CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

1

1

2

good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

2

3

1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
7

Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

236.
8

etc. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. variously. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. in appropriate circumstances. op. directing. Being conscious or not. op. pp. Levinson. and it can be the act of explaining. . (1993). arguing. ordering. when and where the conversation happen. 11 Stephen C. it has the illocutionary force of. promising.11 In this research. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. threatening. 236-237. I Dewa Putu Wijana.cit. asking. apologizing. etc. one may say of this utterance that. predicting.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. p. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. 20. 9 10 Ibid. we will get much information unmentioned.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. (1996). An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are.cit.9 3. forcing. People have certain purposes. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. implicit or explicit in doing communication.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. advising the addressee to shoot her.

Fortunately. In this context. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. [3] Always nice to see you Watson.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. In this context. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Watson. on the right time. For example in the beginning of the story. Unpredictable. . He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Watson saves him. In that utterance. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Because of that. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. because of. B. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. Indirectly. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Then. Sherlock Holmes. the research¶s question is. C. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. Research Question For the analysis. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely.

Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. especially for linguists or linguistic students.7 D. . the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. especially by using John R. good understanding about speech acts. especially for illocutionary acts. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. selecting. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. In this research. E. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. 2. 3. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. Research Methodology 1. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept.

3. 5. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. Watching the movie thoroughly. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. 6. 2.For the script. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Analyzing data. Writing a report of the study. Searching the film and its script.8 1. . Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Then. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. Instrument of the Research In this research. 4. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 5. Reading entire dialogue on script. 4. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. 7.

Nadar. p. 214. Searle (1979) F. p. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. locutionary acts.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. and perlocutionary acts. you can use language to make promises. verdictive.X.cit. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. issue warnings. behabitive. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. the writer will use John R. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. illocutionary acts. 2003). expositive. op. lay bets. pp.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. Generally. excercitive. An Introduction to Language. but also warn someone. 2-3. etc. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´.op. (1996).cit. (2009). By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. Leech (in Nadar. 14 Victoria Fromkin. George Yule.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. 13 12 9 . you not only say something. (USA: Heinle. 47. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. and commissive. In this analysis.

15 For the first time. pragmatics. we can do something. Pengajaran Pragmatik. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. and linguistics. p. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. A.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. John L. assertives. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. expressives. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Accessed on January 29. Generally. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. (Bandung: Angkasa.nd. directives commissives. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. semiotics learns about signs. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. Morris (in Tarigan. After Morris. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. 2009). and declarations.16 Searle. 2011. 15 . 30. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics.htm. http://www.

when somebody says something.cit. op.cit. their assumptions. and the kinds of actions (for example. Levinson. etc. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. op. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. B. basically. op. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. speech acts. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. their purposes or goals. In this research. Speech Acts For the first time. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). 19 Ibid. George Yule (1996). 6. All the utterance shows speech acts. p. 18 17 . that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. (1983). there are so many things learned such as deixis. Later. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. 4. requests) that they are performing when they speak.11 meaning´. consist of. p.17 According to Yule. presupposition. p. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. 207.20 In pragmatics.cit. he also does something. Austin says.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings.19 Another definition.

&c.e. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. thanking.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. Second. such as asserting. Approaches to Discourse. 14. we do something. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. questioning.L.. 24 Ibid. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. 1962). ( Cambridge: Blackwell. 22 21 . p. p. Nadar (2009). apologizing. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. not just the utterance which has performative verb. Thirdly.For him. 1994). speech acts is used by Austin.X. and there is a meaning in behind. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. undertaking. How to Do Things with Words. warning. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. etc. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). 94. 23 J.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. explaining. Austin. 51. op. by saying something. ordering. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. p. the speakers solely do not just utter something. 108. F.cit.22 C. ordering. p. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. i. congratulating.

saying. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. c. (Great Britain: Routledge. without the inclination to do something. phonic act (producing sounds). 44. a. Pragmatics.25 According to Wijana (1996). Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. locutionary act consists of. [1] Man has two arms and legs.1. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. 27 Abdul Chaer. deterring. Moreover.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. p. op.cit. and also does not influence the hearer. persuading. and even. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. 17. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. surprising or misleading.27 For example.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. In details. I Dewa Putu Wijana. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. b. 1999). this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. (1996). . Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). On the example above. C. p. such as convincing. 78. p. 2009).

