerbates the problem by providing little infrastructure for public transit Policylink. leading to more opportunities for exercise and better health. If the goals and benchmarks reflect a commitment to equity. or that African-Americans and Latinos together make up 54% of public transportation users in urban areas. lower-income people and people of color. which is the number one goal for the US Department of Health and Human Services.org/atf/cf/%7B97C6D565-BB43-406D-A6D5ECA3BBF35AF0%7D/Transportation-Equity-Executive-Summary. investing in the repair and maintenance of existing infrastructure. and other critically important aspects of transportation equity.
citizenship. The zones of the metropolitan region are crucially important cultural signs used to evaluate one's wealth. danger." "bad. strangeness. The Limits of Localism. and community. First. children and educational attainments . Consider the vehemence of suburban defenses of exclusionary zoning regimes. and that others who were indifferent would stay instead of fleeing in the face of lower-income arrivals. reinforces and emphasizes separation between neighborhoods. At risk (from the members' perspective) are the very connections between its members essential to the survival of its way of life.cfm/SSRN_ID298003_code020126630. land use regimes reflect and reinforce cultural conceptions of "transition. morals.
http://papers. A better explanation is that the
walls that suburbs build constitute a defense of a perceived holistic order — a perception of itself as a deep community — that is itself premised on spatial differentiation. such a conception serves to reinforce the walls of separation between neighborhoods. the walls between neighborhoods must be even higher. on suburban as opposed to urban life. where one lives takes on a transformative significance. Everything in its Place: Social Order and Land Use in America. When membership in the deep community is determined primarily by
residence. children. The contractarian account of community would predict that some residents would sell out if the price was right and find other acceptable forms of association.223 Thus. upheld by the federal court. "224
. and foreignness. As Constance Perin writes in her anthropological account of American land use law. and self-esteem. the metropolitan region already represents a cartography of normative entitlement that divides suburbs and cities. We talk about "good. 2002. The melding of the normative and descriptive has far-reaching implications. work. progress. This is a social order that places a high cultural value on single-family-detached homeownership. the city signals transience. Ellickson's Red-Yellow-Green
Zones make explicit what sociologists and anthropologists have long understood: that social order is maintained spatially. privacy. the family and the outside world. The suburb signals stability. 220 As the Court's defense of suburban zoning reveals . white space from black space. the familiar and the foreign. The moral mapping of the metropolitan region reinforces rather than subverts a social order that is spatially maintained. success." and "transitional" neighborhoods and understand exactly what that neighborhood says about the person who lives there. When the stakes are that high.221 these spaces have moral valences even before they are inhabited. Simply by moving into a neighborhood (or choosing to remain there) a resident becomes a person entitled to balance order and liberty and becomes subject to norms that other equally entitled persons may invoke on behalf of the community. publicity.ssrn.218 The tenacity of such regimes cannot merely be attributed to the fact that suburban residents are defending a preference. Georgetown University Law Center.com/sol3/Delivery. isolating and stigmatizing inner city communities Richard C.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Fed Key Warrant
The exclusivity of suburban communities. The stakes if the neighborhood (conceived of as a deep community) becomes too permeable are always very high. Schragger. 222 The city/suburb dichotomy is a function of a localism invested in rigorous boundary maintenance between the safe and the dangerous. rich space from poor space.219
This brings us to the second consequence of conceiving of neighborhoods as deep communities and justifying deference to local norms on that basis: attaching normative weight to where one resides reinforces a social order that
already marks the inner-city neighborhood as normatively suspect. honor. intelligence.pdf?abstractid=298003&mirid=1
The kinds of distinctions drawn between entitled and nonentitled persons are a result of conflating the normative concept of community with the descriptive concept of neighborhood. family. marginality.
crime. poor urban communities across cities vary in terms of access to resources. Federal public housing and urban renewal legislation in the 1940s and beyond have had devastating effects on poor and minority communities because it destroyed more housing than it created.
While Blacks in general are more likely than other racial groups to live in high poverty and same-race neighborhoods. and other local legislators often matter more to the urban poor because the have more control over how federal urban policies are implemented through zoning. While it may be easier to blame the federal government for the continuing presence of poor
communities. In the DC region. However. Small suggests the term "ghetto" is stereotypical and not typical. More importantly. the term ghetto is often used under the assumption that poor neighborhoods are relatively homogeneous across cities. it is important to hold local officials accountable for their actions regarding housing policies and access to services. The popular media has produced over generalized images of poor neighborhoods that often do not accurately describe the everyday lives of urban Blacks. Stereotypes and sweeping generalizations should not be the basis for reform. it is on us to change or abandon the term "ghetto" because the cultural and ideological construction of the term has often shaped public policy. one that does not demoralize a community and its residents. transportation. Census Bureau and PhD. including the neighborhood of Crestwood in NW DC as well as several areas across Prince George's County. Clearly. police presence. and other general land-use policies. Assuming
that all poor urban communities are the same undermines serious efforts to assess local conditions and social/economic solutions. which in turn leads to different outcomes. Lastly. local actors such as
mayors. city council members. etc.cgi?id=2609 Sociologist Mario Small argues that there are four main reasons why the term "ghetto" should be abandoned. However.org/post. First. there are several affluent Black communities. we need a more sophisticated approach to how we classify the social and economic conditions of
urban neighborhoods.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
Unemployment and other socioeconomic problems experienced in inner-cities cause the public to generalize all urban communities as “ghettos” Lynda Laughlin. 20 09. The current use of the term "ghetto" glosses over the real issues facing urban communities and allows individuals to hide behind racist and classist assumptions instead of engaging in productive conversations and actions.
. family demographer at the U. many live in mixed income communities. The problems we face in urban America are complex and should be treated as such. When a "ghetto" is not a
"ghetto". taxes. Jun 16. urban communities are influenced by national and local policies . Third. when in reality anti-discrimination housing policies are often not enforced leaving many Blacks and other racial/ethnic groups with a limited or constrained set of choices.S. Small argues that the term ghetto needs to be abandoned because many assume that the "ghetto" is maintained through involuntary segregation that is absent of choice. Second. http://greatergreaterwashington. Greater Greater Washington.
. To cure these ills. affecting mostly blacks Thomas W. without it. The effects of limited transportation mobility persist. segregation.” Whites in suburbs have foregone physical mobility for a lack of social
cohesion. Transportation Equality p 73
Transportation mobility is a hallmark of American society. These were sometimes referred to as “negro removal. June 2008. The lack of mobility helped create ghettos. and they are recognizing the significant role played by transportation in shaping local opportunities and disinvestment. many promises have been made by
the leadership of the dominant society. Chair and Associate Professor of City & Metropolitan Planning at the
University of Utah. Salt Lake City and Executive Director of the Washington State Human Rights Commission. The early challenges related to racial discrimination and segregation discussed above involved discriminatory practices that directly limited transportation access and mobility of people of color. Olympia. These promises are often unfulfilled. one cannot be a full member of this society. as have been promises for housing to replace that destroyed in “blight clearing” projects. Across the country. and inequitable transportation policies have become increasingly
sophisticated to encompass a broad range of related social impacts. de facto segregated schools and housing. and social and community isolation. The term transportation equity refers to a range of strategies and policies that aim to address inequities in the nation’s transportation planning and project delivery system.” sometimes considered synonymous with “urban renewal. particularly for those communities that most directly feel the impact of projects or funding choices • Be held to a high standard of public accountability and financial transparency • Distribute the benefits and burdens from transportation projects equally across all income levels and communities • Provide high quality services—emphasizing access to economic opportunity communities and to expand
transportation infrastructure. Transportation Equity and Environmental Justice: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina. while destroyed inner-city neighborhoods have been left with neither mobility nor social cohesion. Sanchez and Marc Brenman. community based organizations of low-income and minority residents are organizing to improve their communities. Efforts to challenge discrimination. most of these community residents would agree that an equitable transportation system would: • Ensure opportunities for meaningful public involvement in the transportation planning process.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
Limited transportation access and failure of the government to provide for mobility is a symptom of social inequality akin to and rooted in a strong history of discrimination and segregation. Though the definition of transportation equity may vary from place to place.
and dysfunctional schools. Neighborhoods of highly concentrated poverty are seen as dangerous. In other words. Harvard University John F. However.
. wherein better-off Americans could readily see the effects of racial isolation and chronic economic subordination. I pay particular attention to poor inner-city black neighborhoods. The Political
and Economic Forces Shaping Concentrated Poverty. No one in such a situation could quickly relocate his or her family to other areas. completely dependent on public transportation. Despite the lack of national public awareness of the problems of the urban poor prior to Katrina. For example. crime. Kennedy School of Government. drug trafficking.
Americans were much more sympathetic. and therefore they become isolated. because it magnifies the problems associated with poverty in general: joblessness.2
In this article. because Katrina was clearly a natural disaster that was beyond the control of the inner-city poor. in no position to buy and maintain an automobile. working every day for minimum wages and barely making ends meet. as people go out of their way to avoid them. effecting continual poverty and joblessness there William Julius Wilson. before Katrina. In a sense. few people would have reflected on how the larger forces in society adversely affect the inner-city poor: segregation. I provide a framework for understanding the emergence and persistence of concentrated urban poverty. Winter 2008-09. based on the analysis I put forth in the following sections. failing public schools. If television cameras had focused on the urban poor in New Orleans. I believe that the initial reaction to descriptions of poverty and poverty concentration would have been unsympathetic. a lack of economic opportunity. assuming unemployment is a result of their own shortcomings and further isolating inner city centers. Public opinion polls in the United States routinely reflect the notion that people are poor and jobless because of their own shortcomings or inadequacies. and by virtue of his or her low income.1 A person in these segregated and highly concentrated poverty areas could be very disciplined and responsible. Katrina turned out to be something of a cruel natural experiment. which have the highest levels of concentrated poverty. delinquency. I conclude this article by suggesting a new agenda for America’s ghetto poor. socially and economically.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
The suburban population commonly looks down on the urban poor. broken families. research conducted in the Chicago inner-city ghetto areas revealed that only 19 percent of the residents have access to an automobile. POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY Volume 123
The fact that many families in the inner city of New Orleans were trapped there during Katrina because they did not have access to automobiles and other means of transportation is a problem that is not unique to New Orleans. discrimination. or in any inner-city ghetto. social scientists have rightly
devoted considerable attention to concentrated poverty.
and wastes scarce resources on an immense scale. performativity or entrapment. disorganizes residual communal ties. sometimes competing master-narratives in which the term is itself embedded.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
Perceptions of “suburbia” often have little to do with actual conditions and consist of abstract stereotypes that only reinforce inconsistencies in regard to socioeconomics and demographics Andrew McCann. not to mention the realm of heightened experience with which it is often juxtaposed. a site of conformity. possessive individualism and pastoral seclusion from the political and sexual dangers of the city) is still evident in real estate and lifestyle marketing.subtopia . conjugality. the utopianism of early bourgeois thought (the stress
on domesticity. it might be
imagined as a place of privacy. take on a semi-allegorical significance. 1998. it is also central to broader discussions of what critical theorists call modernity . and an extremely unstable collection of tropes. and a discursive fiction. Writing the Everyday:
Australian Literature and the Limits of Suburbia p vii
While suburbia might seem to denote a specifically Australian problem. so prevalent has it become in Australian literature. For sociologists like Lewis Mumford and Richard Sennett suburbia embodies a negatively
conceived notion of modernity: it is a space which represses the libidinal and the aesthetic. emblematised in the body and the city. Suburbia is both a tangible site. obsessions and yearning have been projected and displaced' (xiii).was originally coined as a satirical contraction of suburbia and Utopia. and in certain high Romantic notions of Kultur. As Chris Healy writes.
. normalizes the functionalism of capital. editor. geographical or sexual alterity. a facet of various imaginary topographies in which it is stigmatised or mythologised according to certain ideological and aesthetic imperatives. for example. It is the reality in which most Australians live. as a number of essays in this collection make clear. suburbia has functioned as an imagined space 'on to which a vast array of fears. and Lefebvre's theories of 'abstract space' and the 'colonisation of the everyday' all imply something like suburbia as the most tangible manifestation of a functionalised modernitv and/or symbolic order. When we examine suburbia we are also examining the various. cannot be easily separated out from various narratives of wish-fulfillment which fixate on cultural. representational conventions and stereotypes that can't be read in referential terms . variously linked to consumerism. Conversely. repression or authority that is juxtaposed with forms of libidinal political and aesthetic liberation. insecurities. This problem is
What such fantasies indicate is that evident in both literary and cinematic representations of suburbia. increased freedom or belonging away from the flux of public life. suburbia is still the implied referent of much recent work in various branches of critical theory.that is the Western drive towards the development of regulated and disciplined sociability within the infrastructures and relations of industrial capitalism. desires. Psychoanalytic notions of the Oedipal triangle in the nuclear family. Habermasian accounts of the 'privatization' of liberal publicity. Alternately. The suburb might become. In both paradigms the suburb and the connotations that
surround it are again as much a function of particular discourses and narratives as they are palpable realities. or the Problem of Suburbia. in which the semiotic icons of suburban life. Even when it is not named as such. The neologism in the title of this introduction . private property. Introduction: Subtopia. film and critical writing. Here it is intended to capture the over-determined and conflictual claims made on and against suburban life. a distinct set of social and spatial relations.
. which Gans labels "dangerous. and has no scientific usefulness. American Sociological Review. become the most widely used both inside and outside academia. Gans (1990) offers the most important. In a critical reaction to these studies. or the behavioral choices open to them as a result of these conditions" (p. Ricketts and Mincy 1986). He argues that while
the term "underclass" can be "used as a graphic technical term for the growing number of persistently poor and jobless Americans. increasingly pejorative term that seems to be becoming the newest buzzword for the undeserving poor" (p. Gans points out that when Myrdal coined the
term "underclass" in his 1962 book. 271). Myrdal's definition was used by other academics until the late 1970s when the focus tended to shift away from joblessness as the defining characteristic of the underclass to acute or persistent poverty. The general view is that the term ought to be rejected because it has become a code word for inner-city blacks. 1991." adds a number of behavioral patterns to the
economic definition. Studying Inner City
Dislocations: The Challenge of Public Agenda. Feb. another definition of the underclass surfaced at that time and has now. Kennedy School of Government. "Underclass" neighborhoods are identified both by census tracts and by the degree of nonconforming behavior within those tracts . However. it is also a value-laden. Gans (1990) states that: "The researchers tend to assume that the behavior patterns they report are caused by norm violations on the part of area residents and not by the conditions under which they are living. 56 p 4 A spate of studies highly critical of the use of the term "underclass" has accompanied the increased research activity on the inner-city ghetto. Challenge to Affluence. leading to misrepresentations of urban centers William Julius Wilson. has enabled journalists to focus on unflattering behavior in the ghetto." states Gans. powerful. Vol. it is growing (Ricketts and Sawhill 1986. Harvard University John F. "not with changing or punishing the people who were its victims" (1990. according to Gans. 272). it was used to describe those who had been driven to extreme economic marginality because of changes in what is now called post-industrial society. 271). This new definition. and representative critique of the use of the concept. p.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
Prejudiced views towards urban culture causes representation of the “underclass” not just as an economic label but behavioral as well. It has been prominently used by certain researchers to estimate the size of the underclass with location-based measures. Myrdal's concern "was with reforming the economy. With these measures the researchers
conclude that although the underclass is relatively small.
Low-income families have also dispersed (although many remain concentrated in central-city neighborhoods). less reliable. and more than 35 percent work more than ten miles from the center. or bus ride to most destinations.org/atf/cf/%7B97C6D565-BB43406D-A6D5-ECA3BBF35AF0%7D/Transportation-Equity-Executive-Summary. rural areas. http://www. or the suburbs—jobs and services can be remote. These slower travel speeds are especially difficult for parents who must “trip chain. However. lack of transportation inhibits finding jobs Evelyn Blumenberg and Margy Waller. The Long Journey to
Work: A Federal Transportation Policy for Working Families. even among the poor. and residential segregation have all contributed to the geographic isolation of the urban poor. and Chicago those percentages exceed 60 percent. Years of urban disinvestment.policylink. Tampa. for those who live in more isolated residential areas—whether in the
central city. on average. particularly for families without access to automobiles. rural employment is often many miles from a dispersed rural population. In metropolitan areas such as Los Angeles. Spatial isolation has also been exacerbated by the lack of viable transportation options to meet the changing structure of metropolitan areas. the
transportation challenges facing working families are numerous: • The decentralization of jobs away from central cities
to lower-density. University of California. auto-oriented suburbs has shifted job markets farther away from low-income families who remain concentrated in central city neighborhoods
• Job decentralization is especially problematic for low-income households without access to reliable automobiles because
traditional. transit travel times. about 22 percent of people work within three miles of the city center. and more prone to needing expensive repairs • Even in cities with good transit service. In view of this.” make stops for child care or shop along the commute. and frequent vehicle stops along the way. fixed-route public transportation is not well-suited to increasingly dispersed metropolitan travel patterns • Not surprisingly. the vast majority of metropolitan travel today is by private vehicle. the lack of affordable housing.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Segregation Internals
Low-income urban families suffer from residential segregation. waits at stops and for transfers. far exceed automobile travel times because of walking to and from stops. Los Angeles School of Public Policy and Social Research and Brookings Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy July 2003. urban neighborhoods are often within a short walk. Families that live in dense. Meanwhile. Detroit. but while most low-income families own vehicles. drive. they tend to be older. on average.
.pdf Across the 100 largest metropolitan areas.
1998). Kennedy School of Government. therefore escape becomes more difficult. Large poverty clusters within cities often have a long history and attract powerful stigma. aggression and other negative behaviour. This makes some areas subject to eventual abandonment (CASE. schools suffer from low expectations resulting in lower performance and lower employment prospects. they also suffer more disruptive behaviour and higher pupil turnover. http://ssrn. Harvard University John F. leading to the flight of those more able to go and gradual loss of control resulting from chronic instability. making them hard to change . parenting is more difficult because of this.London School of Economics. disability and economic inactivity . They work to limit people’s chances in many ways: there are less obvious routes out. The larger and longer running the area
problems. resulting in lower levels of organisation and initiative and higher levels of frustration. and William Julius Wilson. the high concentration of low-skilled people leads to intense competition for a shrinking pool of low-skill jobs. so more people feel trapped.Perpetuation of the stigma attached to inner-cities and continued lack of access to jobs causes inhabitants to lose hope of ever bettering their prospects. trapping them in a vicious cycle of poverty and depression Anne Power. LSE STICERD
Research Paper No.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Leads To Perpetual Poverty
Poverty . the difficulties in accessing jobs help create high levels of early retirement. depression and low morale are more common. London School of Economics & Political Science (LSE) . CASE035. the stronger the cumulative impact becomes. February 2000. children’s social
learning is heavily influenced by surroundings and negative examples. resulting in lower wages and often complete withdrawal from the labour market.com/abstract=1158926
Clusters of poverty matter because all the disadvantages associated with poverty are more concentrated and more extensive.
. Tipping into chaotic decline becomes more likely as the backbone of a neighbourhood weakens. lower cash incomes affect shops and other services as well as home conditions and ability to support extra activities.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
Stigma Attached Stigma/dehu . Distinct cultural identities form within the context
of the local community (Ferna´ndez Kelly. 1999. many households who receive housing vouchers decide not to move into middle-class areas. 1996). Varady and Walker. 1994). 1999. Wayne State University. Moving families out of their neighbourhoods may indeed change the behavioural. Kasinitz and Rosenberg. education and labour market outcomes for the children of these families. 1999). 1999). Browning (1994) Ž nds that educators attribute the low educational achievement in inner-city schools to the cultural shortcomings of the students themselves. Some employers do not advertise in newspapers that circulate in stigmatised inner-city neighbourhoods (Wilson. Urban Studies. Vol. neighbourhoodbased networks are ineffective in producing employment. employers’ cultural discrimination against stigmatised residential areas. school performance and labour market success to culturally distinct neighbourhoods. April 2001. for example. the meaning of motherhood. Johnson et al. 1997. explains neighbourhood effects. 1996. but that they assimilate to a dominant set of cultural norms and values. Residents commonly identify with the cultural environment of their neighbourhoods.. childrearing ideologies. rather than neighbourhood-based cultural pathology. Bauder (2001) suggests that staff of neighbourhood-based institutions
embrace ideas of cultural pathology and deem youths unfit for educational and labour market achievement. recent labour market research has shown that
personal networks are especially important to the poor and minorities in Ž nding jobs (Waldinger. In this way.
Neighbourhood Effects and Cultural Exclusion. but stay in or close to their previous neighbourhood (Pendall. Residents usually do not consider their own family or labour market standards as pathological. 1997). the labour market and other institutions. Turner. 1991. The cultural labelling of neighbourhoods and the exclusion of residents also operates through service delivery practices in institutions and schools. In this case. Holloway. In fact. may base their hiring decisions on the residential addresses of job applicants (Kirschenman and Neckerman. 39 p 89
Negative stereotypes of poor neighbourhoods have existed long before neighbourhood effects studies emerged. for example. A fallacy of the neighbourhood effects literature is to apply supposedly universal norms of childrearing. Waldinger. 1991. educators absolve themselves from responsibility and legitimise cultural stereotyping on the basis of place of residence. However. and therefore experience less cultural discrimination in the school system.Negative perceptions of inner city culture infiltrate all areas of thought and discourage urban dwellers from moving to better areas Harald Bauder. Not all communities adhere to the same family norms and standards of education and work. In a
similar vein. Furstenberg et al. 2000). 1996. Department of Geography and Urban Planning. neighbourhood effects are explained through processes of cultural assimilation and exclusion. Moss and Tilly.. 1996. 1997).
. if entire neighbourhoods are excluded from employers’ recruitment channels. not cultural dysfunction. Neighbourhood effect models may only measure the degree to which neighbourhood context facilitates or constrains assimilation to dominant cultural norms. Rosenbaum. Mattingly. as predicted by the neighbourhood effects model (and empirically veriŽ ed—see. Employers. assuming that neighbourhood of residence reflects personal attitudes. But the cultural processes that link neighbourhood
characteristics with individual outcomes are more complex than blatant discrimination. In this case. interaction skills and other cultural traits (Holzer. the reason for improvement is not that the movers become better families and individuals. standards of ‘making it’ and perceptions of what constitutes good and bad jobs differ between neighbourhoods (Wial. In addition. 1991. based on the cultural label associated with their neighbourhood of residence. 2000. However. 1995). This assumption guides institutional practices and discourages youths from excelling in school or at work. For instance.
Additionally. Umberson. Lewis and Spanier 1979. Furthermore. and the lack of resources for coping with these stresses. Ortega and Corzine (1990) report that 46 find the highest rates of mental health problems in the poorest social class. Umberson. In a recent review of 61 studies. Reviews by Dohrenwend and Dohrenwend (1974) and Haring. Voydanoff and Donnelly 1988).viduals (House. and Landis 1988). Conger. Stock. mental illness is likely to be a cause of low SES. Poverty is also associated with lowered support from immediate family members: poor quality marital relations. This is partly because
people living in poverty lack the economic resources to maintain extended networks. Elder. and Okun (1984) indicate that low SES is associated with high rates of depression. job dissatisfaction. is probably due to downward drift. Simons. a low level of social support. But it seems reasonable to conclude that the stressful conditions associated with
poverty.tional involvement. Ross and Huber 1985. Mirowsky and Ross 1989. House. and illness. Whitbeck. compared with individuals at high income levels. Summer. The Sociological Quarterly p 229-230. less organiza. and Psychological Well-Being. The poor also appear to have relatively few social resources to draw on. JSTOR
Poverty has far-reaching negative consequences for quality of life. Department of Sociology University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Lorenz. the cycles of poverty and demoralization sustained by social stigma leads to negative effects. Liem and Liem 1978. such as unemployment. ch. and general dissatisfaction with family life (Conger. Fischer 1982. chronic strains. it is not surprising that the poor also have a comparatively low level of psychological well-being. and psychological illness Paul R. Besides being stressful in their own right. that is. Williams 1990). Amato and Jiping Zuo Poverty. Given that poverty is associated with stress. Part of the association between poverty and severe forms of psychopathology.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Stigma Attached
Stigma/dehu . d'Abbs 1982. are factors that contribute to the low level of general psychological well-being among the poor. and less frequent contact with friends and family (Cochran. Lieberman. 7). low socioeconomic status (SES) individuals find their relationships less useful in coping with stress than high SES indi. and Henderson 1990. and problematic family relationships. Menaghan. Liem and Liem 1978). Larner. and lowered psychological well-being. the poor have smaller social
Urban Poverty. The poor are more likely than others to be exposed to stressful life events. including lost value to life. crime victimization. increased risk of divorce. and
Melby 1990. Huck. they also live with chronic strains such as economic hardship. Riley. social interactions. Gunnarsson. and Landis 1988. mental illness. such as schizophrenia. these experiences are likely to lower people's self-esteem and diminish their sense of control over life (Pearlin. and frustrated aspirations (Kessler 1979. and Mullan 1981.
it is obvious that this same logic of promoting and annihilating life persists both in postindustrial and in underdeveloped countries. the Boers’ extermination of Hottentot tribes. respectable foreign policies. as the task of increasing the life and happiness of the national animal laborans. Nazism and fascism. the preparation of its executioners and victims. what characterizes biopolitics is a dynamic of both
protecting and abandoning life through its inclusion and exclusion from the political and economic community. According to Agamben. can be traced in Arendt’s account of nineteenth century imperialism. the Nazi Germany of Hitler and the Fascist Italy of Mussolini were all conceived of as states devoted to the needs of the national animal laborans. As stated. and finally. Finally. recognized and guaranteed by others. Arendt is not concerned only with the process of the
extermination itself. the essence of totalitarian government. Biopolitics and the dissemination of
violence: the Arendtian critique of the present. If we link Arendt’s thesis from The Human Condition to those of The Origins of Totalitarianism. if he is no longer recognized as homo faber but treated as an animal laborans whose necessary ‘metabolism with nature’ is of concern to no one. later on. it resulted in the triumphant introduction of such means of pacification into ordinary. since
our contemporary politics recognizes no other value than life.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Stigma Attached
Isolation and lack of participation in politics creates the ground for totalitarianism and allows governments to justify extermination itself André Duarte. that is. into animal laborans and.” 15) This simultaneous protection and destruction
of life was also at the core of the two World Wars. the emergence of ‘uprooted’ and ‘superfluous’ modern masses. we can see the Nazi and Stalinist extermination camps as the most refined experiments in annihilating the “bare life” of animal laborans (although these are by no means the only instances in which the modern state has devoted itself to human slaughter). the United States of Roosevelt. into homo sacer. 27 April 20 05. the common ground for terror.
. and for ideology or logicality. as well as in many other more local conflicts. the nation-state becomes ever more violent and murderous. the wild murdering by Carl Peters in German Southeast Africa. http://hannaharendt. To be uprooted means to have no place in the world. but also the historical situation in which large-scale exterminations were made possible – above all. As argued in the second volume of The Origins of Totalitarianism. the Soviet Russia of Stalin. what we might describe as animal laborans balanced on the knife-edge of ‘bare life. the human being as creator of durable objects and institutions. is closely connected with uprootedness and superfluousness which have been the curse of modern masses since the beginning of the industrial revolution and have become acute with the rise of imperialism at the end of the last century and the break-down of political institutions and social traditions in our own time.’ Compare her words in ‘Ideology and
Terror’ (1953). Isolation then become loneliness… Loneliness. In spite of all their political
The conversion of homo faber. Ph. regimes which have taken bare life as their supreme political criterion are bound to remain standing temptations 16). the decimation of the peaceful Congo population – from 20 to 40 million reduced to 8 million people. during which whole populations have become stateless or deprived of a public realm . In Arendtian terms. the biopolitical danger is best described as the risk of converting animal laborans into
Agamben’s homo sacer. to be superfluous means not to belong to the world at all 14). the human being who can be put to death by anyone and whose killing does not imply any crime whatsoever 13). inasmuch as economic growth depends on the increase of unemployment and on many forms of political exclusion. European colonialism combined racism and bureaucracy to perpetrate the “most terrible massacres in recent history.html These historic transformations have not only brought more violence to the core of the political but have also redefined its character by giving rise to biopolitical violence.D in Philosophy at Universidade de São Paulo. which became the conclusion of later editions of The Origins of Totalitarianism:
Isolation is that impasse into which men are driven when the political sphere of their lives… is destroyed… Isolated man who lost his place in the political realm of action is deserted by the world of things as well.net/research/biopolitics. When politics is conceived of as biopolitics. perhaps worst of all.
I discussed these ideas with others. however. The categories themselves do not matter. What does this teach about how these states conceptualize racial purity? It has been shown that Nazi statutes explicitly referred to "colored. they are so obvious that when international public opinion condemned Germany for the way it was treating Jews. changing categories or eliminating labels will make no difference. The first was to focus on the racial categories created by the state on the labels themselves: if creating such labels causes harm. 251 They are immoral: they engage in prostitution. The Nazi regime excluded them
from housing. a focus on labels alone is a red
The similarities between the two countries are easy to see. this article reversed its earlier comparison of Jews in Nazi Germany and black people in the United States to look at Africans and Afro-Germans in Nazi Germany. "when there is still lynching in the United States? When thirty American states still prohibit miscegenation? When segregation is common and lawful?" 254 Indeed. after the defeat of the Nazis. It is the use of the categories to create targets that counts. When some suggested doing away with the categories of "race" in order to eliminate racial oppression. the underlying ideology behind isolating ghettos is a form of structural violence that reinforces poverty. and it sent them to slave labor camps and concentration camps.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Stigma Attached
Furthermore. it denied them the right to marry Germans. the United States has always wanted to count two groups of people--white people and everyone else. as that "could lead to German denunciation of American treatment of the Negro. then. Both countries were obsessed with racial purity. a similar rhetoric to justify similar cruelty against another targeted group. to hear similar rhetoric about the two target groups: These people have criminal instincts: there wouldn't be any crime if they weren't around. and has always meant. I had no preconceived ideas of what questions might be raised.
