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Describe the Chemical mechanisms by which DNA controls protein synthesis.

The key to a protein molecule is how the amino acids are linked. The sequence of amino
acids in a protein is a type of code that specifies the protein and distinguishes one protein
from another. A genetic code in the DNA determines this amino acid code. The genetic
code consists of the sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA. How the nitrogenous
base code is translated to an amino acid sequence in a protein is the basis for protein
synthesis. Transcription is one of the first processes in the mechanism of protein
synthesis. In transcription, a complementary strand of mRNA is synthesized according to
the nitrogenous base code of DNA. The genetic code is transferred to an amino acid
sequence in a protein through the translation process, which begins with the arrival of the
mRNA molecule at the ribosome. One by one, amino acids are added to the growing
chain until the ribosome has moved down to the end of the mRNA molecule.

Discus the term diploid (2n) and haploid (n) to describe the major differences
between sexual and asexual reproduction.
Haploid cells have one set of daughter cells which means they have 23 chromosomes
where as Diploid cells have two set of daughter cells meaning they have 23 pairs of
chromosomes (46 chromosomes). A diploid cell is involved in sexual reproduction. It
contains a full set of chromosomes, half of them from a male and half from a female
gamete. A single haploid cell contains only one set of chromosomes and undergoes
mitosis during asexual reproduction, producing genetically identical offspring.

What is the modern theory of evolution? Explain in detail. Describe Darwin’s

Evolution is the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of
organisms. One is natural selection, a process in which there is differential survival and
or reproduction of organisms that differ in one or more inherited traits. Another cause is
genetic drift, a process in which there are random changes to the proportions of two or
more inherited traits within a population. The major sources of such variation are
mutation, genetic recombination and gene flow. Evolution has led to the diversification of
all living organisms, which are described by Charles Darwin as "endless forms most
beautiful and most wonderful". Darwin formulated his idea of natural selection in 1838.
Darwin's publication of On the Origin of Species explained natural selection in detail and
presented evidence leading to increasingly wide acceptance of the occurrence of

Explain half-life of an atom as it pertains to radioactive elements. What are some of

the techniques and uses in science for radioactive isotopes?
Half-life is the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by
half. The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of unstable atoms.
Radioactive isotopes, also called radioisotopes, are atoms with a different number of
neutrons than a usual atom, with an unstable nucleus that decays, emitting alpha, beta and
gamma rays until the isotope reaches stability. Chromium-51, for example, which forms
from emitted alpha rays during radioactive isotope decay, is used in the classifying of
blood cells and measuring protein loss in the human body. Cobalt-60, another element
formed from radioactive isotopes emitting beta and gamma rays, is often used in cancer
treatment. The uses of radioactive isotopes in these fields depend on what element they
become after they reach stability.

Describe Photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Why is photosynthesis a “bridge”

between the inorganic and organic world? Are there others?
Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds,
especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight.[1] Photosynthesis occurs in plants,
algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. In plants, algae, and
cyanobacteria, photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste
product. Photosynthesis is vital for all aerobic life on Earth. Cellular respiration is the set
of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to
convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then
release waste products. Respiration is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy to
fuel cellular reformations. It combines sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (waste from
animals) to make COOH (which is a very simple carbohydrate that supplies energy for
other organisms), water, and oxygen (useful to animals).
Non photosynthesizing organisms cannot turn light into energy nor do they have a way to
turn carbon dioxide into oxygen. Viruses are dead (not active) and have function while
outside the infected body, but the second they enter a body they become alive (active),
that is why people consider them as a bridge between the living and non living.

Discuss the structure of the atom.

They have subatomic particles, the proton, electron and neutron. Quantum numbers
describe values of conserved quantities in the dynamics of the quantum
system. The size of the electron cloud. Electromagnetic, strong, weak, and
gravitational forces all exist inside an atom. Gravity is weakest. Electrons
kept in orbit by electromagnetic force. Strong forces repel electromagnetic
forces. Weak forces have to do with radioactive decay.

Explain the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. Include

trends and why trends occur.
There are groups, periods, and blocks. A group or family is a vertical
column in the periodic table. Groups are considered the most important
method of classifying the elements. In some groups, the elements have
very similar properties and exhibit a clear trend in properties down the
group. A period is a horizontal row in the periodic table. Although groups
are the most common way of classifying elements, there are some regions
of the periodic table where the horizontal trends and similarities in
properties are more significant than vertical group trends. ecause of the
importance of the outermost shell, the different regions of the periodic table
are sometimes referred to as periodic table blocks, named according to the
subshell in which the "last" electron resides.
Discuss the relationship between volume, pressure, temperature and
number of moles and why you are able to solve stoichiometric
problems using the gas law.

An ideal gas is defined as one in which all collisions

between atoms or molecules are perfectly eleastic
and in which there are no intermolecular attractive
forces. STP is used widely as a standard reference
point for expression of the properties and processes
of ideal gases. Using STP we can solve stoichiometric
equations. The temperature is 0°C or 273 K
The pressure is 1 atmosphere or 760 mmHg or 760 torr
One mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L of volume (molar volume)

The reaction between silver nitrate and zinc chloride is 95%

effective. If 250 g of silver nitrate reacts with 250 g of zinc
chloride, what will be the actual yield of products?

No fucking idea.

According to Einstein: what is the one constant in the universe?

What varies?

was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of

general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. Einstein abandoned the
concept after the observation of the Hubble redshift indicated that the
universe might not be stationary, as he had based his theory on the idea
that the universe is unchanging.[1] However, the discovery of cosmic
acceleration in the 1990s has renewed interest in a cosmological constant.

What is faster, a satellite in higher or lower orbit? Explain the metric

units of acceleration and force. If something is in equilibrium, what
forces must balance?

Higher orbit.

Newtons Laws
I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to
remain in that state of motion unless an external
force is applied to it.-inertia

II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its

acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma.
Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by
their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in
this law the direction of the force vector is the same
as the direction of the acceleration vector.

II. For every action there is an equal and opposite


Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism relating to

the operating principles of transformers, inductors, and many types of
electrical motors and generators.[1] The law states that:
The induced electromotive force (EMF) in any closed circuit is equal to the time
rate of change of the magnetic flux through the circuit.[1]

Or alternatively:
The EMF generated is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux.