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Role of Socio-Demographics in Segmenting and Profiling Green Consumers


Sanjay K. Jain a; Gurmeet Kaur a
a
Department of Commerce, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi, India

Online Publication Date: 13 June 2006

To cite this Article Jain, Sanjay K. and Kaur, Gurmeet(2006)'Role of Socio-Demographics in Segmenting and Profiling Green
Consumers',Journal of International Consumer Marketing,18:3,107 — 146
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Role of Socio-Demographics
in Segmenting and Profiling
Green Consumers:
An Exploratory Study
of Consumers in India
Sanjay K. Jain
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Gurmeet Kaur

ABSTRACT. Though green consumerism is on the rise, not all the con-
sumers are equally green. To be able to more effectively market green
products and ideas, marketers need to segment their market and use differ-
entiated marketing approach for each target segment. Socio-demographic
characteristics have been widely used in the past researches as a basis of
market segmentation and profiling of green consumers. The present study
explores the usefulness of select socio-demographic characteristics in
capturing variations present in the environmental consciousness of the
consumers in India. Both the univariate and multivariate analyses point to
the presence of statistically significant linkages between the socio-demo-
graphic characteristics and different environmental consciousness con-
structs, thus implying potential usefulness of these characteristics in

Sanjay K. Jain is Professor of Marketing and International Business, Department of


Commerce, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110 007, India
(E-mail: skjaindse@vsnl.net; skjaindse@hotmail.com). Gurmeet Kaur is Lecturer in
Commerce, Sri Guru Teg Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110
007, India.
The authors are thankful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive com-
ments and suggestions that proved helpful in substantially revising the original draft of
the paper.
Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 18(3) 2006
Available online at http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JICM
 2006 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1300/J046v18n03_06 107
108 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

profiling different segments of green consumers and evolving accordingly


the green marketing strategies and environmental campaigns as capable of
more effectively reaching and influencing the chosen green consumer
segments. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Deliv-
ery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <docdelivery@haworthpress.
com> Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.com> © 2006 by The Haworth Press,
Inc. All rights reserved.]

KEYWORDS. Green marketing, environmental consciousness, seg-


menting and profiling green consumers, socio-demographic characteris-
tics of green consumers
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Consumers have emerged as a force to reckon with for attaining the


coveted objectives of environmental protection and sustainable devel-
opment. In fact, the green consumerism in recent years has provided an
impetus to the upsurge of corporate environmentalism. With a rise in
ecological consciousness among the consumers and rising demand for
green products, business firms have started turning green and have be-
gun offering green products and services (Chan, K., 1999; Ottman,
1992; Peattie and Ratnayaka, 1992; Salzman, 1991; Vandermerwe and
Oliff, 1990). Recognising the role that consumers can play in protecting
the environment and making the earth a place worth living for the pres-
ent and future generations (Grunert, 1993; McGougall, 1993; Wasik,
1992), the governmental as well as non-governmental organizations the
world over have started focussing on consumers in their environmental
campaigns.
Though the environmental consciousness among the consumers is on
the rise, not all the consumers are equally green and demand green prod-
ucts (e.g., Chan, K., 1999; Diamantopoulos et al., 2003; Ottman, 1992;
Peattie, 1992; Roper, 1990, 1992). That being the case, target marketing
rather than mass marketing appears as a better strategy. Having identified
and selected the segments of green customers, marketers can evolve posi-
tioning and marketing-mix strategies keeping in view the profile of cus-
tomers in the chosen segments (Bohlen et al., 1993; Chan, T. S., 1996;
Chan, K., 1999; Meffert and Kirchgeorg, 1994). Not only the business
firms, but also the environmental organisations and governmental agen-
cies can benefit from the adoption of such an approach.
Segmentation and profiling of green consumers are the research ar-
eas, which have received considerable attention in the past (for a review
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 109

of such studies, see Chan, K., 1999; Diamantopoulos et al., 2003;


Cornwell and Schwepker, 1995, Roberts, 1996). A wide variety of geo-
graphic, socio-demographic and personality characteristics have been
employed in the past studies for segmenting and profiling green con-
sumers, with the socio-demographic characteristics having been used as
the key profiling variables in view of their ease of measurement and ap-
plication (Diamantopoulos et al., 2003).
Until the 1980s, most studies examining the role of socio-demo-
graphics were US based. Since the 1990s, however, the number of stud-
ies undertaken in the context of consumers in Europe, and those in the
newly emerging industrialised countries in Asia, has considerably gone
up. Diamantopoulos et al. (2003) provide an excellent review of the
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studies undertaken in North America and Europe. A reference to the


Asian studies can be had from K. Chan (1999) and Tang et al. (2004).
Notwithstanding somewhat inconsistent findings, the past studies do
point to the usefulness of socio-demographic characteristics in identify-
ing and profiling different green market segments, and evolving accord-
ingly the targeting, positioning and marketing mix-strategies. T. S. Chan,
(1996), for instance, found that the young and well-educated consumers
were having stronger green concerns in Hong Kong; and, therefore,
suggested that these consumers be focused in future investigations to
properly understand the promotion of environmentally friendly pur-
chase behaviours. In a similar vein, K. Chan (1999), on finding that the
heavy green consumers in Hong Kong were having higher household
income, recommended that the marketers of environmentally friendly
products should aim at the affluent and elite classes as the prime target
market.
Of late, the green movement has spread its wings to other countries
including India. India stands next only to China in terms of population,
accounting for about 16 per cent of the world population. Even if a frac-
tion of the Indian consumers goes green, they can contribute signifi-
cantly to the cause of environmental protection. Indian marketers and
policy makers too can benefit by employing segmentation-based green
marketing strategies (Jain and Kaur, 2003). But no significant study ex-
ists in the country to guide the decision makers in this respect. Findings
of the past studies conducted in other countries (including those in
Asian countries) are per se not generalisable to the consumers in India.
Socio-cultural differences present among the consumers across coun-
tries make consumers think and behave differently, thus precluding any
direct transfer of marketing strategies and plans from one country to
another (Tai and Tam, 1996). And this holds true to some extent even in
110 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

respect of the consumers’ environmental attitudes and behaviours.


Macnaghten and Urry (1998:2) rightly observe in this context that “peo-
ple respond to or interact with nature based on specific social practices,
especially of people’s dwellings, which produce, reproduce and trans-
form different natures and different values. It is through such practices
that people respond, cognitively, aesthetically and hermeneutically, to
what have been constructed as the signs and characteristics of nature.”
A few past studies do point to the ecological differences present
among the consumers across countries (e.g., Chan, T. S., 1996; Chan
and Lau, 2000; Gallup, 1992; Johnson et al., 2004; Johri and Sahasak-
montri, 1998; Tai and Tam, 1996; Tang et al., 2004:90). What to speak
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of differences across countries, even within a country consumers be-


longing to different ethnic groups have been found differing in their
environmental beliefs and activism because of the carry over effects of
their past cultures even after having settled in a new country (Johnson
et al., 2004). Green consumers, moreover, have been found differing in
their profiles across countries (Chan, K., 1999; Diamantopoulos et al.,
2003:477). These and other culture-specific differences hamper adop-
tion of a standardised green marketing strategy throughout the world
(Simon, 1992; Tai and Tam, 1996), and as such call for taking up coun-
try-specific investigations.
It is against this backdrop that the present paper attempts to explore
as to how the Indian consumers belonging to different socio-demo-
graphic groups differ in their environmental consciousness. The paper
is organised into five sections. The first section provides a review of the
researches undertaken in other countries and puts forward hypotheses
taken up for empirical testing in the present study. The next two sections
describe the methodology used in the study and discuss study findings.
Conclusions and policy implications of the study, along with directions
for future research, are provided in the last two sections.

LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESES FORMULATION

Consumers differ in their environmental knowledge, attitude and be-


haviour (Ottman, 1992; Peattie, 1992). A poll in 1993, for instance,
found “better educated older females with high income and a liberal
orientation” as being green consumers (EPA, 1994). In contrast, “youn-
ger, apolitical, less well educated males” tended to be less green or non-
green consumers (Shrum et al., 1995). The Roper Organisation too in its
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 111

opinion poll found “white-collar workers, women and educated” con-


sumers as being more green-minded consumers (Shrum et al., 1995).
That being the case, it does not seem appropriate approaching all the
consumers with a single standardised green marketing program. A pref-
erable alternative is to cluster the consumers into different segments and
approach each of the selected segments with a different green marketing
strategy.
An extensive body of literature has emerged during the last twenty-
five years, with socio-demographic characteristics having been more
frequently used as the bases for segmenting and profiling green con-
sumers. Roberts (1996), K. Chan (1999), and more recently Diamant-
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opoulos et al. (2003) provide a comprehensive review of the studies


investigating impact of the socio-demographic characteristics on con-
sumers’ green consciousness. Gender, age, income, level of education,
occupation, number of children, social class and place of residence are
amongst the key socio-demographic variables that have been used in the
past studies. Following paragraphs discuss the theoretical and empirical
justifications underlying the use of these variables for explaining varia-
tions present in the consumers’ environmental consciousness and put
forth various hypotheses for empirical testing in the present study.
Gender: Impact of the gender on ecology and green marketing has
been explored in a number of past studies, but with somewhat diverse
results. While some studies have found no significant relationship be-
tween gender and environmental knowledge (e.g., Arbuthnot, 1977;
Diamantopoulos et al., 2003; Samdahl and Robertson, 1989; Tognacci
et al., 1972); others report males as being environmentally more knowl-
edgeable than females (Chandler, 1972; Grunert and Kristensen, 1994;
Lyons and Breakwell, 1994; Meffert and Bruhn, 1996) probably due to
the fact that males are generally more outgoing and, hence, more ex-
posed to the environmental information than females. Since the logic
seems applicable to Indian males too, it can be hypothesised that:

H1.1: Males are environmentally more aware and knowledgeable


than females.

In regard to the environmental attitudes and behaviour, however,


most studies report that females are environmentally more concerned
(e.g., Davidson and Freudenburg, 1996; Diamantopoulos et al., 2003;
Lowe et al., 1980; Shrum et al., 1995; Stern et al., 1993; Straughan and
Roberts, 1999; Tognacci et al., 1972; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981;
112 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

Yam-Tang and Chan, 1998), and engage more intensively in the envi-
ronmentally friendly behaviour than males (Prothero, 1990; Roberts,
1996; Roper, 1992; Yam-Tang and Chan, 1998). Theoretical justifica-
tion underlying this phenomenon is that women because of their social
development and unique sex roles, skills and attitudes consider more
carefully the impact of their actions on others (Straughan and Roberts,
1999). Since green consumerism in India is a relatively recent phenom-
enon, we do not have evidence available to us from the past studies to
outrightly subscribe to this reasoning. One can rather argue that the
males in India might be having greater concern for the environment and
engaging in the environmentally friendly behaviour to a greater extent
due to their greater exposure to the media and/or interface with the envi-
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ronmental problems owing to their greater outgoing behaviour. In view


of the lack of any empirical or theoretical support, we propose the fol-
lowing exploratory (two-tail rather than one-tail) hypotheses with re-
spect to the environmental attitudes and behaviours:

H1.2: Males and females differ in their concern for environment.

H1.3: Males and females differ in their pursuit of environmental activ-


ities.

Age: Age is another demographic variable that has been extensively


researched in the past studies. A majority of the studies point to a signifi-
cant and negative relationship between the age and environmental knowl-
edge (e.g., Anderson et al., 1974; Arcury et al., 1987; Diamantopoulos et
al., 2003; Grunert and Kristensen, 1994). Even with regard to environ-
mental attitudes, a significant and negative relationship with age has been
reported by several researchers (e.g., Diamantopoulos et al., 2003;
Grunert and Kristensen, 1994; Scott and Willits, 1994; Tognacci et al.,
1972; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981; Zeidner and Shechter, 1988). Envi-
ronmental behaviour too has been found to be significantly and nega-
tively related with the age (Arcury et al., 1987; Arbuthnot, 1977;
Diamantopoulos et al., 2003; Grunert and Kristensen, 1994; Jolibert
and Baumgartner, 1981; Meffert and Bruhn, 1996; Mohai, 1985;
Neuman, 1986; Roper, 1992; Samdahl and Robertson, 1989; Tognacci
et al., 1972; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981; Zeidner and Shechter, 1988;
Zimmer et al., 1994).
There are only a few studies that report a non-significant relationship
(e.g., Chan, K., 1999; Kinnear et al., 1974; Meffert and Bruhn, 1996;
Ostman and Parker, 1987; Roper, 1990; 1992; Shrum et al., 1995; Web-
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 113

ster, 1975) or significantly positive relationship (e.g., Roberts, 1996;


Samdahl and Robertson, 1989) between age and environmental con-
sciousness. Influence of age on the environmental behaviour, moreover,
has been found to be country specific. In a two-country study, for in-
stance, T. S. Chan (1996) found the respondents’ age having a signifi-
cant influence on the environmentally friendly purchases in Canada
(i.e., younger Canadian respondents reporting a higher incidence of
purchasing recyclable products). But the same has not been found true
in respect of the respondents from Hong Kong.
Baring these few exceptions, past studies in general indicate an in-
verse relationship between the age and environmental knowledge, atti-
tudes and behaviours. The probable reason for a greater sensitivity
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among the younger persons towards the environmental issues might be


that these persons have grown up at a time when the environmental con-
cerns have already become a prominent issue (Straughan and Roberts,
1999). Since the above reasoning seems equally applicable to the Indian
consumers, it can be hypothesised that:

H2.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge are negatively related


with age.

H2.2: Environmental attitudes are negatively related with age.

H2.3: Environmental behaviours are negatively related with age.

Education Level: Level of education has been linked to the environ-


mental consciousness in a number of studies that report relatively more
consistent results. A vast majority of the studies reveal a positive rela-
tionship between education and environmental knowledge (e.g., Arbuthnot
and Lingg, 1975; Arcury et al., 1987; Chandler, 1972; Diamantopoulos
et al., 2003; Grunert, 1991; Maloney and Ward, 1973; Maloney et al.,
1975; Moore, 1981; Ostman and Parker, 1987).
Education level, moreover, has been found to be positively related
with the environmental attitudes (Aaker and Bagozzi, 1982; Grunert,
1991; Leonard-Barton, 1981; Murphy et al., 1978; Roberts, 1996;
Roper, 1990, 1992; Tognacci et al., 1972; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981;
Zimmer et al., 1994). Even with respect to the environmental behaviour,
a positive relationship has been reported (Arbuthnot, 1977; Chan, T. S.,
1996; Devall, 1970; Harry et al., 1969; Jolibert and Baumgartner, 1981;
Maloney and Ward, 1973; Ostman and Parker, 1987; Scott and Willits,
1994; Webster, 1975; Widegren, 1998). The possible reason underlying
114 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

such a relationship between the education level and environmental con-


sciousness might be that it is rather the better-educated people who can
understand the intricate relationship between the environment and hu-
man beings.
A few exceptions to the above findings, however, do exist. Samdahl
and Robertson (1989), for instance, found education being negatively
related with the environmental attitudes and behaviour. Arbuthnot and
Lingg (1975) too found a negative relationship between education and
environmental behaviour. Meffert and Bruhn (1996), on the other hand,
reported no significant relationship between the education and environ-
mental knowledge. In a similar vein, researchers like Baldassare and
Katz (1992), Diamantopoulos et al. (2003), Honnold (1981), Lowe et al.
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(1980), Meffert and Bruhn (1996), Ray (1975) and Shrum et al. (1995)
found education having no significant relationship with environmental
attitudes. Even with respect to the environmental behaviour, no signifi-
cant relationship has been found in some past studies (Arbuthnot and
Lingg, 1975; Arcury et al., 1987; Meffert and Bruhn, 1996; Neuman,
1986; Pickett et al., 1993; Schahn and Holzer, 1990).
Nonetheless, in view of a positive relationship found between educa-
tion and eco-consciousness in majority of the studies and the theoretical
reasoning underlying the relationship to be intuitively holding true for
the Indian consumers too, it can be hypothesised that:

H3.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge are positively related


with the education level.

H3.2: Environmental attitudes are positively related with the educa-


tion level.

H3.3: Environmental behaviours are positively related with the edu-


cation level.

Type of School Attended: Though not investigated in the past re-


searches, “type of school attended” seems to be a potent socio-demo-
graphic variable affecting consumer environmental consciousness. The
government and private schools differ considerably in terms of student
intake and type of persons they churn out after their schooling. In India,
for instance, most private schools charge exorbitantly high fees and
levy other dues, which make these schools inaccessible to the children
from the weaker and lower social strata of the society. The two types of
schools, moreover, differ in terms of infrastructure and education orien-
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 115

tation. In general, private schools possess better infrastructure and lay


more emphasis on extracurricular activities and personality develop-
ment than is the case with the government schools. Students coming out
of the two types of school, therefore, differ in their personality traits.
Personality traits and social orientation have been found to significantly
affect environmental consciousness in the past studies (Kinnear et al.,
1974; Schwepker and Cornwell, 1991). Academically too, students
from the two types of school have been found to differ in their perfor-
mances, with such differences being present even among the students in
the United States (The Public Purpose, 1998). Since these differences
can possibly influence the consumers’ environmental awareness, atti-
tudes and behaviours, we propose the following three exploratory
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hypotheses:

H4.1: People with different school backgrounds differ in their envi-


ronmental awareness and knowledge.

H4.2: People with different school backgrounds differ in their envi-


ronmental attitudes.

H4.3: People with different school backgrounds differ in pursuing en-


vironmental activities.

Income: A general belief about income is that it is positively related


to the environmental consciousness for the simple reason that it is the
higher income people who can bear additional costs associated with
supporting the green causes and favouring green products (Straughan
and Roberts, 1999). While several empirical studies report income be-
ing positively related with the environmental attitudes (Kinnear et al.,
1974; McEvoy, 1972; Mitchell, 1983; Reizenstein et al., 1974; Webster,
1975; Roper, 1990, 1992; Simon, 1992; Tai and Tam, 1996; Tucker
et al., 1981; Zimmer et al., 1994) and behaviours (Arbuthnot, 1977;
Chan, K., 1999; Roper, 1990, 1992; Zimmer et al., 1994); only a few
studies point to a non-significant effect of income on environmental
knowledge (e.g., Buttell and Flinn, 1978), attitudes (e.g., Kassarjian,
1971; Van Liere and Dunlap, 1981) and behaviours (Anderson et al.,
1974; Antil, 1984; Pickett et al., 1993). Studies by Roberts (1996) and
Samdahl and Robertson (1989) report even a negative relationship be-
tween the income and environmental behaviours.
Keeping in view the findings of majority studies and also the com-
monly held belief that income is positively related to environmental
116 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

consciousness which seems logical for the Indian consumers too, it is


proposed that:

H5.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge are positively related


with level of income.

H5.2: Environmental attitudes are positively related with level of in-


come.