. They have chased people from the cities into the suburbs. but many others were upset and angry. as usual." thereby creating a statutory target. 255 The US government also noticed the similarities. it is clear that the US considered them "white. professor of law at the State University of New York at Buffalo. p 292. the Nazis defended themselves by pointing to the United States. In essence. how could there be affirmative action based on race. When Jews arrived in the United States. but the hierarchy of exclusion and exploitation has not changed because the underlying value system in the United States has not changed. rhetoric. since it awarded them citizenship. the group that gets to target others for oppression. They also have in
common steadfastness of purpose. The only difference is that they conceptualized "white" to include different groups. cruelty. and a willingness to ruin millions of lives to achieve their terrible goal. victims of sterilization in Nazi Germany were not able to get reparations for this harm : sterilization ordered by the state could not be a war crime. and practice show. and Jews in the United States. and. 257 [End Page 300] Finally. While I was researching and thinking about this article." Although this suggests some differences between the United States and Nazi Germany. but they are not: this is Nazi rhetoric about Jews. that Nazi Germany and the United States have much in common when it comes to the dream of "white" racial purity . then. and stigmatization making genocide inevitable Scales-Trent. others answered that it was impossible to do away with racial categories. This is my usual practice." and included those of African ancestry in the term "non-Aryan. 20 01. How could there be statutes prohibiting racial discrimination. At least one government official warned the government not to condemn Nazi oppression of Jews officially. schools. racism. 252 They are lazy. "Why criticize us. This comment often led to strong debate. Project MUSE
It is not surprising. since the United States Supreme Court had held such laws constitutional." they said. it only underlines the similarities. perhaps the labels should be eliminated. and their men want to rape our women. as they were needed to remedy racial oppression. Some people were surprised by the comparison. and simply don't want to work.
The similarities in theory. and both targeted people of African
descent in order to emphasize and maintain that purity. this
country did not target them for exploitation and oppression: indeed." 256 The black press pointed out the similarities as early as 1933. There were three basic responses to this comparison between the United States and Nazi Germany. those with full citizenship rights: it means the group on top. 250 They are thieves and drug dealers. If this underlying dynamic does not change. They treated them in many of the same ways that they treated Jews. The [End Page 301] federal government has changed census categories dozens of times over the past 150 years. then. 258 The responses were so strong that I decided to address them in this article. it sterilized them. Indeed. if the categories "black" and "white" did not exist? Yet. in fact. 253 One might think that these comments are about African-Americans. legal structure. and work. "White" means. “Racial Purity Laws in the
United States and Nazi Germany: The Targeting Process”.
New York's Upper East Side 'silk stocking district" and the Hollywood hills of Los Angeles. Our urban society is divided by differences of socio-economic class. Introduction to Part Three. The outmovement of industry and residences to the suburbs had exposed many central city neighborhoods to disinvestments. There is a dialectic interaction between space and society. These marginal spaces proliferate in the "inner city" and the "zone in transition" in the interstitial spaces surrounding the dominant spaces of the central city. skid rows. The presence of slums. and racial/social conflict. schools. They are labeled as gangsters. The poor and the homeless inhabit the marginal spaces of the ghetto. moral defilement. abandonment and decay. and witches of colonial New England historically
generated similar fears as a threat to public health and social order. homeless and other social minorities inhabit the no man's lands of the city. East Los Angeles. Associate Professor of Sociology at Occidental College. Inner city slums are seen as discrepant places. Segregation in poor and deteriorated places disadvantages these people from access to good jobs. prostitution and AIDS create contemporary moral panics. violent crime and racial tension. The problems of American inner cities became an increasing focus of urban sociology beginning in the 1960s. The emergence of an urban "underclass" suffering dilapidated Irving conditions and crime became associated with neighborhoods such as the South Bronx and Spanish Harlem in New York City and the South Side of Chicago. Some Asian spaces like Chinatown or Little Saigon are also mapped in the public
consciousness as places of vice. hustlers. The dominant elite members of our society occupy the prime spaces of the central business district and affluent districts and neighborhoods such as Chicago's Gold Coast. The sense of urban crisis was further
inflamed with the eruption of physically destructive "race riots" in inner city "ghettos" such as Watts and South Central Los Angeles « the 1960s and 1990s and the Overtown district of Miami in the 1980s. These conflagrations of anger and
violence among poor minorities gave voice to a growing sense of racial injustice and class inequality in urban America. corruption. Racial minority gangsters are our modern folk devils. The inner city is now the site that is labeled as that of the "other" in our contemporary capitalist societies. African American and Latino underclass people face a stigmatization and social exclusion very similar to that experienced by the homeless and other socially marginalized people. social immobility and devaluation of individuals based on class Jan Lin. and criminals by the media and general public. we access systemic harms through generalized perception of the inner city – ongoing segregation. and hospitals. They inhabit similar marginal spaces of isolation and containment. Spatial immobility acts as a barrier to social mobility. and criminality. This social isolation reproduces poverty through the generations. housing. drug dealers. Trumped up Ihreals of the drug trade. The poor and the homeless do not have opportunities for good life chances in the marginal spaces of the city. the barrio. The Gypsies of Europe. irrational stigma and persecution. and skid row in places such as South Central Los Angeles. race/ethnicity. and New York's Bowery. and moral depravity. and other urban "badlands" of the cities
are not just symptoms or containers of social inequality. and social status. poverty. The Urban Sociology Reader p 122 The city is a landscape of inequality and social difference. The urban crisis stimulated "white Right" into new suburban and exurban areas.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
Impact Calc Our impacts are the most far-reaching in this debate. including gated communities. The underclass. People in the suburbs have a generalized perception of the inner city as a place of crime.
. The poor are feared as a source of disease and contagion. Los Angeles and Christopher Mele. 14th July 2005
Professor of Sociology at State University of New York at Buffalo.
Winter 2008-09. New Jersey.”12 Although these policies clearly had racial connotations. To be more specific.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Solvency
The urban suburban dichotomy is inherently evil because it originated as a means to segregate blacks. POLITICAL SCIENCE QUARTERLY Volume 123 A classic example of this effect of housing market incentives is the massproduced suburban Levittown neighborhoods that were first erected in New York. as a result.
. The homes in these neighborhoods were manufactured on a large scale. hate mail. once again. As
separate political jurisdictions. suburbs also exercised a great deal of autonomy through covenants and deed restrictions. they also reflected class bias and helped to reinforce a process already amply supported by federal government policies. The Political
and Economic Forces Shaping Concentrated Poverty. Explicit racial policies in the suburbs reinforced this segregation by allowing suburbs to separate their financial resources and municipal budgets from those of the cities. using an assembly line model of production. such as shopping centers and space for public schools. which made it difficult for inner-city racial minorities to access these areas because these practices were effectively used to screen out residents on the basis of race. and later in Pennsylvania. Harvard University John F.
They retained zoning and other restrictions that allowed only affluent blacks (and in some instances Jews) to enter. and were arranged in carefully engineered suburban neighborhoods that included many public amenities. discriminatory land use controls. However. cities tended to annex suburbs and surrounding areas. Annexation largely ended in the mid-twentieth century as suburbs began to successfully resist incorporation. The first black family moved into Levittown. having purchased a home from a white family. “suburbs chose to diversify by race rather than class. and threats for several months after moving in.11 and they endured harassment. the century-long influx of poor migrants who required expensive services and paid relatively little in taxes could no longer be profitably absorbed into the city economy.” Veterans were able to purchase a Levittown home for a few thousand dollars with no money down. only improved access to automobiles and thereby jobs and self-actualization for inner city workers can counter this gross class bias William Julius Wilson. and site selection practices. In the face of mounting pressure for integration in the 1960s. Kennedy School of Government. strong municipal services in cities were very attractive to residents of small towns and suburbs. and were often touted as “utopian communities” that enabled people to live out the “suburban dream. Suburban
communities also drew tighter boundaries through the use of zoning laws. and continues to do so through various means in the status quo. But the relations between cities and suburbs in the United States began to change following the Great Depression. New York remains a predominantly white community today. Levittown. thereby intensifying the concentration and isolation of the urban poor. and Puerto Rico. Here. financed with low-interest mortgages guaranteed by the Veterans Administration. namely the exodus of white working-class and middleclass families from urban neighborhoods and the growing segregation of low-income blacks in innercity neighborhoods. New York in 1957. These neighborhoods represented an ideal alternative for people who were seeking to escape
cramped city apartments. we have a practice that denied African Americans the opportunity to move from segregated inner-city neighborhoods. in the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. the Levitts would not initially sell to African Americans.
Goldman School of Public Policy University of California. we explore whether the effect of auto ownership on the probability of being employed is greater for more spatially isolated groups of workers. Finally.
. and transportation programs. residential mobility. suggesting that moderate 2 subsidies may significantly increase auto access for racial and ethnic minorities.
closing racial and ethnic gaps in employment and earnings requires improving the access of spatially-isolated minority workers to the full set of employment opportunities within regional economies. 1993) and in a manner that spatially isolates blacks from new employment opportunities (Stoll et. the caremployment effect for Latino workers is significantly greater than the comparable effect for nonLatino white workers yet significantly smaller than the effect for black workers. we construct corresponding metropolitan-area measures of the relative spatial isolation of black workers from employment opportunities using data from the 1992 Economic Census and zip-code population counts from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing. metropolitan areas coupled with the spatial decentralization of employment have left black
and. The hypothesis posits that persistent racial housing segregation in U. the employment effect of auto ownership should be greatest for the most segregated workers. We pursue two empirical strategies. to a lesser extent. 2000). School of Public Policy and Social Research University of California. car-ownership rates for low-skilled workers are quite sensitive to small changes in operating costs (Raphael and Rice 2000). then the black-white difference in the car-employment effect should be larger in metropolitan areas where blacks (relative to whites) are particularly isolated from employment opportunities. al. From the 1990 5 % Public Use Micro Data Sample (PUMS).S. http://www. To the extent that mismatch is important.S. Our estimates indicate that raising minority car ownership rates to the car ownership rate for whites would narrow the black-white employment rate differential by 45 percent and the comparable Latino-white differential by 17 percent. we assess whether the differences in the car-employment effect between black and white workers increases with the severity of spatial mismatch. the difference between the car-employment effect for black workers and white workers is greatest in metropolitan areas where the relative isolation of black workers is most severe. this spatial disadvantage literally removes many suburban locations from the opportunity sets of inner-city minority workers. Latino workers physically isolated from ever-important suburban employment centers. (1994) analyzing a national sample of youths show that car owners search greater geographic areas and ultimately travel greater distances to work than do searchers using public transit or alternative means of transportation. Latino households are also segregated. comparable in magnitude to the black-white difference in home-ownership rates documented by Oliver and Shapiro (1997). We find strong evidence that having access to a car is
particularly important for black and Latino workers. Moreover. Next.org/publications/workingpapers/Can%20Boosting%20Minority%20Car-Ownership%20Rates %20Narrow%20Inter-Racial%20Employment%20Gaps/document Over the past three decades.russellsage. though to a degree considerably less than the level of segregation between blacks and whites (Massey and Denton 1999). We then test for a positive 3 3Stoll (1999) analyzing a sample of adults in Los Angeles and Holzer et. a potential tool for enhancing accessibility would be to increase auto access for racial and ethnic minorities.1 Given the difficulties of reverse-commuting by public transit and the high proportions of blacks and Latinos that do not own cars. Improving accessibility can be accomplished through some combination of community development. Second. We test this proposition using data from several sources. We find a difference in employment rates between car-owners and non car-owners that is considerably larger among black workers than among white workers. al. relationship between these two metropolitan-area level variables. The literature on racial housing segregation clearly demonstrates that blacks are highly segregated from the majority white population (Massey and Denton. Los Angeles.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
Studies prove that raising the car ownership rate of low-income minority families would significantly lower the unemployment rate for these families Steven Raphael. June 2K. We test this proposition Using microdata from the
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). In this paper. Can Boosting Minority CarOwnership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?.2 Among the latter set of options.we estimate the black-white difference in the car-employment effect for 242 metropolitan areas in the U. Berkeley and Michael Stoll. Moreover. Racial differences in car-ownership rates are large. If mismatch reduces minority employment
probabilities. we assess whether boosting minority carownership rates would narrow interracial employment rate differentials. If spatial mismatch yields a caremployment effect for black workers that is larger than that for white workers. First. considerable effort has been devoted to assessing the importance of spatial mismatch in determining racial and ethnic differences in employment outcomes. and if auto-ownership can partially undo this effect.
1989. Implications of the findings are discussed and qualified in light of
the limitation of the research. many urban policy researchers have attempted to understand spatial characteristics of unemployment in American metropolitan areas. Department of Urban Studies and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1968). PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM IV ON AFRICAN AMERICAN MOBILITY ISSUES p. Location
Characteristics of Inner-City Neighborhoods and Employment Accessibility of Low-Wage Workers.
.city based on its competitive advantage. where unemployment and related social ills display high levels of concentration. which range from planned suburbanization of low-wage workers to planned revitalization of inner-city neighborhoods. such as racial discrimination and failure of governmental policy (Ellwood. The empirical results show clearly that although the central location of inner-city residence still gives the low-wage workers some advantage. Different diagnoses lead to different prescriptions. 1997. The debate continues. have limited spatial mobility . 1974). which enables the researcher to (1) improve the measurement by accounting for job competition among workers commuting by different modes and (2) understand the outcome more thoroughly by distinguishing the effect of location from that of workers’ auto ownership.work data. Low-wage workers living in inner-city neighborhoods on average do not have high employment accessibility because a large proportion of them do not own any motor vehicle and. Kain. This refined framework is applied to a case study of employment accessibility of
low-wage workers living in Boston’s inner-city neighborhoods. using primarily 1990 Census demographic data and journey to. such as employment decentralization and residential segregation (Ihlanfeldt and Sjoquist. One important example is Porter’s (1995) recent
proposition to create economic vitality in the inner. 59 Studies that examine spatial characteristics of urban unemployment are often based on some simplistic and problematic measures of employment accessibility. Harrison. which he argues to be partly attributed to its strategic location. and will likely be intensified because substantial reductions in the federal and state governments’ welfare budgets for the last few years have prompted many policy researchers to seek new strategies for addressing urban economic and social problems. Others suggest that the problem is caused entirely by non-spatial factors. This paper presents a refined methodological framework for measuring accessibility. 1986.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Solvency
Studies prove that the main inhibitor to employment in inner-cities is lack of motor vehicles Qing Shen. auto ownership is nonetheless the key determinant. Introduction Since the pioneering work by Kain (1968) three decades ago.1 Some of the studies indicate
that the problem of unemployment in the inner-city is at least partially caused by spatial factors. Most of the studies have focused on the inner-city. hence.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Solvency
Public transit is ineffective for reverse commuting – most suburban employees depend on cars to access these jobs; automobiles are the dominant work-trip mode due to decentralization of jobs John W. Frazier, Florence M. Margai, and Eugene Tettey-Fio, Urban Geography at SUNY, 2003, Binghamton,
Commuting and Access to Employment, Race and Place: Equality Issues in Urban America, p 232-233 Americans make far more nonwork trips than work trips, but the journey to work is still a large component of total travel. According to the 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), a survey of all trip purposes, trips for which the purpose is work or work related constitute about one-fifth of all trips in the country (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1999). Central aspects of the work trip are the origin and destination, the travel mode, and the commute length.
Four major types of journey-to-work flows characterize contemporary U.S. urban commuting patterns. They are the suburb-to-suburb flow, suburb-to-city flow, city-to-city flow, and reverse commuting (i.e., city to suburb). Over one-half of the work trips in metropolitan areas are suburb-to-suburb flows. This rapidly growing trip type is largely by automobile and comprises a broad mix of professional, bluecollar, clerical, and sales workers as a result of the growing variety of suburban jobs , as noted in Chapter 4 (Hartshorn, 1992; Stanback, 1991). Much of the suburb-to-suburb journey takes place on expressways since few public transit routes serve outlying suburban locations. Suburb-to-city flows are trips originating in suburbs
and ending in the central city, especially the CBD. Affluent white-collar workers constitute the majority of these work trips. City-to-city trips are work trips within the central city. This involves workers across all income groups, but many are lowskilled workers and use public transit. Reverse commuting accounts for the smallest fraction of the four work
trip flows. These are trips that originate in the central city and end at suburban locations. This work trip is typically slow and circuitous and is patronized by blue-collar employees, many of whom are minority workers (Hartshorn, 1992). The automobile has remained the dominant work-trip mode in the United States. In 1980, 84 percent of metropolitan workers used an automobile (car, truck, or van), and only 8 percent of work trips occurred by transit. According to the NPTS, in 1995 about 76 percent of the total U.S.
population generally traveled to work by automobile, with suburban residents being even more likely to depend on a car.
From the 1990 census, only 6.5 percent of metropolitan commuters used public transportation for their work trip (U.S. Census Bureau, 1993a). Lastly, in 1990, the average travel time for the work trip in the United States as a
whole was 19.7 minutes, but by 1995 it had increased to 20.7 minutes (accompanied both by an increase in average miles traveled by 11.6 miles and average speed—33.6 miles per hour—in 1995) (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1999). The mean travel time of metropolitan workers was 23.2 minutes in 1990.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff ***Solvency***
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Solves
Plan Solves Mckernan , Ph.D., Economics, Brown University , And Ratcliffe , Ph.D., Economics, Cornell University , 77-‘7( Signe-Mary and Caroline , “Enabling Families to Weather Emergencies and Develop” , P.Nexis) Access to a reliable automobile can be important for finding and keeping a job. Many employers are located outside city centers, beyond the reach of good or even any public transportation. Indeed, two-thirds of new
jobs are located in the suburbs (Waller 2005a). Although most low-income working families (82 percent) own a car, roughly 2 million do not. Cars can make it easier for low-income families to cope with emergencies , allowing workers easier access to more employers (to, say, fill out more applications), consider employers not located near public transportation, and work late-night shifts. Indeed, research suggests that car ownership may boost employment and earnings (Lucas and Nicholson 2003 and Ong 2002 as cited in Waller 2005b).23 True, new cars quickly depreciate and older
cars can cost a lot to maintain. Even gas, insurance, and run-of-the-mill repairs can strain household finances. Yet, given the tough commutes carless families can have, the benefits of car ownership can far outweigh the costs. Many low-income families consider a car a necessity (to get to work and medical appointments or to buy groceries) and turn to subprime auto loans to finance its purchase. These loans have high annual interest rates and high default rates, so providing less burdensome auto-financing alternatives can lead to better credit scores and increase the likelihood that low-income families become integrated into the formal financial sector. We recommend two proposals to support car ownership: (1) allowing IDAs and other incentivized accounts to be used for vehicle purchase and upkeep and (2) setting up a national grants program to help lowincome families purchase and maintain vehicles. These proposals can be implemented separately or together, and both channel benefits directly to low-income families, instead of spreading them out across families in all income brackets. Allow
IDAs and Other Incentivized Accounts to Be Used for Vehicle Ownership IDA programs mostly support long-term asset development, such as homeownership, business start-up, and higher education. In today's
economy and work environment, vehicle ownership and maintenance belong on this list too. In 2007, the House of Representatives introduced a bill, Creating Access to Rides Act (H.R. 3599), that would allow IDAs
established under the Assets for Independence Act to be used to purchase or maintain an automobile or to purchase automobile insurance. Our proposal differs by disallowing matched IDA savings to be spent on
automobile insurance and capping the amount that can be withdrawn and matched at $3,000 to discourage low-income families from overspending on cars. With an average match rate of roughly two to one for IDA programs (Nam, Ratcliffe, and McKernan forthcoming), a $3,000 withdrawal would provide low-income families with roughly
$9,000 to purchase or put a down payment on an automobile. This proposal affords low-income families a new way to save for and obtain a reliable automobile without turning to the expensive and risky subprime loan market—vital for families with little to spare for a down payment or with a poor or sparse credit history.
Subprime loans can have annual interest rates of 25 to 30 percent, and more than half of them default (Adams, Einav, and Levin 2007). By avoiding the subprime loan market and using savings from incentivized accounts to purchase an automobile or make a sizable down payment, low-income families can put themselves in a better financial position. Our proposal also encourages them to open an incentivized account and begin saving, giving them a financial foothold that may lead to further savings for longer-run objectives. Costs: If families simply buy a car instead of purchasing something else on the list of preset program goals, then adding vehicle purchase to the approved list will entail no additional costs. But should, for example, people use savings in incentivized accounts to purchase a vehicle under current law (and thus not receive the match), expanding the list of preset goals to include vehicle purchase will raise program costs by increasing the number of IDA participants who receive the match. Still, since total spending on incentivized accounts is small (about $40 million a year and less than 0.01 percent of federal spending on asset building ), potential cost increases due to greater take-up of the match are also relatively small. If expanding preset goals increased program costs by 10 percent, federal spending would rise by only $4.0 million a year.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff ***Add-Ons***
Air Power And Naval Power – allowing the industry to collapse cuts off our supply lines Ronis.pdf]
The DMSMS database is an example of how badly the industrial base is deteriorating. The Casting Emissions Reduction Program (CERP) of the U. Commerce and Defense but across the board.S. the U. Both of those programs have been discontinued.S.523 manufacturers reported 253.S. With reduced research and development budgets. Many manufacturing companies find that it is not economically feasible to support very small volumes over long periods of time. impacted construction costs. Cooperation between government and industry is essential because there are elements of the U. it is only a matter of time before an industry is in trouble. assets not to use them.” The commercial
manufacturers increasingly lose interest in supporting the military market because it is so small. workers. shipbuilding and repair industry. DMSMS = Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages]
we need to reform those national systems that are keeping our industry uncompetitive including pension and health care.S. According to the Government Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). Department of
completed a three-year national security assessment of the U.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Air Power Add-On – 1AC Style Scenario Two: the domestic auto industry –
First. in partnership with the Carderock Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center.” Partnership program at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. some of that capability now is becoming fragmented. industrial base is healthy. DoD does not take into consideration all the systems that compose their piece of the industrial base. When government R&D investment in an industry deteriorates. We also need to rethink our trade. “Collectively. missiles.000
Commerce’s Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security. and we must explore this issue as a nation.S. we do not even see the problem or the possible military implications. in 2002. Domestic Auto Industry is critical To U. ship-building superiority has been the research and development expertise that currently resides in Navy’s laboratories. Having General Motors under the control of foreigners is not the answer . China is becoming the manufacturing capital of the world. nor how their systems interact with others such as autos. more than 51 years. air defense and undersea warfare capabilities that are
Many lower tier companies supply to both the auto industry and shipbuilding. What is not always understood is the reality that the auto industry affects DMSMS at DoD because the industrial infrastructure that supports the Department of Defense is shared by the auto industry. We need to reinvigorate the Manufacturing Extension
operational today.” In May 2001. We need to maintain a capability to be globally competitive in product and process innovation – we must regain our manufacturing prowess and leadership. According to Manufacturing News. As an example for the DMSMS effort at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB. http://www. B-52s may be used more than 94 years. Director Of Mba Programs At Walsh College.500 in 2000. So. Congress and the entire spectrum of the agencies and departments of the federal government need to understand these issues. “in the mid 1990s. power projection.S. mission capable systems and readiness are put at risk if DMSMS issues are left unresolved. offset and CFIUS policies to encourage the maintenance of high value-added jobs inside the country and
The bankruptcy of Delphi is only the first of many dominos to fall if we don’t do something dramatic about this situation. may cease to be a superpower. the government was spending $1. the basis for U.uscc. more than 79 years. C-135s. and delayed project completion for most shipyards. This situation in shipbuilding also exists in other industries. capabilities and patents the country must have to remain an economic and military superpower. acquisition commands. employment in the industry has “dropped sharply since the early 1980s.” According to the study.S.
According to the Air Force DMSMS Guide.832 DMSMS parts. mechanical. We need to increase our investment in R&D to produce the leading edge knowledge. C-130s. All the services have DMSMS issues. though no one will go on the record with specifics.” Young people no longer view working in a shipyard as a viable way to make a living. A small example is that Chinese officials have publicly stated they want to become the foundry capital of the world to have a world-wide monopoly on cast parts. We cannot become a country that manufactures little. such as machine tools. According to the study. “In today’s high-tech Air Force. Army is an excellent example of ways that Congress can provide mechanisms for industry and the military to work together to stem the erosion of the industrial base to everyone’s benefit.S. “DMSMS impacts every weapon system in the inventory – past. We also are not even asking whether or not a U. but to dismantle them. At the moment they do not. and certain shipbuilders and universities.gov/hearings/2006hearings/written_testimonies/06_07_17wrts/ronis_statement. Many foreign entities buy U. a microcircuit) becomes obsolete or unavailable. the U.S. “orders for U.g. the U. cartridge and propellant actuated device sector and welding and all of these industries share the bottom of the base with the auto industry. present and future…. including such programs as Technologies Enabling Agile Manufacturing at the Energy Department and $500 million in electronics manufacturing programs at DARPA. For example. these organizations have conceived and designed most of the state-of-the-art hull.S. [FYI. more than 86 years and the F-15. the impact can extend throughout the weapon system affecting cost and system readiness. particularly in the auto industry. warships have declined 60 percent during the 10 years since the end of the Cold War.
Manufacturing R&D by the federal government is declining. Survey estimates indicated that employment would decline to about 83. but the auto industry is much larger. when total private employment was close to 180. None of these planes was designed to fly that long. electrical.5 billion on manufacturing related R&D.
.S. “1. and numerous other weapon systems depends on a multitude of important and often complex components. “survey responses indicate that labor shortages have reduced profits. it reduces DoD’s ability to function and solve its DMSMS problems. The Department of Defense regularly implies that the U. This means we must increase funding to the national laboratories not only from Energy.” In addition. We need to prioritize those technologies that are critical to regaining and then maintaining leadership and competitive advantage in the overall industrial base so China does not become the world’s leader in technologies we need to be a superpower. Some of the findings were disconcerting though related to both DMSMS and the auto industry. CFIUS must be completely rethought.”
The Air Force has said that DMSMS is driven by many factors but one reason is the extended weapon system’s life in the Air Force inventory. Even Daimler’s takeover of Chrysler removed serious capabilities to Germany. the ultimate performance of aircraft. When one of these components (e. Unless we look at the industrial base as a system.S. Consequently. industrial base that are disintegrating. “owned” industrial base matters.” The services are all trying to “lessen or eliminate the risks caused by parts non-availability before the weapon system is adversely affected. The White House. 7/17/2006 [SHEILA R. the high performance explosives and explosive components industry. When a tier supplier to the automobile industry goes under whether it is a machine tool company or in micro-electronics. Unless something changes. and are putting the national security of the United States at risk. according to DOC.
is the deputy judge advocate general of the Air Force.S. While the prospect of a nuclear Armaggedon over Taiwan might
nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention. There is zero possibility that the U. American air power can rapidly educate cultured and sophisticated societies about the
costs of war and the futility of pursuing it. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang. we would see the destruction of civilisation. Miscalculating here will be disastrous becasue. for China puts sovereignty above everything else. In his book The Korean War.
same time. This is much the reason why air power alone delivered victory in Operation Allied Force in Kosovo in 1999. think China and Taiwan.” pg online @ http://www. He said military leaders considered the use of
should that come to pass. Charles J. Saddam might have underestimated air power. a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy. new radios or advanced sniper rifles worries the Chinese.com/2006/09/2009013 //ghs-ef) This illustrates another salient feature of air power: its ability to temper the malevolent tendencies of societies accustomed to the rewards of modernity. “America’s asymmetric advantage. A Chinese military officer disclosed
recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. He has more than 30 years’ service and is a distinguished graduate of the National War College. president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. soldier at risk on the ground. He has served in Korea and has deployed for numerous operations in the Middle East and Africa. What dominating air power precludes is the ability to concentrate and project forces .S. Given air power’s ability to strike war-supporting infrastructure. it cannot be ruled out entirely. without the need to put a single U.
Extinction Straits Times 6/25/ 2K
Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. is at risk. Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -. necessary elements to applying combat power in hostile areas. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle. As but one illustration. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War.S. There would be no victors in such a war. deters them . At the
America’s pre-eminence in air power is also the best hope we have to dissuade China — or any other future peer competitor — from aggression. Gen. can build land forces of the size that would be of real concern to a China. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it. unlike with any counterinsurgency situation (Iraq included).armedforcesjournal. many-faceted economy with strong scientific capabilities. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons. to maintain the air dominance that it currently enjoys over China and that.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Air Power Add-On – 1AC Style Airpower Critical to Deter China From Attacking Taiwan
Dunlap 2k6 (Maj. the powerful impulse of economic selfinterest complicates the ability of despots to pursue malicious agendas. Gen Ridgeway said that seem inconceivable.