Semantic. and it can be the act of asserting.cit. p. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. 29 28 . 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996).28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. and aspect C refers to the meaning. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration.19. Nevertheless.cit. asking. or. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999).cit. Nadar (2009).31 For example. p. C. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. op. Therefore. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. 2007). threatening.X. promising. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. threatening. this act is known as the act of doing something. 18. apologizing. offering. etc.2. etc. 6.29 According to Austin. ordering. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. F. 14. op. op. 44. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. promising.14 certain meaning). but also to do something. p. p. thanking. or by a wife to her husband. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. Wachyu Sandayana.

promising. the speaker wants to asking. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances.32 Through those utterances. C. Thus. or ordering something. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. informing. this effect is created by the speaker. warning. 110. loc. et al.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts.. In other words. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. then that information will be received by the hearer. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. 33 32 . etc. Deliberately or not.3. By using illocutionary force. (2007). when and where the conversation happen.cit. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. Kushartanti. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. 2005). The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. p. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´.

etc. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. 1.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 36 Ibid. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive.36 The most important weakness is simply this. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. 10. p. For example. expositive. behabitive. In other words. misleading. p. 37 Ibid. 20. such as shocking. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. p. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. John R. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. excercitive. convincing. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. and commissive. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. 1979). etc. 35 34 .16 affecting someone. (New York: Cambridge University Press. op. p. Searle. D.cit. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. [3] I was very busy yesterday. 8.

They express what the speaker wants. describe. predict. According to Yule. tell. report. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. etc. affirm. Assertive verbs are state. For example: [4] The earth is flat. boast.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. In the utterance above. 38 39 Ibid.17 Because of those weaknesses. advice.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. claim. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. 12-20. request. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though.2. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). In using a directive. assert. complain. suggest.cit. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. inform. hypothesize. the world is actually not flat anymore. 53. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. op. to the truth of the expressed proposition. command. In this example. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). argue. pp. p. . D. George Yule (1996). Directive verbs are order.1.

In the utterance above. offer. permit. In using a commissive. For example: [5] Open the door. James!´. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). threat. James! In the utterance ³Open the door.3. pray. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action).Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. dare. They express what the speaker intends. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. plead. refusal. . defy. pledge. entreat. Etc. ask. For example promise ± request.18 recommend. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). Commissive verbs are vow. beg. D. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). promise. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). challenge. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). invite. etc.

In this. bless. name. deplore. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). In that utterance. cure. dislike. the speaker changes the world via the words. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. apologize. etc.19 D.5. Declaration verbs are resign. In using a declaration. sentence. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. pain. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). dignitaries naming ships. approve. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. nominate. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. christen. appoint. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. For example: [7] Sir. greet. declare. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. disapprove.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. D. blame. leave-taking. thank you very much for coming. Expressive verbs are thank. ministers or religion christening babies.) . like.4. offenders. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. etc. praise. joy. compliment. these actions are. normally speaking. excommunicate. mock. dismiss. or sorrow. welcome. confirm. etc. In using an expressive. pardon. congratulate. condol e.

legal. p. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. take a look at the table below.cit. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. p. As institutional rather than personal acts..) action is performed. op. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.106. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. etc. For example. . they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. religious. (1983). op. In this example. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring).40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. the judge has complete authority in doing so. 55. George Yule (1996).20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´.cit. Moreover.

42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. E. 13. Therefore. however.cit.2. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. intimacy level. The use of symbol h.21 E. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. p.6. . that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). p.43 E. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. Ibid. According to Mey (in Nadar. will always signify one or more addressees. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. in the widest sense. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. etc. gender. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. op. 1993:38) context as the surroundings.1.

22 intelligible. 3-4. In this respect. E. op. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. E. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). The term goal is more neutral than intention. or s¶s intention in uttering it. rather than to the verbal act itself. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation.5. in time. . pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance.cit.X. Nadar. pp. (2009).4. E.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. 44 F.

[9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. but strictly speaking. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. In this second sense. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. late 19 th century. .) and his partner Dr. or as a request. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. or sentencetoken. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. identified by their use in a particular situation. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. might be described as a sentence. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr.23 For example. or as a question. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. F. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. However. However. it cannot be a sentence. In fact.

