CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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it has the illocutionary force of. . asking. directing.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. Being conscious or not. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. I Dewa Putu Wijana. when and where the conversation happen. forcing. threatening. op. etc. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. advising the addressee to shoot her. one may say of this utterance that. 20. (1996). implicit or explicit in doing communication. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. etc.9 3. arguing.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. we will get much information unmentioned. Levinson. p. op. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. People have certain purposes. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. and it can be the act of explaining.cit. 11 Stephen C. promising. variously.11 In this research. (1993). 9 10 Ibid. in appropriate circumstances.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. ordering. predicting. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts.cit. 236-237. pp. apologizing. or frightening the addressee into shooting her.

Watson saves him. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. In that utterance. Fortunately. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. . The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. For example in the beginning of the story. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. In this context. Because of that. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Unpredictable. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. In this context. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. Watson. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. on the right time.

this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. Indirectly. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Research Question For the analysis. C. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Then. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. because of. Sherlock Holmes. the research¶s question is. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. B. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above.

especially for illocutionary acts.7 D.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. especially for linguists or linguistic students. Research Methodology 1. . Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. E. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. selecting. In this research. especially by using John R. 3. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. 2. good understanding about speech acts. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script.

the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Instrument of the Research In this research. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. 7. 5. Analyzing data. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 4. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. 4.For the script. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. 5. 6. Reading entire dialogue on script. Writing a report of the study.8 1. 3. 2. Searching the film and its script. Then. . Watching the movie thoroughly.

you can use language to make promises. 2003). (2009). An Introduction to Language. op. etc. you not only say something. p. p.op. (1996). Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. 14 Victoria Fromkin. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. locutionary acts. 2-3. but also warn someone. Nadar. 13 12 9 . There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. lay bets.cit. Searle (1979) F. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. behabitive. (USA: Heinle. 47. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet.cit. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. expositive. George Yule. In this analysis.13 It means that you can use language to do thing.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. illocutionary acts.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. excercitive. 214.X. verdictive. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. Generally. issue warnings. and perlocutionary acts. and commissive. pp. the writer will use John R. Leech (in Nadar.

Morris (in Tarigan. p. Pengajaran Pragmatik. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. we can do something. and declarations. http://www. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. A. 2009).16 Searle. Generally. John L. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. pragmatics. (Bandung: Angkasa. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology.15 For the first time. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Accessed on January 29.htm. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. 30.nd. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. assertives.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. semiotics learns about signs. directives commissives.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. 15 . 2011. and linguistics. After Morris. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. expressives.

basically. op. Speech Acts For the first time. 18 17 .20 In pragmatics. there are so many things learned such as deixis. Later.19 Another definition. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively.cit. In this research. 4. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words.cit. etc. and the kinds of actions (for example. consist of. p. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. p. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003).cit. presupposition. B.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. speech acts. their purposes or goals. Austin says. Levinson. he also does something.11 meaning´. George Yule (1996). Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. their assumptions. requests) that they are performing when they speak. 6. (1983).17 According to Yule. p. 207. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. op. op. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. All the utterance shows speech acts. 19 Ibid. when somebody says something.

21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. Second. p. questioning. 1994). we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. Austin. Thirdly.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). Approaches to Discourse. 51.e. How to Do Things with Words. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. undertaking. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. ordering. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. ordering. 22 21 . the speakers solely do not just utter something.cit. 108. F.. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). warning. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. and there is a meaning in behind. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. 1962).L.22 C. such as asserting. op. explaining. by saying something. p. Nadar (2009). apologizing. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 24 Ibid.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. not just the utterance which has performative verb. p. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. thanking. 23 J. we do something.For him. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. &c. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. p. i. 94. congratulating. etc. speech acts is used by Austin.X. 14.

locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. a. without the inclination to do something.27 For example. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. such as convincing. surprising or misleading. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. p. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. persuading. 2009). phonic act (producing sounds). 27 Abdul Chaer. c. [1] Man has two arms and legs. 78. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. C. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). op. I Dewa Putu Wijana. and also does not influence the hearer. p. and even. 17.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. 44. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. .13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei.cit. it can be done without involving the context of utterance.1. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. 1999). locutionary act consists of. deterring.25 According to Wijana (1996). (1996). p. b. (Great Britain: Routledge. In details. Pragmatics. Moreover.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. On the example above. saying.