H5.3: Environmental behaviours are positively related with level of


income.
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Occupation: Occupation has been used as an antecedent of environ-


mental consciousness in the past studies, including the ones conducted
in the Asian context (e.g., Chan, K., 1999; Yam-Tang and Chan, 1998).
Though the past studies do not provide any explicit rationale for the in-
clusion of this variable, the plausible explanation can be found in the
close parallel that it has with the variable “social class.” Like social
class, occupation is a sort of composite variable that manifests differ-
ences present among the persons in terms of their income, educational
level and social sophistication. Similar to the reasoning that people be-
longing to higher social classes are more likely to be concerned with the
environmental degradation because of their greater outdoor recreational
activities (Diamantopoulos et al., 2003), people belonging to different
occupational groups too can be expected to differ in their sensitivity to
the environmental issues because of the inherent occupational charac-
teristics and needs, incidence of outdoor activities, and the types of so-
cial groups with whom people with different occupations interact and
socialise. Though occupation by no means can serve as a substitute for
the variable social class which is a more embracing concept, it neverthe-
less is being used as a proxy for the latter especially in the case of a de-
veloping country like India where data on social classes are not readily
available.
Impact of occupation on environmental consciousness has been ex-
amined in several past studies, but the results are too diverse to permit
any conclusive inference. Buttell and Flinn (1978), for instance, found
no significant relationship between occupation and environmental
knowledge. With respect to environmental attitudes, while Anderson
and Cunningham (1972), Balderjahn (1988), Mitchell (1983) and
Reizenstein et al. (1974) report a significant relationship; no such rela-
tionship has been observed by researchers like Kassarjian (1971),
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 117

Kinnear et al. (1974), Samdahl and Robertson (1989), Van Liere and
Dunlap (1981), and Webster (1975). Even concerning the environmen-
tal behaviour, past studies report somewhat inconsistent results. While
Anderson et al. (1974) and Roper (1990, 1992) found occupation being
an important determinant of environmental behaviour, others have
found no such statistically significant relationship (e.g., Antil, 1984;
Roberts, 1996; Samdahl and Robertson, 1989; Straughan and Roberts,
1999; Vining and Ebreo, 1990).
In view of the diverse findings of past studies undertaken in other
countries and also absence of any such previous study in the Indian con-
text, the present study takes up the following exploratory hypotheses for
empirical testing:
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H6.1: People with different occupations differ in environmental


awareness and knowledge.

H6.2: People with different occupations differ in environmental atti-


tudes.

H6.3: People with different occupations differ in pursuing environ-


mental activities.

THE STUDY

The data for analysis in the present study came from a survey of con-
sumers located in Delhi. A “structured non-disguised” questionnaire
was employed to elicit the necessary attitudinal and behavioural infor-
mation from the respondents. Using quota sampling method, 250 con-
sumers were personally approached during September-December 2001
and were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Due precau-
tion was taken to ensure that the respondents belonged to various
socio-economic categories. Since no up-to-date and reliable sampling
list of the households was available, a two-phase sampling method was
used to have adequate representation of the people from different
socio-economic groups under study. In the first phase, lecturers and stu-
dents engaged with both graduate and post-graduate studies in various
colleges and departments of the University of Delhi were approached
on a convenience basis. After collecting the filled in questionnaires,
they were requested to get a few more questionnaires filled in from their
parents, spouses and friends engaged in different occupations so as to
118 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

have much broader representation of the respondents. The two-phase


sampling method used in the study is akin to the snowball sampling
method employed in some past studies. In view of the non-availability
of sampling list, it was decided to lay emphasis on an adequate rather
than a proportionate number of respondents from various socio-demo-
graphic groups of people living in Delhi. After repeated call backs, 209
questionnaires were received. Of these, however, only 206 were found
usable for analysis in the present study. Operationalisation of various
socio-demographic and environmental consciousness variables used in
the study is as follows:

Socio-Demographic Variables
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A total of six independent variables were used in the study and these
were initially categorised as: gender (male, female), age (below 18
years, 18-24 years, 24-35 years, 35-50 years and 50 years and above),
income (monthly family income below Rs. 5,000, Rs. 5,000-10,000, Rs.
10,000-20,000, Rs. 20,000-35,000, Rs. 35,000-50,000 and above Rs.
50,000), education (matric, secondary school, graduate, post-graduate
and others), type of school attended (government, private) and occupa-
tion (housewife, student, employed/service, business/self-employed
and professional). At the analysis stage, however, four of these groups
(viz., “below 18 years,” “50 years and above,” “below Rs. 5,000” and
“above Rs. 50,000”) had to be dropped as only a single respondent was
found belonging to each of these groups. Furthermore, as none of the re-
spondents belonged to the category “matric education” (largely due to
the use of a questionnaire prepared in English language); this category
too was dropped from further analysis.
A profile of 206 respondents belonging to various socio-demographic
sub-groups finally used in the study is provided in Table 1. While the
sample is almost evenly comprising of the respondents from two differ-
ent gender groups and three income groups, it is somewhat skewed in
respect of other variables. Respondents belonging to the age group
24-35, graduates and post-graduates, private school background per-
sons and employed/service class people constitute relatively a greater
portion of the sample.

Environmental Consciousness Construct

A wide gamut of terms and operationalisations of the construct “en-


vironmental consciousness” have been used in the past studies and these
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 119

TABLE 1. Respondents’ Socio-Demographic Characteristics

Characteristics Frequency (N = 206) Percent of respondents

Gender
Male 85 41.39
Female 121 58.70
Age (in years)
18-24 53 25.70
24-35 95 46.10
35-50 58 28.20
Education
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Secondary school 28 13.60


Graduate 96 46.60
Post-graduate 82 39.80
School Last Attended
Government 82 39.80
Private (Public/convent) 124 60.20
Monthly Family Income (Rs.)
Below 10,000 47 22.80
10,000-20,000 62 30.10
20,000-35,000 52 25.20
35,000-50,000 45 21.80
Occupation
Housewife 22 10.70
Student 46 22.30
Professional 34 16.50
Business/self-employed 26 12.60
Employed/service1 78 37.90

Note: 1. There were a total of 78 persons who belonged to this category. A break-up of these persons according to the nature
of the job is: lecturers (28.21%), managers (28.21%), software engineers (17.95%), doctors (7.69%), bankers/computer
operators (7.69%), clerks (5.13%), lawyers (2.56%) and gazetted officers (2.56%).

range from “environmental awareness”(Buttell and Flinn, 1978) to “en-


vironmental knowledge” (Balderjahn, 1988), “environmental concern”
(Kinnear et al., 1974; Tognacci et al., 1972; Zimmer et al., 1994), “per-
ceived environmental effectiveness” (Ellen et al., 1991) and environ-
mental behaviour as expressed in terms of “recycling behaviour”
(Anderson et al., 1974; Vining and Ebreo, 1990), “conservation behav-
iour” (Geller, 1981; Leonard-Barton, 1981), “pollution abatement be-
haviour” (Reizenstein et al., 1974), “environmentally friendly purchase
behaviour” (Davis, 1993; Ottman, 1992; Schwepker and Cornwell,
120 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

1991) and “ecologically conscious consumer behaviour” (Roberts,


1996). However, a major problem with the past researches is that only
one or select aspects of the environmental consciousness construct have
been investigated (Diamantopoulos et al., 2003; Schlegelmilch et al.,
1996). Since the aspects investigated have differed from study to study,
little wonder that the past researches report diverse findings.
To rectify the above problem, it was decided in the present study to
make use of a multi-dimensional “environmental consciousness” con-
struct like the one recommended and used by Diamantopoulos et al.
(2003). Since the details regarding the scales used by Diamantopoulos
et al. (2003) and Schlegelmilch et al. (1996) were not available to the
authors at the time of conducting this study in 2001, the relevant
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items/scales were sourced from several previous studies and used in the
present work after reliability testing and necessary purification. The
following paragraphs provide a brief discussion of the various environ-
mental consciousness scales employed in the study.
Environmental Awareness and Knowledge: Environmental aware-
ness has been conceptualised in the study as the “consumers’ percep-
tions of their familiarity with the environmental issues/problems in
general.” A two-item scale was developed to measure the consumers’
environmental awareness. The two items included in the scale were
“awareness about the environmental issues/problems” and “awareness
about the Indian environmental regulations.” The statement about the
environmental regulations was added because such legislations have
been greatly relied upon (Jain and Kaur, 2004) and also advocated
(Chan and Yam, 1995:282) as a potential means of bringing about envi-
ronmentally responsible behaviour among the consumers in the devel-
oping countries. Moreover, much of the environmental activism such as
filing complaints with the regulatory authorities can occur only when
the consumers are aware of the environmental laws in vogue in the
country. Consumers’ responses to these two-scale items were obtained
on a five-point Likert scale (1 = “Strongly agree,” 5 = “Strongly dis-
agree”). Since the scale performed poorly in terms of its reliability
(Cronbach alpha being just 0.4888), it was split into two single-item
scales, viz., “awareness about the environmental issues/problems” (AEIP)
and “awareness about the Indian environmental regulations” (AER).
Unlike previous researches, the present study maintains a distinction
between “awareness” and “knowledge.” While awareness has been
posited as the respondents’ overall familiarity with the environmental
issues, knowledge has been conceptualised as signifying the respon-
dents’ perception of being sufficiently knowledgeable and confident of
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 121

discussing specific environmental issues/problems with others. An “en-


vironmental knowledge” (EK) scale was developed using thirty-four
environmental issues/developments. These issues/developments as rel-
evant to consumers in India were culled out from Zimmer et al.’s (1994)
“environmental concern” scale. Employing a dichotomous response
format (i.e., Yes/No), respondents were asked to report whether they
were sufficiently knowledgeable and confident of discussing each of
the listed environmental issues/developments. For each respondent, all
the “yes” answers were summed up and divided by 34 to arrive at a
composite score ranging from 0 to 1. The approach used by us for com-
puting the composite knowledge score is similar to the one used by
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K. Chan (1999).
Environmental Attitude: A seven-item scale was employed for as-
sessing the respondents’ attitudes towards environmental issues and
their concern for environment. Items for these scales came mostly from
the “Perceived Consumer Effectiveness” (PCE) scale (Roberts, 1996)
and “Environmental Concern” (EC) scale (Straughan and Roberts,
1999). Consumers’ responses were obtained on a five-point Likert scale
(1 = “Strongly agree,” 5 = “Strongly disagree”). In view of the poor
scale reliability, only three items could be retained. Since the scale con-
tinued to suffer from poor reliability, a factor analysis was performed
which suggested the presence of two dimensions, viz., “willingness to
buy green products” (WBG) and “perceived effectiveness of the envi-
ronmental action” (PEEA). The first scale was comprised of two items
–“willingness to pay more for the environmentally certified products”
and “willingness to seek environmentally certified products.” However,
in view of its poor reliability (Cronbach alpha being 0.5291), the scale
was split into two separate single-item scales, viz., “willingness to pay
more for the environmentally certified products” (WPM) and “willing-
ness to seek environmentally certified products” (WSE).
Environmental Behaviour: As a departure from the erstwhile investi-
gations, the present study operationalises consumers’ pro-environmental
behaviour in terms of both the “incidence” and “frequency” of engaging
in the environmentally friendly behaviour. Items used for constructing
the behavioural scales were largely culled out from the two empirically
tested and used scales employed in the past studies, viz., a 30-item “En-
vironmentally Conscious Consumer Behaviour” (ECCB) scale devel-
oped by Roberts (1996), and a 45-item “Total Environmentally Friendly
Behaviour” scale developed by Allen and Ferrand (1999). Only those
items that appeared relevant in the Indian context were retained.
122 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