Then.and finally enters a non-descript building. In that house. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. until he reaches the basement.he darts between columns. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. and then attacks him. Most of the guards are afraid of . As he taunts Watson. there is also a housekeeper. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. as Blackwood has requested to see him. named Mrs. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. After that. but is stopped by Holmes. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. located on 221B Baker Street. In the center of the room. he brings Holmes to the prison. Once inside. Turns out. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Hudson (Geraldine James). Holmes continues running down the stairs. Watson comes running over. where a black magic ritual is taking place. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer.24 This movie is open with Dr. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. He is in a tremendous hurry . up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly .

they are arrested by the police because of major damages. nevertheless. But in fact. they can defeat and chase them away. He is planning on killing three more people. and then legally declares him dead. He . when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. Holmes and Watson have to face them. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. In the British court. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. and try to cover and help Blackwood. he is genuinely curious about the situation. In the other sides. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. There are many people involved. Watson feels for a pulse. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. Holmes will help him. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Fortunately. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes.25 getting closer to Blackwood. Getting the clues is very hard. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. For instance. but as a result. After that. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s.

http://www. Holmes wants to destroy that device. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. The house of Parliament will be the next site. 2011. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness.html. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. but.imdb. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. 45 IMDb. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. 45 . Accessed on February 4.

Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates.1. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. classifies. a pale. Data Description In this part. 2. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. he can get inside their heads. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. 1.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. the writer compiles. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. A. Asserting (Sure) 27 . nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. As though. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison.

close to Holmes. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. She likes gingered dwarfs. midget. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.28 3. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Luke Reordan. In his cell. Holmes:Agreed. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Asserting (Agree) 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room . I don¶t agree. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. But. Furthermore. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Setting: London Street .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. you agree? Holmes:No. 4. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Holmes. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Informing (found) . So. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6.

He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). 7. 1.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. 2. Irene: Oh dear. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. almost invisible. Setting: Unknown building . Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .2. and that¶s my area of expertise. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. If you still need him. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. (Observe) grabbing his collar. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. (Film script page 62) A. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. Holmes thinks that it is true. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Setting: Attic .29 which is dead.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . . . One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Holmes: I feel safer already.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe.

consider it a wager that you will. Setting: Holmes¶ room . and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Hudson: Tea. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. My mind is in a terrible condition. Asking (Allow) . Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Holmes: I can¶t but. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. . (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. 4. agree. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. give me a problem. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Hudson Mrs. Irene: Well. Everything is in its proper place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. puts the tray before him. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Mr. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Nanny? Mrs. 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. .

Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. He is a much smaller man than him. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. admit it! 9. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. 8. he becomes dirty. They have already gone from the pawnshop. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Setting: Grave yard . Holmes begins examining the body.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Insisting (Admit) . Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Based on that prediction. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Therefore. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Setting: Pawnbrokers .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. From that place.

.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. disappear. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. bang. Holmes:Leave now. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Holmes inspects it. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder.(gun¶s sound) 11. Advising (Leave) 12. You¶re good at that. assembly line ± night. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses.32 10. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. moves through a door. and finds some clues. Advising (Save) 13. antechamber . Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. . Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse.

he cannot handle it. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Watson. boots echoing. After Holmes is safe.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Ordering (Follow) 15. Holmes folds up his piece of paper.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. Setting: Sewers . Watson. . (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Then. Tanner: Right away. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. hands it to Watson. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Setting: Attic . then save him. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. that leads us to the sewers. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. take us onto the bridge port side. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. 16. When Holmes fight. These German locks always give me trouble. sir. old boy.morning The Participants: Holmes. and Irene are in the sewers.

day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. he is still alive. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Setting: Tower bridge . In fact. . He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . Please. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. . Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. . Holmes tumbles to the ground). He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. He looks dead. Fare thee well. (Film script page 78) A. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. . Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Indications 1. Then. I think my legs have fallen . Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. I can¶t feel my cheeks . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Oh my lord.3. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. She cannot pass it. 18. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Watson.

cut.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Setting: Tower bridge . Captain Tanner. I must attend to my other patients. slaughterhouse. In the hospital. His eyes still closed. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. he is burned. Promising (Guarantee) 3. (Film script page 72) 2. Consider it done. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Holmes: Well. Fare thee well. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. And certainly not for a price. bruised. Promising (Won¶t) . Setting: Hospital room . and scraped. I will stop him. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. Refusal (Must) 4. Setting: On the boat . (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. But not for you. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. She cannot pass it.35 Lord Coward: Name your price.