. It will take focused and determined efforts for the U. the very existence of the U. but don’t count on the Chinese to make the same mistake. China is a powerful. No number of troops or up-armored Humvees.S. for the moment.truce or a broadened war.
there is little hope of winning a war against China
50 years later.
short of using nuclear
weapons. vast country with an exploding. Dunlap Jr.
S. director of the RetailMotor Industry Federation's National Franchised Dealers Association. Other glimmers of hope were offered for the sector yesterday. battles to overcome the effect of the downturn. lexis) THE full extent of the slowdown in the motor industry was revealed yesterday. If the United States fails to recognize the change and adapt its
To remain the preponderant world power. Economic Strength The United States is unlikely to preserve its military and technological dominance if the U. alongside other motor companies across the world. thus increasing real per capita income.” WASHINGTON QUARTERLY. become inward-looking. Finally. and low-level conflicts.007 in 2007. On balance. LN. as the business. the United States must maintain its technological lead in the economic realm. and the rule of law. and the lowest level since 1996 . LN. Some argue that the world may be at the beginning of another such transformation. RAND analyst. " she said.S.S.
Competitiveness Key To Leadership Khalilizad 95 (Zalmay Khalilzad. Yesterday. “Losing the Moment. which has its UK headquarters in Sunderland and has been forced to take measures to prevent over-supply to the
weakened market. enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself. In the long run the economic future of the United States will also be affected by two other factors.S. Its success will depend on the choices it makes.131. such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. changes positively affecting the relative position of those who were able to take advantage of them and negatively affecting those who did not. which will shift the sources of wealth and the relative position of classes and nations. training. December was one of the worst months of the year for new car sales. free markets.
the best long-term guiding principle and vision.404. Deborah Johnson. U. January 8. RAND analyst. In the past. including a global nuclear exchange.democracy. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. economy declines seriously.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Compettitivness Add-On
Demand for new cars low and government must intervene to boost consumer confidence. which is even more important to U. by strengthening education and
institutions.and warned that this year will be "considerably worse". developments such as the agricultural and industrial revolutions produced fundamental
abandon more and more of its external interests. First. economic wall-being over the long run. but because
.3 per cent last year . Although their government cannot endow Americans with a Japanese-style propensity to save. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system.” WASHINGTON QUARTERLY. U.3%”. (Zalmay Khalilzad. In such an environment.)
Preserve U. including Nissan. and by generating and using superior science and technology. the domestic economic and political base for global leadership would diminish and the United States would probably incrementally withdraw from the world.)
Under the third option. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states. Sunderland car parts company Unipres said it was being forced to cut 296 jobs as a knock-on effect of the sector slowdown. its relative position will necessarily worsen. may be the overall rate of investment. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival. The Northern Echo.down on 2. such as nuclear proliferation. The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) said that sales last year totalled 2. “Losing the Moment.S. this is
a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. called for Government help to reassure both the sector and consumers. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -. Spring
1995. with the SMMT saying
Sue Robinson. "The full-year new car sales figures for 2008 clearly show that demand was strong until consumer confidence dropped sharply during the final few months of the year as a result of worsening economic conditions. it can use tax policy to raise the saviASngs rate. One is the imbalance between government revenues and government expenditure.
And . Spring
1995. U.Nuclear War Khalilzad 95.2 per cent compared with 2007. and
To sustain and improve its economic strength. others would try to fill the Vacuum.S. Second. and prompted renewed calls for the Government to intervene and provide support formotor manufacturers. down 21. As the United States weakened. "This highlights how important it is for Government to enact measures to help boost confidence. As a society the United States has to decide what part of the GNP it wishes the government to control and adjust expenditures and taxation accordingly. economic strength must be enhanced by further improvements in productivity. 2009 (“NEW CAR SALES FALL BY 11. The findings will come as a blow for motor manufacturers. The second. with new car sales down 11. Managers at Nissan Sunderland are drawing up a production plan for the first quarter of this year.
that some consolation could be drawn from the fact that last month's sales did not plummet as low as had been feared.795 .
It will lead – eventually – to
the return of settling international obligations in gold instead of paper dollars.contrarianprofits. p. Lexis.com) The most productive companies in each country are almost always the exporters . the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts. forces there. Prior to the final economic collapse. As an example. are almost certain to be released . a few nukes are launched. “Guarding
against protectionism. and perhaps most of the biosphere. including the "export leaders". The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it. A lack of competition will quickly flow through to higher inflation. online] History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions . virtually every manufacturer. the only chance a nation has to survive at all is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived
rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs. but I do recall that a significant portion of Chinese exports are from MNCs operating in those countries. Inflation will destroy US economic leadership Contrarian Profits. in a spasmodic suicidal response. 2009 (“The Coming Great Inflation Will Destroy America’s Economic Leadership”. Without effective defense. Col in US Army) [Thomas.
http://www.one of the reasons US inflation has been relatively low for the last 20 years has been the
increased competition from foreign suppliers. at least for many decades.think Boeing or Intel in the US. a great percent of the WMD arsenals that will be unleashed. escalating it significantly. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that. you will not be able to exchange dollars for any sound currency in the world without permission from the US government. And this will happen much faster than anyone expects. 2009 (Teng Yeow Heng. Economic Collapse Would Escalate To Full-Scale Conflict And Rapid Extinction Bearden 2K (Lt. I don't have the data at hand. and what can be done to help businesses here cope with the threat?”. In addition to immediate responses . the costs of protectionism are passed on fairly quickly to the economy in terms of higher inflation and reduced productivity . suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear
weapons upon Japan and South Korea. June 24.com/articles/the-coming-great-inflation-will-destroy-americas-economic-leadership/18371) The coming great inflation will destroy America’s economic leadership. under such extreme stress conditions. are already on site within the United States itself. Jun 25th. The price of gold will be well over $2.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Competition Add-On
Lack of competition results in inflation The Business Times Singapore. February 16. As the studies showed. The real legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. Heng. MichaelManaging Director.
. Today. They often take time to give voice. Second. Areva in France and or Toyota in Japan. By the time Obama leaves office. Third.
foes as rapidly and massively as possible.S. Free Republic. Will the global economic slowdown spur an increase in trade protectionism? What forms will this protectionism take. to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations. global supply chain. once
States-attacks Taiwan. adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. Or suppose a desperate China-whose long-range nuclear missiles (some) can reach the United
the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict. “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis”. but they will.500 per ounce. relies on an extensive. including U.
Skogan 1977. 75. Metropolitan Expansion and Black
Social Dislocation: The Link Between Suburbanization and Center-City Crime. We reexamine the suburbanization/city-crime link using racially disaggregated models for cities and SMSAs in 1980. the relationship between suburbanization and black citycrime rates virtually disappeared. Park 1925. serious crime in cities is disproportionately concentrated in black communities. when the proportion of metropolitan area residents who live in the suburbs is high. Farley 1987. p 1
the degree of suburbanization in a metropolitan area is positively related to the rates of serious crime in the incorporated center city . Bursik & Grasmick 1993. First. This supports the view that suburbanization increased black center-city crime rates by socially isolating black communities and engendering a variety of social problems.
suburbanization is part of a broader metropolitan expansion process that undermined and isolated many center-city black communities.. We account for this relationship
A long-standing though unexplained finding is that by integrating theoretically two underlying features of urban life in the U.g. so too are the rates of serious crime in the center city of that metropolitan area (herein referred to as "cities" or "center cities"). Within this tradition. Gibbs & Erickson 1976. The findings show that the rate of suburbanization among the total SMSA population is strongly related to the center-city rates of serious crime among blacks. Social Forces Vol. several studies have examined the relationship between the size of the suburban population in a metropolitan area and the rate of crime in the center.S. Second. as well as the discriminatory practices mentioned above. upon controlling for potential mediators of the suburbanization-crime link.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Crime Add-On
Suburbanization and lack of employment in inner cities. from a human ecology standpoint. Stafford & Gibbs 1980).
. resulting in serious crime ES Shihadeh and GC Ousey. but not among whites. Farley & Hansel 1981. have left mainly segregated black communities. city (cf. Skogan 1990). These studies generally have found a persistent positive relationship between the
degree of suburbanization in a metropolitan area and rates of serious crime in the center city.
The relationship between the spatial characteristics of metropolitan areas and crime rates has been a long-standing concern in criminology (e. incorporated. Indeed. That is. Louisiana State University. Shaw & McKay 1931. December 1996.
Toward Dispersed Tactics for Naval Forces The
the unique opportunity to use which are sufficiently mature. the Navy must retain its ability to deal with
solution to this challenge may be found in a fortuitous confluence of tactical and technological developments.S. Is Good for the Army”. Operational Maneuver From The Sea is developing a new doctrine and equipment to meet the challenges faced by classic amphibious operations.nytimes. domestic fuel cell production — which will undoubtedly have many critical military applications — depends on a vibrant car industry. There are several historical precedents.134 This does not imply that the U. the advanced Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAAV). Nonetheless . A more structured naval formation
of beaches that are suitable for conventional landing craft.
though. in the development of new "fleet tactics" for confronting the asymmetric naval opponent.130 Instead. And only the auto industry. the ubiquitous homemade bombs of the current Iraq insurgency have led to the development of innovative armor-protected wheeled vehicles for American forces."132 As an example. Clark. it is unclear how the American public would react to losses on the scale that the British suffered during the Falklands conflict. the Marine Corps is committed to the concepts of "ship to objective maneuver" and "over the horizon assault. trucks and cargo carriers. a retired Army general and former supreme allied commander of NATO. tanks. In a little more than a year will increase combat power while reducing our footprint. The lives of hundreds of soldiers and marines have been saved. and the Humvee (and its civilian version.com/2008/11/16/opinion/16clark. In sum.) The trend in modern naval warfare in the twenty-first century. and electronic surveillance. The detection of a single battle group unit helps to orient the enemy's search. the strategy for a weaker opponent may be to deny the more powerful adversary the opportunity for a decisive battle. as Detroit moves to plug-in hybrids and electric-drive technology. while the detection of additional units informs the adversary of the location of these high-value units. whether at a critical choke point or in the waters adjacent to their coasts. Enemy patrol boats hiding in fjords or caves can remain a "fleet in being" with little probability of being successfully engaged by conventional means. Without a vigorous automotive sector. that will have immediate military use. both of which are exemplars of asymmetric attacks that produced devastating results. For supporting naval forces. “What’s Good for G.S."136 The result is that the doctrine of amphibious warfare has been fundamentally reshaped. by the efforts of the American automotive industry . Likewise. including the Japanese success at the Battle of Tassafaronga in 1942 and the German
crushing blow. acoustics. there is a real danger of viewing naval operations against smaller states as a less significant enterprise. and eventually to support electric propulsion and innovative armaments like directed-energy weapons. and an improved Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC). the traditional task force operating in a defensive screen presents a readily discernible pattern that an adversary can discover with spaced-based sensors as well as radar. US Navy. but nothing on the manufacturing scale we really need. The dominant naval forces may never have the opportunity to annihilate the enemy's forces in a single
minor combatants may seek to engage in military actions under conditions in which an asymmetric exchange appears feasible.135
potential competitors as well as those nations that are capable of matching its forces on a regional basis.133 After the successful operation against Libya in 1986 and against Iraq in the 1991 Gulf War. many with permanent magnet technology. Unwilling or incapable of
adversaries will rely on sophisticated.Direct energy weapons are key to bolstering our naval hegemony . Navy should abandon the lessons learned from the years of confronting a global naval power. each firing four supersonic anti-ship cruise missiles.Auto Industry key to Direct Energy Weapons Clark 08 New York Times (Wesley K. In the future amphibious forces will no longer be constrained to a small set
ability to remain at a significant distance offshore increases the freedom of movement. will likely involve states which seek [be] to deny control of some portion of the sea to the powerful navies. ‘2k (William J. While perhaps only one missile might hit. As Sir Julian
making the investment needed to command the sea. Maxwell Air Force Base. successes against the Bergen convoy in 1917.
Automakers are developing innovative electric motors. and stopping the threat of bioweapon attacks McCarthy Captain. After confronting a global superpower at sea for a generation. However . is a
senior fellow at the Burkle Center for International Relations at the University of California at Los Angeles. For years the military has sought better sources of electric power in its vehicles — necessary to allow troops to monitor their radios with diesel engines off.. introduces uncertainty in the enemy's targeting. the Army has procured and fielded in Iraq more than a thousand socalled mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicles. Much research and development spending has gone into these programs over the years. Now. the Persian Gulf war demonstrated the awesome utility of American land power. The New York Times. On the contrary.
B. The United States and its allies [has] have directed energy technologies. combatant or auxiliary could be sufficient to dissuade the United States from further action. these Corbett observed almost 100 years ago. Air University.137 What is needed is a shift from classic battle group tactics toward the development of a new conceptual framework for carrier operations. and provides opportunities for deception.
it is increasingly evident that there will be numerous situations in which a new approach will be needed if the United States is to defeat unconventional opponents. the Hummer) became a star. Building on the MV-22 Osprey. to support increasingly high-powered communications technology. And unlike in World War II. as previously noted. could wreak on a carrier battle force. Center for Strategy and Technology. “Directed Energy and Fleet Defense: Implications for Naval
Warfare.” May.M. consider the havoc that four corvettes.131 The danger lies in the tendency to overlook these incidents and to dismiss them as "accidents of war. http://www. with its vast purchasing power. the prospect of a single hit against a major U. and to meet them we need a strong industrial base. armored fighting
. is able to establish a domestic advanced battery industry. this greater use of electricity
vehicles. the scale problem can be remedied. More challenges lie ahead for our military. inexpensive weapons to raise the stakes against the expensive multi-purpose forces of the major powers.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact
A. America didn’t have to divert much civilian capacity to meet these military needs. Likewise. and their tasks made more achievable. those needs could not have been quickly met. this assumption could prove to be a tragic miscalculation. as well as improvements in our fleets of Humvees.html?_r=1)
But in 1991.
the only hope for success is luck.143 Armed with these tools. Dispersion also facilitates the use of deception. which are replacing earlier generations of guided missile frigates. the case of the AEGIS cruiser. it has strengthened the reasons for minimizing the
A self-defense suite that includes directed energy weapons will allow the carrier battle force to enjoy the defensive advantages of dispersion. Sea-based air power gives the U. During the Cold War. While ships replenishing at sea can maneuver. which are highly structured events. share these missions as well as other duties. The inclusion of the advanced optical sensors that are associated with high-energy lasers will help to positively identify ships and aircraft within the battle space and do so at greater ranges. there will be natural conflicts in the missions per formed by these units. However. the carrier has the ability to introduce substantial uncertainty in the calculations of those who seek to target it. While this proved financially challenging. surface and sub-surface environments. The deception might be as simple as decoys that lead enemy aircraft to an AEGIS cruiser. flexibility. At those times when the use of fixed or rotary wing aircraft is not possible. and unmanned air vehicles in a dispersed force can keep the adversary off-balance because it can strike from multiple axes with no apparent pattern. that same cruiser is likely to have the role of power projection as a launch platform for Tomahawk cruise missiles. Navy to provide the logistics that are necessary for tactical flexibility has contributed to its success as the pre eminent naval power. Sea-based aircraft will likely remain the most effective means for destroying hostile patrol craft and tactical aircraft at extended ranges. the carrier is operating in an area greater than 10. which now gains more time to identify and destroy the at tacker. and high-energy lasers with low probability of intercept would strengthen the ability of the carrier to conduct flight operations with out electronic emissions. the target is the enemy's mind and if an enemy is confused. but that mission is now an unaffordable luxury. but are classic tools that become more effective when the force is no longer constrained to engage in set piece defensive arrangements. The two vessels make a natural pair that can optimally employ the mutual strengths of speed. it effectively shifts the advantage to the defender. When the opponent is uncertain. The nature of replenishment operations.
Regents Laboratory "a
major consequence of massing for defense is the certainty that the enemy will be aware of the fleet and its general location.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
is more readily discernible. the de fensive flexibility of directed energy weapons enhances the carrier's surviv-ability. Even when operating
."138 The clustered defenders could become an opportune target because their
Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact
very proximity hampers their ability to engage targets without fratricide. Navy continues to shrink in size .145 The combination of fixed wing aircraft.141 It is highly unlikely that any of these missions will be best performed by stationing the cruiser at a distance of 5000 yards from the carrier. and the ability to dominate the air. An opponent that is forced to fight further out to sea increases the advantage to the United States and its allies.S. for example. Navy's attempt to build nuclear-powered carrier task forces during the 1960's was the principle that a self-contained combat force is more agile and better able to seize the initiative. expendable in the
answer may lie in the use of a dispersed force that combines the inherent mobility of the carrier with a robust self-defense capability.S.142 Old tactics become more effective with technological advances. Using sophisticated multi-mission surface combatants to form a defensive ring of steel around carriers reduces their theoretical capability in combat. including maritime interception operations and commerce protection. the
defense of the capitol ships. an air defense mission for protecting an amphibious force. the replenishing force is limited in the number of responses available and the speed with which they can be executed. and the ballistic missile defender must be positioned along the likely trajectory of attacking missiles to intercept the targets. must seek some additional confirmation of the identity of the unit. as the supporting logistics become more complex the naval force itself becomes more vulnerable.140 Another advantage of a dispersed force is the fact that hostile surveillance units. By appearing simultaneously over a number of targets. The carrier must be within the combat radius of its aircraft to project airpower. or it might be as complex as a full-fledged amphibious feint. reduced logistical needs. and self-sufficiency. Block 1 Rolling Airframe Missiles with
hundreds or thousands of square miles. The unmatched capability of the U. And dispersion minimizes the risk that more than one unit would be exposed to chemical or biological attack . a carrier and a nuclear powered submarine could operate in tandem. escort vessels serving in the screen were. is to
carrier is no longer forced to choose between covert operations and robust defense establish operational patterns that can be discerned by an adversary.
and increases the capabilities of
.000 square miles in which it must be found flexibility and mobility of naval forces will compel the adversary to fight on the defender's terms.144 The conceptual basis behind the U. changes in course and speed must be carefully executed. The goal is to present one's foes with an image that they expect to see. By identifying all of the missions assigned to a battle group. the cruiser that launches land-attack cruise missiles must be within range if its missiles are to reach their targets.S. The combination of multi-spectral passive sensors.S. when confronted with a single contact rather than a formation. Hughes was even more blunt. The danger is that the attempt to strike a compromise among the diverse missions performed by these naval platforms is likely to help the adversary pinpoint the location of the naval force. The ability to exploit the inherent
within a relatively small 90-degree sector at ranges of 100 to 150 nautical miles from an enemy's coast. The
.S. These are not new tactics. As observed by the classic Chinese strategist Sun Tzu. by necessity. What may have been an acceptable risk in the past is no longer prudent in cases that do not involve vital U. The AEGIS guided missile destroy ers. helicopters. In the next decade. and quite possibly a critical role in theater ballistic missile defense. while exercising its unique ability to concentrate offensive naval striking power. the carrier gains a new opportunity to exploit its inherent speed. Freed from the slower moving escorts that require frequent refueling.
. stating unequivocally. If attacked. Capable of sprinting at higher dash speeds. interests of a classic battle group.
requirement that carriers refuel their escorts at sea. Freed from the requirement to support amphibious operations within sight of land. The ability to create ambiguity and confound the enemy reduces the carrier's vulnerability to attack from both cruise missiles and theater ballistic missiles. a cruiser was often assigned to the mission of terminal air defense of the carrier. While individual missions may be accomplished while operating over
As the U. The reason is that each mission un dertaken by units of a classic battle group imposes certain physical constraints on the group's location. Navy an unmatched ability to defeat its enemies. which further shifts the balance in favor of the defender. the carrier can sustain comfortable cruising speeds of 2025 knots on an indefinite basis. there is likely to be a relatively narrow area from which all of these missions can be accommodated simultaneously dual passive seekers. the combat aircraft on the carrier can put pressure on the adversary and thereby introduce confusion.139 In the historic confrontations between major battle fleets.
individual units Consider. an enemy can then define the probable location of the fleet and proceed to target it.
Oct 10th. maritime interests which are now virtually inseparable from the broadest national security interests.W.org/index. but we strongly prejudice the case against a secure and balanced East Asia by encouraging a serious power vacuum in the form of our departure as the region's first naval power. “Unilateral Naval Disarmament”. The sum of these interests today. But the Russians remain an ambitious people with a yearning for the international recognition they once enjoyed. In each case. and all the more so in the future. amounts to this nation's future as the world's great power. a strong Navy protects U. Russian saber-rattling can be dismissed today. wide-ranging naval forces offers protection for the civilized world against weapons of mass destruction in the hands of fanatics armed with long-range missiles. It is only a question of time until jihadists attempt to use the seas as a more effective alternative to the air routes whose assault has now been complicated by threatened nations' measures. India strives to build a naval force to control the ocean bearing its name.S.
. The Weekly Standard.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=5175)
There is no inevitability to our enmity with China. Bush administrations. The flexibility of powerful.
http://hudson. Our current naval trajectory leads away from this future. senior fellow at the Hudson Institute. the one through which much of the world's oil is transported. deputy undersecretary of the Navy in the Reagan and George H.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Direct Energy Add-On – Naval Impact
Collapse of naval power causes nuclear war Cropsey. 10-10-’7 (Seth.
cn/english/detail.” DEPAUL BUSINESS LAW JOURNAL v. namely the development of commercial solid-state lasers and laser optics. the health of economic [*67] development.
As the Indian Navy incident indicates. welfare.Direct energy weapons key to solve Somali pirate attacks Shipper's Newswire 2008-12-03 (“Analysis: Experts predict
Carafano said. in a recent policy paper. regional.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Direct Energy Add-On – Somalia Pirates
A. Getting these weapons. Mobile. and possibly the survival of civilization itself. the stability of the state system. Navy communication obtained by American Shipper noted that coalition forces often receive distress calls about suspected pirate attacks that turn out to be local fishermen who follow large ships because the wake attracts fish. Fall 1999/Spring 2000. which have been under development for years. present-day terrorists have introduced into contemporary life a new scale of terror violence in terms of both threats and responses that has made clear that we have entered into an
Perhaps the most significant dangers that evolve from modern day terrorism are those relating to the safety.
Extinction Alexander 00 (Yonah. p. 6667.jsp?id=2593)
More specifically. in the field for anti-piracy and antiterrorism purposes would provide the military with operational experience using the new technology. Inter-University Center for Terrorism. the expansion of democracy.simic. low-power laser weapons could be used to disable electrical components or engines on an attacking boat. Improvements in laser technology. can be effectively aimed using radar or night-vision goggles and can be employed with minimum risk toward surrounding civilians or ships. Navy commanders are at pains to distinguish pirates from non-combatant vessels. have made these directed energy weapons a viable option for non-conventional military threats .Heritage scholar James Carafano. 12. Professor and Director.net.S. urged the
Pentagon to field prototype laser weapons to combat the pirates.
Age of Terrorism with all of its serious implications to national. and rights of ordinary people. “Terrorism in the TwentyFirst Century: Threats and Responses. according to the message. A U. and global security concerns. have the benefit of an almost infinite magazine as long as they can be recharged. On one occasion the Navy failed to respond to a vessel that was successfully hijacked because warships were responding to a false alarm. he said.
but not take-off or land. “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis”. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that. however. are already on site within the United States itself. using their means and methods to capture a ship in exchange for an appropriate sum." Toichi said. we've already seen terrorism at sea: The seizure of the Achille Lauro in
the Mediterranean in 1985 by the Palestinian Liberation Front. the global market has recently begun to see an oversupply of crude oil with inventories piling up. Col in US Army) [Thomas. the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts. but it turned out to have little impact. one of the reasons U. adding that all of these geopolitical risks remain unsolved.S. could provide a potentially lucrative. he said. there is at least one report of "pirates" taking control of an underway ship in Southeast Asia. causing a disruption in global energy supply. especially Islamist extremists or terrorists with al-Qaida ties based in Somalia. and the Abu Sayyaf Group's 2004 strike on a ferry in the Philippines that led to more than 100 deaths. such as the Persian Gulf's Strait of Hormuz. increase medium-term energy
oil price increases have a "negative
effect on U. it will hurt oil-producing nations as well as oil consumers because such high prices may dampen demand and eventually erode profits of oil producers. Cuts off oil.
.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Direct Energy Add-On – Somalia Pirates – Oil Impact
Pirates and Al Qaida have taken ships." But messages from the world's seven richest nations have done little to bring down skyrocketing oil prices so far." the G-7 statement said. (Yasushi. Or suppose a desperate China-whose long-range nuclear missiles (some) can reach the United
the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict. alternative revenue stream.and rightfully so. at least for many decades. "Buccaneers are back: The http://author. to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations. online] History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions . but energy experts say this is no easy task.)
The Group of Seven industrial nations are grappling with a spike in crude oil prices as it looms as a risk to the global economy. and can destroy Hormuz strait. April 17. As an example. is a former deputy assistant secretary of
But perhaps the biggest concern with today's pirate is terrorism ties. a few nukes are launched.
"Chances are small that oil prices will sharply fall in the near future. warships surrounded the Faina was to
ensure the weapons on board or any ill-gotten gains didn't fall into the wrong grips.S. and perhaps most of the biosphere. Treasury Secretary John Snow told reporters after the meeting that energy prices "are too high. According to Toichi. LN. December 11. In addition to immediate responses . some experts assert that because of
international efforts to hinder terror financing. While there have been no direct. publicly
reported links between the pirates and terrorism or terrorist groups. the possibility gives security analysts and national security officials pause -. suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear
weapons upon Japan and South Korea. adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. For instance. crude oil prices are expected to remain high due partly to lingering geopolitical risks in places such as Iraq. reregistered and renamed "phantom" ships in its possession. in a spasmodic suicidal response. including Toichi. the basic situation has not changed since last year as the global economy is expected to clock fairly high growth this year. Iran and Venezuela. a great percent of the WMD arsenals that will be unleashed.
