CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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ordering. forcing. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. apologizing. pp. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. implicit or explicit in doing communication. we will get much information unmentioned. op. advising the addressee to shoot her. 9 10 Ibid. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. op. 236-237. predicting. p. arguing. directing. I Dewa Putu Wijana. People have certain purposes. in appropriate circumstances. asking.cit. etc.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. Being conscious or not. . 11 Stephen C. threatening. etc. variously. 20.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze.11 In this research.9 3. (1993). If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. and it can be the act of explaining.cit. promising. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. (1996). Levinson.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. it has the illocutionary force of. one may say of this utterance that. when and where the conversation happen.

Because of that. . on the right time. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. For example in the beginning of the story. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. Watson saves him. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Fortunately. Unpredictable. Watson. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. In this context. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. In this context. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. In that utterance. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry.

in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. B. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Indirectly. Research Question For the analysis. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. because of. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? .6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. Sherlock Holmes. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. the research¶s question is. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. C. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Then.

selecting. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. . Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps.7 D.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. 2. especially by using John R. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. 3. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. good understanding about speech acts. especially for linguists or linguistic students. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. Research Methodology 1. In this research. E. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. especially for illocutionary acts.

Reading entire dialogue on script. . 5. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script.8 1. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. 7. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. 5. 4. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Watching the movie thoroughly. Searching the film and its script. 6. Analyzing data. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Then.For the script. Writing a report of the study. 3. 2. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. Instrument of the Research In this research. 4. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important.

behabitive. Searle (1979) F.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. expositive. Nadar.op.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. (1996).cit. 2-3. the writer will use John R. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´.cit. (2009). 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. you can use language to make promises. Generally. op. locutionary acts. lay bets. p. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. you not only say something. but also warn someone. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. excercitive.X. 47. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. issue warnings. George Yule. Leech (in Nadar.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. (USA: Heinle. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. illocutionary acts. 13 12 9 . pp. etc. An Introduction to Language.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. 2003). and commissive. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. verdictive. and perlocutionary acts. 214. 14 Victoria Fromkin. In this analysis. p.

Generally. semiotics learns about signs. Pengajaran Pragmatik. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. 2011. After Morris. 15 . expressives.16 Searle. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. 2009). A. 30. assertives. John L. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. and declarations. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it.nd.15 For the first time. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Accessed on January 29. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. and linguistics.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. (Bandung: Angkasa. pragmatics. we can do something. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Morris (in Tarigan. http://www.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. p.htm. directives commissives.

20 In pragmatics. when somebody says something.17 According to Yule. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. basically. In this research. requests) that they are performing when they speak. op. p. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. their assumptions.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). speech acts. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). op. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). Levinson. p. their purposes or goals. 18 17 .cit. B. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. Austin says. presupposition. etc. 19 Ibid.cit. All the utterance shows speech acts. and the kinds of actions (for example. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. 6. George Yule (1996).11 meaning´. 4.cit. consist of. there are so many things learned such as deixis.19 Another definition. (1983). The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. Later. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. p. 207. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. he also does something. Speech Acts For the first time. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. op.

p. apologizing. etc. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. not just the utterance which has performative verb. 1994). F. 1962). we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something.22 C. op. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. Austin.For him. the speakers solely do not just utter something. i. and there is a meaning in behind.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. ordering. questioning.X.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). explaining. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts.cit. p. 94. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. thanking. ordering. we do something. Approaches to Discourse. congratulating. Nadar (2009). which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 108. by saying something. warning. 51. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). speech acts is used by Austin. ( Cambridge: Blackwell.L.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. 14. 22 21 . &c. p. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. 23 J. How to Do Things with Words. Thirdly. such as asserting. Second.. p. undertaking. 24 Ibid.e. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication.

(Great Britain: Routledge. (1996). surprising or misleading. p. . this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. 17. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. p. 2009). Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). c. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. C. In details.1. saying.25 According to Wijana (1996). Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. [1] Man has two arms and legs. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. Pragmatics. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. without the inclination to do something. deterring.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. On the example above. locutionary act consists of. such as convincing. Moreover. 78. persuading. a. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. phonic act (producing sounds). b. and even. I Dewa Putu Wijana. 1999).27 For example. and also does not influence the hearer. p. 27 Abdul Chaer.cit. 44. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. op.

op.cit. 18.29 According to Austin. apologizing. etc.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. promising. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 44. promising. and aspect C refers to the meaning. and it can be the act of asserting. Nevertheless. offering. p. p. Wachyu Sandayana.14 certain meaning).cit. Semantic. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. 2007). 14. ordering. threatening. or. p. Therefore.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. or by a wife to her husband.2. asking. threatening. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. 29 28 . C. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. op. op. thanking. Nadar (2009). (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. but also to do something. this act is known as the act of doing something.19. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. etc. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). p. by a teacher to male student at such institutions.31 For example. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding.cit. F.X. 6.