Incidence of the pro-environmental behaviour (i.e., whether or not


consumers engage in the pro-environmental behaviour) has been as-
sessed through the use of four sub-scales: “incidence of information
seeking behaviour” (IISB)–a two item-scale; “incidence of the conser-
vation behaviour” (ICB)–a two-item scale; “incidence of choosing the
least polluting products” (ICLPP)–a single-item scale; and “incidence
of influencing others” (IIO)–a four-item scale. Consumers’ responses
to items constituting these four scales were obtained on a five-point
Likert scale anchored on 1 = “Strongly agree” to 5 = “Strongly dis-
agree.” Initially, the ICLPP scale comprised two items, but in view of its
poor reliability, one of the two items was dropped, thereby reducing it to
a single-item scale.
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Three frequency related environmental behaviour scales were used:


“frequency of conservation behaviour” (FCB)–an eight-item scale,
“frequency of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour” (FEFPB)–
a seven-item scale and “frequency of environmental activism” (FEA)–a
five-item scale. A six-point Likert scale ranging from “1 = Never” to “5 =
Usually” was used to elicit responses from the surveyed persons.
A summary of the scales employed in the present study along with
their reliability coefficients is provided in Table 2. Barring the case of
ICB, all other multi-item scales tapping the incidence as well as the fre-
quency of pro-environmental behaviour are reliable enough for use in
the exploratory researches (Nunnally, 1967). In the case of the multi-
item scales, each respondent’s scores for various items constituting the
given scale were summed up and averaged to arrive at an overall mean
score for that scale.

STUDY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

The relationship of socio-demographic variables with the environ-


mental consciousness has been assessed using various statistical tech-
niques. For the two categorical (dichotomous) variables “gender” and
“type of school attended,” significance of differences between group
mean scores has been ascertained through use of t-test. Since the infor-
mation relating to the variables “age,” “education” and “income” has
been collected in the metric form (i.e., close to interval scaled data),
linkages of these variables with the various environmental conscious-
ness dimensions have been analysed through Karl Pearson’s coeffi-
cients of correlation. One-way ANOVA and post hoc Duncan Multiple
Range (DMR) test were used to assess the significance of differences in
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 123

TABLE 2. Reliability of Environmental Consciousness Measures

Number of Cronbach
Environmental Consciousness Measures Items a value
Environmental Awareness and Knowledge
Awareness of environmental issues/problems (AEIP) 1 -
Awareness of environmental regulations (AER) 1 -
Environmental knowledge (EK) Composite -
score
Environmental Attitude
Willingness to pay more for environmentally certified products (WPM) 1 -
Willingness to seek environmentally certified products (WSE) 1
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Perceived effectiveness of environmental action (PEEA) 1 -


Pro-environmental Behaviour
Incidence of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
1
Incidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB) 2 0.767
2
Incidence of conservation behaviour (ICB) 2 0.593
Incidence of choosing least polluting products (ICLPP) 1 -
Incidence of influencing others (IIO)3 4 0.633
Frequency of engaging in environmentally friendly behaviour
4
Frequency of conservation behaviour (FCB) 8 0.685
Frequency of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour (FEFPB)5 7 0.765
Frequency of environmental activism (FEA)6 5 0.648

Notes: 1. Items included were: reading publications on environmental issues and taking steps to remain informed about envi-
ronmental issues.
2. Specific items included in the scale were: shopping once/twice for week’s requirement to save fuel and plastic bags,
and choosing reusable rather than disposable plates or utensils to reduce waste.
3. Specific items included in the scale were: influencing others to behave in environmentally friendly manner, convinc-
ing family and friends not to buy environmentally harmful products, actively participating in environmental cam-
paign, and convincing friends to reduce car driving by car-pooling.
4. Specific items included in the scale were: switching off lights/fans when leaving office/classroom/public buildings;
having installed expensive light bulbs/tubes in house/office to save energy; having replaced light bulbs to smaller
wattage to conserve electricity; using a low-phosphate detergent (or soap) for washing clothes; driving personal
car/scooter as little as possible; using coolers, air conditioners, fans, lights, etc., as little as possible; using both
sides of paper and waste envelopes for rough work; and using plastic bags given by shopkeepers than carrying own
bags (reverse coded).
5. Specific items included in the scale were: minimising purchase of products using scarce/short supply resources,
having purchased products that cause less pollution, not buying products of ecologically irresponsible company,
looking for environmental information when buying everyday items, buying energy efficient household appliances,
buying toilet paper/napkins made from recycled paper, and having switched brand due to ecological reasons.
6. Specific items included in the scale were: participating in environmental activities, joining in community cleanup
efforts, having picked up some other person’s litter, having donated money or paid membership to conservation
organisation, and having attended meeting of environmental organisations in last six months.

the mean environmental consciousness scores across various occupa-


tional groups. Finally, multiple regression analysis has been performed
using all the six demographic variables together to examine their joint
effects on environmental consciousness. Major findings of the study are
discussed in the following sections.
124 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

Gender: Males were hypothesised to be environmentally more aware


and knowledgeable than females (H1.1). But the results do not lend cre-
dence to this proposition (see Table 3). Both the males and females
share almost similar and lower levels of environmental awareness and
knowledge. The results are somewhat similar to those of Arbuthnot
(1977), Diamantopoulos et al. (2003), Samdahl and Robertson (1989),
and Tognacci et al. (1972) who did not find significant differences be-

TABLE 3. Environmental Consciousness–Mean Scores and Significance of


Differences Across Gender and Type of School Attended Groups
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Type of School
Gender

(Two-Tailed Test)
Attended
Aggregate Score
(N = 206)

Government
Significance

Significance
Female

Private
Male

Dimension

Environmental Awareness and Knowledge


Awareness about environmental issues/problems 3.26 3.19 3.31 0.24a 3.51 3.09 0.01
(AEIP)
a
Awareness about environmental regulations (AER) 2.75 2.72 2.78 0.36 2.84 2.69 0.37
Environmental knowledge of specific issues (EK) 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.38a 0.52 0.52 0.89
Environmental Attitude
Willingness to pay more for environmentally friendly 3.85 3.77 3.90 0.38b 3.96 3.77 0.20
products (WPM)
b
Willingness to seek environmentally friendly 3.92 3.64 4.12 0.00 4.06 3.82 0.05
products (WSE)
b
Perceived effectiveness of environmental action 3.08 2.93 3.19 0.09 3.00 3.14 0.37
(PEEA)
Environmental Behaviour
Incidence of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
b
Incidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB) 3.43 3.35 3.49 0.20 3.60 3.32 0.02
b
Incidence of conservation behaviour (ICB) 3.62 3.41 3.77 0.00 3.86 3.46 0.00
b
Incidence of choosing least polluting products 4.16 4.13 4.18 0.63 4.34 4.04 0.00
(ICLPP)
b
Incidence of influencing others (IIO) 3.36 3.31 3.40 0.34 3.39 3.34 0.64
Frequency of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
b
Frequency of conservation behaviour (FCB) 4.29 4.06 4.44 0.00 4.27 4.22 0.85
Frequency of environmentally friendly purchase 3.91 3.63 4.11 0.00b 3.93 3.90 0.85
behaviour (FEFPB)
b
Frequency of environmental activism (FEA) 2.49 2.24 2.67 0.00 2.33 2.60 0.01

a b
Note: One-tailed test, Two-tailed test.
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 125

tween males and females in regard to their environmental awareness


and knowledge.
Concerning the environmental attitudes (H1.2), however, the results
are somewhat on the expected lines. Barring the case of willingness to
pay more for green products (WPM) where no significant difference
exists, the results in regard to other attitudinal scales show significant
differences prevalent between the males and females, with the latter re-
porting a greater willingness to seek eco-friendly products (WSE) and
having a greater faith in the effectiveness of environmental actions
(PEEA). The results are quite in conformity with those of Davidson and
Freudenburg (1996), Diamantopoulos et al. (2003), Lowe et al. (1980),
Shrum et al. (1995), Stern et al. (1993), Straughan and Roberts (1999),
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Tognacci et al. (1972) and Van Liere and Dunlap (1981) who too found
females to be holding stronger environment attitudes.
H1.3 postulated males and females to be differing in their pursuit of en-
vironmentally friendly activities. Our results only partly conform to this
proposition. While no significant differences are observable with respect
to information seeking behaviour (IISB), incidence of choosing the least
polluting products (ICLPP) and incidence of influencing others (IIO); the
results with respect to rest of the four behavioural constructs point to the
presence of differences between males and females in their incidence as
well as the frequency of engaging in ecologically friendly behaviours,
with females having an edge over the males. Concerning the environmen-
tal behaviour, therefore, the study findings are to some extent consistent
with those of Grunert and Kristensen (1994), Roberts (1996), Roper
(1992), Van Liere and Dunlap (1981) and Webster (1975). A recent study
by Diamantopoulos et al. (2003) too reported evidence in support, albeit
partly, of this hypothesis. The results are, however, at variance with those
of Chan, K. (1999) who did not find the light, medium and heavy green
consumers to be differing in terms of their gender.
Age: The variable “age” does not show significant relationship with
the environmental awareness and knowledge constructs (see Table 4),
thus leading to the rejection of hypothesis H2.1. The results-though con-
trary to those of Arcury et al. (1987), Diamantopoulos et al. (2003) and
Grunert and Kristensen (1994) should not be construed as altogether
surprising as some previous studies too have found a non-significant re-
lationship existing between the age and environmental knowledge (e.g.,
Kinnear et al., 1974; Roper, 1990, 1992).
Even in respect of the environmental attitude, age does not emerge as a
significant variable. The only exception is the WSE scale where presence
of a negative and significant correlation signifies a greater willingness
126 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