28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.2. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. this act is known as the act of doing something. but also to do something. Wachyu Sandayana. p. 18.31 For example. ordering. p. Nevertheless. op. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. p. offering. promising. Nadar (2009). Semantic. Therefore. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. 6. threatening. promising. threatening. apologizing. etc.cit. 2007).29 According to Austin.X. 44. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999).30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. op. or. and it can be the act of asserting. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. C. or by a wife to her husband.19.cit. thanking. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. op. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. F.cit. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). asking. etc. 14. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. 29 28 . and aspect C refers to the meaning. p.14 certain meaning).

110. et al. warning. p. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. 33 32 . Deliberately or not. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. In other words. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts.cit. 2005).32 Through those utterances. etc.3. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. promising. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. Thus. when and where the conversation happen. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. By using illocutionary force. or ordering something. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. the speaker wants to asking. then that information will be received by the hearer.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. Kushartanti. this effect is created by the speaker. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. informing. C. (2007). loc.. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication.

If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. p. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. For example.36 The most important weakness is simply this. In other words.16 affecting someone. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. convincing. and commissive. (New York: Cambridge University Press. 8. expositive. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. 10. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. 1979). op. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. p. Searle. p. misleading. etc. excercitive. behabitive. p. etc. 20. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). such as shocking. 36 Ibid. 35 34 . [3] I was very busy yesterday. 37 Ibid.cit. John R. D. 1.

advice. . 53. hypothesize. They express what the speaker wants. predict. command. 12-20. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). assert. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. Directive verbs are order. pp.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). In the utterance above. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). D. For example: [4] The earth is flat.2. argue. In using a directive. complain. According to Yule. tell. boast. report.1. etc.cit. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. Assertive verbs are state. George Yule (1996). affirm. describe. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. suggest. op. to the truth of the expressed proposition. the speaker describes that the earth is flat.17 Because of those weaknesses. p. In this example.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. claim. inform. request. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. the world is actually not flat anymore. 38 39 Ibid.

the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). invite. In the utterance above. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). offer.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. pledge. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). pray. entreat. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. .3. defy. In using a commissive. beg. D. For example: [5] Open the door. Etc. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it).18 recommend. dare. James!´. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). ask. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). permit. Commissive verbs are vow. They express what the speaker intends. threat. etc. For example promise ± request. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). plead. challenge. refusal. promise.

dismiss.19 D. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. pain. bless. In this. dignitaries naming ships. offenders. D. compliment. In that utterance. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance.5. excommunicate. cure. In using an expressive. welcome. etc. pardon. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking).) . (Classical examples are judges sentencing. etc. dislike. ministers or religion christening babies. congratulate. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. appoint. apologize. joy. leave-taking. name. declare. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. confirm. these actions are. the speaker changes the world via the words. nominate. normally speaking. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. like. or sorrow. deplore. In using a declaration. For example: [7] Sir. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. condol e. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). christen. thank you very much for coming. blame.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. Expressive verbs are thank. Declaration verbs are resign. greet.4. praise. sentence. approve. etc. mock. disapprove.

X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech.106. For example. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards.) action is performed.. In this example. . the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. 55.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear.cit. op. George Yule (1996).cit. the judge has complete authority in doing so. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. legal. p. op. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. Moreover. As institutional rather than personal acts. religious. take a look at the table below. etc. p. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. (1983).

reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. will always signify one or more addressees. in the widest sense. p. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. The use of symbol h. . that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983).1.cit.6. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. etc. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. intimacy level. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. op. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. Ibid.2. Therefore.21 E. however. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. 13. According to Mey (in Nadar. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. p. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance.43 E. E. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. gender.

E. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics).cit. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar.4.5. pp. rather than to the verbal act itself. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. E. 44 F. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. The term goal is more neutral than intention.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. or s¶s intention in uttering it. Nadar. In this respect. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. . but can be used generally of goal oriented activities.X. (2009). in time.22 intelligible. E. 3-4. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. op.

Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. In this second sense. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. or sentencetoken. However.) and his partner Dr. or as a request. F. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. identified by their use in a particular situation. or as a question. In fact. . late 19 th century. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. but strictly speaking. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. might be described as a sentence. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. However. it cannot be a sentence. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities.23 For example. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer.

Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Once inside. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. Holmes continues running down the stairs. Turns out. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Most of the guards are afraid of . John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. he brings Holmes to the prison. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. until he reaches the basement. as Blackwood has requested to see him. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. there is also a housekeeper. named Mrs. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. Watson comes running over.and finally enters a non-descript building. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . As he taunts Watson. After that. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. and then attacks him. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Then. He is in a tremendous hurry . where a black magic ritual is taking place. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent.he darts between columns. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). but is stopped by Holmes. Hudson (Geraldine James). located on 221B Baker Street. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer.24 This movie is open with Dr. In the center of the room. In that house.

In the British court. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. He is planning on killing three more people. and then legally declares him dead. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. Fortunately. Holmes and Watson have to face them. he is genuinely curious about the situation. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. Watson feels for a pulse. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. After that. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Holmes will help him. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet.25 getting closer to Blackwood. There are many people involved. Getting the clues is very hard. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. and try to cover and help Blackwood. they can defeat and chase them away. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. He . nevertheless. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. but as a result. In the other sides. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. But in fact. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. For instance.

it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. 45 IMDb. The house of Parliament will be the next site.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime.imdb. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. but. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. 2011. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. Accessed on February 4.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript.html. http://www. 45 . Holmes wants to destroy that device.

he can get inside their heads. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison.1. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Data Description In this part. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. the writer compiles. classifies. 2. A. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. a pale. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Asserting (Sure) 27 . As though. 1.

Luke Reordan. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. 4.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit.28 3. So. you agree? Holmes:No. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Furthermore. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Informing (found) . He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. close to Holmes. Holmes:Agreed. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. She likes gingered dwarfs. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. But. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Setting: London Street . That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes. In his cell. Asserting (Agree) 5. I don¶t agree. midget. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6.

. . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . 1. (Film script page 62) A.29 which is dead. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. almost invisible. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Setting: Unknown building .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes thinks that it is true.2. (Observe) grabbing his collar. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. 7. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. and that¶s my area of expertise. Setting: Attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . 2. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. Irene: Oh dear. If you still need him. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. Holmes: I feel safer already. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb.

.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson: Tea.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. puts the tray before him. 5. agree. Holmes: I can¶t but. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. consider it a wager that you will. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Mr. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. My mind is in a terrible condition. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Asking (Allow) . Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. Nanny? Mrs. give me a problem. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. . Hudson Mrs.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Setting: Holmes¶ room . She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Everything is in its proper place. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. 4. Irene: Well.

Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Therefore. he becomes dirty. 8. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Based on that prediction. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Setting: Pawnbrokers . and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Holmes begins examining the body. He is a much smaller man than him. Insisting (Admit) . Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. From that place.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . They have already gone from the pawnshop. admit it! 9.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Setting: Grave yard . he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary.

Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. disappear. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Advising (Save) 13.(gun¶s sound) 11.32 10. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. . Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. bang. (Suddenly comes. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. assembly line ± night. and finds some clues. moves through a door. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Setting: Reordan¶s room . . Advising (Leave) 12.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. Holmes inspects it. You¶re good at that. Holmes:Leave now. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. antechamber .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula.

then save him. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . boots echoing. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Watson. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Setting: Attic . and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. sir. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Setting: Sewers .33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Tanner: Right away. hands it to Watson. When Holmes fight. After Holmes is safe. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Ordering (Follow) 15. take us onto the bridge port side. 16. and Irene are in the sewers. Then. old boy. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. . He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. he cannot handle it.morning The Participants: Holmes. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. Watson. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. that leads us to the sewers. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. These German locks always give me trouble. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Holmes folds up his piece of paper.

Holmes tumbles to the ground). (Film script page 78) A. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. He looks dead. Indications 1. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging.3. In fact. She cannot pass it. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. Watson. 18. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . he is still alive. Fare thee well. .34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Watson. . I can¶t feel my cheeks . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Oh my lord. Setting: Tower bridge . . Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. I think my legs have fallen .morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Then. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Please.

Setting: Hospital room .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. he is burned. His eyes still closed. And certainly not for a price. and scraped. Setting: On the boat . Fare thee well.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. She cannot pass it. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. I will stop him. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Refusal (Must) 4. Captain Tanner. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Holmes: Well. slaughterhouse. Promising (Won¶t) . Promising (Guarantee) 3. But not for you. cut. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. I must attend to my other patients. In the hospital. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. bruised. Consider it done. Setting: Tower bridge . (Film script page 72) 2. I¶ll tell you everything. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore.

Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. You won. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. Fortunately. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Thanking (Thank you) 4.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes has no case to be solved. Congratulations. playing scale on his violin. We¶re done. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. talks to him. Praising (Excellent) . out of sight. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room.4. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Setting: Holmes¶ room . McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. and hands him the newspaper. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Watson comes to Holmes¶s room.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Setting: Cathedral crypts . He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. In the middle of the match. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. On the table next to him.36 A. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.. Indications 1.. McMurdo. 3. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. big man. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him.

A factory by the river. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. He tries to identify where the man comes from. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. Nine Elms. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Right. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Setting: London street . listens and gets closer to him. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. his hand slipped. I¶ve been at it for six hours. in his house. Setting: Prison . strolls. Watson. 5. Watson. Praising (Love) 6. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Individually.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Holmes: Very good. Well done. Setting: Holmes¶ house . hence the scratches. Praising (Very good) 7. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Every time he wound the watch. Praising (Well done) .

He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner.38 8. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . 1. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No.5. Holmes. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Holmes: Well. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Watson: Yes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. (Film script page 62) A. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. he decides to take it. I took the shrapnel out myself. with us. well. Setting: Holmes¶ attic .

He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Data Analysis In this part. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Holmes says to Watson. When arriving. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. to the truth of the expressed proposition. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. In that utterance. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged.39 B. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy.

Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone.40 prepositions are true. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). the guard looks like pale and nervous. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. The guard says. Holmes is led by prison guard. he is better to die than live. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. to the . because of that. Data 2 Context: In the prison. It makes Holmes confuse. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. As though. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Based on that utterance. In this context. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. As though. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. a pale. he can get inside their heads´ . ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. he can get inside their heads. Considering that reason. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Without courtesy. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.He says to Blackwood. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. According to that utterance. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. In his cell.41 truth of the expressed proposition. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. close to Holmes. His . He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing).

In the utterance ³No. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Luke Reordan. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. When Holmes wants to open it. midget. I don¶t agree´. you agree? Holmes:No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Because of that. So. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Holmes decides to back home. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Luke Reordan. ³You¶re obviously not her type. Midget. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. ³No. So.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. She likes gingered dwarfs. to the truth of the expressed proposition. I don¶t agree. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it.42 partner. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. She likes gingered dwarfs. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. I don¶t agree´. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to .

He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. But. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. According to those utterances. Holmes. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Setting: London Street . He does not . But. At this time. ³Agreed. Holmes says to him.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. to the truth of the expressed proposition. They are very curious about that weird thing. Holmes:Agreed. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not.

to the truth of the . Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. If you still need him. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . ³I found your man. not make conclusion to solve the case. Irene : Oh dear. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. He says. Without it. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. if you still need him´. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). . He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. . He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. After doing that. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. The data is very important for him to find the truth. he just can assume. Furthermore.

In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. Holmes: I feel safer already. ³I feel safer already´. However. And she will help him if he wants to do that. she suggests him to work outside the law. he sleeps in the attic. Without courtesy. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. he sees Watson and Irene near him. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . tonight. and that¶s my area of expertise.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Apparently. Irene tells him that police looks for him. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Holmes¶ eyes are open. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Setting: Attic . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page).45 expressed proposition. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Because of that.

Holmes saves the woman. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. almost invisible. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. they have to defeat his followers first. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. Holmes stops him. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. After all followers defeated. Before stopping him. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. In this context. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. . Setting: Unknown building . This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry.46 belief that he is safe. Holmes holds him and says. and he wants nobody worry about him. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. But suddenly. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. grabbing his collar. especially for Watson and Irene.

agree.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. ³I can¶t but agree. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. and asks to give him a case. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes wants Watson to . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting).47 In the utterance. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. In that utterance. give me work!´. give me a problem. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes thinks that it is true. Give me a problem. Holmes :I can¶t but.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Holmes says. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. My mind is in a terrible condition.