The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. the speaker wants to asking. 33 32 . promising. when and where the conversation happen. C. (2007). loc. Deliberately or not. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. or ordering something. 2005). The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force.3. informing.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. Kushartanti. Thus. this effect is created by the speaker. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes.. 110.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts.32 Through those utterances. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. By using illocutionary force. warning. et al. then that information will be received by the hearer. In other words.cit. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. p. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. etc.

36 Ibid.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 1979). Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive.16 affecting someone. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. John R. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. excercitive. etc. 35 34 . Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. convincing. behabitive. 20. D. Searle. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. op. (New York: Cambridge University Press. For example.cit. In other words. [3] I was very busy yesterday. 8. etc. p. 37 Ibid. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting.36 The most important weakness is simply this. p. p. 1. p. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. 10. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. expositive. and commissive. misleading. such as shocking.

argue. op. p. predict. They express what the speaker wants.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). boast. For example: [4] The earth is flat. suggest. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. claim. In using a directive. Assertive verbs are state. etc. to the truth of the expressed proposition. .Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. D. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). assert.17 Because of those weaknesses. hypothesize. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. command. advice. In the utterance above.2. Directive verbs are order. describe. inform. request. report. According to Yule. the speaker describes that the earth is flat.1. In this example. affirm. pp. the world is actually not flat anymore. 12-20. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). 38 39 Ibid.cit. complain. 53. tell. George Yule (1996). Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts.

entreat. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). For example: [5] Open the door. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). pray. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time.18 recommend. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). beg.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. challenge. Etc. promise. D. permit. They express what the speaker intends. threat. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). For example promise ± request.3. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). etc. dare. In using a commissive. In the utterance above. invite. Commissive verbs are vow. plead. refusal. . the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). defy. James!´. ask. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. offer. pledge.

ministers or religion christening babies. compliment. pain. thank you very much for coming. deplore. blame. disapprove.4. excommunicate. mock.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. normally speaking. bless. Expressive verbs are thank. etc. or sorrow. apologize. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. christen. etc.) . D. In this. approve. name. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. etc. greet. appoint. nominate. In using an expressive. dismiss. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. declare. like.19 D. offenders. joy. welcome.5. praise. pardon. dislike. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. confirm. leave-taking. dignitaries naming ships. In using a declaration. Declaration verbs are resign. congratulate. the speaker changes the world via the words. For example: [7] Sir. condol e. In that utterance. these actions are. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). sentence. cure. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming.

20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´.) action is performed. As institutional rather than personal acts.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. George Yule (1996). For example. p. op. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. . The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. (1983). take a look at the table below. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. etc. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. the judge has complete authority in doing so.106. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). op.cit. 55.cit. Moreover. legal. religious. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social.. In this example. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. p. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness.

as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. According to Mey (in Nadar. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. p. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). . however. 1993:38) context as the surroundings.43 E. Ibid.cit. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. op. E. Therefore. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. p. etc. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. The use of symbol h.2.6.1. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language.21 E. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. gender. will always signify one or more addressees. 13. intimacy level. in the widest sense. Leech refers to addressers and addressees.

pp. In this respect. E. The term goal is more neutral than intention. op. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. . or s¶s intention in uttering it. rather than to the verbal act itself. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation.22 intelligible.cit. E. Nadar. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. (2009). The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics).3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance.4.5. in time. E. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. 44 F. in preference to talking about its intended meaning.X. 3-4.

or sentencetoken. However. but strictly speaking. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. or as a question. late 19 th century. it cannot be a sentence. In this second sense. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. . F. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. identified by their use in a particular situation. In fact.23 For example. might be described as a sentence.) and his partner Dr. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. However. or as a request. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. John Watson (Jude Law) in London.