Economic Collapse Would Escalate To Full-Scale Conflict And Rapid Extinction Bearden 2K (Lt. senior managing director at the Institute of Energy Economics. "We welcome efforts to improve oil market data. Free Republic. once
States-attacks Taiwan. The real legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. al-Qaida identifies the West's economy as a key target." said Tsutomu Toichi. "OPEC is now testing the global economy whether it can digest with setting $ 50 per barrel as the upper limit. Prior to the final economic collapse. "The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is seen satisfied if crude oil prices stay below $ 50 per barrel.
foes as rapidly and massively as possible. the only chance a nation has to survive at all is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived
rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs.cfm) challenges of modern piracy". forces there. including U. p. Indeed. Without effective defense." U. growth and global growth. conning it through crowded shipping lanes in what some believe to be similar to the 9/11 hijackers' efforts to learn to fly a plane. KYODO NEWS INTERNATIONAL. the 2000 al-Qaida attack on the USS Cole in Yemen.org/Press/Commentary/ed121108b. It would come as no real surprise if it were to try to scuttle a ship in a narrow chokepoint.heritage. While perhaps apocryphal.S. June 24. Looking down the road. Toichi said if crude oil prices rise beyond $ 60 per barrel. 2005. The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it. Peter Brookes. under such extreme stress conditions." Oil analysts. Price Spikes Hurt Economy." and
economy at their just-ended two-day talks in Washington. Toichi said. escalating it significantly. As the studies showed. Of course. Today. especially when it comes to targets and techniques. providing opportunities for collaboration. including tug boats.28 per barrel in off-hours trading in New York on April 4.S. which could be used for attacks on ports.
voiced more concern over costlier oil prices and their impact on the global
supply and efficiency. Although the pace of growth in global oil demand appears to be slowing a bit. piracy. Impact Is Bearden Azuma 05.v Moreover. they could overlap. are almost certain to be released . "Higher oil prices are a headwind and the expansion is less balanced than before. The benchmark price of West Texas Intermediate for May delivery hit a record $ 58. Analysts are also concerned al-Qaida now has a number of hijacked. like narcotics or blood diamonds. While maritime terrorism and piracy aren't the same. While this wouldn't be in the interests of most pirates . al-Qaida could certainly partner with them. 2008 (Senior Fellow at the Heritage Foundation. used to believe $ 40 per barrel would be the upper limit for the global economy.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Econ Add-On – Racism
Econ Add on - Suburban perceptions of urban areas creates tensions that are detrimental to the overall success of inner-cities and the nation’s economy William Julius Wilson, Malcolm Wiener Professor of Social Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and chairman of the Russell Sage Foundation, 1996-1997, When Work Disappears, Political
Science Quarterly p 579, JSTOR
It will be difficult to address growing racial tensions in U.S. cities unless we tackle the problems of shrinking revenue and inadequate social services and the gradual disappearance of work in certain neighborhoods. The city has become a less desirable place in which to live, and the economic and social gap between the cities and suburbs is growing. The groups left behind compete, often along racial lines, for declining resources, including the remaining decent schools, housing, and neighborhoods . The rise of the new urban poverty neighborhoods has exacerbated these problems. Their high rates of joblessness and social disorganization have created problems that often spill over into other parts of the city at large. All of these factors aggravate race relations and elevate racial tensions. Ideally, we need to restore the federal
contribution to the city budget that existed in 1980 and to increase sharply the employment base. Regardless of changes in federal urban policy, however, the fiscal crisis in the cities would be significantly eased if the employment base could be substantially increased. Indeed, the social dislocations caused by the steady disappearance of work have led to a wide range of urban social problems, including racial tensions. Increased employment would help stabilize the new poverty neighborhoods, halt the precipitous decline in density, and ultimately enhance the quality of race relations in urban areas. Perhaps at no other time in the nation's history has it been more important to talk about the need to promote city and suburban cooperation, not separation. The political fragmentation of many metropolitan areas in the
United States has contributed to the problems of joblessness and related social dislocations of the inner-city poor. As David Rusk, the former mayor of Albuquerque, New Mexico, has pointed out, because the older cities of the East and the Midwest were unable to expand territorially through city-county consolidation or annexation, they failed to reap such benefits of suburban growth as the rise of shopping malls, offices, and industrial parks in new residential subdivisions. As areas in which poor minorities live in higher and higher concentration, these cities face an inevitable downward spiral because they are not
re, that neighborhood revitalization programs, such as community development banks, nonprofit inner-city housing developments, and enterprise zones, will not be able "to reverse the downward
benefiting from suburban growth. Rusk argues, therefo
slide of inner cities" if they are not carried out within "a framework of actions to bring down the walls between city and suburb."I31 Efforts to promote city and suburban cooperation will not benefit cities alone. There is mounting evidence that cities and suburbs are economically interdependent. The more central cities are plagued by joblessness, dysfunctional schools, and crime, the more the surrounding suburbs undergo a decline in their own social and economic fortunes. Suburbs that experienced increases in income during the 1980s
tended to be linked to a thriving urban center.32 In the global economy, metropolitan regions continue to compete for jobs. Suburbs that will remain or become competitive are those with a well-trained workforce, good schools, a concentration of professional services, first-class hospitals, a major university and research center, and an efficient transportation network to link executives with other parts of the United States and with countries around the world. However, many of these elements cannot come solely from suburbs. They require a viable central city. It is
important for Americans to realize that city-suburban integration is the key to the health of metropolitan regions and to the nation as a whole. Economic Decline Causes Racism And Poverty Tikkun 05, staff June 16, 2005, www.tikkun.org/rabbi_lerner/news_item.2005-06-16.4482156665 If there is one truism about race relations, it is that overt bigotry, hate crimes, and discrimination flourish during economic hard times. These acts of racism decline when the economic improves, when almost everyone who wants to work has a job at decent wages, and when people have economic security.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Econ Add-On – Racism
Must Reject Barndt ‘91 [Joseph, Co-director of Ministry Working to Dismantle Racism, "Dismantling Racism" p. 155//wdc] But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate, but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom. Brick by brick, stone by stone, the prison of individual, institutional, and cultural racism can be destroyed. You and I are urgently called to joing the efforst of those who know it is time to tear down, once and for all, the walls of racism.The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing even more near. The results of centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism, of military buildups and violent aggression, of overconsumption and environmental destruction may be reaching a point of no return. A small and predominantly white minority of the global population derives its power and privelage from the sufferings of vast majority of peoples of all color. For the sake of the world and ourselves, we dare not allow it to continue.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Education Add-On
People who can’t afford private transportation don’t have the choice of going to a good school. Belfired and Levin ‘3 (Clive Belfield is an Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Queens College, City
University of New York. Henry M. Levin is the William Heard Kilpatrick Professor of Economics and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. “A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating Educational Vouchers”, http://rre.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/27/1/183, wrote 2003; accessed 6/26/09)
Support services. Support services refer to those types of publicly provided services designed to increase the effectiveness of the market in providing freedom of choice, productive efficiency, and equity. Competitive markets assume that consumers will have access to a wide variety of choices as well as useful information for selecting among them. In the United States, availability of public transportation is limited, necessitating a system of school transportation from children’s neighborhoods to their schools. In the absence of school transportation, school choices and competition for students will be limited, both reducing the competitive efficiency of schools and creating inequities for those who cannot afford private transportation. Education helps promote leadership. Korea Times. 6/12/09. “Learning to Lead.” ACCESSED FROM LEXIS-NEXIS
CAMBRIDGE - Public-opinion polls show that citizens in many democracies are unhappy with their leaders. This is particularly true in Great Britain, where a number of members of Parliament have used their housing allowances to enhance their income, sometimes legally and sometimes not. Some analysts predict that only half of Britain's MPs will be returned in next year's election. But, whatever the failures of
There is also a question of how successful leadership is taught and learned in a democracy. A successful democracy requires leadership to be widespread throughout government and civil society. Citizens who express concern about leadership need to learn not only how to judge it, but how to practice it themselves. Many observers say that leadership is an art rather than a science. Good leadership is situational. In my book "The Powers to Lead," I call this skill "contextual intelligence." The ability to mobilize a group effectively is certainly an art rather than a predictive science, and varies with situations, but that does not mean that it cannot be profitably studied and learned. Music and painting are based in part on innate skills, but also on training and practice. And artists can benefit not merely from studio courses, but also from art appreciation lessons that introduce them to the full repertoires and pallets of past masters. Learning leadership occurs in a variety of ways. Learning from experience is the most common and most powerful. It produces the tacit knowledge that is crucial in a crisis. But experience and intuition can be supplemented by analytics, which is the purpose of my book. As Mark Twain once observed, a cat that sits on a hot stove will not sit on a hot stove again, but it won't sit on a cold one, either. Consequently, learning to analyze situations and contexts is an important leadership skill. The United States Army categorizes
particular British legislators, the issues go further than merely allowing voters to "throw the rascals out." leadership learning under three words: "be, know, do." "Be" refers to the shaping of character and values, and it comes partly from training and partly from experience. "Know" refers to analysis and skills, which can be trained. "Do" refers to action and requires both training and fieldwork. Most important, however, is experience and the emphasis on learning from mistakes and a continuous process that results
Learning can also occur in the classroom, whether through case studies, historical and analytic approaches, or experiential teaching that simulates situations that train students to increase self-awareness, distinguish their roles from their selves, and use their selves as a barometer for understanding a larger group. Similarly, students can learn from the results of scientific studies, limited though they may be, and by studying the range of behaviors and contexts
from what the military calls "after-action reviews." that historical episodes can illuminate. In practice, of course, few people occupy top positions in groups or organizations. Most people "lead from the middle." Effective leadership from the middle often requires attracting and persuading those above, below, and beside you. Indeed, leaders in the middle frequently find themselves in a policy vacuum, with few clear directives from the top. A passive follower keeps his head down, shuns risk, and avoids criticism. An opportunist uses the slack to feather his own nest rather than help the leader or the public. Bureaucratic entrepreneurs, on the other hand, take advantage of such opportunities to adjust and promote policies. The key moral question is whether, and at what point, their entrepreneurial activity exceed the bounds of policies set from the top. Since they lack the legitimate authority of elected or high-level appointed officials, bureaucratic entrepreneurs must remain cognizant of the need to balance initiative with loyalty. Leaders should encourage such entrepreneurship among their followers as a means of increasing their effectiveness. After all, the key to successful leadership is to surround oneself with good people, empower them by delegating authority, and then claim credit for their accomplishments. To make this formula work, however, requires a good deal of soft power. Without the soft power that produces attraction and loyalty to the leader's goals,
With soft power, however, the energy of empowered followers strengthens leaders. Leadership is broadly distributed throughout healthy democracies, and all citizens need to learn more about what makes good and bad leaders. Potential leaders, in turn, can learn more about the sources and limits of the soft-power skills of emotional IQ, vision, and communication, as well as hard-power political and organizational skills. They must also better understand the nature of the contextual intelligence they will need to educate their hunches and sustain strategies of smart power. Most important, in today's age of globalization, revolutionary information technology, and broadened participation, citizens in democracies must learn more about the nature and limits of the new demands on leadership.
entrepreneurs run off in all directions and dissipate a group's energies.
1995. enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers. such as nuclear proliferation. “Losing the Moment. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival. and low-level conflicts. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself. but because nited tates would have tremendous advantages. free markets.)
Under the third option.S. First. and the rule of law. U. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system. such a world
a world in which the U
would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. including a global nuclear exchange. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states.democracy. LN.
U. (Zalmay Khalilzad. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Education Add-On
Nuclear War Khalilzad 95. On balance. RAND analyst.” WASHINGTON QUARTERLY.S. this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. Second. Finally.
The real legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. As the link between our state's educators and employers. In addition to immediate responses .
Prior to the final economic collapse. are almost certain to be released . Or suppose a desperate China-whose long-range nuclear missiles (some) can reach the United
the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict. and perhaps most of the biosphere.S. Economic Collapse Would Escalate To Full-Scale Conflict And Rapid Extinction Bearden 2K (Lt. are already on site within the United States itself. June 24. Charles B. at least for many decades. a few nukes are launched. under such extreme stress conditions. Today. Atkinson and Reed 2k (Charles Reed is Chancellor of California State University and Richard C. Reed is Chancellor of the California State University System. As an example. we are working to
strengthen the education-economy continuum so that students receive the preparation they need to succeed. Col in US Army) [Thomas. escalating it significantly.
foes as rapidly and massively as possible. “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis”. in a spasmodic suicidal response. to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations. the only chance a nation has to survive at all is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived
rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs. Atkinson is
President of the University of California System. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that.
. forces there.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Education Add-On – Economy
Education helps solve for the economy. suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear
History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions . p. weapons upon Japan and South Korea. “Higher Education Helps Drive the Economy”. Free Republic. October 4. a great percent of the WMD The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it. Without effective defense. including U. 2000) Our universities understand that the success of California's future economy depends on the effectiveness of our state's education system. the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts. As the studies showed. arsenals that will be unleashed. once
States-attacks Taiwan. adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary.
IAl Journal of Consumer Affairs. but often work-supporting. Finally innovations in the design and adaptation of on-demand transportation services to meet critical basic needs of the low-income population are likely to be an important step in improving transportation access. et al ‘6 (Steven Garasky is an associate professor in the Department of Human Development and Family
Studies. Postemployment supports for transportation are critical. while 50% stated their area was distressed or severely distressed. Helen H. Local
overlooked component in moving individuals into stable employment. Urban and rural school districts — which serve large populations of the poor -. More than 60% stated that their college lacked sufficient local and state support. Ames. Iowa State University. programs and policies should not overlook the nonwork. transportation needs of low-income families.html Local school bus rides would last as long as 90 minutes each way next year as a result of the latest proposed state budget cuts. that private vehicle ownership and commuting place an ongoing financial burden on low-wage working families. Cynthia Needles Fletcher is a professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies. IA. The Times has learned.latimes. Iowa State University.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Education Add-On – Transportation K2 Edu. Transiting to Work: The Role of Private Transportation for Low-Income Households. 38% identified the economic health of their college's local region as flat economically. United States 2004) that suggest that current programs to assist low-income households with transportation needs are inadequate. And they take responsibility for transporting the children of farm workers to school while their parents — who often lack cars — labor in the fields. about 65% of total school transportation funds. no date given) Allied Health Careers”. Only 29%
reported that their college offered on-campus housing to ameliorate the transportation challenge.com/lanow/2009/06/school-bus-rides-likely-to-end-or-get-a-lot-longer-in-los-angeles. and 14 said more than 80% of all students were on financial aid.
Transportation is a major barrier to going to college. Twenty colleges (87%) report more than 60%of their students received financial aid.
The students served by these colleges were very poor.would be disproportionately affected because they rely more on home-to-school transportation. http://findarticles. IA. “School buse rides likely to get longer in Los Angeles”: 6/4/09
http://latimesblogs. school transportation will worsen and make it difficult for students to attend school. they have been an
. and basic needs such as groceries and health care. Planners need to acknowledge the connectedness of transportation and other social services. as suggested by Blumenberg (2000). To date. it is important to recognize. Ames. Despite the recession’s end.
. Jensen is a professor in the Department of Economics. Without access to training. Our respondents reported that transportation difficulties affected their ability to obtain training and attend school. Garasky. no date given (“The Role of Rural-Serving Community Colleges and Tribal Colleges in
Expanding Pathways to Nursing and www. Transportation was cited as a barrier to access by 88% of respondents.com/p/articles/mi_hb3250/is_1_40/ai_n29274909/pg_4/?tag=content.
Transportation needed for access to education. This new hardship for students and families results from $62 million in looming cuts to transportation services in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Ames. Given that nearly half of our low-income respondents who were not employed reported receiving government or transportation assistance in the prior year. Partnership Brief. Summer 2006. move from welfare to work. consumer well-being will suffer. Rather than providing "one-shot" infusions of financial assistance or limiting subsidies to welfare recipients prior to employment. Perhaps one of the greatest challenges facing policy makers is determining the complex and diverse transit needs of low-income consumers and then working across traditional agency and funding boundaries to develop seamless transportation systems. social services. Subsidized auto loan and car insurance programs combined with consumer
education programs that teach basic vehicle maintenance and financial management skills are strategies that can reduce the financial burden of auto ownership for low-income workers. Blume ‘9 (Howard Blume.pdf. Nearly half of our employed respondents experienced a financial transportation hardship in the prior 12 months. staff of the LA Times.
Due to cuts in funding. The findings of this study suggest that it is in both the consumer interest and the public interest to broaden policy discussions to include the critical role of transportation in helping low-income individuals and families access public assistance programs. The service reduction would be necessary if state leaders go along with a proposal that Gov. Statewide. our data are consistent with others (General Accounting Office.col1) Our results suggest that establishing or expanding a range of programs that increase workers' access to reliable and affordable personal vehicles increases the probability of employment. the governor’s spending plan slashes more than $400 million from school transportation. Rural districts often cover vast. thinly populated distances. and child care was identified as problematic by 88%. Iowa State University.ruralccalliance.org/docs/MSPBRIEFNURSING. and progress from poverty to higher-wage employment. Arnold Schwarzenegger included in his latest revised budget.
“United States Conference of Mayors Task Force on Work. Katz ‘6 (Bruce Katz. less than one-quarter of children from high-poverty neighborhoods do so. black. and Latino—
perform better in integrated. for example. Poverty and Opportunity
Presentation” June 2. middle-class schools than in schools of concentrated poverty. found that “schools with a core of middle-class families are marked by
higher expectations. research has demonstrated that all children—middle-class. grade retention. higher quality teachers. and greater parental involvement. poor. and high drop out rates. that children who live in poor urban neighborhoods (and generally attend neighborhood schools) are at greater risk for school failure as expressed by poor standardized test results. Only about one third achieve basic levels in math and science—half the fraction of suburban students. more financial resources. 2006) Research has consistently shown. more motivated students. By contrast.”
Why do low-income students perform better in majority-middle-class schools? A recent Task Force on the Common School (organized by The Century Foundation). Asian. white. Although nearly two-thirds of suburban children achieve “basic” levels in reading.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Education Add-On – Uniquness
Poorer children get inadequate education – many drop out of highschool.
41 The evidence on the relationship between public transit and employment outcomes is more varied. The most compelling evidence centers on the positive relationship between access to automobiles and employment rates. Some studies show that access to public transit has a positive effect on overall employment rates and.and could lead to a Third World War -. January. and more frequent participation in worship services. Present-day Europe has more than 650 million people. improved quality of day care. driving out or starving their inhabitants if not using modern weapons to accomplish the same end: eliminating competitors for the remaining food.” The Atlantic Monthly. surveys of workers who obtained cars from subsidized car-ownership programs report higher wages and better jobs. “The Great Climate Flip-Flop. Florida. would go marauding. Director of The Mobility Agenda. to take over countries with significant remaining resources. hours worked. however.
. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore.37 Low-income households without cars are also more likely to experience unmet food and housing needs and have greater difficulty traveling for medical care. unpaid and lacking food.but Europe's vulnerability is particularly easy to analyze. as well as earned income.38 So far. Los Angeles. Theoretical Neurophisiolgist at the University of Washington. both at home and across the borders. It could no longer do so if it lost the extra warming from the North Atlantic. more involvement with family and community.43 In contrast. many acknowledge tha
is a much more powerful predictor of employment than public transit World War III Calvin. a study of Dade County. and largely grows its own food.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
reliable transportation leads to increased access to employment. before they fell apart entirely. _waller/20030801_Waller. it raises income. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.brookings. Ph. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . so that research evaluating their impact is limited.
The population-crash scenario is surely the most appalling. The better-organized countries would attempt to use their armies . Number 1)
Plummeting crop yields would cause some powerful countries to try to take over their neighbors or distant lands -. The last abrupt cooling. once again underscoring the negative effect of spatial isolation. 98
(William. It has excellent soils. And Waller . drastically altered Europe's climate as far east as Ukraine. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . the Younger Dryas.if only because their armies. and mean monthly earnings.39 However. most low-income car ownership programs remain
relatively new and small. suggesting that better transit connections enabled residents to obtain higher paid employment.pdf) Numerous scholars find that http://www.D.44 Although scholars continue to debate the magnitude of the effect of public transit on employment. Brookings Institute . researchers found that program participation significantly increases the probability of employment. a moderate effect on transit use and employment rates among welfare recipients.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Food Add-On
Cars increases food access Blumenberg. more specifically.40 In one study of a car ownership program in Vermont. shows that access to public transit has no effect on employment rates. Volume 281. This would be a worldwide problem -. and greater employment stability among the poor. higher earnings.42 The evidence also suggests that black welfare recipients are much less likely than other recipients to be hired for jobs that are located far from public transit stops.
1. One reason is that exports drive domestic manufacturers' profits.html) Whatever Asia's commercial promise and political dynamism. January 10. In Japan.27 trillion yen operating profit. Yale University. followed by Mitsubishi Motors Corp.7%. so robust only months ago.54 million units this fiscal year. the automaker will make additional production cuts at existing plants. Any of three situations could trigger a conflagration virtually overnight: the still-perilous division of the Korean peninsula. the largest-ever for any Japanese firm. In a little over a month.” THE DAILY YOMIURI. population growth and ethnic violence. One project slated for postponement is the opening of a factory in the U.5 million units from its initial projection.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Japan Economy Add-On
A. the yen was trading close to 90 to the dollar and 127 to the euro. January 5.. sales in China and other emerging markets. Lexis) Japanese automakers are caught in the grip of a historic downturn. state of Mississippi.S.. All this comes with incredible pressure in the form of environmental problems. while the same drop in the euro results in a roughly 3 billion yen decline. History. Toyota was also caught off guard by the yen's surge against the dollar and euro. Int’l Security Program.S. the company said Dec. and
scaling back investments elsewhere. Every 1 yen decrease in the value of the dollar knocks 20 billion yen off Toyota's halfyear operating profit.and the nation's economy is highly dependent on the auto sector . VP & Dir.
. while a very big war could occur in the area by 2010 or 2015. November new-car sales fell 34% year on year. Global Beat. 22.the ramifications will be far-reaching. “21st Century—Dialogues on the Future/Globalization’s Sway in Evolution fo States Put in Focus. www. 2009 (“Economy reeling from auto crisis”. p.nyu. at 33. Plunging auto sales accounted for 570 billion yen of the downgrade. Japan until recently had remained relatively unscathed by the global financial tsunami. recorded the largest decline in percentage terms. Kennedy: I do not think that we should discuss only positive aspects of globalization. Toyota is also
lowering the production target for a new plant in India by 30%. down roughly 1. The announcement came on the heels of a November downgrade that lowered the automaker's operating profit forecast by 1 trillion yen to 600 billion yen. In the key U. In
addition to the slump in the U.. every major state is in the midst of profound change. It now plans to slash its fiscal 2009 capital spending budget 30% to under 1 trillion yen. Today. But it now faces perhaps the biggest economic threat of any country with a large auto industry .US auto industry key to Japan econ The Nikkei Weekly. at 27. free-falling demand for cars and an
unexpectedly strong yen have forced Toyota to cut 750 billion yen from its full-year profit outlook. global auto production by Japan's eight passenger car makers plunged 21. Industry leader Toyota Motor Corp. Nissan Motor Co. There is also a nationalist passion at work in the region.6%. but the reductions are expected to boost profit by only 130 billion yen. market. the late-2010 launch of an engine plant in Miyagi Prefecture is being put on indefinite hiatus. It is important to review briefly some of these trends to gain a clearer picture of the shifting strategic landscape. At the same time. at 26.edu/globalbeat/asia/FPRI033001. Ironically. Professor. and Toyota. This might well mean that some nuclear weapons could be let off in Asia. TAIWAN. which it has lowered three times. and the volatile nuclear competition between India and Pakistan.S.935 units.652.. there is an arms race going among many Asian countries. now projects a full-year operating loss of 150 billion yen ($1. As of the evening of Dec.7%. In addition to freezing nearly all capital upgrades in the U. Toyota has been cutting back on all manner of costs." Since Toyota's troubles are shared by the rest of Japan's auto industry . Toyota President Katsuaki Watanabe is calling the reversal an "unprecedented crisis. CSIS) 3/30/01 (Kurt M. the reality is that it is a region fraught with danger. Toyota now expects group sales to total 7. Toyota's first-ever operating loss will come only a year after the carmaker posted a 2.5% on the year in November to 1.S. SOUTH ASIA
CAMPBELL (sr.Asian Instability Risks A Big Nuclear War
Paul KENNEDY.MULTIPLE POTENTIAL CONFLICT SCENARIOS—KOREA.66 billion).
B. 2000. The company had
assumed exchange rates of 100 yen to the dollar and 130 yen to the euro for the October-March half but now projects 93 yen to the dollar and 123 yen to the euro. 26 in Tokyo. are also losing steam. Toyota is also ratcheting down domestic production. Industrywide. the increasingly tense and unpredictable situation across the Taiwan Strait.
Communications and computers would be obvious beneficiaries. as Japan crafts an indigenous defense industry. if it is to play a serious role in world affairs. Asia Times Online. Democratic governments do not ethnically "cleanse" their own populations .carnegie. The flow of illegal drugs intensifies through increasingly powerful international crime syndicates that have made common cause with authoritarian regimes and have
Nuclear. there will be international implications for Japan's domestic transformation. open. LESSONS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY The experience of this century offers important lessons.
Whatever the outcome. within their own borders.which prohibits Japan from waging a war . Although Japan's government finances are heavily in debt as a result of public works projects. in power for decades. Democratic countries form more reliable. Democracy and National Integration in China. and the rule of law. The Japanese leadership may be tempted to follow the example set by US president Ronald Reagan in the early 1980s by boosting defense spending. it also needs the national-identity issue to be addressed. If democratization is seen to threaten the unity of China. But there are important regional reasons why Japanese defense planners now favor a higher military profile for the country. democratic ones.html) The outcome of the economic crisis will determine the answer. If reforms prove too painful. “China’s National Identity. of Tasmania) 2004 [Baogang. Koizumi seems to be aware of Japan's limitations. which has finally ousted the Kuomintang (KMT).000 non-combat troops to Iraq. and wants its navy to play a greater role in defending the crucial sea lanes from the Malacca Straits through the South China Seas and the Taiwan Strait. is accelerating. http://www. North Korea is now openly speaking about its possession of nuclear weapons.Nationalism Blocks Chinese Democratization… He 04 (Assoc. at a time when China is also boosting its navy.
OTHER THREATS This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades. Japan could come to emulate Britain. they respect competition. since it is impossible to build political parties entirely from scratch. which still has a major arms industry despite deindustrialization in the 1960s and 1970s. Japan can regain the confidence of the 1980s and reach a new era of growth. there is a growing political consensus that Japan must now dispense with this law.” October 1995. Indeed. who organize to
utterly corrupted the institutions of tenuous. and in that
such a military revitalization may become an increasingly desirable option. and Chinese military expenditure. and an economic collapse could spur a revival of nationalism that would seek to "re-Japanize" Japan. and its demands for a permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council have been misplaced. Democracies do not sponsor terrorism against one another. and they are much less likely to face ethnic insurgency. but thus far Japan's role has been purely logistical. If. there will be no place for the LDP in its traditional form other than as an opposition party in the new Japan. who at last have a clear reason for promoting rearmament. Available from the World Wide Web at: http://www. and openness. popular sovereignty. New parties will have to emerge. on the other hand. and vague promises to send up to 1. Precisely because. the reforms revive the economy. Prof U. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy . property rights. Japan remains dependent on the Middle East for 85 percent of its oil supplies. then history may repeat itself. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990’s. the global ecosystem. democracies are the only reliable foundation on which a new world order of international security and prosperity can be built. They are more environmentally responsible because they must answer to their own citizens . accountability. Indeed. Countries that govern themselves in a truly democratic fashion do not go to war with one another.
sense. with its provisions for legality. In the long run they offer better and more stable climates for investment. C. given its lack of involvement in international disputes. just as the communists of Russia will likely never become the prevalent political force. We can say. They do not aggress against their neighbors to aggrandize themselves or glorify their leaders. which could in turn boost Japan's technological base. taking advantage of its many talents.com/atimes/Japan/EK12Dh04. if the slump persists. They are better bets to honor international treaties since they value legal obligations and because their openness makes it much more difficult to breach agreements in secret. The very source of life on Earth. Washington is strongly pushing for Japan to play a more active role in Asia. militarization could have a knock-on effect in boosting civilian spin-off industries. p.by 2005.
B. and reforms falter.org/sub/pubs/deadly/dia95_01. They do not build weapons of mass destruction to use on or to threaten one another. 190-1]
Initiating democratization in China requires not only the breakup of the CCP’s monopoly on power. International implications Inevitably.Democratic Consolidation Prevents War And Extinction Diamond 95. aerospace and steel. chemical.
.Economy key to prevent nationalism
SANO (staffwriter) 11/12/03 (Yoel.html. Koizumi has already set in motion a process where Japan is becoming more militarily involved globally. accessed 2/20/04. Possible role models could include the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in Turkey.” Nationalism. and biological weapons continue to proliferate. a Source of Conflict between
Democracy and State Nationalism. so that democracy is sacrificed in what Chinese authorities see as the higher interest of saving the existing nationstate. civil liberties.atimes. that state nationalism and democracy are in an intrinsic state of constant tension and contradiction. and enduring trading partnerships. North Korea's test flight of a Taepodong missile over Japan in August 1998 must have been a godsend for Tokyo's hardliners. which for better or worse appears to be taking Turkey in new directions. some inevitably including elements of the LDP. with a few ships deployed in support of the US navy in the Indian Ocean. protest the destruction of their environments. appears increasingly endangered. There is also the fact that many of Japan's leaders resent the dependency on the US for security. and for this reason he is strongly pushing for the revision of Article 9 of the US-written constitution . but so too could shipbuilding. “Japan’s LDP: Last Chance to Make History. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread. or the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) in Taiwan. and Koizumi seems to be relishing the role of being the Tony Blair of Asia. then Japan will be tempted to blame Koizumi and the United States (which is seen as pressuring him to reform) for the failures. although still nominally less than Japan's. Japan has long punched below its weight. therefore. especially with the US "war on terrorism".Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Japan Economy Add-On – Nationalism
A. This inherent tension creates an ominous prospect for democratization in China.
8% for 2009.
The Automotive Lyceum.4%. 2009 (“Japanese Auto Industry Crumbles as Exports Dry Up. Japanese production was
down 56. including subsidiaries fell by 49.
. Japan's gross domestic product declined 12% on an annualized basis in the last three months of 2007 as exports dropped sharply.6% in February from a year ago. The summary of the results for Japan’s big three vehicle companies follows: Japan's largest manufacturer Toyota (Figure 1) reported that its global auto production. This is the fourth consecutive month exports declined and the largest in 30 years.179 units. Vehicle exports fell 64%. The International Monetary Fund is estimating the Japan's economy to contract 5. with
those to the US down 71%.com/automotive/ItemID=12381666516123) The Japanese economy and specifically its automotive industry continue to be hammered in this economic recession.christonium. the government reported exports declined 49.” March 27. Sales of vehicles exported to the US for the first 2 months of the year were down 38%. For the month of February.2% and exports decline 68.4% compared to a year ago. In February production including its subsidiaries. This week the Japanese automakers reported their domestic sales and production for the month of February. Japan’s industrial output fell 10% in January and February numbers are expected to be similar when reported next week. The current economic downturn also took a toll on all the major Japanese manufacturers as vehicle production in February continued to fall (See Red Ink Warning – The Auto Slump is
Global Including the Imminent Fallout). to 434.4%.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Japan Economy Add-On – Brink Now
Japan’s Auto Industry is on the brink now. Japanese sales fell 25. http://www. It was also reported the company does not expect to return to normal production until at least September.
making traditional military operations challenging . ‘ 7
(Gordon D. Commanders must examine all aspects of military operations. wind. (In Tao Te Ching 59)18
engagements taking place in urban areas.” April. Asymmetrical. irregular warfare with
infinite capacity. African oil imports to the United States could be threatened. Afghanistan.azstarnet. justice. alternative-energy vehicles and lightweight materials all hold promise for the military. health and welfare needs. potentially compromising the oil available for the United States to import
. Yet. Viet-Nam. and Zimbabwe14. Implications for the Army Commanders19 must explore alternative means of energy that not only diminish the continued need for fossil based fuels but also energy that allows for maintaining current operational systems during high level conflict without degrading the mission. rural settings.mil/internet/use-of-renewen-conting-ops. The United States Army will always require energy
as a key resource to accomplish its mission.19. Future conflicts or engagements will most likely occur in impoverished countries with minimal or very limited infrastructure.