Hudson Mrs.and puts it onto the table.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Hudson : Tea. Hudson. She crosses Holmes. After that. give me work´to entreat his partner. Holmes says to Mrs. brings a tray of bread and tea. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. ´Don¶t touch that. Nanny´. Data 3 Context: Mrs. Based on the characteristic. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Everything is in its proper place. Then Mrs. He uses . That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Nanny? Mrs. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. as per usual. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Mr. puts the tray before him. In that utterance. she removes an old tray before he goes. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Suddenly.48 give him work. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Everything is in its proper place. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Hudson comes into the room.

According to that utterance. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. consider it a wager that you will. ³Keep your money. Apparently. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. He will take the case if it can make him curious. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Without courtesy. For that reason. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). he rejects it and says. she gives a large bag of coins for him. Immediately. carrying a case. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. Irene : Well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. He wants her to keep it. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs.

Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. ³Allow me to explain´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. . caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. In that utterance. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. In this story. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). . . He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. In that situation. . he becomes dirty. he falls into garbage bin. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. But for the second jumps. help! Watson!´. he screams. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. ³Watson. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. Nevertheless. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Therefore. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. Through that utterance.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof.

He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. but Reordan. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. Therefore. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. This case becomes something interesting for him. . He is a much smaller man than him. Setting: Grave yard . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ´May I borrow your pen?´.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Holmes begins examining the body. Lestrade shows the coffin.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. In this story. Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). In that utterance. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. In Blackwood¶s grave. He says to Lestrade. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard.

She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. Setting: Pawnbrokers . ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. There. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. He tries to convince him by saying. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Based on that utterance. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Based on that prediction. Data 9 .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth.

Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. From that place. In the other sides. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. They have already gone from the pawnshop. and the family as well´. Setting: Reordan¶s room . He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. ´Give her my best. Holmes inspects it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. In that utterance. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. moves through a door. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. and finds some clues.

(Film script page 36) In the previous scene. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Apparently. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. . In that utterance. some experiments. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. They find very many chemical materials. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Watson says to Holmes. He says to Watson. and something strange in the corner. Together.

and then disappear) : Bang. disappear. antechamber . bang. In that utterance. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. Holmes says to Irene. He does not want something bad happen to her. he immediately takes a wine bottle. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. . Watson! : A gift for you. Irene is too far involved. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). (Suddenly comes. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . ³Leave now. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. In the other sides. disappear. He tries to find out what she doing is. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). After entering the room. opens it. and pours into glasses. Irene walks behind dressing screen. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. you¶re good at that´. You¶re good at that.56 Holmes:Leave now.

old boy. According to that utterance. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. ³Save the bullet.Suddenly. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Watson!´. they try to find and stop him. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. There. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. These German locks always give me trouble. They try . Holmes says to Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. exactly in Slaughter house.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night.

58 to help her but it is very difficult. hands it to Watson. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. Holmes . some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. These German locks always give me a trouble´. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Watson. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. Setting: Attic . ³Give us a leg up. Then. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. Watson. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. Data 14 Context: Holmes. old boy. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. boots echoing. Minutes later.morning The Participants: Holmes. According to those utterances. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Before those police approach the attic. Watson. Holmes says to Watson.

³Follow these instruction!´. After Holmes is safe. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. In that piece of paper. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. In that utterance. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Tanner: Right away. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. then save him. take us onto the bridge port side. Because of the situation are dangerous. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . The Lord Coward who has power to control police. and they must follow it. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. orders them to arrest Holmes. sir. that leads us to the sewers. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament.

He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. he cannot handle it. and Irene are in the sewers.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Data 16 Context: Holmes. that leads us to the sewers´. After Holmes is safe. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). On the boat. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). When Holmes fight. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. They see a chemical weapon. ³If you would a captain. take us onto the bridge port side. Setting: Sewers . He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Watson. Watson and Irene await him.

Watson. she has the gun.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. She cannot pass it. He screams to Irene.61 Holmes. he gets difficult to handle it. (Film script page 72) . Holmes and Watson have to stop it. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). However. In these utterances. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Setting: Tower Bridge . Fortunately. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. Fare thee well. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first.

He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. In this case. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Then she runs and brings it with her. there is no way for her to pass. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. he is still alive. Watson. Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. fare thee well´.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. In the tower. Irene still can run and hide or not. . Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. . Please. Watson: Worse things could happen? . I think my legs have fallen . In fact. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. . Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Oh my lord. He looks dead. so. chasing her to the tower. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Knowing Irene¶s situation. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. . Holmes is aware about that. In those utterances.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. his crime is totally over.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Watson. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Holmes is still alive and not suicide. . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. . Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. He says to Watson. In those utterances. I can¶t feel my cheeks .63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. . He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Oh my lord. ³Oh dear. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. . In fact. Then. cheeks. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Please. But. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. I think my legs have fallen .