He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Watson comes running over. Hudson (Geraldine James). Once inside.24 This movie is open with Dr. Turns out. As he taunts Watson. he brings Holmes to the prison.he darts between columns.and finally enters a non-descript building. where a black magic ritual is taking place. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. Holmes continues running down the stairs. until he reaches the basement. and then attacks him. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. named Mrs. Most of the guards are afraid of . but is stopped by Holmes. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. as Blackwood has requested to see him. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. After that. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. Then. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. In the center of the room. located on 221B Baker Street. In that house. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. there is also a housekeeper. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. He is in a tremendous hurry .

there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. and then legally declares him dead.25 getting closer to Blackwood. Holmes and Watson have to face them. He is planning on killing three more people. In the British court. For instance. Fortunately. he is genuinely curious about the situation. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Getting the clues is very hard. There are many people involved. After that. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. they can defeat and chase them away. Watson feels for a pulse. and try to cover and help Blackwood. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. In the other sides. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. He . nevertheless. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. But in fact. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. Holmes will help him. but as a result. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). and there is nothing Holmes can do about it.

26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. 45 IMDb. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. Holmes wants to destroy that device. 2011.imdb. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. Accessed on February 4.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. http://www.html. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. but. 45 . Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. The house of Parliament will be the next site.

Data Description In this part. he can get inside their heads. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. 2. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. As though.1. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. A. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. the writer compiles. classifies. 1. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. a pale. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. Asserting (Sure) 27 .

Setting: Holmes¶ room . you agree? Holmes:No. Holmes. She likes gingered dwarfs. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. So. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Asserting (Agree) 5. But. Holmes:Agreed.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Furthermore. In his cell. 4. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. midget. Informing (found) . Setting: London Street .28 3.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Luke Reordan. I don¶t agree. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. close to Holmes. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it.

Holmes thinks that it is true. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. almost invisible.2. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire.29 which is dead. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Setting: Unknown building . Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page).morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. . Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. 7.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. (Observe) grabbing his collar. . If you still need him. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. 2. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. Holmes: I feel safer already. Irene: Oh dear. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Setting: Attic . (Film script page 62) A. 1. and that¶s my area of expertise.

Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. 5.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Hudson: Tea. Mr. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. give me a problem.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. 4. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. My mind is in a terrible condition. . Asking (Allow) . give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. . Hudson Mrs. Everything is in its proper place. puts the tray before him. Nanny? Mrs. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Holmes: I can¶t but. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Irene: Well. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. consider it a wager that you will.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. agree. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him.

8. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Based on that prediction. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Setting: Grave yard . Therefore. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . admit it! 9. They have already gone from the pawnshop.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. he becomes dirty. Insisting (Admit) . Holmes begins examining the body. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary.31 garbage bin but he lands badly.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. From that place. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. He is a much smaller man than him. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Setting: Pawnbrokers .

Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. bang.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. assembly line ± night. Advising (Save) 13. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Advising (Leave) 12. disappear. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Holmes:Leave now. . (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Setting: Reordan¶s room . (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. .(gun¶s sound) 11. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. moves through a door.32 10. and finds some clues. You¶re good at that. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. antechamber . Holmes inspects it.

These German locks always give me trouble. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. that leads us to the sewers. then save him.morning The Participants: Holmes. Watson. Tanner: Right away. When Holmes fight.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. After Holmes is safe. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. and Irene hear doors slamming outside.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. old boy. take us onto the bridge port side. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. Watson. . boots echoing. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. he cannot handle it. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Setting: Tanner¶s boat .33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. sir. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Setting: Attic . Then. Setting: Sewers . (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. and Irene are in the sewers. hands it to Watson. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Ordering (Follow) 15. Watson. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. 16.

exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Oh my lord. In fact. She cannot pass it. he is still alive. . Watson. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. He looks dead.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . I can¶t feel my cheeks . Please. Setting: Tower bridge . Fare thee well. Watson. (Film script page 78) A. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . . .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. 18. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Indications 1. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. . Then.3.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Holmes tumbles to the ground). I think my legs have fallen . and Mary Holmes: Oh dear.