. conducting stability operations. the austere environments of these countries. “UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE CIVILIAN RESEARCH PROJECT. www.S. secure energy is a national security issue. fellow at the US army war college with the Fellowship at the army environmental policy Institute. Somalia. two and a half millennia ago. Also of consideration are the ever increasing presence of Islamic extremists in Somalia and the spread of Islam in other African countries . That’s key To Heg Kuntz . If the United States were to become involved with efforts to provide the freedom. human rights violations. and Pacific Command) reinforcing Africa’s strategic importance16. and peace naming Syria.
http://www. This may be attributed to the continued growth in oil use. hydro. continued genocide. It is highly unlikely that future battles or battlefields will have huge armies squared off force on force as in WWI and WWII . The Chinese Philosopher Lao-tse stated: In managing affairs there is
no better advice than to be sparing.2008 (Staff writer. and so forth. If African based United States Embassies were again
threatened or attacked as they were in 1998 by Al Qaeda. or providing humanitarian aid13 . and projected remoteness of operations will have a definite and dramatic impact on operations. limited host nation infrastructure. To forestall is to be prepared and strengthened. nation building.
The continued perceptions and thinking of “doing things like we have always done” pertaining to the endless supply and re-supply of fuel and energy is fatalistic thinking. Burma. Algeria.whether peace keeping. and Iraq have demonstrated that guerrilla warfare is an effective means of resisting a well equipped force. To be prepared and strengthened is to be ever successful. operate." Levin said Tuesday. To be sparing is to forestall. by September 200815 the Pentagon plans to stand up a regional
command dedicated to the entire African continent in which Africa will fall under one command instead of its current organization of three regional commands (European Command. Chinese Philosopher Lao-tse. or extreme alteration of economic or social situations from extreme famine. “Automakers: Rescue a matter of U. and Angola) in September 2006. "These technologies are being developed primarily for the commercial industry but can also help our troops in battle. To be ever successful is to have
Only when the United States is significantly less dependent on foreign oil can it explore the full extent of its capacity. Given the United States imported approximately 2 millions
barrels of oil daily from three African countries (Nigeria. Central Command. the President identified other areas of the world that required freedom. It is unclear how this dynamic will or could impact oil exports from Africa to the United States. or relationships between African countries spoil due to pressure or unrest from various factions or governments in Africa17. 11. political concerns. and/or biomass) for base operations and power
source(s) to run generators for maintenance of communications. including South America. The same scenario can present in other regions of the world where oil is exported to the United States. state sponsored terrorism. especially logistic support. The Associated Press. “USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN CONTRINGENCY OPERATIONS. security”. the strategic importance of Africa is clear.pdf) Having dependable.com/dailystar/267871) And Detroit's research and development
of batteries. or on inhospitable terrain will make maneuvering and re-supply extremely difficult. In the 2006 State of the Union Address. justice and peace identified in the address.the United States Army can expect to operate in austere environments with little host nation infrastructure to support the mission and quite possibly little host nation governmental support or governmental involvement. as seen in Table 2.acpi.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Military Vehicles Add-On
Auto companies can develop critical battery technology useful for military Richard Lardner. Furthermore. exploring potential renewable sources of power (photovoltaic. as national and international conflicts continue around the world and the United States becomes involved in these conflicts .army. or fight. Some may believe in an underlying false perception of the United States having an endless supply of energy no matter where we live.
“Losing the Moment.
the best long-term guiding principle and vision.” WASHINGTON QUARTERLY.democracy.S. Finally. Spring
1995. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -.)
Under the third option. and the rule of law. U. enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers. (Zalmay Khalilzad. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. free markets.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Military Vehicles Add-On
Nuclear War Khalilzad 95. but because
. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself. and low-level conflicts. such as nuclear proliferation. U. such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. First. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system. this is
a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. On balance. Second. RAND analyst. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states.S. including a global nuclear exchange. LN. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival.
the ubiquitous homemade bombs of the current Iraq insurgency have led to the development of innovative armor-protected wheeled vehicles for American forces. The New York Times. Much research and development spending has gone into these programs over the years. as well as improvements in our fleets of Humvees. a retired Army general and former supreme allied commander of NATO. Likewise. In a little more than a year.nytimes.
. the scale problem can be remedied. and the Humvee (and its civilian version. More challenges lie ahead for our military. For years the military has sought better sources of electric power in its vehicles — necessary to allow troops to monitor their radios with diesel engines off. Clark. those needs could not have been quickly met. armored fighting vehicles. And unlike in World War II. and to meet them we need a strong industrial base.com/2008/11/16/opinion/16clark. In sum. domestic fuel cell production — which will undoubtedly have many critical military applications — depends on a vibrant car industry. is a
senior fellow at the Burkle Center for International Relations at the University of California at Los Angeles. by the efforts of the American automotive industry. Is Good for the Army”.html?_r=1) But in 1991. that will have immediate military use. And only the auto industry. trucks and cargo carriers.
Highly important military technology is dependent on a successful auto industry including directed energy weapons. and eventually to support electric propulsion and innovative armaments like directed-energy weapons. is able to establish a domestic advanced battery industry. many with permanent
magnet technology. Automakers are developing innovative electric motors. to support increasingly highpowered communications technology.M. Clark 08 New York Times (Wesley K.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Military Vehicles Add-On Ext. tanks. as Detroit moves to plug-in hybrids and electric-drive technology. The lives of hundreds of soldiers and marines have been saved. with its vast purchasing power. America didn’t have to divert much civilian capacity to meet these military needs. but nothing on the manufacturing scale we really need. this greater use of electricity will increase combat power while
reducing our footprint. the Persian Gulf war demonstrated the awesome utility of American land power. though. Now. and their tasks made more achievable. the Army has
procured and fielded in Iraq more than a thousand so-called mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicles. “What’s Good for G. Without a vigorous automotive sector. http://www. Likewise. the Hummer) became a star.
in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.
Toxic contamination of the planet threatens human survival. This "meltdown of democracy" is exemplified in the atomic power industry.D. 11-‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal .D. And Manville . Sandoval. often pollute heavily. Ph. water to drink and places to live for our children and theirs.resistinc. Threatens Communities. and Landis 2002). student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California. Murakami and Young 1997. County of Los Angeles 2000. and are usually less than a year away from extensive and costly repairs (Cervero. In our time. The cars driven by the poor tend to be old (Blumenberg and Haas 2002. Pollution Threatens The Survival Of The Planet Deborah Katz. Ph. Many low-income adults must share the use of a car with other household members. 1998. Ong and Houston 2002). Many people have
withdrawn from the process.org/newsletter/issues/1998/01/art1. we will detennine whether there is clean air to breath. Toxic Waste
www. potentially allowing vital decisions to be dictated outside of democratic safeguards.
. “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” .html. There is also a large difference between an automobile and a reliable automobile.7 to 1) than in nonlowincome households (greater than 1:1) (Murakami and Young 1997). accessed 1/5/05. The ratio between household adults and vehicles is significantly lower in low-income households (. and most welfare recipients cannot afford the latter. The scientific community and the nuclear industry undermine citizens' confidence in their ability to understand nuclear power and its effects.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Pollution Add-On
Funds are needed for cars to stop pollution ** Blumenberg. Los Angeles. Industrial technology-with its shadow of pollution-overwhelms us and threatens the democratic structures on which we depend.Nexis) But even the presence of a vehicle in the household is not necessarily the best measure of access
to automobiles. P. Los Angeles. activist.
. DISMANTLING RACISM. the walls of racism. inadequate housing.
For the sake of the
world and ourselves. once and for all. and greed. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate. which are the marks of
the walls of racism can be dismantled. of military buildups and violent aggression.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Racism Add-On
Lack of transportation to those impovershed causes racial disparities Sanchez Et Al. Health professionals also recognize that addressing the inequities requires both health treatment and prevention programs for individuals and social policy changes to address the root causes of inequity. 155-156
The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty. inhuman. Co-Director. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down. The results of
our white prison. A small and predominately white minority of the global population derives its power and privilege from the suffering of the vast majority of peoples of color. Brick by brick. absence of mass transportation.”142 Several articles published in the field of public health have suggested that residential racial segregation is a primary cause of racial disparities in health. will inevitably destroy us. That racial minorities face health disparities compared with whites is widely recognized. lack of educational and employment opportunities.P. ‘3 ( Thomas . institutional.146
Failure To Combat Racism Risks Extinction Joseph Barndt. 1991. stone by stone. and unsafe working conditions are implicated in producing inequitable health outcomes.Nexis) Beyond access to social and economic opportunities. Nonresident Senior Fellow.143 One article examined the link
between segregation and health disparities in Detroit. transportation policies
can create or help to perpetuate health disparities. and cultural racism can be destroyed. p. and powerlessness are cruel.144 which has a population that is approximately 83 percent African American. and unjust: the effects of uncontrolled power privilege. Crossroads. But we have also seen that centuries of national and worldwide conquest and colonialism.141 As a National Association of County and City Health Officials paper states. subservience. Metropolitan Policy Program at brookings. may be reaching a point of no return.145 The article suggests that the transportation policies of the 1950s and 1960s—which supported highway system expansions and location of heavily traveled roads in impoverished neighborhoods in Detroit—led to residents’ higher risks for a variety of diseases. The danger point of self-destruction seems to be drawing even more near. “Socioeconomic conditions such as polluted environments. “Addressing
Inequitable Effects of Transportation Policies on Minorities” . of overconsumption and environmental destruction. we dare not allow it to continue. but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom. the prison of individual.
S. LN.S. no quals.” said Visclosky.” Senator Lindsey Graham (R-SC).cfm?Section=2007&TEMPLATE=/ CM/Content Display.
Steel is key to heg Gravett .” WASHINGTON QUARTERLY. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states. and aircraft engines. Mittal said. Second. According to the IMF. has noted the importance of maintaining a healthy domestic steel industry as it relates to ensuring that “our soldiers and sailors have the equipment they need to carry out their mission. but steel is also an important component in ammunition.democracy. yet global capacity at present is approximately 90 million per year. STEEL INDUSTRY SALUTES OUR MEN AND
WOMEN IN UNIFORM”. it is crucial that we have a robust and vibrant domestic steel industry. government funding to maintain size and jobs is not the answer if there is no market. high-quality and reliable steel that will serve and strengthen our national security interests. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system. http://www. “U. Communications .
And . “Losing the Moment. 2009 (“GM.said ArcelorMittal chief L N Mittal. RAND analyst. “It is poor policy to rely on foreign steel for our national security – instead.S. military strength and they continue in this role today. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. we need a long-term investment in domestically-produced. but a necessity for the future of the industry.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Steel Industry Add-On
Auto Industry key to steel industry The Economic Times.cms) NEW YORK: General Motors and Chrysler filing for bankruptcy protection .” Historically.
“To ensure that our national defense needs will be met. aircraft parts. a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee. the world should have approximately 3 billion cars by 2050. though sad.indiatimes.Nuclear War Khalilzad 95. A healthier automotive industry will have automatic benefits for our own industry. this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision.)
Under the third option. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself.
U. "The recent announcements from GM and Chrysler signifying a move into bankruptcy protection are tragic from a historical perspective. Citing an IMF projection of auto industry. was a necessity for the future of two sectors . there is little doubt that despite its current problems the automotive industry will continue to grow.org/AM/Template. such a world
a world in which the U
would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. and low-level conflicts. such as nuclear proliferation. enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers." the India born billionaire said. and the rule of law. June 23. "As the steel industry learned after much pain. Spring
1995. American-made steel and specialty metals have been integral components of U. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -. In his speech at a steel conference in New York. U. including a global nuclear exchange. Mittal said global demand in a good economy is estimated to be 60 million vehicles a year. First. Finally. Chrysler bankruptcy filing was need of the hour: Mittal”.com/News/International-Business/GM-Chrysler-bankruptcy-filing-was-need-of-the-hourMittal/articleshow/4694099.
. On balance. Vice President. (Zalmay Khalilzad. free markets. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival. DOD’s steel requirements are satisfied by both integrated steel mills (consumers of
iron ore) and mini-mills (consumers of scrap). compared with 700 million today. 11-8-‘7 (Nancy . but because nited tates would have tremendous advantages. The Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) primary use of steel in weapons systems is for shipbuilding.auto and steel.S." Mittal said.
given the ineffectiveness of schools and other public services in these neighborhoods. Housing stock is generally in poor condition. many children grow up without sufficient emotional support and adult guidance. patterns of inequality and exclusion persist between the affluent and the poor in US cities. corrupt officials. perceptions that are often framed in terms of racial differences. and rampant consumerism and its resulting waste) are variously implicated in disparities of wealth and opportunities. Browne University. and lack of infrastructure support forces child residents of these areas to grow up under conditions of neglect and hostility Loren A.17 These impoverished neighborhoods tend to endure not only poorer services. King. Two classes of inequality can be distinguished in US cities. a trend that is exacerbated by the fact that most residents of these impoverished neighborhoods are black or Hispanic. Whereas poor white households tend to be dispersed among both low-income and middle-income households in US urban regions.21 Second. In contrast. lessons that are generally provided by adult role models in the homes and communities associated with more affluent neighborhoods .sagepub. failing to provide a sufficient deterrent to criminal elements and thus discouraging private investment by small businesses and homeowners. and the uninspired efforts of municipal agencies to improve matters. We should be
especially troubled by the consistency with which these inequalities appear to sustain legacies of exploitation.com/cgi/content/abstract/3/1/97 Along with these ecological and political realities. For instance. disputes between central cities and suburbs. p 100
http://ppe. there are social inequalities: in
many spatially segregated. Indeed.20 These areas often lack a range of reliable public and private services. if any. widespread anomie and diminishing public spiritedness. lack sufficient infrastructure to attract private investment. Policing by local authorities is often irregular and uninspired. 2004. nor the informal lessons of personal responsibility and the importance of education and self-discipline.19 which is entirely justified. and vacant lots that are sometimes used as illegal dumping grounds or that remain heavily polluted from past commercial tenants. and marginalization along racial lines. but access to credit for home purchases or improvement can be difficult. but also poorer air
quality. black and Hispanic poverty remains characterized by extreme concentration within central city neighborhoods that are isolated (both in terms of geography and popular imagery) from more affluent urban and suburban communities.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Violence Add-On
Federal encouragement of oppression justified by urban/suburban disparities instills backlash and violence towards government in central city neighborhoods. discriminatory attitudes and outright racism. rarely providing adequate training for the youths in their charge. Democracy and City Life. low levels of trust in local government. public schools in these neighborhoods are underfunded and understaffed.22
. racially homogeneous.
there are economic inequalities: certain neighborhoods. many urban pathologies (declining environmental quality. Politics Philosophy & Economics. the local politics of zoning and land use restrictions in US cities have been in part motivated by affluent suburban residents wishing to exclude from their neighborhoods those who are perceived as a threat to property values and the quality of public services. such as road repair. In addition. stable daily routines.18 Residents of such
neighborhoods are often pessimistic and have little trust in government. children in poor and isolated central city neighborhoods often face neglect and violence. and many banks continue to discriminate against these groups. Their households and immediate community provide few. oppression. typically in central cities. and economically isolated urban neighborhoods. highway systems. First. emergency services and medical clinics. both within and outside of their homes. as they are often located close to urban industrial sites.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff ***2AC Blocks***
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Topicality*
and (d) the development of new cooperative initiatives (Federal Transit Administration. To underscore the importance of collaboration.S.net/papers/543. a component of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). 1998).4 The performance of grantees is monitored. Welfare-to-Work. Collaboration is measured by (a) the number of participating organizations. For example. states. the local share of the cost can be met by other federal programs including TANF. 2002. in some instances. Grant funds awarded for projects may not exceed 50 percent of the projects’ total cost. however. and HOPE VI administered by the U. based on the level of ongoing collaboration in the region. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). applicants must demonstrate that they have developed a comprehensive regional approach to meeting the transportation needs of welfare participants through a coordinated public transit/human service planning process. (b) the level of activity among these organizations. employers.
Blumenberg.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Are Trained Professionals
The Federal funding uses interagency relationships with trained applicants. Evelyn. human service agencies. and affected communities and individuals” (U. Dept. collaboration is central to the Job Access and Reverse commute program. (c) the extent to which organizations collaborate in the provision and/or the funding of services. http://www. in part. (Planning for the Transportation Needs of Welfare Participants: Institutional: Challenges to Collaborative Planning. of Urban Planning. the major surface transportation bill that was enacted in June 1998. the program mandates cost sharing. One of the two major objectives of the Job Access program is to “…increase collaboration among the transportation providers.S. Federal Transit Administration. 1998). mandate interagency relationships.uctc. To receive funds.
. metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs).pdf) Federal funding requirements encourage and.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Counterplans*
and without a job on the application. but added that now most manufacturers have shut down. hasn't noticed a trend in what kind of vehicle is selling. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy . Rico. We are trying though. the used car market has gotten to be pretty high. Something here and something there . Nonprofit organizations could allocate part of the grant to a collaborating lending institution and provide car purchase and financial education for participants." One thing is for certain.D. of Taylor Truck & Auto. He added that for every new car he sold. I know I did my part in helping out with that situation. and those people have kept Ridgewood Motors afloat. and when it does. I believe the world revolves around it because the car is like our horse. by reducing the risk for lenders with FHA guaranteed loans and funding home purchase training programs. "We are selling one car here and one car there. "Right now it's harder than when I first began. We need to go places every day. Ricardo Flores. Federal policymakers made it possible for many low-income families to become homeowners by creating a subsidized and guaranteed loan program for veterans. "Do they want a vehicle with some warranty left and low miles but costs around $15. by subsidizing the purchase with the Section 8 program.
." With this situation. Those of us left in the industry are trying to help those dealerships that were let go. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore.Access to loans and credit key impediment to auto industry recovery Silver City Sun. Director of The Mobility Agenda. and big dealers are over buying the used car dealers. and we have done that quite successfully. and we look forward to seeing our auto industry thrive again. and it's all proportionate in all areas." Saavedra added that his best friend. "I get to bring my dog
which is attached to Saavedra's office. but we are still going to provide the same quality used vehicle. most
aren't going to lend people the money for a vehicle.” 6/14/09. The common denominator for each dealership in Silver City is that there aren't any people with jobs that are coming to buy a new or used vehicle. and our customers still expect us to deliver a quality product." Rico said his inventory was very high because Chrysler was trying to stay afloat and was requiring dealers to purchase more inventory. Flores has Brakes & Mor." Rico said he has noticed that people who have jobs as teachers. "We haven't seen a trend at all. county and federal employees around Silver City aren't as impacted by the economy." Taylor said.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
Create a federal demonstration program to improve credit options for low-income workers who need a loan to purchase a car. the market is dribbling. state. Our methods haven't changed. "I have seen a change in the industry since May of last year. "The price of fuel directly affects the market of used cars and trucks.. and that it's
friend of his in Albuquerque who has been in the auto industry for 55 years told him that this was the worst he's ever seen. owner of Ridgewood Motors. and other policies. trucks and sport utility vehicles weren't moving off the lot. "The economics of it all is that there aren't any jobs here.000). Blumenberg. Rollie Saavedra. and our margins have shrunk along with our profits.000." Bryan said." Rico said.000?" Saavedra said that business has plummeted since May. "You can't touch recreational vehicles for the prices you used to be able to get them at. "I think with the bankruptcy of the new car dealerships around the U. "For some new car dealers." Saavedra said he has lived the "American dream" of owning his own business. with the price of gas coming down. A grant program to reduce bank loan risk might encourage lenders to get involved." Taylor said. "We have been steady in the community. He said he's been talking to people in Albuquerque and Arizona. has helped keep him in business. the auto industry will have to recover. and
the same in every city
those vehicles aren't being sold either." Bryan turned his attention to recreational vehicles last year because they were selling like hot cakes.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 2AC – AT : Advantage CP
Turn CreditA. "Right now I am just trying to replace the vehicle that I just sold. Plan key to Credit for Poor People. "Trying to find financing is hard right now." Taylor said he has seen used cars go up in value for the first five months of this year." he said. and Silver City hasn't been immune to the latest trend of slow business in the auto industry. When gas was almost $5 per gallon.scsun-news. "Our inventory was really high. we can't operate. "I am going to venture to say that you will see a big change in the auto industry. But recently that trend has evened out with the huge rebates and other incentives that are available on new cars. Los Angeles." Taylor has seen a trend reflecting the price of gas during the past year. and without having to sub-contract work on his vehicles he has helped keep costs down. Our policies and approach toward people has remained clear and consistent. "With Chrysler going through their bankruptcy. Ph. but we did go to a new idea of offering cars and trucks that are more affordable (under $10. and we know it's good for them as well. "We are still programmed to handle cars that are more affordable. three used cars would fly off his lot. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.News. said his business is off about 70 percent this year." Saavedra said. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . "I think that has been the biggest plus in the world to my business." Rico added. Brookings Institute ." Bryan has been in business since 1999." Rico has seen a trend of used cars being sold a lot more. Jeff Bryan. but now with the economy going through what it is. it's hard to tell what is selling. But." Saavedra said. The economy has made an abrupt turn south.
. "It's not that people aren't buying vehicles." George Rico.S." Nichols said. has been at it for 21 years. Right now those seem to be the only ones who qualify for car loans. "People are really latching on to new cars right now." he added. "With last year's gas prices." Rico said. but we need to put people back to work." Scott Nichols. A small demonstration program testing options for expanding credit for a car purchase could lead to a more open market for automobile purchase. "That's been good for us. and I don't think I will go back to that again. "From last November until now.
http://www. Lenders are also being very cautious about whom they lend money to. We are trying to buy out their inventory." Taylor said. _waller/20030801_Waller. "It's unbelievable." he said. "Business is so bad. but there for a while that inventory wasn't getting sold and it starts eating away at everything. 2009 (“Dealing with hard times: Local auto sellers see sales fall but hope for rebound. but one of the biggest problems I have noticed is that it's getting tougher to get merchandise. He said that he sold some at huge losses during that time. We hope to see everything else in this area come up.
"We have helped each other stay self-sufficient. of Rollie's Auto. I am just glad to see the new car market is coming back." Saavedra said the problem he is facing is selling a car to people with jobs." Bryan said. Used cars aren't coming in. but I wouldn't trade it for anything. trucks and SUVs are selling better. Taylor and Nichols will be here waiting to sell
and used vehicle sales are down. "The prices have gone through the roof. people are getting buys on new cars that we haven't seen before. offers on new cars aren't realistic. Without it. Saavedra. The car business is the backbone of our society. of Scott Nichols Buck-Pontiac-GMC-Toyota. or do my customers want high miles and
vehicles that run around $10. New
"Business is down in general. Before then it was comfortable. but has been around the auto industry since 1972 at Silver City Busby's. And Waller . and we hope it gets better.pdf) http://www. Congress could couple
this demonstration with a donation of vehicles from the retired federal fleet (rather than selling the cars for proceeds) to low-income car ownership programs
. The banks can do what they want.com/ci_12586988)
There is a struggle for every automobile dealer in the country." Saavedra said. said the biggest problem has been financing. owner of Bryan Truck and Auto. and I think people appreciate that." he said. nothing's hot. and just recently saw the used car market remain steady. business has been bad.A
had to answer the question
of what my customers wanted to buy.. and we haven't noticed anything with our Ford dealership either. I have been doing business here for 34 years. I haven't bought any big trucks. customers a new or used vehicle of their choice. to work.brookings." Jim Taylor. has had to sit back and rethink his game plan for used vehicles in his lot. owners like Bryan. "It's trying to get people financed for cars and trucks. and wouldn't trade it for anything. "Those people with steady employment are still buying cars. and his business is surviving on repeat customers and referral by customers.
Ph. student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California.
“Cars.Welfare Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles”.D.Cars are Key Blumenberg. And Ong. P. in part. and allowwomento travel safely after dark. policies
to address the transportation needs of welfare participants should reflect the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which welfare participants live. Ph. Owning a car can provide a measure of control over one’s fate and alleviate the need for dependency on buses or trains. and Jobs . accommodate schedules that may include unforeseen travel requirements (sick children.D. P. Ph. (2002b) point out. the evidence suggests that public transit can effectively transport them to jobs. therefore. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.
. in some instances . Ph. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA . welfare participants would clearly benefit far more from policies to increase automobile ownership and to improve alternative forms of nonfixed-route transportation.No Solvency . As this analysis has shown.Nexis) Given the distinctly uneven patterns of employment opportunities in metropolitan areas. In these neighborhoods. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. are targeted on the basis of the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which recipients live. using transit allows less time for trip chaining. and Jobs .). Welfare recipients face many transportation-related
obstacles to finding and maintaining employment. decrease travel time by avoiding the multiple stops and sometimes circuitous routes of public transit. Cars allow flexibility. Counties must strive to implement a variety of programs that. a late bus can result in lost benefits. can increase child care costs. 2.Welfare Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles”. policy makers may wish to invest in public transit improvements. In job-poor neighborhoods improved fixed-route public transportation service is unlikely to substantially increase employment access. ‘1 (Evelyn and Paul. Professor of Urban Planning.Nexis) Planning for the transportation needs of welfare recipients must move beyond simple. etc. If welfare participants live in job-rich neighborhoods. they are usually let go” (p. P. Professor of Urban Planning. a cookie-cutter approach to meeting their transportation needs will be ineffective. in that if they arrive to work late more than once. Los Angeles . Los Angeles. “Reliability. Since transit commutes tend to be 63 to 94 percent longer in time than solo drives (Taylor and Ong 1995). Moreover. Every reason that transit has difficulty meeting the transportation needs of the poor is a reason that private vehicles succeed. Buses. “is of utmost importance to many [welfare] clients. And Manville .” Cervero et al.D. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA .
more than half of all participants cited transportation as a major factor in their noncompliance (Goldberg 2001). Indeed. Los Angeles. welfare recipients can be sanctioned for arriving late to work. And Ong.Nexis)
The advantages of the car are real and not difficult to discern. ‘1 (Evelyn and Paul. 11-‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal . cars are more important to low-income workers than to higher income workers. In these neighborhoods. and cars eliminate the need to contend with isolated transit stops and long headways typical of off-peak travel. Los Angeles . are more likely to have inconsistent work schedules that require travel at off-peak hours.D. Buses.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 2AC – AT : Public Transit CP
1. dichotomous debates over the merits of public transit versus automobiles.Perm Do Both – It solves best Blumenberg.No Solvency – Not to the Job market Blumenberg. “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” . as has been mentioned. ES-7). and can result in additional travel time and fewer work hours
3. In research conducted in Iowa on sanctioned families. no single program or service will be successful. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.11 The poor.
one seat will generate fares from a continuous stream of riders. the costs of providing this express service will be very high . thereby reducing the subsidy required to operate the service. Car ownership programs for low-income people represent
an innovative response to address the transportation needs of some of these families.
Under these conditions.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
Although reverse commute solutions using fixed-route public transit have been widely attempted. the seats will turn over less frequently and generate less income per mile traveled. However. Director of The Mobility Agenda.No Solvency . unless transit providers charge a premium for the trips. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Ph. the transportation needs of the working poor are complex. The state assists them with subsidies for housing and food stamps to ease this transformation. Transit agencies may be forced to reduce services on better-performing.D. one of their crucial needs. including bus. Many poor families in Oregon today are
struggling to make this shift. ‘6 (Sreya . intra-city routes to cover the additional subsidies needed to provide suburban express service. since they do not have much control over the location of their subsidized accommodation. Second. transportation. Los Angeles. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore.
.” Empowerment Through Car Ownership” .pdf)
The transformation from welfare to work is a rather bumpy process. On these long runs. childcare and employment.
http://www. The transportation needs of this group of people have frequently fallen into policy blind spots for two main reasons.Dependecy Sarkar . Brookings Institute . Several evaluations of welfare-towork reforms have cited lack of transportation as a major barrier to job search. Yet. And Waller .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 2AC – AT : Public Transit CP
4. the welfare-to-work transition is nearly
impossible. car pools and door-to-door shuttles.” Without access to reliable transportation. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy .pdf) http://www. The search for the right mix of transportation options for low-income families has become a perfect labyrinth that never seems to get untangled in spite of the availability of federal funds to support programs that facilitate access to jobs and the “reverse commute.cascadepolicy. Director of the Wheels to Wealth Project . the different modes of public transportation used to cater to their needs.org/pdf/pub/newsletter4_06.brookings. First. The routes that cover a larger share of their costs from fares are those in which buses are crowded with passengers traveling short distances. Turn : Trade off Blumenberg.50
5. if reverse commute service is provided simply to transport inner-city residents to suburban locations. these express bus routes can come at a great cost to transit systems. employment and self-sufficiency. Reverse commute service can be relatively inexpensive if it is provided as the “back haul” trip of costeffective inbound service. _waller/20030801_Waller. remains unaddressed. “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” . are not always economically sustainable.
org/automobility/JConautoownership. Ph. Cars are the most important factor to employment Charles. are slow and may not meet the immediate needs of welfare recipients. Nationally.pdf) Job dispersal trends are not a problemfor many households that can and do choose to move away from central cities.“Car ownership improved the likelihoodof being employed by 80 percent.