TABLE 4. Age, Education Level and Income as Covariates of Environmental


Consciousness–Correlation Coefficients

Environmental Consciousness Age Education Income


Level
Environmental Awareness and Knowledge
Awareness about environmental issues/problems (AEIP) 0.00 0.01 0.02
Awareness about environmental regulations (AER) –0.07 0.10 0.15*
Environmental knowledge of specific issues (EK) 0.05 0.25** –0.06
Environmental Attitude
Willingness to pay more for environmentally friendly products –0.00 –0.03 0.22**
(WPM)
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Willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE) –0.24** –0.30** 0.10


Perceived effectiveness of environmental action (PEEA) –0.03 0.08 –0.07
Environmental Behaviour
Incidence of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
Incidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB) –0.14* 0.14* 0.27**
Incidence of conservation behaviour (ICB) –0.02 0.04 0.01
Incidence of choosing least polluting products (ICLPP) 0.21** –0.10 0.16*
Incidence of influencing others (IIO) –0.22** 0.03 –0.17**
Frequency of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
Frequency of conservation behaviour (FCB) 0.02 0.12* –0.16**
Frequency of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour –0.06 0.10 –0.08
(FEFPB)
Frequency of environmental activism (FEA) –0.08 0.54** 0.05

Notes: **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).


*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).

among the relatively younger persons (viz., those belonging to age


groups 18-24 years and 24-35 years) to seek green products, thus pro-
viding only limited support in favour of the proposition H2.2.
Relationship of age with the environmental behaviour is in the hy-
pothesised direction (H2.3) only with respect to the scales “incidence of
information seeking behaviour” (IISB) and “incidence of influencing
others” (IIO). A significant but positive relationship of age with ICLPP,
on the other hand, implies a lower tendency among the relatively youn-
ger persons (i.e., respondents belonging to the age groups 18-24 years
and 24-35 years) to choose the least polluting products. This might be
due to the fact that the relatively younger persons (especially those be-
longing to the age group 18-24 years) being mostly the students and/or
without jobs have a lower purchasing power to be able to afford the less
polluting but costlier alternatives.
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 127

Education Level: Education level was hypothesised to be positively


related to the environmental awareness and knowledge as well as to the
environmental attitudes and behaviours (H3.1 to H3.3). But the results re-
veal a significant positive relationship to be present only with respect to
one scale, viz., “environmental knowledge of specific issues” (EK). The
results thus provide only limited support to the hypothesis H3.1. With re-
spect to environmental attitudes too, the proposed relationship (H3.2) is
not supported. Though the scale “willingness to seek environmentally
friendly products” (WSE) is having a significant relationship with the
education level, the relationship is in the reverse direction. Even in re-
gard to the environmental behaviour, significantly positive relationship
exist only with respect to three scales, viz., “incidence of information
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seeking behaviour” (IISB), “frequency of conservation behaviour”


(FCB) and “frequency of environmental activism” (FEA), thus provid-
ing only a partial support to the hypothesis H3.3.
Type of School Attended: Regarding the variable “type of school at-
tended,” results indicate people with different school backgrounds to be
differing in their environmental consciousness with respect to six out of a
total of thirteen scales under examination in the present study. The specific
environmental consciousness constructs for which the significant differ-
ences exist include awareness about environmental issues/problems
(AEIP), willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE), in-
cidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB), incidence of conserva-
tion behaviour (ICB), incidence of choosing the least polluting products
(ICLPP) and frequency of environmental activism (FEA). Overall, the re-
sults provide only a partial support to the hypotheses H4.1 to H4.3.
It is, however, interesting to note that except for the scale “frequency
of environmental activism” (FEA) where private school background
persons report a marginally but significantly a higher frequency of en-
gaging in the environmental behaviour, it is otherwise the respondents
with the government school background who hold sway over their
counterpart. Be it the awareness about environmental issues/problems
(AEIP), willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE),
incidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB), “incidence of con-
servation behaviour”(ICB) or incidence of choosing least polluting
products (ICLPP), the government school background persons outper-
form the respondents with private school background (see Table 3).
Income: With respect to income, though a significant relationship is
observable in respect to six environmental consciousness scales, it is in
the hypothesised direction (i.e., positive) only for a total of four scales.
Among the awareness and knowledge scales, AER is the only scale
128 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

where relationship is positive and in the hypothesised direction (H5.1),


implying higher income persons to be having greater knowledge about
the environmental regulations. Overall, the results are somewhat in tune
with those of Buttell and Flinn (1978) who found education having a
non-significant relationship with the environmental knowledge.
With respect to environmental attitudes too, income turns out to be a
poor predictor. The only exception is the willingness to pay more for the
environmentally friendly products (WPM) construct where a positive
and significant correlation coefficient implies higher income persons to
be having greater willingness to pay more for the environmentally
friendly products (H5.2). An overall non-significant correlation between
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the environmental attitudes and income confirms the findings of


Kassarjian (1971) and Van Liere and Dunlap (1981) who too did not
find the environmental attitudes to be related to income.
Even in regard to the environmental behaviour, results are only partly
supportive of the hypothesised relationship (H5.3). Only two (viz., IISB
and ICLLP) of the seven environmental behaviour scales show a signif-
icant and positive relationship with income. Though the constructs IIO
and FCB are also significantly related to income, the relationship is in
reverse direction implying persons with relatively higher income to be
having lower incidence of influencing others and engaging less fre-
quently in the conservation behaviour. The study finding with respect to
the latter two constructs appear to be somewhat similar to that of Rob-
erts (1996) who also observed a negative relationship between the in-
come and environmental behaviour.
Occupation: Hypotheses (H6.1 to H6.3) posited that the people belong-
ing to different occupation groups would differ in their environmental
consciousness. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) reveals signi-
ficant differences existing for as many as eight environmental scales rep-
resenting almost equally the“awareness and knowledge,” “attitude” and
“behaviour” dimensions (see Table 5). But in terms of the post hoc
Duncan multiple range (DMR) test which tries to ascertain as to which of
the several groups differ significantly from one another, results are not
able to present any clear cut picture about the linkage of occupational
groups with different environmental constructs.
The Duncan test reveals clearly distinct sets of groups to be present only
with respect to four constructs, viz., AEIP, AER, WSE and FCB. For the
two environmental awareness and knowledge constructs (i.e., AEIP,
AER), the Duncan test suggests two distinct sets of respondent groups: one
consisting of students, employed in service and business/self-employed
persons, and the other one including professionals and housewives; with
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TABLE 5. Environmental Consciousness–Mean Scores and Significance of Differences Across Occupation Groups

Duncan Multiple
Occupation Ranges Test1

Groups
2
Found/Appear

Aggregate Score
(N = 206)
Professional
Employed/
Service
Group Clusters

Housewife
Business/
Self-Employed
Significance

Student
Dimension to Be Different
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Environmental Awareness and Knowledge
Awareness about environmental issues/problems (AEIP) 3.26 3.96 2.98 3.74 3.15 3.05 0.000 2,5,4; 3,1 2,5,4 < 3,1
Awareness about environmental regulations (AER) 2.75 3.36 2.30 3.44 2.81 2.53 0.000 2,5,4; 1,3 2,5,4 < 1,3
Environmental knowledge of specific issues (EK) 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.459 - -
Environmental Attitude
Willingness to pay more for environmentally friendly products (WPM) 3.85 4.27 3.67 3.47 3.78 4.01 0.023 3,2,4,5; 4,5,1 3,2 < 1
Willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE) 3.92 4.18 4.04 3.88 3.42 3.95 0.013 4; 3,5,2,1 4 < 3,5,2,1
Perceived effectiveness of environmental action (PEEA) 3.08 3.18 3.22 2.88 3.08 3.06 0.716 - -
Environmental Behaviour
Incidence of engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
Incidence of information seeking behaviour (IISB) 3.43 3.73 3.25 3.32 3.65 3.43 0.113 2,3,5,4; 3,5,4,1 2<1
Incidence of conservation behaviour (ICB) 3.62 3.83 3.36 4.10 3.52 3.55 0.000 2,4,5; 4,5,1; 1,3 2 < 1,3; 4,5 < 3
Incidence of choosing least polluting products (ICLPP) 4.16 4.33 3.91 4.09 4.00 4.35 0.013 2,4,3; 4,3,1,5 2 < 1,5
Incidence of influencing others (IIO) 3.36 3.18 3.38 3.39 3.21 3.44 0.338 - -
Frequency of personally engaging in eco-friendly behaviour
Frequency of conservation behaviour (FCB) 4.29 3.76 4.23 4.41 4.16 4.46 0.001 1; 4,2,3,5 1 < 4,2,3,5
Frequency of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour (FEFPB) 3.91 3.50 3.86 4.17 3.95 3.93 0.108 1,2,5,4; 2,5,4,3 1<3
Frequency of environmental activism (FEA) 2.49 2.77 2.15 2.60 2.51 2.57 0.011 2,4; 5,3,1 2 < 5,3,1

Notes: 1. Significance level = 0.05.