Consider it done. And certainly not for a price. and scraped. Setting: Tower bridge . But not for you. Refusal (Must) 4. Promising (Won¶t) . Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. bruised. Setting: On the boat . cut. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Promising (Guarantee) 3. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Setting: Hospital room . (Film script page 72) 2. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. I will stop him. Holmes: Well. She cannot pass it. I¶ll tell you everything.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. slaughterhouse. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. His eyes still closed. he is burned. In the hospital.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. Captain Tanner. I must attend to my other patients. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet.

talks to him. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No..night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. playing scale on his violin. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Thanking (Thank you) 4. McMurdo. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. 3. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Congratulations. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. out of sight. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. On the table next to him. You won. Holmes has no case to be solved. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. and hands him the newspaper.36 A. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. We¶re done. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. big man. Praising (Excellent) . In the middle of the match. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. Fortunately. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Indications 1.. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him.4. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies.

but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Setting: Holmes¶ house . 5. Praising (Well done) . in his house. Praising (Very good) 7. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Well done.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Setting: London street . You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Setting: Prison . listens and gets closer to him. hence the scratches. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. strolls. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Watson. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Individually. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Every time he wound the watch. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. A factory by the river. Right. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. his hand slipped. Praising (Love) 6. Holmes: Very good. Nine Elms. Watson.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place.

Setting: Holmes¶ house . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. I took the shrapnel out myself. Holmes. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Holmes: Well.38 8. he decides to take it. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Setting: Holmes¶ attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . (Film script page 62) A. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. with us. well.5. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. . 1. Watson: Yes.

He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Holmes says to Watson. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. When arriving. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy.39 B. to the truth of the expressed proposition. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. In that utterance. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Data Analysis In this part. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison.

As though. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. Based on that utterance. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. As though. It makes Holmes confuse. Considering that reason. he can get inside their heads´ . Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor.40 prepositions are true. he can get inside their heads. Holmes is led by prison guard. because of that. a pale. the guard looks like pale and nervous. to the . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Data 2 Context: In the prison. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. In this context. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. he is better to die than live. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. The guard says. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying.

to the truth of the expressed proposition. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore.41 truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. According to that utterance. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. His . close to Holmes. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. In his cell.He says to Blackwood. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. Without courtesy. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.

42 partner. When Holmes wants to open it. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. you agree? Holmes:No. Midget. ³You¶re obviously not her type. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. I don¶t agree. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. She likes gingered dwarfs. I don¶t agree´. Luke Reordan. So. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Luke Reordan. I don¶t agree´. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. She likes gingered dwarfs. Holmes decides to back home. midget. ³No. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. So. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. In the utterance ³No. Because of that.

He does not . it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. According to those utterances. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. ³Agreed. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. Holmes:Agreed. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. Setting: London Street . They are very curious about that weird thing.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. But. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes says to him. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. At this time. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes. But.

He says. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. After doing that. not make conclusion to solve the case. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. he just can assume. If you still need him. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. ³I found your man. Furthermore. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. The data is very important for him to find the truth.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. . . Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. to the truth of the . He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. if you still need him´. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. Without it. Irene : Oh dear.

(Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. Setting: Attic . She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. she suggests him to work outside the law. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Holmes¶ eyes are open. Because of that. Without courtesy. tonight. Holmes: I feel safer already. Apparently. he sleeps in the attic. and that¶s my area of expertise. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene tells him that police looks for him.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. ³I feel safer already´. And she will help him if he wants to do that. he sees Watson and Irene near him. However.45 expressed proposition. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. to the truth of the expressed proposition.

almost invisible.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Before stopping him. especially for Watson and Irene. grabbing his collar.46 belief that he is safe. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. But suddenly. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. and he wants nobody worry about him. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Holmes saves the woman. Holmes stops him. they have to defeat his followers first. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. In this context. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. After all followers defeated. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Setting: Unknown building . . Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. Holmes holds him and says.

³I can¶t but agree. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. In that utterance. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Holmes says. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. give me a problem. Give me a problem. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . and asks to give him a case. Holmes :I can¶t but. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Holmes wants Watson to . Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes thinks that it is true.47 In the utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). agree. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. give me work!´. My mind is in a terrible condition. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly.

She crosses Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting).morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Data 3 Context: Mrs. Based on the characteristic. give me work´to entreat his partner. Holmes says to Mrs. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Mr. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Nanny´. Setting: Holmes¶ room . she removes an old tray before he goes. He uses . Everything is in its proper place. Hudson. Suddenly. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. ´Don¶t touch that. brings a tray of bread and tea. as per usual. Hudson comes into the room. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Nanny? Mrs.48 give him work. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Then Mrs. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Everything is in its proper place. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. After that. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. In that utterance. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room.and puts it onto the table. puts the tray before him. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Hudson : Tea. Hudson Mrs.