“Cars.. For this reason many are hoping that our transportation system can somehow link low income communities to job opportunities. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Many citizens want welfare recipients off the dole. Theeffect on average weekly wages was ap-proximately $275. Cascade Policy institute . however. http://americandreamcoalition.5weeks. Housing mobility programs do not address racial and ethnic discrimination in housing markets and the shortage of affordable housing units in many job-rich neighborhoods. Those jobs may not be faraway in terms of geography (frequentlyfive to fifteen miles). In fact. will not solve recipients’ job access problem. senior policyanalyst at Cascade Policy Institute.D. Because a perfect balance between jobs and housing is unlikely. the time needed to implement them would far exceed the time limits imposed by Federal welfare reform. the study found thata high school diploma/GED played nosignificant role in explaining differencesin employment rates. The timeframe for creating new jobs in the central city or new low-cost housing is greater than developing the transportation system. P. but they would likely see such policies as more politically objectionable than welfare itself. Even if we could conceive of practical policies by which to achieve either of these ends. Ms. Professor of Urban Planning.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 1AR No Solvency – Cars Key
Only trasnportation solves for poverty and equality Blumenberg. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA . Brian D. Wachs. transportation services are essential components to effective welfare-to-work programs. ‘1 (Evelyn and Paul.The vast majority of suburbanites own cars. Buses. UCLA. and Jobs . 1998. and Taylor.cdlib.while two-thirds of new jobs are locatedin the suburbs. Assistant Professor of Urban Planning.Welfare Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles”. but they are so
in-accessible by public transit that theymay as well be on the moon. job dispersalposes a major employment barrier. and the effect on weeks worked was approximately 8. Kerri Sullivan of Portland State University re-cently examined the effects of carownership on employment and wagesfor adults without a high school di-ploma in Portland. by themselves. Director of UC Transportation Center. (“Can Transportation Strategies Help Meet the Welfare Challenge”
http://repositories. if effective. Local economic development programs.Nexis)
Nontransportation policies to increase women’s access to employment may improve economic opportunities for some welfare recipients but. And Ong. UC Berkeley. Martin. three-fourths of welfare recipi-ents live in central cities or rural areas.
unemploymentthrough auto ownership” .” Her work showed that auto owner-ship was much more important than education. Sullivan found. 3-‘4 ( John . This problem has gained the interestof scholars and a number of studies nowshow a stunning relationship between car ownership and employment. Los Angeles .cgi?article=1000&context=uctc) It is obvious that America in the late nineties is unwilling to match welfare
recipients to jobs by creating sufficient numbers of new jobs in the central city or new low-cost housing near outlying suburban work centers.org/cgi/viewcontent. For the poor.
_waller/20030801_Waller.47 This is not surprising given that fixedroute transit often has difficulty serving the reverse commute. Improving the mobility of low-income adults requires a mix of transit and auto-related solutions. In the suburbs. Los Angeles. even among the poor. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore. 7-‘3 (Evelyn and Margy .brookings. where there are dense clusters of jobs and residents. Fixed-route transit works best in the inner city. JARC has a special funding set-aside specifically for reverse commute
However. improved reverse commute transit service will only address a small part of the transportation difficulties facing the poor. Director of The Mobility Agenda. Ph. Brookings Institute . “A Federal Transportation Policy for
Working Families” .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 1AR No Solvency – Cars Key – Time
The transit system wont solve – the emploment is not close to the bus stops and travel time tanks solvency Blumenberg. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. And Waller . The challenge for policymakers and planners extends beyond the reverse commute to targeting scarce funds most effectively and avoiding costly projects that are unlikely to generate results.pdf) http://www. employment is less often located adjacent to transit stops.”46 To facilitate travel from the urban core to the suburbs.D. private vehicles facilitate most reverse commutes. This challenge is complicated by the fact that no one-size-fits-all transportation solution exists.edu/~/media/Files/rc/reports /2003/07 transportation
One of the most commonly prescribed transportation remedies for the poor is programming to facilitate reverse commuting—travel from central cities to the suburbs. 9. Currently.8 percent of work trips were from the center city to the suburbs in a
programs. In 2000. and travel time from the central city is often lengthy . and many transit agencies are experimenting with a variety of these services.
Some metropolitan places retain many employment opportunities in the central city. unless central city transit systems are well designed and funded. but today twothirds live in suburbs and three-quarters of jobs are located there too.
. http://www.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 1AR No Solvency – Job Markets
In the SQUO there is a lack of funding for transit services – where they drop off isnt where the jobs are anyway Waller . Brookings . Legislative proposals in the U. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore . http://www. comprehensive transit system. or require lengthy commutes.gov/press_releases/1998/dot2998. Welfare Reform and Access to Jobs in Boston. complicated commutes because new entry level jobs are being created in suburban locations and typically have irregular work shift hours. or even hiring them in the first place. Bridging this spatial mismatch is difficult. who rely heavily on public transportation. residential and employment patterns in metropolitan areas have reversed. Work requirements and timelimited welfare assistance policies moved a number of scholars to map the location of welfare recipients and the jobs they might fill.S. "This study explores the difficulties that welfare recipients may face when their jobs are located beyond reasonable reach of public transportation facilities. infrequent.S. House of Representatives and the U. which demonstrates an approach to assessing transportation needs of welfare recipients. often face long.
over half of the metropolitan poor live in central cities and the suburban poor may still live far from work. Boston was selected for the study because it has a well-established. Meanwhile . These maps provide a clear picture of spatial and modal mismatch between workers and jobs.S.
This study is part of a broader Administration effort to address the role of transportation in welfare reform. Nevertheless. Boston’s dilemma is also apparent in many large cities across the country.brookings.pdf) In the last century.bts.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2005/12poverty_waller/pb35. Director of The Mobility Agenda. The Administration’s surface transportation reauthorization proposal includes a six-year. “High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and Family Economic Success” ." said BTS Deputy Director Robert A. 12-‘5 (Margy . transit service in dense urban areas can still be unreliable. almost all urban residents lived and worked in central cities. crowded. Department of Transportation’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) today released a new study. Senate include a version of this proposal as part of bills to reauthorize the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. $600 million dollar competitive grant program designed to help sates and localities connect welfare recipients to jobs. it
was found that welfare recipients. Knisely. 1998 (“New BTS Study
Examines Transportation Challenges for Welfare Reform”. Employers report that transportation is a major barrier to retaining former welfare recipients. as well as public transit options to connect recipients to these increasingly suburban employment opportunities. Public Transportation is part of the problem – it isn’t far reaching enough and is unreliable for consistent employment Analynn Lacombe – report from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics – February 24. In the early 1900s. by illustrating the difficulty of using public transit to link them. However.htm) The U.
There are now at least 160 programs supporting car ownership for low-income households. Unfortunately. former Fellow at the Brookings Institution Senior Advisor on domestic policy in the Clinton-Gore . The researchers found that the cost of the car to the program is made up within a few months. In his first term. Left to manage the transportation dilemma with limited federal support. While these investments fail to meet current needs. such as Paul M.
the federal government has taken only small steps toward implementing policy in response to academic research on transportation. after implementing these controls. car ownership. State and local budget decisions threaten funding for car programs. President George W. A bipartisan Senate proposal would allow Congress to appropriate up to $25 million for each of the next five years to fund a national competition for grants to run programs that “improve access to dependable automobiles” for low. and New York lost all or most of their funding in budget cutbacks.income families. many lowincome workers will remain transit dependent. Local entrepreneurs who create these programs are a long way from meeting existing need for automobiles. to date there is no experimental research using
control groups and random assignment to assess the impact of car ownership programs. as earnings replace welfare cash assistance. However. Even after controlling for other effects.
the fact that More formal evaluations would provide valuable information about effectiveness of the public investment in car-ownership assistance on employment and measures of family well-being.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 2AC – AT : States CP – No Solvency
Only federal funding solves the aff – a policy allowing for cars to be owned by those receiving a certain level of wellfare would spir job creation – states simply cant afford this and don’t have the right method of spuring commitment Waller . JARC requires local officials to develop locally responsive transportation plans.
. federal and local agency practice makes it difficult to use the funding for solutions that involve car purchase. for example. Congress did not pass that proposal and the administration has not renewed it. President Bill Clinton proposed a package of initiatives to address transportation barriers. Other researchers. increased funding for JARC should be made available so that other local transportation strategies to increase opportunities for low-income workers can be developed and tested. Brookings . Perhaps because these programs are relatively new and small. However. Still. others purchase cars at auction or assist welfare recipients with purchase decisions while subsidizing auto loans. Policymakers should support investment and policy that is equitable for low-income transit riders by encouraging use of distance fares and improved service in dense urban areas. Congress should pass these bills to provide state and local governments and providers with resources for experimentation and evaluation.edu/~/media/Files/rc/papers/2005/12poverty_waller/pb35.pdf) Many scholars have found strong relationships between access to a car and employment rates. Clinton also proposed making federal funding available to match savings of low-income working families who need a car. Bush proposed to eliminate the vehicle asset test in the food stamp program to ensure that owning a car was not a barrier to eligibility. http://www. Nicholson used models to control for other factors and found that the Vermont program led to statistically significant increases in both employment and income. Director of The Mobility Agenda.dense places. the researchers determined the impact of car ownership was between $124 and $127 per month. In 1997. “High Cost or High Opportunity Cost? Transportation and
Family Economic Success” . In recent years. Georgia. His administration increased the appropriation for JARC grants and adopted rules making it easier for states to ensure that having a car did not prevent eligible families from receiving food stamps. have controlled for
the relationship between car ownership and positive employment outcomes could result from another factor. tax incentives. A number of these researchers have called for investment in car ownership assistance. Marilyn Lucas and Charles F. Congress and the Clinton administration created the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) fund for innovative solutions to transportation problems faced by poor workers. The federal government recognizes the investment value of an education and subsidizes post-secondary training with Pell Grants. In early 2000. However. generally requiring a financial contribution from participating families. approximately two-and-a-half times higher than earnings prior to receipt of the car. improving fixed-route transit service in dense urban areas and implementing demand-responsive options in less. New public investment would highlight transportation barriers and evaluate programmatic responses. in a recent evaluation of a subsidized car ownership program in Vermont. programs in Arizona. as part of transportation reauthorization legislation. Some programs use donated cars repaired
by welfare recipients newly trained as mechanics. and employment. in addition to assessing the effectiveness of particular approaches. A similar standalone bill in the House of Representatives would authorize up to $50 million per year and expand options for state and local providers to match Individual Development Account savings for car purchases. 12-‘5 (Margy . and earnings. Both bills require an evaluation of funded programs. hours
worked. Earned income increased by about $220 per month. Federal policy acknowledges the need for child care and health coverage for low-income workers and increased funding for both after welfare law changed. Congress did not take up the savings proposal until after the Clinton administration ended and has not yet passed bills containing the
provision. These are all small programs. Finally.brookings. these researchers find that the relationship persists. student
loans. Ong. and more. many state and local governments have supported creation of car ownership programs. they signal federal interest in supporting lowincome workers with proven and promising services. while individuals were 19 percent more likely to have earned income after getting a car.
suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear
History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions . arsenals that will be unleashed.
foes as rapidly and massively as possible. director of food assistance
policy at the Center for Budget Policy Priorities.S. With the increase. there is also more now to apply for.3 billion that was allotted to fund the increase through 2013. Food stamps are key to the economy Samavati . As an example. “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis”. under such extreme stress conditions. "Many economists have said [increasing food stamp benefits] is one of the most effective means of stimulus because people on food stamps spend the money very quickly. and perhaps most of the biosphere. escalating it significantly. June 24. a family of four receiving the maximum benefit -meaning they have no net income -. “Weak economy driving record numbers of people to apply
for food stamps”. http://www.html)
As more people apply for food stamps. the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts.cleveland. Economic Collapse Would Escalate To Full-Scale Conflict And Rapid Extinction Bearden 2K (Lt.C. Or suppose a desperate China-whose long-range nuclear missiles (some) can reach the United
the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff 2AC – AT : States CP – Food Stamps Good
Turn – Frazer says without a federal policy the CP would make people ineligable to food stamps – meaning either they don’t solve case or they rid food stamps And .com/business/index. a great percent of the WMD The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it.. Today. but it can also free up other money that families can then spend to pay their bills or buy other products.84 in economic activity. $756 million is going to people in Ohio. the only chance a nation has to survive at all is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived
rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs. they would have received $588 worth." said Stacy Dean. to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations.would get $668 a month in food. Without effective defense. are already on site within the United States itself. including U. for example. once
States-attacks Taiwan. The real legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. Before the increase. USDA research has estimated that every $1 in food stamps disbursed generates $1.6 percent in April. p.
Not only does increasing food stamp benefits pump money into grocery stores.ssf/2009/05/weak_economy_driving_record_nu. Of the $19. a few nukes are launched. 5-29-‘9 ( Shasheen . food companies and farms. Free Republic. in a spasmodic suicidal response. adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. forces there. In addition to immediate responses . Col in US Army) [Thomas. Dean said. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that.
Prior to the final economic collapse. As the studies showed. a research organization in Washington. are almost certain to be released . at least for many decades. Plain dealer reporter . weapons upon Japan and South Korea. And . D. The federal economic stimulus package that passed in February increased maximum food stamp benefits by 13. focused on budget policy and poverty issues.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Case Hits*
both the congestion and pollution externalities caused by such policies are likely to be small.D. working age population. hence. to suspect that increasing auto access for blacks and Latinos would not add appreciably to congestion and pollution.Nexis) There are reasons. Waller and Hughes 1999). Berkeley. 11-‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal . “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” . and barring them from cars will not free our streets and highways of congestion. should policy deny a single car to a poor family. Concerning the congestion externality. There is no risk of congestion – the plan solves Raphael . since a disproportionately large share of blacks
and Latinos live in central regions of metropolitan areas. Ph. 2003. Finally. Nor. Moreover.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Congestion
The plan wont trigger congestion Blumenberg. And Manville . in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. Another factor limiting the addition to congestion costs concerns the fact that many of these individuals work non-standard schedules and. those who locate employment in the suburbs will have commutes that are in the reverse direction of the largest peak-period flows.Nexis) It is also worth noting that neither environmental nor transportation policy is likely to be successful if it is confined largely to those without choices. those individuals who commute to jobs located within city centers are unlikely to increase congestion on inbound freeway routes.Wachs and Taylor 1998.
. it could be argued. Los Angeles. P.D. and lowincome families. with fewer options and resources. even an extreme policy that raises minority car ownership rates to the level
of whites would purchase new autos for a minority of a minority of the U. O. If the landscape of the United States dictates that a car is necessary for economic success and self-sufficiency.S. in the interest of traffic or pollution mitigation. Traffic is not a problem caused by the poor. P. when almost 60
percent of American households have two or more vehicles and the freedom to purchase as many more as they can afford (Pucher and Renne 2003). would be making private-auto commuted at times of the day when the external costs of an additional trip are low. Los Angeles.Regan and Quigley (1999) have made a similar point quite decisively in their discussion of the possible congestion consequences of increasing car-ownership rates among welfare recipients. Goldman School of Public Policy University of California. however. “Can Boosting Minority CarOwnership Rates Narrow Inter-Racial Employment Gaps?”. it seems neither fair nor pragmatic to discourage auto ownership among the poor while expecting them to climb beyond poverty (Blumenberg andWaller. Berkeley. Rosenbloom 1992). Hence. 6-‘2k ( Steven and Micheal . And Stoll Goldman School of Public Policy University of California. seem unlikely to be different. Most middle. student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California.and upper-income families could not make do without automobiles (Berger 1992. Ph.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Dependency
The plan would decrease dependence and funding neccesary for the impovershed Kaplan , Employee of the office of Family Assistance at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services , 6- ’98
(April , “Transportation: The Essential http://220.127.116.11/publications/transitneed.htm) Need to Address the "To" in Welfare–to-Work” ,
In meeting the transportation needs of welfare recipients, states can look to other systems already in place for senior citizens, people with disabilities, Head Start programs, para-transit vehicles, and public schools. Senior
citizens centers often have vans available during commuting times, many of which are equipped for those with special needs. These vehicles are insured and can be used during off-hours to serve the needs of employment transportation. Using school buses as a means of transportation has been quite controversial but it is permissible if state legislatures and boards of education allow it. Often buses are not used during off-hour commuter times when many welfare recipients work. Head Start buses can be used to provide transportation for welfare recipients and their children. Since buses already pick up the children at their homes, the parent can ride to the Head Start center with the children and the center can be used as a central pick-up point for several parents to get to jobs. States are increasingly recognizing that the use of existing vehicles is one of the most economical ways of getting welfare recipients to jobs and other destinations. Tapping into such resources is a group
effort that requires collaboration among agencies and organizations that may have never worked together. TANF funds can be used to expand existing services run by other agencies , thereby increasing the availability of service to both TANF and non-TANF clients. This could lead to increased revenues, thus a decrease in the need for additional TANF funding for services. Often the use of other vehicles creates insurance questions that states are unsure how to address. Insurance should not be a problem unless there is a statement in an agency’s transportation policy that a vehicle should be used for no other purposes than the one specified. Agencies that want to coordinate transportation can add a rider to an existing policy, extend an existing
policy, or create a new policy. For the most part, insurance issues are related to turf problems. If a state or agency is considering using existing vehicles, that agency should check with other agencies on their policies. For information on insurance policies, refer to "Community Solutions II – Pooling Community Resources Helps Make Transportation Accessible." The Community Transportation Association of America’s (CTAA) resource center at 1-800-527-8229 can be of further assistance.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : High Food Prices
Opium Turn – Low food prices remove the incentive for Afghan farmers to grow wheat – they’ll switch back to opium for this fall’s planting season if the price of wheat drops FP ,Agence France Presse, 6-5-‘8, (“Food prices alone won't stop Afghan opium growers: experts,”
online:http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gMEw0labdlueLtTkC0_fnol7OB3A) Opium, of which Afghanistan produces more than 90 percent of world supply, is planted
at roughly the same time as wheat, at the end of the year. The recent hikes were too late to influence the last sowing season, and agencies working to slash opium production are looking to the next planting period , around OctoberNovember, to see if farmers will make the switch. Loren Stoddard from the US government's aid agency USAID is hopeful.
"The food security crisis, while it is going to hurt people, is going to make the point to everyone in Afghanistan that poppy is not such a great business," he said in an interview. "You can't eat it... it's a hard lesson this year," said Stoddard, the group's director of alternative development and agriculture in Afghanistan. The rising prices mean farmers could earn more with wheat than before, especially if yields are improved via better irrigation, seeds and fertilizer, said UN Food and Agriculture Organisation representative Tekeste Tekie . "I don't know to what degree but the price itself is a good incentive to encourage them to switch," he said. Recent gains in opium reduction are reversible in the short term – failure to lock-in alternative crops dooms Afghanistan to renewed instability that spills over to the entire region BBC News, Martin Patience - BBC News Kabul, 8-26-‘8 ( “UN reports Afghan opium decline,” http://news.bbc.co.
The area of poppy production in Afghanistan and the yield of opium from these crops have reduced this year compared with 2007, a UN report says. It says more than half of the country's 34 provinces are now poppy-free - up from 13 provinces in 2007 to 18. But the southern Helmand region, where Taleban rebels are active, accounts for nearly 66% of all the opium production. Afghanistan still remains the world's biggest opium producer. The opium poppy is used to obtain heroin. See a map of opium production The reduction comes after the record-breaking poppy harvest in 2007, the UN report says. It declares that that "opium flood waters in Afghanistan have started to recede". But one Western official who works on the poppy issue has said that any progress has been "fragile" and gains could be reversed in the next year. There is one glaring example, however, of where things have not gone right. The southern province of Helmand, where British troops are fighting a fierce counterinsurgency campaign against the Taleban, now produces nearly two-thirds of Afghanistan's opium - up from about 50% last year. The British ambassador to Afghanistan, Sherard Cowper-Coles, put a brave face on it. "We're not satisfied and we will never be satisfied until we really start squeezing poppy cultivation out of the Helmand economy," he said. "We have an extremely competent governor in Helmand who has a plan in the next few months for getting farmers to switch from poppy cultivation in the coming season," Mr
Cowper-Coles said. 'Inextricable link' The international community wants to prevent heroin, which is derived from opium, flooding the streets of Western Europe and the The international community wants to prevent heroin, which is derived from opium, flooding the streets of Western Europe and the US . But just as importantly, the
multimillion dollar trade in poppy production is used to fuel the insurgency. It allow militants to purchase weapons with which they than attack the Afghan government and international forces, destabilising the region. According to the UN report, 98% of the country's opium is grown in just seven provinces where
there are permanent Taleban settlements and where organised crime profits from the instability. This, the report said,
"shows the inextricable link between drugs and the conflict".
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : High Food Prices
Epic Fail Morgan, Former membMer of the British Labour Party Executive Committee, 3-4-‘7,( Stephen John , "Better
another Taliban Afghanistan, than a Taliban NUCLEAR Pakistan!?" http://www.electricarticles.com/ display .aspx? id=639) They are low on adequate resources and relegated in importance. The former British Commander of NATO forces admitted that last year they came close to losing Kandahar, the second city. It is not ruled out that much of the south and east could fall into Taliban hands this year, paving the way for the fall of Kabul, the year after. The Taliban are ferocious fighters,
with a messianic fervour to fight to the death. They bring with them the experience of veterans of the brutal Soviet war and the civil war which followed. Now regrouped, rearmed, their forces are prepared both for unfavourable open combat of almost suicidal proportions. Furthermore they are opportunistically changing tactics, both in order to create maximum urban destabilization and to win local support in the countryside. Boasting of more than 1,000 suicide volunteer bombers,they have also renounced their former policy against
heroin cultivation, thus allowing them to win support among the rural population and gain support from local tribes, warlords and criminal gangs, who have been alienated by NATO policies of poppy field destruction. Although disliked and
despised in many quarters, the Taliban could not advance without the support or acquiescence of parts of the population, especially in the south. In particular, the Taliban is drawing on backing from the Pashtun tribes from whom they originate. The southern and eastern areas have been totally out of government control since
2001. Moreover, not only have they not benefited at all from the Allied occupation, but it is increasingly clear that with a few small centres of exception, all of the country outside Kabul has seen little improvement in its circumstances . The conditions for unrest are ripe and the Taliban is filling the vacuum. The Break-Up of Afghanistan? However, the Taliban is unlikely to win much support outside of the powerful Pashtun tribes. Although they make up a majority of the nation, they are concentrated in the south and east. Among the other key minorities, such as Tajiks and Uzbeks, who control the north they have no chance of making new inroads. They will fight the Taliban and fight hard, but their loyalty to the NATO and US forces is tenuous to say the least . The Northern Alliance originally liberated Kabul from the Taliban without Allied ground support. The Northern Alliance are fierce fighters, veterans of the war of liberation against the Soviets and the Afghanistan civil war. Mobilized they count for a much stronger adversary than the NATO and US forces. It is possible that, while they won’t fight for the current government or coalition forces, they will certainly resist any new Taliban rule. They may decide to withdraw to their areas in
the north and west of the country. This would leave the Allied forces with few social reserves, excepting a frightened and unstable urban population in Kabul, much like what happened to the Soviets. Squeezed by facing
fierce fighting in Helmund and other provinces, and, at the same time, harried by a complementary tactic of Al Qaeda-style urban terrorism in Kabul, sooner or later, a “Saigon-style” evacuation of US and Allied forces could be on the cards. The net result could be the break-up and partition of Afghanistan into a northern and western area and a southern and eastern area, which would include the two key cities of Kandahar and, the capital Kabul. « Pastunistan?» The Taliban themselves,
however may decide not to take on the Northern Alliance and fighting may concentrate on creating a border between the two areas, about which the two sides may reach an agreement regardless of US and Allied plans or preferences. The Taliban may claim the name Afghanistan or might opt for “Pashtunistan ” – a long-standing,
though intermittent demand of the Pashtuns, within Afghanistan and especially along the ungovernable border regions inside Pakistan. It could not be ruled out that the Taliban could be aiming to lead a break away of the Pakistani
Pashtuns to form a 30 million strong greater Pashtun state, encompassing some 18 million Pakistani Pashtuns and 12 Afghan Pashtuns. Although the Pashtuns are more closely linked to tribal and clan loyalty, there exists a
strong latent embryo of a Pashtun national consciousness and the idea of an independent Pashtunistan state has been raised regularly in the past with regard to the disputed territories common to Afghanistan and Pakistan. The area was cut in two
by the “Durand Line”, a totally artificial border between created by British Imperialism in the 19th century. It has been a question bedevilling relations between the Afghanistan and Pakistan throughout their history, and
with India before Partition. It has been an untreated, festering wound which has lead to sporadic wars and border clashes between the two countries and occasional upsurges in movements for Pashtun independence. In fact, is this what lies behind the current policy of appeasement President Musharraf of Pakistan towards the Pashtun tribes in along the Frontiers and his armistice with North Waziristan last year? Is he attempting to avoid further alienating Pashtun tribes there and head–off a
In effect. of course. which could develop from the Taliban’s offensive across the border in Afghanistan? Trying to subdue the frontier lands has proven costly and unpopular for Musharraf. and. When he agreed the policy of appeasement and virtual self-rule for North Waziristan last year. as well as the acquisition of nuclear and other deadly weapons secrets by Al Qaeda. The prophesy of an arc of civil war over Lebanon. Undoubtedly. unrest in the Sindh. leaning on the radicalised masses to take power. where legal powers would shift to Islamic courts and forms of shira law would be likely. in the context of the new world situation. Border clashes. Musharraf faces the nationalist struggle in Kashmir. conditions would be ripe for a coup d’état by the fundamentalist wing of the Army and ISI. lead the way to the break up of Pakistan. the « Talibanistation » of the whole Pashtun people. Indeed. However events may prove him sorely wrong. but Israel becomes a possibility. military Islamic regime. but even then at the peril of the chagrin of the people and his own military and secret service. The Break-Up of Pakistan? Musharraf
probably hopes that by giving de facto autonomy to the Taliban and Pashtun leaders now with a virtual free hand for cross border operations into Afghanistan. he faces exactly the same problems as the US and Allies in Afghanistan or Iraq. as he himself described it. what he fears most is. but captures at least half of the country. Evidently. indeed. Appetite comes with eating. through Afghanistan into Iraq and up to the Mediterranean coast. The nightmare that is now Iraq would take on gothic proportions across the continent. his policy could completely backfire upon him. the country could be faced with civil wars and popular fundamentalist uprisings. For the same reasons.
which he warns could inflame the already fierce fundamentalist and other separatist movement across his entire country. this might not take place outside of a protracted crisis of upheaval and civil war conditions. Then. With the possibility of unstable clerical and military fundamentalist elements being in control of the Pakistan nuclear arsenal. While there was outrageous in Kabul. Although. Fundamentalism is deeply rooted in Pakistan society. as well. an insurgency in Balochistan. stretching from Pakistan to Palestine. Invading Pakistan would not be an option for America. Moreover. probably including a military-fundamentalist coup d’état. fundamentalist support in his own Armed Forces and Intelligence Services is
extremely strong. As the war intensifies. then a Taliban Pashtun caliphate could be established which would act as a magnet to separatist Pashtuns in Pakistan. Such deep chaos would. this would also spill over into India both with regards to the Muslim community and Kashmir. not only top Taliban leaders. even then. There is also a large Shiite population and clashes between Sunnis and Shias are regular. A new war. between Pakistan and India could no be ruled out. Atomic Al Qaeda Should Pakistan break down completely. mixing fundamentalist movements with nationalist uprisings and sectarian violence between the Sunni and minority Shia populations. could. Moreover. a Taliban-style government with strong Al Qaeda influence is
a real possibility. sectarian pogroms and
insurgency would break out. the most popular name given to male children born that year was “Osama” (not a Pakistani name) is a small indication of the mood. his deal with the Pashtuns is essentially an effort to firewall his country against civil war and disintegration. but Bin Laden and the Al Qaeda central leadership thought to be entrenched in the same Pakistani borderlands. and growing terrorist bombings in the main cities.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
At : High Food Prices potential separatist movement in Pakistan. President Musharraf stated clearly that he is acting first and foremost to protect the interests of Pakistan. terrorist attacks. The fact that in the year following 9/11. In his own words. He does not want to open the door for any backdraft from the Afghan war to engulf Pakistan. Therefore a nuclear war would now again become a real strategic possibility. Strong centrifugal forces have always bedevilled the stability and unity of Pakistan. So much so that analyst consider it likely that the Army and Secret Service is protecting. open a “Pandora's box” for the region and the world. as looks likely. secular
opposition parties. This would bring a shift in the tectonic
. as they say. should the Taliban fail to re-conquer al of Afghanistan. Palestine and Iraq would spread to south Asia. he will undercut any future upsurge in support for a break-away independent Pashtunistan state or a “Peoples’ War” of the Pashtun populace as a whole. Returning from the frontier provinces with Bin Laden’s severed head would be a trophy that would cost him his own head in Pakistan. he could not win and has settled instead for an attempted political solution. fighting Pashtun tribes has cost him double the number of troops as the US has lost in Iraq. Some form of radical. not only their use against India. At best
he takes the occasional risk of giving a nod and a wink to a US incursion. he has no guarantees that the current autonomy may yet burgeon into a separatist movement. Given the weakening base of the traditional. Indeed. he has not captured or killed Bin Laden and the Al Qaeda leadership. the likely break up of Afghanistan along ethnic lines. and possibly nuclear war.
Ph.dependent women are perhaps the most disadvantaged since they must juggle household and workrelated responsibilities and the complicated travel patterns these engender.D. Los Angeles.D. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.