2. Group clusters are listed in the ascending order of their mean scores.

129
130 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

the former set having significantly lower mean scores than the latter. In
regard to WSE, the first set comprised of only the business/self-employed
persons which is having lower willingness to seek the environmentally
friendly products than the second set which comprised the profession-
als, service class persons, students and housewives. With respect to the
variable FCB, housewives constitute the first set and engage less fre-
quently in the conservation behaviour than the other set of respondents
comprising of persons engaged in business/self-employed, students,
professionals and service class people.
No clearly distinct sets of occupational groups are evident for the con-
structs WPM, IISB, ICB, ICLPP, FEFPB and FEA (see Table 5). None-
theless, certain inferences about the group differences can be made by
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identifying groups which do not simultaneously belong to more than one


set (for a similar interpretation, see Freund and Wilson, 1997). For the con-
struct WPM, for instance, it can be inferred that the professionals and stu-
dents have lower willingness to pay more for the environmentally friendly
products than the housewives do. Similarly, in the case of IISB, students
appear to have lower incidence of information seeking behaviour than
housewives have. In regard to the ICB, students depict a lower incidence of
engaging in conservation behaviour than is the case with the housewives.
In a similar vein, the two groups–business/self-employed and service class
persons–depict less willingness to engage in such a behaviour than the pro-
fessionals do. So far as the incidence of choosing the least polluting prod-
ucts (ICLPP) is concerned, students show lower incidence of making such
a choice than groups comprising of housewives and service class persons.
But with respect to FEFPB, housewives report a lower frequency of pursu-
ing the environmentally purchase behaviour than is the case with the pro-
fessionals. Finally, in regard to FEA, students report less activism than the
groups service class persons, professionals and housewives do.
Construct-to-construct differences notwithstanding, it can be observed
that in general housewives and/or professionals and service class persons
constitute the occupational groups who possess higher environmental con-
sciousness. To some extent, the results are similar to those arrived at by
K. Chan (1999) who also found managerial and professional workers as
being heavy green consumers.
Environmental Consciousness and Various Socio-Demographic
Variables Considered Together:
Multiple Regression Analysis Results
With a view to assess the joint impact of socio-demographic vari-
ables, various environmental consciousness constructs were separately
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 131

regressed on the six socio-demographic variables. For each of the inde-


pendent variables, dummy variables were created (one less than the
number of categories). The standardised regression residual plots were
examined and these by and large indicated a conformance to the nor-
mality assumption. Furthermore, values pertaining to the two colli-
nearity statistics, viz., TOI and VIF, were greater than 0.10 and less than
10 respectively, thus implying absence of multicollinearity among the
independent variables (Hair at al., 1995).
The regression results are reported in the Appendix, and are summa-
rised in Table 6. Each of the socio-demographic variables can be seen to
be significantly, though differently, affecting some or the other environ-
mental consciousness constructs. When examined in terms of the signs
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of regression coefficients, the results point to almost similar conclu-


sions as arrived at earlier in connection with the univariate analysis at-
tempted in the preceding sections. Significant and positive regression
coefficients for the independent variable “gender” with respect to the
environmental constructs WSE, PEEA, ICB, FCB and FEFPB, for in-
stance, signify that females in comparison with males are more willing
to seek the environmentally friendly products, perceive greater effec-
tiveness of environmental actions, depict greater incidence as well as
frequency of conservation behaviour and engage more frequently in the
environmentally friendly purchase behaviours. These inferences are the
same as reported earlier with respect to the influence of gender on envi-
ronmental consciousness. Standardised regression coefficients provided
in Table 6 point to the relative impact of different socio-demographic
variables on the respondents’ environmental consciousness.
High and significant values of adjusted R2 (ranging from 0.20 to
0.46) for the six environmental constructs (viz., WSE, IISB, ICB,
ICLPP, FCB and FEA) suggest that the socio-demographic variables
are able to explain 20 to 46 per cent of the variations present in the re-
spondents’ environmental consciousness.
The multivariate results of the present study are at variance with
those of Diamantopoulos et al. (2003) who did not find various socio-
demographic variables to be significantly related to the environmental
consciousness constructs. The results thus suggest that the influence of
socio-demographic variables is culture and context specific. While in
the developed countries where environmentalism came into existence
much earlier, almost all the persons irrespective of their socio-demo-
graphic backgrounds have almost equally embraced the concept of en-
vironmentalism; and, hence, the socio-demographic characteristics do
not appear to be the significant determinants of consumer environmen-
132 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

TABLE 6. Multiple Regression Analysis–Summary Resultsa


b 2
Dependent Variable Independent Variables Found Significant Adjusted R
(Significance
Level)
Environmental Awareness and
Knowledge School attended: private school (–ve); Income: Rs. 20,000- 0.10 (0.001)
Awareness about environmental 35,000 (+ve); Occupation: students (–ve) and service/
issues/problems (AEIP) employed persons (–ve)
Awareness about environmental Occupation: students (–ve) and service/employed per- 0.16 (0.000)
regulations (AER) sons (–ve)
Environmental knowledge of Age: 24-35 years (+ve) 0.06 (0.022)
specific issues (EK)
Environmental Attitude
Willingness to pay more for School attended: private school (–ve); Income: all coded 0.09 (0.003)
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environmentally friendly products dummy groups (+ve); Occupation: professionals (–ve)


(WPM)
Willingness to seek Gender: females (+ve); Age: 24-35 years (+ve) and 35-50 0.46 (0.000)
environmentally friendly products years (–ve); Education level: all coded dummy groups
(WSE) (–ve); School attended: private school (–ve); Occupation:
students (–ve) and business/self-employed persons (–ve)
Perceived effectiveness of Gender: females (+ve) 0.01 (0.263)
environmental action (PEEA)
Environmental Behaviour
Incidence of engaging in
eco-friendly behaviour
Incidence of information seek- Age: 35-50 years (–ve); School attended: private school 0.27 (0.000)
ing behaviour (IISB) (–ve); Income groups: Rs. 20,000-35,000 (+ve) and Rs.
35,000-50,000 (+ve)
Incidence of conservation Gender: females (+ve); Education level: post-graduates 0.25 (0.000)
behaviour (ICB) (–ve); School attended: private school (–ve); Income: Rs.
10,000-20,000 (+ve) and Rs. 20,000-35,000 (+ve);
Occupation: professionals (+ve)
Incidence of choosing least Age: all coded dummy groups (+ve); Education level: all 0.21 (0.000)
polluting products (ICLPP) coded dummy groups (–ve); School attended: private
school (-ve); Income: Rs. 20,000-35,000 (–ve);
Occupation: students (–ve)
Incidence of influencing Age: all coded dummy groups (-ve); Income: Rs. 20,000- 0.09 (0.004)
others (IIO) 35,000 (-ve); Occupation: service/employed persons
(+ve)
Frequency of personally engag-
ing in eco-friendly behaviour
Frequency of conservation Gender: females (+ve); Education level: all coded dummy 0.27 (0.000)
behaviour (FCB) groups (–ve); Income: all coded dummy groups (–ve);
Occupation: all coded dummy groups (+ve)
Frequency of environmentally Gender: females (+ve); Age: 24-35 years (–ve); School 0.16 (0.000)
friendly purchase behaviour attended: private school (–ve); Occupation: all coded
(FEFPB) dummy groups (+ve)
Frequency of environmental ac- Age: 24-35 years (+ve); Education level: post-graduates 0.45 (0.000)
tivism (FEA) (+ve); School attended: private school (+ve); Income: Rs.
20,000-35,000 (+ve); Occupation: students (–ve)

Notes: a. Based on results given in Appendix.


b. Plus or minus signs indicate whether the impact of the given variable is positive or negative with reference to the
base variable. At the time of creating dummy variables, the base variables used were: Gender: male; Age group:
18-24 years; Education level: secondary school; School attended: private school; Income group: less than Rs.
10,000; Occupation: housewives. For details, see Appendix.
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 133

tal consciousness. But the same is not true for the respondents in the de-
veloping countries like India where environmentalism is a late starter
and is slowly catching up. Little wonder that only the persons belonging
to select socio-demographic groups have so far been able to gather envi-
ronmental awareness and knowledge, possess positive attitudes towards
the environmentally friendly behaviour and also engage in such behav-
iours.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS


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Exploration of socio-demographics as a correlate of consumer envi-


ronmental consciousness has been quite a popular research theme in the
green marketing literature. In view of the diverse and often conflicting
findings of past studies, it is not an easy task to draw any direct and
straightforward inference about the association of socio-demographic
characteristics with the environmental consciousness. Use of a wide va-
riety of conceptualisations and operationalisations of the environmental
consciousness construct and the country/culture specific influences of
socio-demographic variables on the environmental consciousness seem
to be the two major contributory factors responsible for the diverse find-
ings reported in the past.
Unlike the majority of the past researches, the present study has em-
ployed a more elaborate conceptualisation of the environmental con-
sciousness construct. Application of the multidimensional framework
as suggested by Diamantopoulos et al. (2003) seems more than justified
because each of the socio-demographic variables examined in the study
is found differently related with different environmental consciousness
dimensions and sub-dimensions. Use of a narrowly conceptualised and
operationalised construct of the environmental consciousness construct
would not have been able to capture the richness of its relationship with
socio-demographic variables. In all probability, use of a narrower con-
ceptualisation would have led to an erroneous conclusion that the
socio-demographic variables do not have much of a role to play in seg-
menting and profiling green consumers. Use of the variable “type of
school attended” constitutes another noteworthy feature of the present
study as the impact of this socio-demographic variable has not been ex-
amined in the past researches.
Though the number of sub-dimensions employed in the present study
is much larger than that used in the studies by Diamantopoulos et al.
134 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