talks to him. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ room . 3. We¶re done. Fortunately.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Setting: Cathedral crypts .4. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Indications 1. playing scale on his violin. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent.. out of sight. On the table next to him. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. Holmes has no case to be solved. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up..night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Setting: Bare boxing fight . McMurdo. Thanking (Thank you) 4. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. and hands him the newspaper. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Congratulations. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room.36 A. Praising (Excellent) . big man. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. You won. In the middle of the match.

in his house. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Setting: Prison . hence the scratches. 5. Holmes: Very good. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Well done. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Every time he wound the watch. I¶ve been at it for six hours. strolls. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Praising (Very good) 7.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Setting: London street . Watson.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Praising (Well done) .day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Right. his hand slipped. Individually. Praising (Love) 6.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Nine Elms. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Watson. listens and gets closer to him. A factory by the river. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it.

I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .5. Holmes. I took the shrapnel out myself. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. he decides to take it. He looks like very interested with the new case so. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . Holmes: Well. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . . Watson: Yes. 1. well. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Mary said I had a lousy doctor.38 8. (Film script page 62) A. with us. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No.

Data Analysis In this part. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching.39 B. When arriving. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Holmes says to Watson. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. In that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting).

On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. to the . Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. The guard says.40 prepositions are true. a pale. he can get inside their heads. he is better to die than live. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. As though.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). Data 2 Context: In the prison. In this context. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. Holmes is led by prison guard. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. As though. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Considering that reason. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. he can get inside their heads´ . the guard looks like pale and nervous. because of that. Based on that utterance. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. It makes Holmes confuse.

He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. According to that utterance. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.He says to Blackwood. Without courtesy. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. In his cell.41 truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. His . trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. close to Holmes. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. to the truth of the expressed proposition.

Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. I don¶t agree´. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. midget. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. I don¶t agree´. So.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Luke Reordan. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. you agree? Holmes:No. Midget. Holmes decides to back home. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Because of that. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. ³You¶re obviously not her type. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. Setting: Holmes¶ room . In the utterance ³No. So. ³No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. She likes gingered dwarfs. When Holmes wants to open it. I don¶t agree. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson.42 partner. She likes gingered dwarfs. Luke Reordan.

(Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. Holmes. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. Holmes says to him. to the truth of the expressed proposition.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. They are very curious about that weird thing. ³Agreed. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes:Agreed. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. He does not . But. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. At this time. But. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. According to those utterances. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Setting: London Street .

The data is very important for him to find the truth. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). to the truth of the . Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. he just can assume. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. Furthermore. Irene : Oh dear.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. if you still need him´. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. not make conclusion to solve the case. He says. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. After doing that. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. . Without it. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. ³I found your man. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. If you still need him. .

Apparently. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). to the truth of the expressed proposition. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. she suggests him to work outside the law. Setting: Attic .45 expressed proposition. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). ³I feel safer already´. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Because of that. he sees Watson and Irene near him. However. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. Irene tells him that police looks for him.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. And she will help him if he wants to do that. Holmes: I feel safer already. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). Holmes¶ eyes are open. Without courtesy. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. and that¶s my area of expertise. he sleeps in the attic. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. tonight. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising.

But suddenly. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. Before stopping him. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. and he wants nobody worry about him. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. grabbing his collar.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Holmes holds him and says.46 belief that he is safe. Setting: Unknown building . It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. In this context. Holmes stops him. especially for Watson and Irene. After all followers defeated. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. Holmes saves the woman. they have to defeat his followers first. almost invisible. .

Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. give me a problem. My mind is in a terrible condition. agree. and asks to give him a case. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. ³I can¶t but agree. give me work!´. In that utterance. Holmes :I can¶t but. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes thinks that it is true.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Holmes wants Watson to . Give me a problem. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Holmes says. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood.47 In the utterance. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months.

Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Hudson. Data 3 Context: Mrs.and puts it onto the table. Nanny? Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Nanny´. He uses . (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Holmes says to Mrs. Hudson : Tea. She crosses Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Hudson Mrs. as per usual. Based on the characteristic. puts the tray before him.48 give him work. After that. Then Mrs. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. she removes an old tray before he goes. Everything is in its proper place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Hudson comes into the room. ´Don¶t touch that. Suddenly. In that utterance. Mr. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. brings a tray of bread and tea. give me work´to entreat his partner. Everything is in its proper place. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem.