At : New Citites Disprove
New Citites Don’t disprove Blumenberg. but are not exclusive to. 11-‘4
( Evelyn and Micheal . And Manville .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
plates of global relations. “Beyond the Spatial Mismatch: Welfare Recipients andTransportation Policy” . life is extraordinarily difficult. Ph. For those without cars. not because their land use patterns are amenable to human mobility. student in the Department of Urban Planning at the University of California. Los Angeles.Nexis)
Newer cities suffer less of a spatial mismatch largely because many of their residents have access to automobiles. therefore. For policy purposes. But even lowincome adults with automobiles face spatial barriers because they disproportionately are saddled with old and unreliable vehicles. Transit.”
. P. probably more difficult than it is for transit-dependent residents of older. It could usher in a new Cold War with China and Russia pitted against the US. “distance. it is important to move beyond the “spatial mismatch” and to focus more broadly on spatial barriers to employment that include. East Coast
cities where transit networks are more extensive.
Ihlanfeldt. Holzer.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Not Qualified
The jobs in the suburbs are the jobs with lower qualifications Blumenberg. While both insightful and indicative of broad mismatches between households and jobs. And Ong.’97 ( Evelyn and Paul . we hypothesize that commute distance is shorter for working welfare recipients in neighborhoods with higher levels of access to skill-appropriate jobs. central-city neighborhoods are characterized as job poor and suburban neighborhoods as necessarily job rich.have varying access to employment
. minority residents from jobs in the suburban periphery (Kasarda. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. 1990. Ph. 1992.D. 1996). high suburban housing costs. 4.
“Job Access. Commute and Travel Burden Among Welfare Recipients”. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA. Research on the spatial-skills mismatch shows that as jobs requiring less education have disappeared from innercity neighborhoods. P.
and housing discrimination separate many inner-city. minorities living in the centralcity have experienced increased economic hardship. Professor of Urban Planning. Los Angeles . studies of the spatial-mismatch hypothesis often generalize unrealistically about the relative job richness of neighborhoods.both suburban and urban -. poor access to transportation. Typically. However. 1994. Kain. Wilson. neighborhoods -. Several studies use
indirect evidence to support the relationship between the geographic access to jobs and improved employment opportunities among the poor.Nexis) While many factors influence choices about where to live and work. and Sjoquist.
" said Mai Yamani. and they played a major role 20 years ago in a Saudi-financed Pakistani nuclear effort that may one day leave a nuclear weapon in the hands of a Taliban-type regime in Riyadh or Islamabad. a group created by Congress to monitor U. prompting talk of a possible shift in Saudi policy.S. that of oil and stability. China is expected to have more cars than the U. "The most important issue for the US is to keep the oil tap open.
"It isn't the Bush/Al-Saud relationship that promotes the oil relationship. Today. "The priorities in relation to Saudi Arabia will remain the same.S. China can no longer afford to sit on the sidelines of the tumultuous region. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security. Since 9/11. the kingdom has recently returned to the top of the US' crude oil import rankings. With
60% of its oil imports coming from the Middle East.S." said Zainy.S. denouncing Saudi Arabia as a "kernel of evil" and proposing
that the U. While
the U.S.821 million barrels per day. A report by the U. making it the world's No.org/la020204. and also landed 110. a deep tension in U.
Even if Bush succeeds with proposals to promote domestic production.s. Saudi Arabia has held the top spot every year since 1998. this will not change its need for Saudi oil. This dependency is expected to increase over the coming decade. The Saudis hear the voices in the U. Bush." he said. home to a quarter of the world's oil." Optimists claim that the world oil market will be able to accommodate China and that.iags. warned in 2002 that "this arms trafficking to these regimes presents an increasing threat to U.-Saudi relations has provided the Chinese with an opportunity to win the heart of the House of Saud. Dependence on oil means dependence on the Middle East. 2004. "Assuming Congress will approve this [ANWR exploration ]./saudi ties high.S.20.3 billion people and an economy growing at a phenomenal 8% to 10% a year. this has an inherently long lead time from initial exploration to bringing any oil on the markets. "Bush is more inclined to US dependence on Middle Eastern oil than Kerry would have been.S. the seeds of what could be the next world war are quietly germinating. and import as much oil as the U. commented Zainy.S." The report concludes: "A key driver in China's relations with terrorist-sponsoring governments is its dependence on foreign oil to fuel its economic development. Its way of forming a footprint in the Middle East has been through providing technology and components for weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems to unsavory regimes in places such as Iran." she added .S. In August. 2 petroleum user after the U. dependence key to relations International oil daily. LN Saudi Arabian oil supply is expected to remain at the heart of US energy policy following the compelling election win by President George W. does today. The Chinese have already supplied the Saudis with intermediate-range ballistic missiles. instead of conflict. "In any case any new production will only offset declines elsewhere. China Are on Collision Course Over Oil. and both are interlinked. China's
thirst could create mutual desire for stability in the Middle East and thus actually bring Beijing closer to the U. Saudi Arabia was by far the largest crude oil supplier to the US at 1. security interests in the Middle East.
Poor u. February 2." said Muhammad-Ali Zainy. By 2030. Iraq and Syria.” LOS ANGELES TIMES. Executive Director. its
auto sales grew 70% and its oil imports were up 30% from the previous year. ‘4. The Saudis especially fear that if their citizens again perpetrate a
.. adding that he sees the US-Saudi relationship remaining strong.-China relations. is absorbed in fighting the war on terror.
analyst at the Center for Global Energy Studies in London.000 b/d of products (IOD Oct. by opening Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for example. already a net oil importer. and china Gal Luft. the US dependence on Saudi oil is a historical fact which is inescapable. Last year.s. “U. China. another Asian power thirsts for oil: China.htm
Sixty-seven years ago.S.p4)." Despite declines earlier.S. which eventually led the nation into a world war. according to analysts polled by International Oil Daily. a Saudi expert at London's Royal Institute for International Affairs.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Oil Dependence Bad
U.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. seize and occupy the kingdom's oil fields. With 1. is growing increasingly dependent on imported oil. home to 70% of the world's proven reserves. staff.S./saudi relations foster a china/saudi alliance—outcome is a world war between the u. oil-starved Japan embarked on an aggressive expansionary policy designed to secure its growing energy needs.S. http://www. The
main bone of contention probably will revolve around China's relations with Saudi Arabia. November 5. History shows the opposite: Superpowers find it difficult to coexist while competing over scarce resources.
“Regional Fallout: No One Gains in War Over Taiwan. it cannot be ruled out entirely. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -. a superpower collision is in the cards. president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. but to terminate its long-standing commitment to the monarchy — and perhaps even use military force against it. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. Without a comprehensive
strategy designed to prevent China from becoming an oil consumer on a par with the U. Extinction Straits Times (nqa) 6/25/ 2K [staff. for China puts sovereignty above everything else. A Chinese military officer disclosed recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle.
. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang. There would be no victors in such a war. to defend the regime and must diversify their security portfolio.S. Gen Ridgeway said that should
that come to pass. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability . The good news is that we are still in a position to halt China's slide into total dependency. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it.S..Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff
At : Oil Dependence Bad terror attack in the U. In their search for a new patron. In his book The Korean War. there is little hope of winning a war against China 50 years later. The Saudis realize that to forestall such a scenario
they can no longer rely solely on the U. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. there would be no alternative for the U. short of using nuclear weapons.truce or a broadened war.S.
While the prospect of a nuclear Armaggedon over Taiwan might seem inconceivable. we would see the destruction of civilisation. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons.S. they might find China the most fitting and willing candidate. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War. He said military leaders considered the use of nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention..
The risk of Beijing's emerging as a competitor for influence in the Middle East and a Saudi shift of allegiance are things Washington should consider as it defines its objectives and priorities in the 21st century .” LN
Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy.
0. The rising sea level means some of the most fertile and populous land is inundated. UV-B damages the early
developmental stages of fishes. flood situation will deteriorate.
measurements in Los Angeles smog have revealed much greater decreases in ultraviolet than visible light.4 μm range.Cancer and extinction Tanha .Nexis) In the early part of the century. the destruction of the environment.
Without the ozone layer to absorb all the UV rays coming from the sun. shrimp. Killing Billions BROWN ’97 (Paul. the loss of ultraviolet in some metropolitan areas due to heavy coal smoke was of concern because of the resulting disease in the production of natural vitamin D which causes the disease rickets. They contribute to climatic changes and rise in the sea level. Meanwhile the gases we have already put into the atmosphere go on making things worse. Droughts. is not tackled.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Pollution
A. possibly billions. Unprecedented floods of 1987 and 1988.Pollution Decreases UV Rays Boubel Et Al. This means that more and more extreme weather events become a feature of our lives. In the developing world the new industries which have dragged millions of people from the countryside into the cities lose their markets. 9-10)
The conclusion I come to is that there are two possible con. the foundation of aquatic food chain. As a result. “Fundamentals of Air
Pollution”P. making it impossible to deal with climate change. disruption of skin cancer and affect plant tissues and the process of photosynthesis. 2-2-‘3 (Shams & Afroza. ’94 ( Richard . Writer for Independent . Dept of Mechanical Engineering Oregon State University. floods.36 . Mass migrations of near-starving people begin in Africa and the Middle East. The world begins to lapse into anarchy. damage to cells. Same. B. Heavy smog has decreased ultraviolet radiation by as much as 90%. A large wave of bankruptcies in the industrialized world saps the economic ability of the so-called developed world to deal with the problem. Rainfall may increase due to climatic changes caused by the rises in temperature. driving the survivors inland to find new homes. Exposure to high levels of UV radiation may cause alteration in the genetic code. Bangladesh will probably be the worst sufferer of these climatic changes. And Islam.That causes Warming. Water levels of rivers could rise during rainy seasons. Correspondent for The Guradian. bringing new wars. The recessions throw millions out of work in countries that have no social security systems. Env. There is a worldwide recession while politicians attempt to grapple with domestic problems and the root cause of the problem. This is due to both absorption by ozone of wavelengths less than 0. “Saving the ozone layer – every action
counts”. devastating cyclone
along with tidal waves in 1991. Global Warming: Can
Civilization Survive? Pg. P. It runs something like this: Scientists have told us
global warming has already set in. draught in 1992 and the past century’s most prolonged and devastating flood situation of 1998 can all be considered as small but significant signs of impending natural disasters waiting to engulf us. there will be no life left on this Earth. Civilization breaks down and millions. It has been estimated that 17. Recently. crab and other aquatic lives and reduces the productivity of plankton.32 μm and absorption by nitrogen dioxide in the 0.. Agriculture is disrupted and world food supplies are inadequate. heatwaves. Global Warming Expert. Civil unrest and a few revolutions follow.5 per cent of low-lying coastal areas
of Bangladesh could very well be inundated with a one-metre rise in the sea level. and sudden cold snaps damage homes and businesses.sequences of climate change.
. die. rainfall has become unreliable in marginal lands. The first is what we could call the `nightmare scenario'. Deserts continue to expand.Unchecked Warming Will Crush Civilization.
The effective wage range for AFDC recipients is further restricted because the reservation wage is tied to AFDC benefit levels. Professor of Urban Planning. higher income leads to the desire for more housing and land. In any event. decreased time to get to work. the cost of providing significant numbers of people leaving welfare with personal auto transportation. effectively lowering the opportunity costs of traveling to work by reducing commute time for any given distance (Taylor and Ong. Moreover. 9-30-’2K (David and Mitch . These institutional constraints then can weaken the ability of labor markets to generate compensating wages associated with longer commutes for AFDC recipients and.
“Job Access. doctoral candidate in the City Planning Program at the Georgia Institute of Technology. 1969. And Moody . these workers would have greater incentive to choose residential locations and job sites that minimize their commutes. 1992). Turner. Los Angeles . low crime rates. But some
researchers have offered reasons why programs encouraging automobile ownership make sense. adversely affect their employment. And Ong. this outcome appears puzzling since the opportunity cost of time is higher for better-paid workers relative to low-wage workers. 4. the AFDC labor force may not be sufficiently large enough to have any noticeable impact on the low-end of the labor market since the vast majority of the working poor are not welfare recipients. in other words. professor of city planning and public policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology . personal communication. Finally. However.
1995).Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Transportation
Cars bring an increase in wages allowing people to afford them Sawicki . the TEA-21 legislation added a last-minute provision that prohibited direct client ownership of cars as a possible TEA-21 JA/RC project option.
A mechanically malfunctioning vehicle can pose an almost insurmountable barrier in terms of the expense necessary for repair.’97 ( Evelyn and Paul . but just as often it causes new ones. Moreover.Nexis)
Private auto ownership for the poor can sometimes solve problems. Since skill acquisition raises the productivity of workers in a subset of jobs to which previous skills were applicable.Nexis)
A second question is whether the labor market generates compensating wages to offset the costs of longer commutes. Commute and Travel Burden Among Welfare Recipients”. it is not obvious that the same market forces are effective at the
bottom end of the labor market where most AFDC recipients are located.
Plan solves any risk Blumenberg. Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA. First. more than $6. P. A larger percentage of high-wage workers own cars and are
more likely to drive to work alone. 1996. as the positive relationship between commute distance and earnings suggests. higher-wage workers have access to better and more reliable transportation than lower-wage workers. Ph. 1992). Choosing to live in the urban periphery places these households
further away from many job sites located in the central-city. P. November 15. all of which are more typical of newer suburbs than older. and recreational facilities. higher-wage jobs tend to be more dispersed
throughout the metropolitan area. since time is more valuable for high-wage workers.
“Developing Transportation Alternatives for Welfare Recipients Moving to Work” . 1998) makes such a program infeasible on a large scale. 1998). there are countervailing factors that result in longer commutes for high-wage relative to low-wage workers. At first. such as high quality schools. Unfortunately. Wachs
& Taylor. In some areas of the country with air quality problems. Typically. therefore. many are likely to receive wage offers at or near the legal minimum wage.000 per client in one typical program (L. jobs requiring higher skill levels require more extensive spatial searches (Simpson. improved ability to search for work. job commute distance is positively correlated with earnings (Taylor and Ong. 1992). such as those related to higher occupational risk (Viscusi. Simpson. the relative costs of which are significantly lower in the suburban fringe of metropolitan areas than in the central-city (Muth. These included increased wages among welfare recipients. the positive correlation between earnings and commute distance is not surprising because a well-functioning competitive labor market generates compensating variation in wages to offset non-pecuniary costs to workers. Higher-income households also seek residential amenities. long-distance commutes discourage employment and result in higher turnover rates and lower total earnings.D. inner-city neighborhoods. Second. Since the real net wage of recipients is reduced by the out-of-pocket and opportunity expenses related to commuting. However. Given the low level of education and skills of most welfare recipients. 1995). Insurance costs can also be a formidable obstacle for near-minimum-wage workers. more cars on the road can be a difficult sell to transportation agencies such as the FTA. and the ability to link trips for such things as childcare and medical care (Ong. in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California. The findings from our analysis are consistent with this latter hypothesis.
000 miles or so. the 1985 Chevrolet Chevette got 36 mpg and the ‘87 Chevrolet Sprint got 40. Like.000 gallons of gasoline before it reaches the showroom. say.
http://www.wired. There are a lot of used cars out there that top 30 mpg. Just about any Ford Festiva or Aspire will deliver 33 mpg. The Prius will have to go 100.000 miles to achieve the same carbon savings as the 10-year-old Tercel. hybrids get great gas mileage but it takes 113 million BTUs of energy to make a Toyota Prius. as are the Dodge Colts of the early ’90s. But not just any used car will do.
. a 1998 Toyota Tercel that gets 27 mpg city / 35 mpg highway miles. The debt has already been paid.com/autopia/2008/05/the-ultimate-pr/) Ditching your gas guzzler is a great way to reduce your carbon footprint.
but if you really want to do something about global warming.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Link Defense
Link Defense – Used cars don’t pollute as much Squatiglia . get a used car. Because there are about 113. As Matt
Power notes in this month’s issue of Wired. If you don’t mind driving the cheapest of cheap econoboxes. It has to be something fuel efficient. You’ll be putting less carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Staff Writer . “Go Green — Buy a Used Car. the Prius has consumed the equivalent of 1. and more than a few that reach into the 40s. and the Prius would never close the carbon gap. Go back a little further and the Honda CRX HF models will give you 39 to 45 mpg in a sporty two-seater that’s fun to drive. Power writes.000 BTUs of energy in a gallon of gasoline. Get behind the
wheel of a 1994 Geo Metro XFi. There’s an easy way to avoid that debt — buy a used car. It’s Better Than a Hybrid” . Think of it as a carbon debt — one you won’t pay off
until the Prius has turned over 46. 5-19-‘8 (Chuck . which matches the Prius’ 46 mpg. The mid-’90s Mazda Proteges are good for 30 mpg or so.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Impact Defense
No impact to climate change—the rate of warming is slowing down now. However. http://www. The latter are available in good quality and global coverage at least for the past 50 years. adds Latif. which are superimposed on the long-term anthropogenic warming trend.sciencedaily. Scientists at IFM-GEOMAR and from the MPI for Meteorology have developed a method to derive ocean currents from measurements of sea surface temperature (SST). explains Dr.”
. “Just to make things clear: we are not stating that anthropogenic climate change won’t be as bad as previously thought”. “What we are saying is that on top of the warming trend there is a long-periodic oscillation that will probably lead to a to a lower temperature increase than we would expect from the current trend during the next years”. With this additional information. “In some years trends of both phenomena. Lack of sufficient data has hampered such predictions in the past.htm ) To date climate change projections. only considered changes in future atmospheric composition. Mojib Latif from IFM-GEOMAR. models need additional information on natural climate variations. “That is like driving from the coast to a
mountainous area and crossing some hills and valleys before you reach the top”. can be predicted. Johann Jungclaus from the MPI for Meteorology. The improved predictions suggest that global warming will weaken slightly during the following 10 years.com/releases/2008/05 /08050211 3749. This strategy is appropriate for long-term changes in climate such as predictions for the end of the century. Science Daily. in particular associated with ocean currents. in order to predict short-term developments over the next decade. natural
decadal climate variations. as published in the last IPCC report. explains Prof. the anthropogenic climate change and the natural decadal variation will add leading to a much stronger temperature rise. 5-5-‘8 ( “Will Global Warming Take A Short Break? Improved Climate Predictions Suggest A
Reduced Warming Trend During The Next 10 Years”.
24. lexis) The following is the viewpoint of Ball. an Ottawa-based mechanical engineer who is the executive director of the NRSP ." stood until recently as the most memorable CO2 gaffe in parliamentary history. Harper reinforced the notion that CO2 is pollution when he said in the same debate: "Our carbon dioxide emissions are the worst. Higher CO2 levels enhance the health-promoting properties of food plants and decrease their water loss as the pores on leaves shrink and exhale less water.000 per cent higher than current concentrations and more than double the highest CO2 level seen in the past half-billion years. and so are our sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. 10-15-‘3 ( “C02
science magazine” Volume 6. is producing a significant negative feedback phenomenon that slows the rate of rise of the air's CO2 content. but that information is no relief to a man who is drowning. Pres. is a naturally occurring gas essential to the life cycles of the planet." Stephane Dion then criticized Harper for "insisting that carbon dioxide was essential to life. Prime Minister Stephen Harper called "the fight against climate change perhaps the biggest threat to confront the future of humanity today" and urged "deep reductions of greenhouse gas emissions...Nexis) In light of these observations. U. a Victoria-based environmental consultant who is chair of the Natural Resources Stewardship Project and former climatology professor at the University of Winnipeg. Second and third coats reduce very little more. 2002. Number 42.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Co2 =/= Warming
CO2 effects on warming are minimal—benefits of agriculture outweigh Harris. Harper's capitulation to political correctness is the result of a decade-long battle in Parliament in which rational voices eventually were squeezed out of the debate. executive director of the Natural Resources Stewardship Project. At meetings in Europe in early June. The first coat blocks most of the light. The relationship between temperature and CO2 is like painting a window black to block sunlight. PhD’s. (1998) have determined that a doubling of the air's
CO2 content leads to more than a doubling of the biomass production of coniferous species. That is almost 4. Center for Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change CO2 and Biodiversity. plus the fact that Saxe et al. Ignoring science entirely. many MPs now even refer to carbon dioxide (CO2) -. Carbon dioxide currently is not a
major climate driver. And Ball." New Democratic MP Joe Comartin's assertion on Oct. Plants function best with CO2 between 1.
. the effect on temperature would be minimal. that: "The reality is that carbon dioxide is part of smog. However.000 ppm and are CO2-starved at today's 380 ppm." Clearly. At 200 ppm of CO2 plants begin to suffer and at 120 ppm they start to die. Turn – CO2 increases the ability of plants to act as sinks which solves warming Idso.200 parts per million (ppm).000 ppm that humans experience serious health impacts. P. most MPs either have completely forgotten their grade school science or hope that most Canadians have. It is not until CO2 levels reach 15. Greenhouses inject CO2 to reach these concentrations and so increase their yields significantly.S." and concluded: "Water is also essential to life.the greenhouse gas of concern in most schemes to "stop climate change" -. Environment Minister John Baird merely attacked the Liberals for not reducing CO2 emissions when they had the chance. a level typically found in a crowded room. and Harris." Instead of defending Harper's statement as correct. chair of the Natural Resources
Stewardship Project and former climatology professor at the University of Winnipeg Science ignored in heated debate over CO2 effects. Department of Agriculture scientist Sherwood Idso calculated that the 33-per-cent rise in CO2 over the past 150 years has resulted in an increase in average world wheat yields of about 60 per cent. “The Star Phoenix” . hence.as "pollution. Even if CO2 concentration doubles or triples. This suggests that plants evolved to suit levels around 1. 31 she accused Harper of misleading Canadians when he wrote that "Carbon dioxide . which would be assumed by many to be reducing the rate of global warming. Liberal MP Sue Barnes' challenged Comartin for the honour when on Jan. 6-29-‘7 (Tom and Tim." The PM's conversion from his earlier skepticism suggests that the global warming alarmists have won the PR war in Canada's House of Commons.000 and 1. it logically follows that the ongoing rise in the atmosphere's CO2 concentration is increasing carbon sequestration rates in the soils upon which conifers grow and. a characteristic important in drought stricken regions.
but just barely. and only if the CO2 content of the air is allowed to rise unimpeded by misguided attempts to curtail the burning of fossil fuels. before they fell apart entirely. driving out or starving their inhabitants if not using modern weapons to accomplish the same end: eliminating competitors for the remaining food. But
of laboratory and field experiments .Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Co2 Good
A. the match-up between future world food supply and demand will be so close as to leave extremely little room for ineptitude or error in our plans for supplying the various staples required by the planet's expanding human family.
how would allowing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to take their natural course help to ameliorate future hunger? The answer resides in the fact that elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 tend to reduce plant transpiration while simultaneously enhancing plant photosynthesis. www. What we have found (Idso and Idso. the aerial fertilization effect and the water use efficiency-promoting properties of the expected rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration will stimulate our crops to supply the final third of what will be required to meet our future dietary needs. and especially those arid and semi-arid areas where population growth is greatest. This would be a worldwide problem -. and if we do nothing unwise or counter-productive with respect to this effort. “The Most
Important Global Change. is yes
. in fact. then. "the prize is that more areas of the world. the Precautionary Principle . for as described above the writings of Wallace for some final words of wisdom. as Wallace states in his final sentence.and that is no exaggeration . he notes that a "concerted focus on improving water use efficiency … will increase the productivity of both rain fed and irrigated agriculture. It could no longer do so if it lost the extra warming from the North Atlantic. and largely grows its own food. would go marauding. World War III Calvin. The last abrupt cooling. Therefore. In concluding this essay. Present-day Europe has more than 650 million people." And in this regard. especially the poorer resource-limited countries with high rates of population growth. They deny it. "There can be. Volume 281.” The Atlantic Monthly. It will only hurt us all
policies of the world's wealthier industrialized nations.demands we do everything possible to stave off the potential food insufficiency crisis our increasing numbers could well create fifty years from now.” CO2 Science Magazine.if only because their armies. “The Great Climate FlipFlop. It has excellent soils. 2-21-‘1 (Craig. "no greater global challenge today on which physical and social scientists can work together than the goal of producing the food required for future generations. the Younger Dryas. Indeed. Theoretical Neurophisiolgist at the University of Washington. The better-organized countries would attempt to use their armies. as we report in our Editorial of 15 November
. particularly easy to analyze. it is essential that the air's CO2 content continue to grow in the future as it has in the past." he says. and upon the decisions these nations will shortly make about anthropogenic CO2 emissions hangs the fate of the less-fortunate rest of the world
B. for we've asked the same question ourselves (see our Journal Review Will There Be Enough Food?). But if the air's CO2 content continues to rise as typically projected for "business as usual"
2000. And the answer. which is truly lamentable. however.htm)
So where is our attention currently focused? Unfortunately. drastically altered Europe's climate as far east as Ukraine.co2science. President of the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide & Global Change. And a
. we return to
crucial element of any policy devised to deal with this challenge must be to not interfere with the continuing evolution of earth's atmospheric CO2 concentration.rightly
applied (see our Editorial Prudence Misapplied) . But what do the climate-alarmist ideologues do about it? They spurn it.Reducing CO2 emissions causes starvation Idso. the long-term future of the planet's less-developed and poorer countries resides in the energy
. both at home and across the borders.
Even under the best of conditions. Don't unduly strive to limit any nation's CO2 emissions. 2000) is that likely advancements in agricultural technology and expertise will only increase world food production by about two-thirds of what will be required to feed the expected human population of the globe fifty years hence." If this approach is taken. for the continuation of those emissions is. They try to reverse it.org/edit/v4_edit/v4n8edit. It is imperative that the leaders of all nations wake up to the reality of what everyone is facing. this atmospheric CO2-derived blessing is as sure as death and taxes and as dependable as a mother's love. it is focused on reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Number 1)
Plummeting crop yields would cause some powerful countries to try to take over their neighbors or distant lands -. Literally thousands
ironically. unpaid and lacking food." Truly. our only real hope for averting the near-certain future global food shortfall that is destined to occur if the Kyoto Protocol Crowd gets its way with the world. to take over countries with significant remaining resources.but Europe's vulnerability is
The population-crash scenario is surely the most appalling.have verified this fact beyond any doubt whatsoever. And they do it to the detriment of all mankind. which two phenomena enable earth's vegetation to produce considerably more food per unit of water used in the food production process. So just how
bad is the problem? We're glad you asked.and could lead to a Third World War -. and do the right thing. will be able to sustain their future populations. January. there will be enough.
1994) .. the corresponding yield increases were 94% and 182%. our species .co2science.a suburban site. ask yourself what the Precautionary Principle has to say about this state of affairs (see our Editorial of 4 July 2001). At the suburban site.
. eliminate them altogether . And we still feel that way. Averaged across all three sites and both seasons of the year. 2001). Then. In fact. 1998.e... they noted that earlier studies had revealed similar large ozone-induced losses in the productivity of local cultivars of wheat and rice. 2000. let the air's CO2 content rise..Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Co2 Good
Extinction CO2 Science Magazine. we will likely face a food production crisis of unimaginable proportions (see our Editorials of 21 February 2001 and 13
June 2001).. 1998). It is one of the primary raw materials . it is clear that whatever could be done to reduce these massive crop losses . which counteracts the negative effects of ozone . concluding that perhaps our new mantra should be: Free the Biosphere! Let the air's CO2 content rise. 2000).out of which plants construct their tissues. Hence." the authors concluded "there may be substantial impacts of oxidants on crop yield across large areas of the Punjab. Tiedemann and Firsching. application of the ozone protectant increased the weight of seeds produced per plant by 47% in the post-monsoon season and by 113% in the pre-monsoon season." Think about the implications of these findings.and those of many other air pollutants (Allen." In addition.would be a godsend to the people of Pakistan and the inhabitants of many other areas of the globe . In a number of studies of these beneficial consequences of atmospheric CO2 enrichment for the crop studied by Wahid et al. Finally. but not as we know it. for most of its wild diversity of life will have been extinguished by mankind's mad rush to appropriate ever more land and water to grow the food required to feed itself (Tilman et al.e. As the researchers directly state in the title of their paper: "species respond similarly regardless of photosynthetic pathway or plant functional group. That of which we speak. i. Idso
and Idso. Without more of it in the air. 2000.htm) Damage to crops caused by air pollutants is one of the major scourges of present-day agriculture . 1998). 1990. and a rural roadside site .. 1998.as well as most of the rest of the planet's animal life .or. The same conclusion follows from the results of several studies that have looked at wheat in this regard (Heagle et al. Pleijel et al.. it has been found that a nominal doubling of the air's CO2 concentration is sufficient to greatly reduce . of course. Wahid et al. The results were truly astounding. 1998a and 1998b.the yieldreducing effects of ozone pollution (Heagle et al. Miller et al. and it is essential to their existence and our existence. (2001) periodically applied a powerful ozone protectant to soybean plants growing in three different locations in the general vicinity of the city of Lahore . ozone. such a savior is silently working its wonders throughout the entire world.will not survive the 21st century intact . Reid and Fiscus. A doubling of the air's CO2 content could well double
agricultural production in many areas of the world by merely eliminating the adverse effects of but one air pollutant. The biosphere will continue to exist. the mean increase in yield caused by countering the deleterious effects of this one major air pollutant was nearly 150%.. Due to their somewhat surprising finding that "the
impacts of ozone on the yield of soybean are larger in the rural areas around Lahore than in suburban areas of the city. (1998) suggests that these CO2-induced benefits will likely be experienced by all plants.and in some cases completely eliminate . It's the right thing to do.by restricting the noxious molecule's entry into plant leaves via induced reduction of leaf stomatal apertures (Reid and Fiscus. How great are the production losses caused by these plant-debilitating agents? In a recent study of the effects of ozone pollution in the Punjab region of Pakistan. We conducted such an exercise in our review of the paper of Hudak et al. and by ameliorating its adverse biochemical activities when it does penetrate vegetative tissues (Reid et al. So we say again. consider the fact that by the mid-point of the current century.” www.org/edit/v4_edit/v4n43edit. and at the rural roadside site. they were 170% and 285%. both
scientifically and morally. McKee et al.the other being water .. Fortunately. is the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content. ideally. (1999). soybeans. 10-24-‘1 (“Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions Could Dramatically Increase Agricultural
Production by Thwarting the Adverse Effects of Ozone Pollution. 1998).. a remote rural site. At the remote rural site. 2000. CO2 is
the elixir of life. Reid et al.throughout two different growing seasons (one immediately post-monsoon and one the following spring or pre-monsoon).. the work of Volin et al. i.
www. By producing more food on the same amount of land with the same or a lesser amount of water per unit land area. but eventually if we pop enough rivets. Pres. EXTINCTION. less land and water need be appropriated by humanity to feed itself. VP. 1995. Center for Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change CO2 and Biodiversity. And Idso . No single species is essential to our well being.. Hence.)