(2003) and Schlegelmilch et al. (1996), it per se should not be construed


as a limiting factor. Since none of the socio-demographic variables in
the study is found uniformly correlating with all the sub-dimensions of
the environmental consciousness construct, any drastic and forced re-
duction in the number of sub-dimensions and computation of an overall
measure of the relationship might not be able to tap the richness of rela-
tionship that otherwise exists between the socio-demographic charac-
teristics and individually distinct sub-dimensions of the environmental
consciousness.
In general, findings of the present study are quite encouraging and
point to the usefulness of socio-demographic variables in segmenting
and profiling the green consumers. Various hypotheses tested in the
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study and the results are summarised in Table 7. Genderwise, the study
reveals differences existing between males and females in respect of
their environmental attitudes and behaviours. In general, females are
found to be outperforming the males with respect to willingness to seek
environmentally friendly products (WSE), perceived effectiveness of
the environmental actions (PEEA), conservation behaviour (ICB and
FCB), frequency of buying environmentally friendly products (FEFPB),
and involvement with environmental activism (FEA).
Regarding age, once again a similar conclusion emerges. A negative
relationship of age with WSE, IISB and IIO signifies a greater tendency
among the relatively younger persons (viz., those belonging to the age
groups 18-24 years and 24-35 years) to actively search for the environ-
mentally friendly products, gather environment-related information and
influence others to behave in an environmentally responsible manner.
These persons, however, appear less enthusiastic about choosing the
least polluting products (ICLPP). This might be due to their lower pur-
chasing power for being mainly either students or unemployed at this
stage in their family life cycle.
Education level is found to be significantly related with the environ-
mental consciousness in respect to five environmental consciousness mea-
sures. A significantly positive relationship of the education level with
environmental knowledge (EK), incidence and frequency of conserva-
tion behaviour (ICB and FCB) and frequency of environmental activ-
ism implies greater environmental consciousness among the relatively
more educated persons. Because of their higher intellectual orientation,
these persons are able to better understand and appreciate green ideas
and green claims made by the green marketers. Education level is, how-
ever, found to be significantly but negatively related with the respon-
dents’ willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE).
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 135

TABLE 7. Influence of Socio-Demographic Factors on Environmental Con-


sciousness: Hypotheses Tested and Summary Results

Variable Result
Gender
H1.1: Males are environmentally more aware and knowledgeable than females. Not supported
H1.2: Males and females differ in their concern for environment. Largely supported
H1.3: Males and females differ in their pursuit of environmental activities. Partly supported
Age
H2.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge is negatively related with age. Not supported
H2.2: Environmental attitudes are negatively related with age. Partly supported
H2.3: Environmental behaviours are negatively related with age. Partly supported
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Education
H3.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge are positively related with the Partly supported
education level.
H3.2: Environmental attitudes are positively related with the education level. Not supported
H3.3: Environmental behaviours are positively related with the education level. Partly supported
Type of School
H4.1: People with different school backgrounds differ in their environmental Partly supported
awareness and knowledge.
H4.2: People with different school backgrounds differ in their environmental Partly supported
attitudes.
H4.3: People with different school backgrounds differ in pursuing environmental Partly supported
activities.
Income
H5.1: Environmental awareness and knowledge are positively related with level Partly supported
of income.
H5.2: Environmental attitudes are positively related with level of income. Partly supported
H5.3: Environmental behaviours are positively related with level of income. Partly supported
Occupation
H6.1: People with different occupations differ in environmental awareness and Largely supported
knowledge.
H6.2: People with different occupations differ in environmental attitudes. Largely supported
H6.3: People with different occupations differ in pursuing environmental activities. Largely supported

The variable “type of school attended” emerges as a significant corre-


late of the environmental consciousness for as many as six constructs.
Notwithstanding being less articulate and extrovert, persons with the
government school background exhibit a higher level of environmental
consciousness in terms of environmental awareness (AEIP) as well as
willingness to seek environmentally friendly products (WSE), inci-
dence of seeking information (IISB), conserving resources (ICB) and
136 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

choosing the least polluting products (ICLPP). The only aspect where
they lag behind persons with the private school background is fre-
quency of environmental activism (FEA), probably due to being less
extrovert and gregarious than their counterpart.
Income also emerges as an important correlate of environmental con-
sciousness. Persons with higher income are also high in their awareness
of the environmental regulations (AER), willingness to pay for the envi-
ronmentally friendly products (WPM), incidence of information seek-
ing behaviour (IISB) and choosing the least polluting products (ICLPP).
But in terms of their involvement with the activities relating to influenc-
ing others (IIO) and conserving the environment (FCB), they turn out to
be poor performers.
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The study finds significant differences among the persons belonging


to different occupational groups with respect to several environmental
consciousness components. Though the linkage of the occupation with
environmental consciousness differs from construct to construct, the re-
sults in general show that it is the housewives and/or professionals and
service class persons who have greater environmental consciousness
with respect to most of the environmental constructs.
Multivariate analysis undertaken in the study to examine the joint ef-
fects of the socio-demographic variables reveal almost similar results.
All the variables are found relevant, though differently with different
environmental constructs. For a majority of the environmental con-
structs examined in the study, these variables when taken together are
able to explain about 20 per cent-46 per cent of the variations present in
the consumers’ environmental consciousness.
Overall, the results thus point to the usefulness of socio-demographic
variables in predicting consumers’ environmental consciousness. Sig-
nificant differences present in the environmental consciousness among
the consumers belonging to different socio-demographic groups imply
that the policy makers and marketers be sensitive to these differences
and make use of such knowledge for evolving positioning and market-
ing-mix strategies as suitable to different green segments.

STUDY LIMITATIONS AND DIRECTIONS


FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

It would not be out of place to mention here a few limitations of the


study. First, use of a small sample that consists of respondents located in
a metropolitan city precludes any generalisation of the study findings to
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 137

the country’s population as a whole. So far as marketing of the green


consumer products is concerned, this might not come up as a serious
threat because it is the urban consumers who constitute a major market
for such products. But an outright exclusion of the rural people from the
study severely restricts the external validity of the study findings for be-
ing utilised for developing strategies for promoting green ideas and run-
ning environmental education campaigns by the governmental agencies
and non-profit environmental organisations among the masses in the
country. This is so because the rural people who constitute about 72.5
per cent of the country’s population (Census of India, 2001) are vastly
different from their urban counterparts with respect to their literacy lev-
els as well as media habits, occupations, values and life styles. For in-
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stance, people living in rural areas are considerably less literate (49.44
per cent) as compared with the urban people (70.09 per cent). What is
more disturbing is the fact that while only 38.94 per cent of the rural
women are literate, the literacy rate among the urban females is much
higher, that is 63.89 per cent (Census of India, 2001). Occupationwise
too, while rural people are predominantly employed in agricultural and
allied activities, a majority of the urban populace is engaged in the ser-
vice or manufacturing industries (Ministry of Agriculture, 2002). The
two groups of people, moreover, differ in their media habits and expo-
sure levels (IRS, 2001); and being more tradition bound, the rural peo-
ple employ purchase criteria different from those used by the people in
urban areas (Parthasarathy, 2002).
In view of these and other differences, the two types of people are un-
likely to be similar in their environmental consciousness across differ-
ent socio-demographic groups. For instance, no statistically significant
difference has been found in the present study between the males and fe-
males living in Delhi with respect to their environmental awareness and
knowledge. But such is unlikely to be the case with rural areas where
women in contrast to their male counterparts are considerably much
more illiterate; and, hence, are unlikely to be equally aware of the envi-
ronmental issues and developments. Such differences in the environ-
mental consciousness existing among people living in different parts of
a country have been observed even in some past studies undertaken in
other countries (e.g., Prothero, 1990; Schwepker and Cornwell, 1991).
It is, therefore, suggested that the studies employing larger samples and
covering rural areas be undertaken in the future so as to arrive at more
valid and reliable inferences. Any such coverage of rural people in the
future studies, however, would require translation of the questionnaire
into languages spoken in the rural areas. Since English is not the lan-
138 JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETING

guage of the rural people, a questionnaire prepared in English language


would serve no purpose.
Another limitation of the study is that it has examined the influence of
only select socio-demographic variables on the environmental conscious-
ness. It would be a worthwhile endeavour in future studies to explore the
impact of other socio-demographic characteristics such as marital status,
number of children, place of residence and social class which have been in-
vestigated in the past studies (e.g., Diamantopoulos et al., 2003; Roberts,
1996). On a comparative basis, studies can also investigate the relative role
of psychographic variables such as conservatism and dogmatism, political
orientation, altruism, egoism, self-esteem, individualism and collectiv-
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ism that have been found to be significantly correlating with eco-con-


sciousness in the previous researches undertaken in other countries
(e.g., Anderson and Cunnigham, 1972; Allen and Ferrand, 1999;
Balderjahn, 1988; Geller, 1995; Henion and Wilson, 1976; Hine and
Gifford, 1991; Kinnear and Taylor, 1973; Cornwell and Schwepker,
1995; Kinnear et al., 1974; McCarty and Shrum, 1994; Pettus and Giles,
1987; Roberts, 1996; Schwartz, 1994; Stern et al., 1993; Triandis,
1993). Moreover, the present study has attempted to explore only link-
ages between the consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and
environmental consciousness. It would be insightful to examine in the
future the influence of cultural values on the environmental conscious-
ness as has been done in the past select studies relating to other coun-
tries (e.g., Chau and Lau, 2000).
The present study has made use of both the “incidence” and “fre-
quency” of consumers’ involvement with environmentally friendly be-
haviour. In the future, it needs to be resolved as to which of these two
measures constitute a better operationalisation of the pro-environmental
behaviour construct.
At the initial stages in the study, various multi-item scales were em-
ployed to tap the different dimensions of environmental consciousness
construct. However, some of these scales (especially those pertaining to
the “environmental awareness and knowledge” and “environmental at-
titude” components) had to be split into sub-scales in view of their poor
factor loadings and reliability coefficients. In the process, many of the
scales got reduced to just single-item scales. Efforts, therefore, need to
be made in the future to develop multi-item scales that are psycho-
metrically sound in measuring various dimensions and sub-dimensions
of the environmental consciousness construct. It is only after the devel-
opment and deployment of such valid and reliable multi-item scales that
Sanjay K. Jain and Gurmeet Kaur 139

we would be in a position to draw definitive inferences about the role of


socio-demographics in profiling green consumers.
Also, no attempt has been made in the present study to identify differ-
ent clusters of green consumers and profile them on the basis of
socio-demographic characteristics. More elaborate studies using clus-
tering technique can be taken up in future to segment the consumers into
different groups and profile them in terms of socio-demographic char-
acteristics. This can enable the marketers to draw implications for de-
veloping positioning and marketing mix strategies as appropriate for
each of the identified green segments.
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SUBMITTED: July 2003


FIRST REVISION: October 2004
SECOND REVISION: January 2005
ACCEPTED: May 2005
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APPENDIX
Environmental Consciousness and Socio-Demographics: Regression Results
1, 2, 3, 4
Depen- Independent Variables: Regression Coefficients
dent
Vari- Constant GEN2 AGD2 AGD3 EDD2 EDD3 SCHD2 ID2 ID3 ID4 OCCD2 OCCD3 OCCD4 OCCD5 Adj. F- Sig.
5 2
able R value (p)

AEIP b 3.66 0.26 ⫺0.34 0.05 ⫺0.03 0.01 ⫺0.38** 0.20 0.58** 0.11 ⫺0.75** 0.17 ⫺0.36 ⫺0.59* 0.10 2.78 0.001

B 0.11 ⫺0.15 0.02 ⫺0.01 0.01 ⫺0.17** 0.08 0.22** 0.04 ⫺0.28** 0.05 ⫺0.11 ⫺0.26*
(stand.)

AER b 3.64 ⫺0.06 ⫺0.07 ⫺0.3 ⫺0.34 0.07 ⫺0.08 ⫺0.29 0.31 0.32 ⫺1.20*** 0.17 ⫺0.55 ⫺0.80*** 0.16 3.97 0.000

B ⫺0.03 ⫺0.03 ⫺0.12 ⫺0.15 0.03 ⫺0.03 ⫺0.11 0.12 0.11 ⫺0.43*** 0.06 ⫺0.16 ⫺0.34***
(stand.)

EK b 0.56 ⫺0.03 0.07*** 0.02 ⫺0.05 0.02 0.00 ⫺0.05 ⫺0.03 ⫺0.04 ⫺0.04 ⫺0.02 ⫺0.01 0.00 0.06 2.01 0.022

B ⫺0.11 0.25*** 0.06 ⫺0.17 0.09 0.02 ⫺0.18 ⫺0.10 ⫺0.12 ⫺0.12 ⫺0.05 ⫺0.02 0.00
(stand.)

WPM b 3.82 0.16 0.09 ⫺0.09 ⫺0.10 ⫺0.15 ⫺0.44*** 0.59** 0.66*** 0.84*** ⫺0.37 ⫺0.64** ⫺0.27 ⫺0.06 0.09 2.55 0.003

B 0.07 0.04 ⫺0.04 ⫺0.05 ⫺0.07 ⫺0.21*** 0.26** 0.27*** 0.32*** ⫺0.15 ⫺0.23** ⫺0.08 ⫺0.03
(stand.)

WSE b 5.33 0.34*** 0.32*** ⫺0.25* ⫺1.57*** ⫺1.57*** ⫺0.42*** ⫺0.23 0.11 0.14 ⫺0.36* 0.03 ⫺0.51** 0.17 0.46 14.65 0.000

B 0.20*** 0.19*** ⫺0.13* ⫺0.94*** ⫺0.92*** ⫺0.25*** ⫺0.13 0.06 0.07 ⫺0.18* 0.01 ⫺0.20** 0.10
(stand.)

PEEA b 2.3 0.47** ⫺0.19 0.31 0.23 0.31 0.23 ⫺0.12 0.36 ⫺0.25 0.34 0.03 0.16 0.09 0.01 1.23 0.263

B 0.22** ⫺0.09 0.13 0.11 0.14 0.10 ⫺0.05 0.15 ⫺0.10 0.13 0.01 0.05 0.04
(stand.)

IISB b 3.31 0.13 0.18 ⫺0.54*** 0.13 0.24 ⫺0.53*** 0.12 0.35** 0.79*** ⫺0.22 ⫺0.19 0.31 0.06 0.27 6.71 0.000

B 0.08 0.11 –0.29*** 0.08 0.14 –0.31*** 0.06 0.18** 0.39*** –0.11 –0.09 0.12 0.03
(stand.)

145
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APPENDIX (continued)

146
1, 2, 3, 4
Depen- Independent Variables: Regression Coefficients
dent Adj. F- Sig.
2
Vari- Constant GEN2 AGD2 AGD3 EDD2 EDD3 SCHD2 ID2 ID3 ID4 OCCD2 OCCD3 OCCD4 OCCD5 R value (p)
5
able
ICB b 3.67 0.36*** 0.09 ⫺0.15 ⫺0.30 ⫺0.31* ⫺0.64*** 0.34** 0.30** 0.26 ⫺0.20 0.64*** 0.20 0.16 0.25 6.23 0.000
B 0.23*** 0.06 ⫺0.09 ⫺0.19 ⫺0.19* ⫺0.40*** 0.20** 0.17** 0.14 ⫺0.11 0.30*** 0.09 0.10
(stand.)

ICLPP b 4.70 0.20 0.37*** 0.46*** ⫺0.84*** ⫺0.73*** ⫺0.36*** ⫺0.27* 0.13 0.24 ⫺0.40* ⫺0.09 ⫺0.20 0.18 0.21 5.11 0.000
B 0.13 0.25*** 0.28*** ⫺0.56*** ⫺0.48*** ⫺0.24*** ⫺0.17* 0.08 0.13 ⫺0.22* ⫺0.04 –0.09 0.12
(stand.)

IIO b 3.58 ⫺0.04 ⫺0.21* ⫺0.59*** 0.03 ⫺0.04 ⫺0.15 0.08 ⫺0.25* ⫺0.23 0.12 0.27 0.19 0.40** 0.09 2.46 0.004
B ⫺0.03 ⫺0.16* ⫺0.42*** 0.02 ⫺0.03 ⫺0.12 0.06 ⫺0.17* ⫺0.15 0.08 0.16 0.10 0.31**
(stand.)

FCB b 3.84 0.61*** 0.07 0.12 ⫺0.50*** ⫺0.28* ⫺0.06 ⫺0.71*** ⫺0.32** ⫺0.38*** 0.55*** 0.99*** 0.72*** 1.06*** 0.27 6.81 0.000
B 0.41*** 0.05 0.08 ⫺0.34*** ⫺0.19* ⫺0.04 ⫺0.45*** ⫺0.19** ⫺0.22*** 0.32*** 0.51*** 0.33*** 0.71***
(stand.)

FEFPB b 3.1 0.80*** ⫺0.46*** ⫺0.06 ⫺0.20 0.07 ⫺0.25* ⫺0.14 0.19 0.01 0.57** 1.17*** 0.94*** 0.88*** 0.16 3.99 0.000
B 0.44*** ⫺0.25*** ⫺0.03 ⫺0.11 0.04 ⫺0.13* ⫺0.07 0.09 0.00 0.26** 0.48*** 0.35*** 0.47***
(stand.)

FEA b 1.75 0.11 0.26** ⫺0.09 0.25 0.91*** 0.24*** 0.19 0.45*** 0.20 ⫺0.40** ⫺0.13 ⫺0.33 ⫺0.27 0.45 13.73 0.000
B 0.07 0.17** ⫺0.05 0.16 0.58*** 0.15*** 0.11 0.25*** 0.11 ⫺0.21** ⫺0.06 ⫺0.14 ⫺0.17
(stand.)

Notes: 1. Significance levels are: ***p £ 0.01; **p £ 0.05 and *p £ 0.10.
2. First row corresponding to each dependent variable refers to unstandardised beta coefficients.
3. Second row corresponding to each dependent variable refers to standardised beta coefficients.
4. The legend for the independent variables is: GEND2 stands for gender group ‘females’ with base variable being male; AGD2 and AGD3 standing for age groups 24-35 years and 35-50 years respec-
tively, with base age group being 18-24 years; EDD2 and EDD3 standing for ‘graduates’ and ‘post-graduates,’ with ‘secondary school’ as the base; SCHD2 standing for private school attended, with
‘government school attended’ as the base; ID2, ID3 and ID4 standing for income groups Rs. 10,000-20,000, Rs. 20,000-35,000 and Rs. 35,000-50,000 respectively with income ‘less than Rs.
10,000’ as the base; and OCCD2, OCCD3, OCCD4 and OCCD5 standing for occupation groups students, professionals, business/self employed persons and service/employed persons, with
housewives as base.
5. The legend for the dependent variable is: AEIP = Awareness about environmental issues/problems; AER = Awareness about environmental regulations; EK = Environmental knowledge of specific
issues; WPM = Willingness to pay more for environmentally friendly products; WSE = Willingness to seek environmentally friendly products; PEEA = Perceived effectiveness of environmental ac-
tion; IISB = Incidence of information seeking behaviour; ICB = Incidence of conservation behaviour; ICLPP = Incidence of choosing least polluting products; IIO = Incidence of influencing others;
FCB = Frequency of conservation behaviour; FEFPB = Frequency of environmentally friendly purchase behaviour; and FEA = Frequency of environmental activism.