49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. For that reason. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). carrying a case. According to that utterance.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. Irene : Well. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. He wants her to keep it. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Apparently. Without courtesy. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Setting: Holmes¶ room . ³Keep your money. she gives a large bag of coins for him. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. consider it a wager that you will.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. . Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. he rejects it and says. Immediately. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. He will take the case if it can make him curious.

³Allow me to explain´. In that utterance.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. . In this story. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face.

Therefore.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. In that situation. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. help! Watson!´. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. But for the second jumps. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. . Through that utterance. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. he screams. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). he becomes dirty. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Watson. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. he falls into garbage bin. Nevertheless.

In this story.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Holmes begins examining the body. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. In that utterance.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). . This case becomes something interesting for him. He is a much smaller man than him. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. but Reordan. He says to Lestrade. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. Setting: Grave yard . Therefore. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. Lestrade shows the coffin. ´May I borrow your pen?´. In Blackwood¶s grave. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). Holmes begins examining the body.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard.

The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. There. Based on that utterance. Data 9 . She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. He tries to convince him by saying. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Based on that prediction. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right.

Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. They have already gone from the pawnshop. moves through a door. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Setting: Reordan¶s room . They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. In that utterance. and finds some clues. Holmes inspects it. From that place. ´Give her my best. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . and the family as well´. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. In the other sides.

Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. Apparently.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. some experiments. .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Watson says to Holmes. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. They find very many chemical materials. Together. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. In that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. He says to Watson. and something strange in the corner. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.

(Suddenly comes. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. After entering the room. bang. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. and then disappear) : Bang. Watson! : A gift for you. Irene walks behind dressing screen. He tries to find out what she doing is. He does not want something bad happen to her. In the other sides. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). and pours into glasses.56 Holmes:Leave now. disappear. Holmes says to Irene. You¶re good at that. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. he immediately takes a wine bottle. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. . because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her).night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . antechamber . He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. ³Leave now. opens it. Irene is too far involved. disappear. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. you¶re good at that´. In that utterance.

Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. ³Save the bullet. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. These German locks always give me trouble. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. They try . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). There. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Therefore she cannot hang for more time.Suddenly. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. exactly in Slaughter house. According to that utterance. Watson!´. Holmes says to Watson. old boy. Holmes:Give us a leg up. they try to find and stop him. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder.

Data 14 Context: Holmes. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Then. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. ³Give us a leg up. Watson. Holmes says to Watson. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. Setting: Attic . Watson. Holmes . and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. boots echoing. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. old boy. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Watson. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die.58 to help her but it is very difficult. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Minutes later. Before those police approach the attic. These German locks always give me a trouble´. According to those utterances.morning The Participants: Holmes. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. hands it to Watson. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes.

59 hands the paper to Watson and says. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In that piece of paper. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. Because of the situation are dangerous. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. then save him. take us onto the bridge port side. that leads us to the sewers. Tanner: Right away. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. and they must follow it. . He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. orders them to arrest Holmes. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. sir. In that utterance. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). After Holmes is safe. ³Follow these instruction!´.

and Irene are in the sewers. On the boat. take us onto the bridge port side.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Setting: Sewers . When Holmes fight. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Watson. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). Watson and Irene await him. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. ³If you would a captain.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . Data 16 Context: Holmes. After Holmes is safe. They see a chemical weapon. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. he cannot handle it. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. that leads us to the sewers´.

It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). she has the gun. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament.61 Holmes. (Film script page 72) . When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. However. Fortunately. He screams to Irene. Fare thee well. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. Setting: Tower Bridge . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Watson. he gets difficult to handle it. In these utterances.

Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. fare thee well´. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Irene still can run and hide or not. Oh my lord. . Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). In the tower. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Then she runs and brings it with her. Knowing Irene¶s situation. . ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. . Watson. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Holmes is aware about that. In this case. I think my legs have fallen . chasing her to the tower.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. there is no way for her to pass. so. he is still alive. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. Please. I can¶t feel my cheeks . In those utterances. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. . Watson: Worse things could happen? . In fact. He looks dead. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution.

Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating).morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. . I can¶t feel my cheeks .63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. But. cheeks. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. . He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He says to Watson. I think my legs have fallen . He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. In those utterances. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Please. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. ³Oh dear. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . . Oh my lord. In fact. Then. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. his crime is totally over. Watson.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. ³Well. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. In addition. As great consulting detective. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). Data 2 . of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. Consider it done. I¶ll stop him´. Holmes says.64 Holmes :Well. Holmes has no desire to work for money. According to those utterances. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. Consider it done.

65

Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

66

is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

67

aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Setting: Cathedral crypts . In this context. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. . Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). ³Always nice to see you Watson´. out of sight. out of sight. Fortunately. comes on the perfect time to save him. Because too focus. Fortunately. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Holmes says. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Expressive states what the speaker feels.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. In that utterance. his partner. Watson.

Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Therefore. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). talks to him. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Holmes has no case to be solved. Holmes has no case to be solved. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. In this story. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. McMurdo. He fights his opponent.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. and hands him the newspaper.night . as a partner and close friend. (Film script page 6) Since three months. In the middle of the match. he just stays at home and do nothing useful.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. ³Thank You´. Setting: Holmes¶ room . So he decides to give it. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. In that utterance. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Expressive states what the speaker feels.

You won. He fights his opponent. . Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. playing scale on his violin. Congratulations´. Therefore. . He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. but in the middle. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. In the beginning of the match. he decides to end the match by saying. We¶re done. Expressive states what the speaker feels. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. McMurdo. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Congratulations.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. . We¶re done. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. . He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. Based on those utterances. he can fight very well. On the table next to him. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. ³That¶s it. big man . Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). big man . You won.

He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. ³Excellent question. who looks at that. listens and gets closer to him. In the prison. In his experiment. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He just wants to respect it. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. strolls. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. He asks Holmes. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Individually. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). exactly in . ³How did you lure them in?´. Individually. I¶ve been at it for six hours´.71 Holmes: Excellent question. : So glad you can accept my invitation. In those utterances. Watson. Then Holmes answers. playing scale on his violin.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). Holmes:Very good. According to that utterance. Expressive states what the speaker feels. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. they hope.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. his hand slipped. Every time he wound the watch. Setting: London Street . he does not know and understand about that. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. He says to Blackwood. Watson. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. even though. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. they can get the address of the watch owner. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. Watson predicts the . By looking for that store. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. hence the scratches. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that.

That should lead us right to Blackwood. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. A factory by the river. He tries to identify where the man comes from.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. He is proud of him about that. Holmes says. He identifies some features on that body. Watson. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. his hand slipped. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. ³Very good. In those utterances. According to those feature. Nine Elms. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Well done.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Setting: Holmes¶ house . in his house. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. Expressive states what the speaker feels. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. Watson. hence the scratches.

. they get Holmes still fall asleep. Setting: Holmes¶ attic .74 to the murderer. Watson. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. He says his prediction to Holmes. In the beginning. Well done. And when Holmes is awake. with us. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Watson: Yes. Holmes can find that place by saying. I took the shrapnel out myself. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Nine Elms. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . including the address. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Holmes. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. Nevertheless. Holmes:Well. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. Finally. he assumes that Watson . he sees his partner and Irene near him. Sohe can find the place. well. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. A factory by the river.

He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. . Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. In that utterance. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . he decides to take it. ³Well. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. He just can say. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. with us´. well.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. there is a new case from Clarky. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Setting: Holmes¶ house . And the most important thing is. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. In this case.

Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. ³Case reopened!´. . like Blackwood¶s case. Based on that utterance. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. He says to Clarky. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. He will investigate and solve that case immediately.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one.

expressive. Representative Directive Asserting(3). Requesting(2). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. 5. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Praising(4). They are representative. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). and declaration. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. In his utterances. Advising(1) Promising(3). Arguing(1). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Inviting(1). Conclusions In this chapter. Insisting(2). Ordering(3). Telling(1) Commanding(6).CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Congratulating(1). Informing(2). No. Asking(1). directive. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. Based on the findings. 4. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. 2. Entreating(2). commissive.

those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. . they have much time together to spend. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. direct and indirect. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. In the directive. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. because in that movie. the writer suggests: 1. Then. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. John Watson. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. especially when they have cases to be solved. B. Suggestions In this research.They are performed. literal and non-literal. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition.78 According to the table. The researchers who want to analyze speech act.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. normally speaking.

in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. especially in illocutionary act. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. such as comic. especially illocutionary acts. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. etc. magazine.79 2. Finally. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. .