She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. According to that utterance. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. For that reason. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. she gives a large bag of coins for him.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. He wants her to keep it. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. ³Keep your money. Without courtesy. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He will take the case if it can make him curious. consider it a wager that you will. carrying a case. . Immediately. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. Irene : Well. he rejects it and says. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Apparently. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed.

³Allow me to explain´. . Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). In this story. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. Setting: Holmes¶ room . In that utterance.

Nevertheless. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. . he becomes dirty. But for the second jumps. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Therefore.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . he falls into garbage bin. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Through that utterance. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. ³Watson. In that situation. help! Watson!´. he screams.

The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). . In that utterance. ´May I borrow your pen?´. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. but Reordan. Holmes begins examining the body. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Therefore. Holmes begins examining the body.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. In Blackwood¶s grave. In this story. This case becomes something interesting for him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Setting: Grave yard . He says to Lestrade. Lestrade shows the coffin.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. He is a much smaller man than him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Holmes agrees with what palm reader says.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Based on that utterance. He tries to convince him by saying. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). There. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. Based on that prediction. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Data 9 . Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin.

´Give her my best. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. moves through a door. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. From that place. and finds some clues. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. In the other sides. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Holmes inspects it. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering).54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. and the family as well´. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Setting: Reordan¶s room . In that utterance. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying.

Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Apparently. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. He says to Watson. . Together. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. some experiments. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting).55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Watson says to Holmes. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. and something strange in the corner. They find very many chemical materials. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself.

(Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. Irene is too far involved. After entering the room. he immediately takes a wine bottle. Holmes says to Irene. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. bang. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. He tries to find out what she doing is. He does not want something bad happen to her. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . and pours into glasses.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him.56 Holmes:Leave now. antechamber . Watson! : A gift for you. ³Leave now. disappear. You¶re good at that. you¶re good at that´. (Suddenly comes. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. disappear. . In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. opens it. and then disappear) : Bang. In the other sides. Irene walks behind dressing screen. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.

Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. ³Save the bullet. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. There. Holmes:Give us a leg up. exactly in Slaughter house. They try . they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). old boy. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. According to that utterance. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Watson!´.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. These German locks always give me trouble. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.Suddenly. Holmes says to Watson. they try to find and stop him. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house.

boots echoing. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. ³Give us a leg up. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). These German locks always give me a trouble´. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Holmes . old boy. Then. Watson. Setting: Attic . Data 14 Context: Holmes. Watson. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. Before those police approach the attic. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. hands it to Watson. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight.58 to help her but it is very difficult.morning The Participants: Holmes. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Holmes says to Watson. According to those utterances. Minutes later. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Watson.

. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. In that piece of paper. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. then save him. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. Tanner: Right away. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. Because of the situation are dangerous.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . and they must follow it. take us onto the bridge port side. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place.59 hands the paper to Watson and says.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). ³Follow these instruction!´. In that utterance. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. that leads us to the sewers. orders them to arrest Holmes. sir. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. After Holmes is safe.

and Irene are in the sewers. On the boat. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. Setting: Sewers . They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. take us onto the bridge port side. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Data 16 Context: Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. After Holmes is safe. he cannot handle it. Watson and Irene await him. that leads us to the sewers´. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). ³If you would a captain. Watson. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. They see a chemical weapon.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. When Holmes fight. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house).

He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. Setting: Tower Bridge . and Irene have arrived in the sewers. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. In these utterances. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. She cannot pass it.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. He screams to Irene. he gets difficult to handle it. However. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right.61 Holmes. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Fortunately. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Fare thee well. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. she has the gun. Watson. (Film script page 72) .

Then she runs and brings it with her. In this case. there is no way for her to pass. In the tower. Irene still can run and hide or not. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. chasing her to the tower. I think my legs have fallen . so. he is still alive. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. In fact. Holmes is aware about that. Watson. . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. He looks dead. Watson. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Please. Watson: Worse things could happen? . Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. fare thee well´. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. . Oh my lord. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). . In those utterances. . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Knowing Irene¶s situation.