Extinctions are dangerous for humans. an occasional rivet will pop out. a crash seems certain to occur. No single rivet is essential for maintaining flight. So it is with humans and the other species with whom we share the planet. it is clear that the ongoing rise in the air's
CO2 content is a powerful force for helping earth's natural ecosystems preserve their biodiversity in the face of the many real-world pressures that are tending to reduce their species richness.
December 14. Paul and Anne Ehrlich compare our situation to an airplane held together by rivets.
.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff At : Warming – Co2 Good
A. we desecrate
the wondrous works of the creator. Therefore each time we diminish diversity.org/bulletin/bulletin. As time goes on. yet it is certain that we need biological diversity in order to survive. which leaves more land and water for the use of natural ecosystems (see our Editorials of 21 February 2001 and 2 May 2001. Center for Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change CO2 and Biodiversity.cfm?Issue_ID=651. each species of plant and animal is better able to produce the "critical biomass" needed to maintain its existence. And with more land and water at its disposal.” Rachel’s Enviornment & Health News. “The Four Horsemen—Part 2: Loss of Biodiversity.co2science. but it is not immediately clear just how dangerous.htm) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment also helps preserve the biodiversity
of earth's natural ecosystems by enhancing the productivity and water use efficiency of agricultural crops. & Keith E. for example. 2001). In the process.org/edit/v5_edit/v5n35edit. based on the studies of Wallace.CO2 is key to preserve biodiversity Idso. we take another irreversible step toward the brink of a dark abyss. PhD’s. In their 1984 book.rachel. “Does the
Former Affect the Latter?”.
B. 2000 and Tilman et al. ’2 (Sherwood D. http://www.Biodiversity Loss Risks Extinction Montague 95 (Peter.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Politics Link Turns*
http://www.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Popular
Policies that increase car use have tremendous political support John Holtzclaw – Chair of the Sierra Club Transportation Committee – June 13.org/sprawl/articles/design.
. There appear to be real political limits to more effectively cleaning up the car. 1997 (“Building Better Cities”. Legislators love them some car – they won’t touch it John Holtzclaw – Chair of the Sierra Club Transportation Committee – June 13. Yet legislators shy away from requiring more effective inspection and maintenance programs. 1997 (“Building Better Cities”. Few employers offer non-driving commuters cash payments equal to the free parking they give drivers (parking cash-out).sierraclub. higher mandatory repair limits and diesel standards. such as centralized inspection.asp) Even mild measures aimed at reducing single occupant vehicle commuting meet formidable resistance. in all state non-attainment areas. Nor are evaporative emissions or entrained dust even addressed by tailpipe controls. loaded-mode tests.asp) After leaving the assembly line auto emission systems deteriorate and must be maintained to keep emissions low. Talk radio even raised a firestorm in San Francisco against cleaner-burning reformulated gasoline. Lobbyists stripped from federal law the employee commute options mandate that required employers to design programs that would modestly reduce single occupant vehicle commutes in non-attainment areas.sierraclub. http://www.org/sprawl/articles/design. The California legislature even denied air districts the right to implement such trip reduction ordinances.
Republicans and Democrats are divided on many issues. Steve Finlay is editor of Ward's Dealer Business magazine. The auto industry isn't one of them. treating the auto industry like a parolee who needs close supervision. Lexis. South Korea at one time audited the taxes of citizens who didn't buy domestic vehicles. should emulate governments of other nations that have gone to extremes to aid and abet their domestic auto makers. members of both parties seem to disdain one of the nation's most important manufacturing and retailing forces.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Popular – Bipart
Auto Industry legislation is entirely bipartisan. Bash Auto Industry” June 1. “Kiss Babies. With few exceptions. such as burning the flag. 2008 Ward’s auto world. But a show of support. Nobody wants our government to go that far. Oh yeah. auto industry. Japan did so by building tariff barriers that in their own way rivaled the Great Wall of China.S. 48 ISSN: 50-. and supporting the U. Pg. I'm not saying the U. would be nice.S.
. dealing drugs and raising taxes. even mere moral support. Pandering Politicians Invariably oppose certain things.
to restore confidence. or even to each other. Millions of jobs depend on it. college loans. But we are committed to the goal of a re-tooled. everyone recognizes that years of bad decision-making and a global recession have pushed our automakers to the brink. But credit has stopped flowing the way it should. how stores stock their shelves. we are creating a new lending fund that represents the largest effort ever to help provide auto loans. to businesses. The ability to get a loan is how you finance the purchase of everything from a home to a car to a college education. And we will do so in several ways. Too many bad loans from the housing crisis have made their way onto the books of too many banks. First. That is why this administration is moving swiftly and aggressively to break this destructive cycle. We should not and will not protect them from their own bad practices. families can't afford to buy homes or cars. and I believe the nation that invented the automobile cannot walk away from it. Fox News Network February 24. and credit dries up even further.lexisnexis. and small-business loans to the consumers and entrepreneurs who keep this
economy running…Speaking of our auto industry. and businesses make payroll. And with so much debt and so little confidence.
.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Popular – Democrats
Democrats support the plan—they want credit flow. farms buy equipment. When there's no lending. and restart lending.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T6856248015&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_ T6856248018&cisb=22_T6856248017&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=174179&docNo=9 You see.
Our economy suffers even more. these banks are now fearful of lending out any more money to households. 2009 “Speaks About Economy”
http://www.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview. scores of communities depend on it. Barack Obama. the flow of credit is the lifeblood of our economy. so businesses are forced to make layoffs. re-imagined auto industry that can compete and win . US President.
in Urban Planning and associate professor at University of California.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Unpopular
Automobile programs such as the aff are vastly unpopular Blumenberg. In Los Angeles. the task force responsible for
developing a transportation plan for welfare recipients initially included an automobile component in the plan.
“Cars. Los Angeles . Social Welfare and Asian American Studies at UCLA . Ph. And Ong.Welfare Participants and Employment Access in Los Angeles”.Nexis) Unfortunately.D. Buses.
. and Jobs . but the County Board of Supervisors later eliminated it. Professor of Urban Planning. ‘1 (Evelyn and Paul. automobile programs have been politically controversial and have raised
concerns with public transit advocates and environmentalists who believe that they will result in increased traffic congestion and pose a threat to public transit and air quality. P.
) has scheduled a test vote on the bill for Friday. by some estimates—might have to be appropriated from Congress if the recession drags through 2010. more money—perhaps as much as $80 billion to $90 billion. 9. Some of them don't think the bill provides adequate leverage to force the automakers to restructure outside of bankruptcy. Treasury. Long-Term Loans Under the bill. auto industry threatens to block a $14
billion loan package. That money would be in the form of long-term loans to be paid back to the U.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Unpopular – Republicans
Republicans staunchly oppose plan.
. dealers. The White House and House Democrats hammered out a bill on Tuesday night. Despite the apparent low risk to the taxpayer of the initial auto package. regardless of how much power a "car czar" is given." Congress.com/print/bwdaily/dnflash/content/dec2008/db20081210_152585. fund targeted to help the automakers to retool plants. But others don't want to give federal dollars to companies they figure will fail anyway. Senator John Ensign (R-Nev.S.) said the plan amounts to "the government picking the winners and losers instead of the market. the auto workers' union. David Kiley is senior correspondent in BusinessWeek's Detroit bureau. several GOP senators steadfastly oppose it. but they still wield plenty of power in the U. the bill did not appear to have enough GOP support to gain the necessary 60 votes in the Senate. “Auto Bailout Hung Up in the Senate” December 10.htm Some Republicans staunchly oppose handing billions of dollars to the car companies. at least until a new Congress convenes in January. Republicans may have taken a beating in last month's national election. Opposition by several key senators to a federal bailout of the U. and the Obama White House. Ensign said casino workers feeling the brunt of the recession were as deserving of government help as auto workers. and management to hammer out a restructuring plan that would make the companies competitive with Asian and European rivals. Senate.…We're
just going down further and further and further towards socializing our economy. that would give General Motors (GM) and Chrysler enough federal money to avert bankruptcy." he said. Majority Leader Harry Reid (DNev. the government would have the ability to push the companies into a bankruptcy filing—and would hold senior-debt status that should place it first in line to get repaid in a liquidation or court-directed reorganization. 2008 http://www. But despite measures that were added to strengthen the hand of a federal auto-industry overseer. The revised bill calls for government loans drawn from an Energy Dept. A "car czar" would then be designated to work with the automakers over 90 days to wring concessions from debt holders.S. if the automakers can show viability. The House of Representatives passed the bill Wednesday night. Dec.S. If a plan couldn't be worked out to the approval of the "czar.businessweek.
go. up to $7. A federal program similar to Hyundai's incentive would tap what could be pent-up demand for new cars among buyers numbering in the millions for $5 billion or less."We eat the negative equity.com/Business/story?id=7053362&page=1 Two auto analysts suggest that spending some government auto aid money for direct-to-consumer incentives could boost sales and benefit the whole industry.would not agree to a specific date. Under the Hyundai plan. which have said they face imminent collapse without federal help. James R." GM said last night it was "deeply disappointed" that negotiations failed to produce an agreement. vice president of sale for Hyundai Motor America. dealers. They say the government could provide discount vouchers for new car buyers. killing the legislative plan and threatening America's carmakers with bankruptcy. "It would have an immediate.m.S. Reid warned that financial markets could plummet when trading opens this morning. he says. the Senate voted on the bailout measure that had been approved Wednesday by the House on a largely party-line vote. which covers most of our business.4 billion in federal loans. General Motors and Chrysler are surviving on $17. and its value is seen as not only improving car sales µ helping automakers. Pg.) announced after 10 p. currently.who were present for most of the negotiations -. "I dread looking at Wall Street tomorrow.. 237-170." Corker said. the lead GOP negotiator. "We're not going to get to the finish line. Without a Deal. "It's disappointing that Congress failed to act tonight.) auto industry around in a year." says Dave Zuchowski. sales forecaster at consultant CSM Worldwide. will forgive three payments while you look for work before the car has to come back. It is currently being done in several European nations."CSM figures new vehicle sales in the
European countries with such plans will be 400. "We think the legislation we negotiated provided an opportunity to use funds already appropriated for automakers and presented the best chance to avoid a disorderly bankruptcy while ensuring taxpayer funds only go to firms whose stakeholders were prepared to make difficult decisions to become viable." Senate Majority Leader Harry M. and an Obama administration task force is weighing whether they will get $21." the White House said in a statement. even if you owe more than the car's worth. The high-stakes talks broke down over when the wages of union workers would be slashed to the same level as those paid to nonunion workers at U. Minutes after the talks failed. 10 Republicans joined 42 Democrats. An eleventh-hour effort to salvage a proposed $14 billion rescue plan for the auto industry collapsed late last night as Republicans and Democrats failed to agree on the timing of deep wage cuts for union workers. as is successfully being done in Europe.). Of those voting yes. Paul Kane.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Unpopular . It would also be costeffective. 20 09
http://abcnews. Carmakers Face Bankruptcy Threat” December 12. Corker said. “Auto Bailout Talks Collapse as Senate Deadlocks Over Wages. you can return the car if you lose your income because you're laid off or for other specified reasons.
. said the sides were on the brink of a deal on the amendment he had offered. use more fuel and are less safe.
Legislation reviving the auto industry is strictly partisan.in 2009. Healey.S. Bob Corker (Tenn. That's just the way it is. Hyundai will cancel the loan. and won't put a black mark in your credit file. stimulating effect on auto sales. he says. "We will assess all of our options to continue our restructuring and to obtain the means to weather the current economic crisis. or could underwrite the costs of a federal version of South Korean automaker Hyundai's successful Assurance Plan." says Itay Michaeli. Reid (D-Nev. allowing customers to buy what they want. provides government discounts for new car buyers if they trade in old cars to be scrapped. Washington Post Staff Writer. 2008 SECTION: A-SECTION. Representatives from the United Auto Workers -.000. eight votes short of the 60 needed to override a Republican filibuster. In the Senate.Perception
Such a plan would be perceived as reviving the auto industry. There's too much difference between the two sides. It's not going to be a pleasant sight.500. USA TODAY “Analysts share ideas to help auto industry” March 10.6 billion more they're seeking. The legislation would have provided emergency loans to General Motors and Chrysler. Sen. The key benefit of either plan: " The government fund would support
the entire industry." the company said in a statement." says Joseph Barker. concluding a marathon
negotiating session that ended in gridlock. plants of foreign automakers such as Toyota and Honda.000 more this year than they'd be without the incentives." he said.
Such a plan
"could turn the (U. usually called scrappage. the vote was 52-35. "We offered any day -. Michaeli suggests a government program cover negative equity up to $10.The other plan. auto analyst at Citi Investment Research. It also.any day -. A01 Lexis. He says Hyundai buys insurance on each car sold to cover possible losses. parts suppliers and lenders µ but also retiring older vehicles that pollute more.
himself. Lydia Saad. The highest levels of support for granting the auto industry a second round of loans are found among self-described liberals (35%) and Democrats (33%).S. Only 25% say Congress should provide the money. their perceived mismanagement of their companies. auto executives' latest plea for taxpayer help is being met with little sympathy. 72% of whom say Congress should not authorize the additional $21 billion in emergency loans that General Motors and Chrysler are now requesting. 2009
http://www.Supplying Detroit automakers with more taxpayer dollars
to ward off bankruptcy doesn't fly with most Americans.
Hints that the government is trying to revive the auto industry is unpopular.aspx PRINCETON. the public wants the industry dead. it is hard to find a constituency
within the American public that might agree with his simultaneous commitment to help them anyway.gallup. more generally. Even in the Midwest -. “Americans Reject Sequel to Auto Bailout” February 26.
. NJ -.S.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Plan Unpopular – Perception Ext. auto industry -. However. or because of bailout fatigue. President Barack Obama intimated in his speech before Congress Tuesday night that he.com/poll/116107/Americans-Reject-Sequel-Auto-Bailout.the geographic hub of the U. the U.only 28% of Americans think the federal government should make the loans…Whether it's because of their badly reviewed testimony before Congress last year. does not want to reward the auto companies for their past poor performance. Gallup staff writer.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Impacts*
The economic stability and prosperity that stems from this economic order is a global public good from which all states benefit. The first has been a more peaceful world.S.
November/December.S. leadership reduced friction among many states that were historical antagonists. In addition to ensuring the security of the United States and its allies. Scholars and statesmen have long recognized the irenic effect of power on the anarchic world of international politics. as John Owen noted on these pages in the Spring 2006 issue. it is important to note what those good things are. the United States has
labored to create an economically liberal worldwide network characterized by free trade and commerce. the global paramedic and the planet's fire department. Without U. leadership.4 As a witness to the failed alternative economic systems. U.S. In addition. Hitler succeeded the order established at Versailles. Everything we think of when we consider the current international order--free trade. primacy. Lal now recognizes tha
. the liberal order created by the United States will end just as assuredly. Perhaps the greatest testament to the benefits of the economic network comes from Deepak Lal. military has participated in over fifty operations since the end of the Cold War--and most of those missions have been humanitarian in nature. Retrenchment proponents seem to think that the current system can be maintained without the current amount of U. Fourth and finally. The United States created this network not out of altruism but for the benefit and the
economic well-being of America. p. military is the earth's "911 force"--it serves. volcanic eruption.S. more transparent and more likely to want to resolve things amicably in concurrence with U. the U. a robust monetary regime. drought.S. the United States assists the countries in need. American primacy within the international system causes many positive outcomes for Washington and the world. the likelihood of any type of conflict is significantly reduced. Doing so is a source of much good for the countries concerned as well as the United
States because. This economic order forces American industries to be competitive. Abandoning the
t the only way to bring relief to desperately poor countries of the Third World is through the adoption of free market economic policies and globalization. along with the growth in the number of democratic states around the world has been the growth of the global economy. particularly war's worst
form: great power wars. The Dark Ages followed Rome's collapse. and mobility of capital and labor markets. South Korea and Japan. Second. de facto. power. and benefits defense as well because the size of the economy makes the defense burden manageable. And so. particularly the poorest states in the Third World. Today. a former Indian foreign service diplomat and researcher at the World Bank. American power gives the United States the ability to spread democracy and other elements of its ideology of liberalism.S. As country and western great Ral Donner sang: "You don't know what you've got (until you lose it). increasing respect for human rights. This is not
to say it fulfills Woodrow Wilson's vision of ending all war. Britain or the United States today. most notably France and West Germany. power. The U. as the world's police. democratic states are good for their citizens as
democracy helps maintain U. typhoon or tsunami."
Consequently. Indeed. such as in Darfur. Wars still occur where Washington's interests are not seriously threatened. which are facilitated through American primacy. peace and stability have been great benefits of an era where there was a dominant power--Rome. Economic spin-offs foster the development of military technology. This is not because democracies do not have clashing interests. With its allies.
American primacy helps keep a number of complicated relationships aligned--between Greece and Turkey. Indeed they do. once
well as for advancing the interests of the United States CONTINUES Third. earthquake. In that they are dead wrong and need to be reminded of one of history's most significant lessons: Appalling things happen when international orders collapse. and global economic growth Bradley A. maximizes efficiencies and growth. Israel and Egypt. who started his career confident in the socialist ideology of post-independence India. power behind it. liberty. respect for international property rights.
positions of his youth. liberal democracies are more likely to align with the United States and be sympathetic to the American worldview. flood. in seeking primacy. The National Interest. India and Pakistan. Thayer. 06 (Professor Defense & Strategic Studies. Lexis)
THROUGHOUT HISTORY. has been willing to use its power not only to advance its interests but to promote the welfare of people all over the globe. growing democratization--is directly linked to U. Lal is one of the strongest academic proponents of American primacy due to the economic prosperity it provides.S.S. but a Pax Americana does reduce war's likelihood. The United States is the earth's leading source of positive externalities for the world. Missouri State University. Rather.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Thayer
US hegemony is key to peace.3 So. in general. spreading
states are governed democratically. helping to ensure military prowess. the United States. it is because they are more open. Indonesia and Australia. During the Cold War. 2006. Whenever there is a natural disaster.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff *Util*
We argue that despite their initial appeal. accessed Blackwell Synergy) In making choices about saving people from death. the gain that comes from saving a larger group of people somehow more than compensates for the loss that occurs by not saving some other. other things being equal.~ Still. for killing an innocent person.ing a pluralist moral theory that mixes or integrates consequentialist and nonconsequentialist elements. Alan. If one shares our doubts about the prospects for modifying or constraining
consequentialism. University of Pennsylvania "Can a Nonconsequentialist Count Lives?"Philosophy and Public Affairs 31.1. it is unclear why one may not simply kill an innocent person and harvest his
organs if doing so is the only available way of saving the lives of people who will die without those organs. one might seek to qualify or constrain consequentialist reasoning by adopt.pose. One might respond in many ways to the apparent harshness of the
consequentialist approach to choices among lives.ple. The consequentialist position involves what might be called the compensation as.icance should attach to the fact that one choice
involves saving more people than another? Consequentialists typically have an easy time with such questions because they believe that the morally best choice pro.sumption: the proposition that other things equal.ries in this article. and we conclude that there does not yet exist a cogent nonconsequentialist answer to the question of numbers. If numbers have the moral importance that consequentialists sup. what moral signif. these approaches do not succeed.duces the best consequences and that.
. The nonconsequentialist approaches we consider treat the failure to save the group with the greater number as a failure to respect the value or equality of the individual lives in that group. but we must
acknowledge that some of them are com. In fact.plex and ingeniou~. We begin with an important early attempt by Gregory Kavka
because an analysis of its weaknesses suggests the moral complexity of choices among lives and the distinctive character of more recent efforts to understand these choices. or an exceedingly weak one. smaller group of peo. it makes sense to look to nonconsequentialist approaches to choices among livesapproaches that do not rely directly or indirectly on the claim that more people saved is a better consequence. we suspect that they are doomed attempts to breed species that are in essence incompatible. Research Scholar at the University of Maryland's Institute for Philosophy and
Public Policy. more lives saved is a better consequence than fewer lives saved. then it should be at least presumptively right to sacrifice a person to save others. Associate Professor of Legal Studies and Director of the Ethics Program at the Wharton School. for example. the prospect of saving the lives of those people seems to provide no reason. We cannot canvass pluralistic theo. however.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Moral Obligation
The most moral action is to save live s—only consequentialism like the aff solves because it preserves THE MOST LIVES
WASSERMAN & STRUDLER 2003 (David. Most obviously. even if there is no other way to acquire needed organs.
Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Before Morality
WE HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO HELP OTHERS—MUST WEIGH CATASTROPHIC IMPACTS ABOVE ABSOLUTIST MORALITY CLAIMS CAPUTO 1993 (John D. something that cannot be repaired. Press)
A disaster is an economic notion. That is what is meant by a disaster. every logos and ratio. the south Bronx. to a larger economy of pain and suffering which is understood by anyone who understands the economy of life itself. which are so many alarms sounding. is something for me to work through. An obligation is a matter of being bound (ligare) to a disaster. The disaster is an utter wasting. The killing fields are everywhere and everywhere they are fields of disasters. recompensed. Proper names are so
many points on the map of disasters. You cannot grow new flesh. By irretrievable loss I mean a wasting of life. of what is gone forever. that is a law of the flesh.37 Disasters are constituted by suffering.42 That prevents you from looking for a result. Disasters constitute a loss for which there is no ratio reddenda.38 Disasters throw all reckoning and cost-accounting. into chaos. new time. an acceptable cost that one is willing to pay. They are the stuff on which ethics comes to grief and which launches the search for another idiom for disasters. You cannot grow another body. Very few things of worth can be accomplished without taking on and enduring a sometimes considerable amount of pain or hardship. groundless However much a critic of Marxist metanarratives Lyotard became. There is no larger perspective. which means an utter breakdown of the attempt to write poetice et
. to get beyond. is to look around at a destruction for which there is no recompense. no larger whole. so many sounds of warning and calls for help. that ethics cannot bring under the rule of its principium or arche. the loss of what is utterly irreplaceable. To be surrounded by disaster. there is suffering and there is suffering. and Sarajevo." Disasters do not produce a result. whose family has been killed. the disasters of Auschwitz and the disasters of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. My suffering. Even then. The disaster belongs to an economy of excessive cost. Disasters are events of surpassing or irretrievable loss. It cannot be led to a "result. The fields of disasters are marked with dates and proper names. of northern Ireland and the West Bank. She cannot grow another brother. Indiana Univ. It makes the search for a result an obscenity. no totality in terms of
which the loss can be reckoned part of an acceptable expenditure. That is why disasters are an abyss. The suffering of a child is not a part of the progress of the Spirit or the History of Being. redeemed. A disaster is a loss that cannot be incorporated into a "result. that ethics cannot master. Antigone is a spokeswoman of irretrievable
loss. an a-logos. of the disaster that besets the flesh.. Disasters are events that "ethics" — which turns on logos/ratio/nomos — cannot contain. you cannot regain wasted years."35 that cannot be led back into a gain. Marxism has not ended for him in the sense that the disasters of capital are always with us. of South Africa. To spare others pain and hard work and suffering may easily mean to spare them everything that gives their life worth and a greater long-term felicity. under any of its favorite master names. That is why a disaster
is not the same as pain or suffering. a loss which is without why.36 or whose health has been irreparably destroyed. Short-term suffering may easily belong to long-term flourishing. the suffering of the I. for which there is no compensating return. 40 To this it should be added that disasters of all sorts are always with us — the disasters of capital and the disasters of Stalinism. an a-homos. They are our unavoidable if ominous companions and they cannot be written out of the script of life. You cannot compensate someone who has spent the best years of his life in unjust imprisonment. Disasters always befall the other. It refers to an unrecoverable loss. Pain and suffering belong to our pact with life. a sheer loss. but not all suffering is a disaster. Thomas J. Watson Professor of Religion and Humanities @ Syracuse University
Against Ethics : Contributions to a Poetics of Obligation With Constant Reference to Deconstruction. to be the victim of a disaster.
is that utilitarianism has a necessary place in any democratic country's normal political deliberations. that if a third party is right to risk or sacrifice the lives of the lesser for the lives of the
greater number when the lesser would otherwise live. against utilitarianism. That choice does not mean that those to be sacrificed are immoral if they resist being sacrificed.Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Kateb
EXTINCTION MUST BE CONSIDERED ABOVE ALL OTHER CONCERNS KATEB 1992 (George. say. circumstances in which the choice is between sacrificing a right of some and letting a right of all be lost. The subject is painful and liable to dispute every step of the way. however. (But total numbers killed do not count if members of one group have to kill members of another group to save themselves from threatened massacre or enslavement or utter degradation or misery.)
. if the only alternative is letting everyone die. it should function innocently. the state—can (perhaps must) choose to save the greater number of lives and at the cost of the lesser number. advocates of rights can rightly allow a loose utilitarianism as the proper guide to public policy.7 It is the right to life which most prominently figures in thinking about desperate situations.
For the state to override—that is. or when all hope of innocence is gone. Press) What does a theory of rights leave undecided? Many issues of public policy do not affect individual rights. which ordinarily is only to help to decide what the theory of rights leaves alone. I cannot see any resolution but to heed the precept that "numbers count. whether for the disadvantaged or for everyone. the state's overriding of rights for these two reasons. and overriding the same right of everyone for the sake of what I will clumsily call "civilization values. The main point. Cornell
Univ. The Inner Ocean: Individualism and Democratic Culture. sacrifice—a right of some so that others may keep it. the lesser are also not wrong if they resist being sacrificed. professor of politics @ Princeton University. I have in mind. that any substantive outcome achieved by morally proper procedure is morally right and hence acceptable (so long as rights are not in play). When may rights be overridden by government? I have two sorts of cases in mind: overriding a particular right of some persons for the sake of preserving the same rjght of others. So long as rights are not in play. Such issues pertain to the promotion of a better life. though they should be always eager to keep the state's energy under suspicion. the situation must be desperate. But its advocates must know its place." An advocate of rights could countenance. that every care must be taken to ensure that the precept that numbers of lives count does not become a license for vaguely conjectural decisions about inflicting death and saving life and that desperation be as strictly and narrowly understood as possible. perhaps must countenance. despite frequent ingenious efforts to claim that they do. however. It follows. The state (or some other agent) may kill some (or allow them to be killed). when there is otherwise no hope for either group. I emphasize. One can even think. so a third party—
let us say. or involve the clash of interests. above
all." Just as one may prefer saving one's own life to saving that of another when both cannot be saved. I suppose that permitting numbers to count in desperate situations is to accept utilitarianism (in some loose sense) as a necessary supplement It thus should function when rights arc not at stake and when they are most cruelly at stake. they may kill their attackers in the attempt to end the threat. of course.
in the form of juxtapositions of seeming incommensurables or phenomena that might conventionally have appeared to be "world apart. Professor of Anthro at Rice University. This move toward comparison as heterotopia firmly deterritorializes culture in
ethnographic writing and simulates accounts of cultures composed in a landscape for which there is as yet no developed theoretical comparison
. The postmodern object of study is ultimately mobile and multiply situated.g. but are themselves a contribution of making an account which has different.. so any ethnography of such an object will have a comparative dimension that is integral to it." Comparison reenters the very act of ethnographic specificity by a postmodern vision of seemingly improbably juxtapositions. but in altered ways. related local situations rather than something monolithic and external to them. juxtapositions.
and the blocking together of incommensurables (Lyotard) have served to renew the long-neglected practice of comparison in anthropology. Ethnography through Thick and Thin. 186-7)
The postmodern notions of heterotopia (Foucault).Cal National Debate Institute 2009 Automobile Aff Perm : Juxaposition
JUXTAPOSING INCOMPATIBLE IDEAS (LIKE THE ALT & THE PLAN) CREATES A PROCESS OF CONTINUOUS CRITICISM & AVOIDS PROBLEMS OF TRADITIONAL THEORY
MARCUS '98 (George E. the global collapsed into and made and integral part of a parallel. Princeton: Princeton University
Press. 1998. rather. complexly connected real-world sites of investigation. Juxtapositions do not have the obvious meta-logic of older styles of comparison in anthropology (e.. controlled comparisons within a cultural area or "natural" geographical region). they emerge from putting questions to an emergent object of study whose controus are not known beforehand.