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Consider it done. ³Well. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that.64 Holmes :Well. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. As great consulting detective. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). I¶ll stop him´. In addition. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Holmes has no desire to work for money. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. According to those utterances. Holmes says. Data 2 . (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Consider it done.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

out of sight. his partner. In that utterance. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. In this context. Because too focus. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. . Fortunately. out of sight. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Watson. Setting: Cathedral crypts . he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Fortunately. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Expressive states what the speaker feels. comes on the perfect time to save him. Holmes says. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.

Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. So he decides to give it. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. (Film script page 6) Since three months. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition.night . He fights his opponent. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. and hands him the newspaper. In this story. talks to him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). Holmes has no case to be solved.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. Expressive states what the speaker feels. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. In the middle of the match. Therefore. ³Thank You´. as a partner and close friend. Setting: Holmes¶ room . McMurdo.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Holmes has no case to be solved. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. In that utterance.

Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. but in the middle. Congratulations. You won. You won. Therefore. We¶re done. . We¶re done. . On the table next to him. he can fight very well. ³That¶s it. playing scale on his violin. . McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . He fights his opponent. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. McMurdo. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. . The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Based on those utterances. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). In the beginning of the match. Congratulations´. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. big man . big man . he decides to end the match by saying.

He asks Holmes. : So glad you can accept my invitation. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). In the prison.71 Holmes: Excellent question. Individually. playing scale on his violin. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. Watson. Then Holmes answers. who looks at that. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. He just wants to respect it. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. In those utterances. exactly in . ³Excellent question. Expressive states what the speaker feels. I¶ve been at it for six hours. listens and gets closer to him. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. Individually. strolls. ³How did you lure them in?´. In his experiment. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody.

He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. He says to Blackwood. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. they hope. they can get the address of the watch owner. By looking for that store. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. he does not know and understand about that.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Watson predicts the . Setting: London Street . even though. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. Holmes:Very good. According to that utterance. hence the scratches. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. his hand slipped. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Watson. Every time he wound the watch.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising).

Watson. ³Very good. Nine Elms. his hand slipped. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Well done. Setting: Holmes¶ house . That should lead us right to Blackwood.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. hence the scratches. in his house. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. He is proud of him about that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Watson. In those utterances. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. According to those feature. A factory by the river. He tries to identify where the man comes from. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. Holmes says. He identifies some features on that body. Expressive states what the speaker feels. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from.

He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. Setting: Holmes¶ attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. including the address. Nevertheless. with us. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. I took the shrapnel out myself. A factory by the river. Finally. they get Holmes still fall asleep. Well done. . Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Nine Elms. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Holmes:Well. Watson: Yes. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Holmes. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. he assumes that Watson . He says his prediction to Holmes. And when Holmes is awake. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains.74 to the murderer. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. well. In the beginning. Holmes can find that place by saying. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. Sohe can find the place. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .

I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Setting: Holmes¶ house . he decides to take it. And the most important thing is. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. ³Well. In that utterance. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. . He looks like very interested with the new case so. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. . there is a new case from Clarky. In this case. He just can say. well. with us´.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally.

³Case reopened!´. Based on that utterance. He says to Clarky. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. . He will investigate and solve that case immediately. like Blackwood¶s case. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing).

Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . commissive. Arguing(1). Informing(2). 4. Praising(4). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. 5. directive. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Asking(1). Requesting(2). Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Representative Directive Asserting(3). Based on the findings. No. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). 2. expressive. Insisting(2). Telling(1) Commanding(6). Inviting(1). and declaration. Conclusions In this chapter. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. They are representative. In his utterances. Congratulating(1). Ordering(3). Entreating(2). Advising(1) Promising(3). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts.

Then. . Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. normally speaking. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.78 According to the table. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. literal and non-literal. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. because in that movie. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. they have much time together to spend. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. especially when they have cases to be solved. direct and indirect. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework.They are performed. Suggestions In this research. In the directive. the writer suggests: 1. B. John Watson.

79 2. Finally. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. magazine. such as comic. especially illocutionary acts. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. etc. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. especially in illocutionary act. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. .

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