Watson. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Please. . He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. In those utterances. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Oh my lord. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. He says to Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). I can¶t feel my cheeks . In fact. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . . I think my legs have fallen . Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. Then. . ³Oh dear. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. cheeks. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. his crime is totally over. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. But.

of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. In addition. ³Well. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Holmes has no desire to work for money. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. Consider it done. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future.64 Holmes :Well. Consider it done. As great consulting detective. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Holmes says. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. Data 2 . He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. I¶ll stop him´. According to those utterances. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising).

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

his partner. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Fortunately. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. out of sight. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Watson. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Because too focus. comes on the perfect time to save him. Holmes says. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. In that utterance. In this context. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Fortunately.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Expressive states what the speaker feels. . out of sight. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.

Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He fights his opponent. Therefore.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . as a partner and close friend. In this story.night . Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. (Film script page 6) Since three months.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. Holmes has no case to be solved. McMurdo. and hands him the newspaper. In the middle of the match. talks to him. In that utterance. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. ³Thank You´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Holmes has no case to be solved. So he decides to give it.

Based on those utterances. but in the middle. McMurdo. big man . We¶re done. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. We¶re done. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. You won. Congratulations. playing scale on his violin. He fights his opponent. Congratulations´. In the beginning of the match. he can fight very well. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. . big man . . he decides to end the match by saying. ³That¶s it. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. You won. Therefore. . . On the table next to him.

who looks at that. In his experiment. exactly in . playing scale on his violin. Individually. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. He asks Holmes. Individually. In the prison.71 Holmes: Excellent question. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. strolls. : So glad you can accept my invitation. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. ³How did you lure them in?´. Watson. In those utterances. listens and gets closer to him. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. I¶ve been at it for six hours.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. Then Holmes answers. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . ³Excellent question. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). He just wants to respect it. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Expressive states what the speaker feels.

He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. By looking for that store. hence the scratches. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). they hope. Holmes:Very good.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. even though. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Expressive states what the speaker feels. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Watson predicts the . he does not know and understand about that. Watson. According to that utterance. they can get the address of the watch owner. Setting: London Street .72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. his hand slipped. He says to Blackwood. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. Every time he wound the watch. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´.

After hearing Watson¶s predictions.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. He tries to identify where the man comes from. That should lead us right to Blackwood. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. He is proud of him about that.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. Watson. in his house. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. He identifies some features on that body. In those utterances. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. A factory by the river. Nine Elms. Well done. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. ³Very good. his hand slipped. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Setting: Holmes¶ house . he begins getting some clues that can lead them . (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). hence the scratches. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Holmes says. According to those feature. Watson.

Based on Holmes¶ utterances. with us. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Holmes. he sees his partner and Irene near him. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. In the beginning. . Well done. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Holmes can find that place by saying. he assumes that Watson . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). He says his prediction to Holmes. Sohe can find the place. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. I took the shrapnel out myself. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. Nine Elms.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. well.74 to the murderer. including the address. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Holmes:Well. Nevertheless. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. A factory by the river. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Finally. Watson: Yes. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Watson. they get Holmes still fall asleep. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . And when Holmes is awake. Expressive states what the speaker feels.

there is a new case from Clarky. with us´. And the most important thing is. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming).75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. In this case. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. well. Expressive states what the speaker feels. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. ³Well. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. He just can say. . Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. He looks like very interested with the new case so. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . In that utterance. he decides to take it. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner.

³Case reopened!´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. He says to Clarky. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. like Blackwood¶s case. . Based on that utterance.

directive. Inviting(1). Ordering(3). these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Informing(2). No. Representative Directive Asserting(3). expressive. Asking(1). Entreating(2). Requesting(2). Praising(4). commissive. 2. Congratulating(1). 4. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. Conclusions In this chapter. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Refusal(1) Thanking(2). the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Advising(1) Promising(3). Telling(1) Commanding(6). and declaration. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. 5. Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. They are representative. Arguing(1). In his utterances. Insisting(2). Based on the findings.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A.

the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. B. normally speaking. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. Then. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. . they have much time together to spend. because in that movie. especially when they have cases to be solved. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. direct and indirect.78 According to the table. literal and non-literal. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. the writer suggests: 1. In the directive. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. John Watson. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Suggestions In this research.They are performed.

in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. such as comic. magazine. especially illocutionary acts. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. especially in illocutionary act.79 2. . the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. Finally. etc.