CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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op.11 In this research. we will get much information unmentioned.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. in appropriate circumstances. advising the addressee to shoot her. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. etc. it has the illocutionary force of. etc. one may say of this utterance that. threatening.cit. Levinson. directing.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. 236-237. Being conscious or not. (1996). . Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. 11 Stephen C. arguing. 20. predicting.9 3. op. I Dewa Putu Wijana. implicit or explicit in doing communication. (1993). forcing. promising. when and where the conversation happen.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. apologizing. People have certain purposes. 9 10 Ibid. and it can be the act of explaining. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. asking. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. pp. variously. p.cit. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. ordering.

5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. Watson saves him. For example in the beginning of the story. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Unpredictable. Fortunately. Because of that. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. In this context. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. on the right time. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. In this context. . to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. In that utterance. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Watson. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive.

this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Then. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. because of.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. Indirectly. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. the research¶s question is. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. C. B. Research Question For the analysis. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Sherlock Holmes.

Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. Research Methodology 1. good understanding about speech acts. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. especially by using John R. especially for illocutionary acts. selecting. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers.7 D. 3. 2. In this research. E. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. especially for linguists or linguistic students.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. .

4. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. 7. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. 2. . Searching the film and its script.For the script. Instrument of the Research In this research. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. Reading entire dialogue on script. Then. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. Watching the movie thoroughly. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 4. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. 5. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. Writing a report of the study. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. 6. 3. Analyzing data. 5. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.8 1. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly.

Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. issue warnings. etc. but also warn someone.cit. illocutionary acts. Searle (1979) F.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. expositive. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. you can use language to make promises. Leech (in Nadar. (2009). excercitive. pp. Generally. 214. 13 12 9 . Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. lay bets. behabitive. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. you not only say something. 14 Victoria Fromkin. Nadar. 47. p. George Yule. op. locutionary acts.cit.op. 2-3.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. An Introduction to Language. In this analysis. 2003).X. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. and commissive. p. (USA: Heinle. (1996). verdictive. and perlocutionary acts.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. the writer will use John R. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´.

edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. 2011. Pengajaran Pragmatik. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. expressives. A. Accessed on January 29. 2009).16 Searle. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. 15 . Morris (in Tarigan. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. and declarations. 30. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. (Bandung: Angkasa. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Generally. we can do something. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. pragmatics. assertives. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. p.htm. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. http://www. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories.nd. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays.15 For the first time. and linguistics. directives commissives. After Morris. semiotics learns about signs. John L.

Speech Acts For the first time. p. 207. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). op. their assumptions. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. In this research. he also does something. there are so many things learned such as deixis. when somebody says something. presupposition.cit. their purposes or goals.cit. p. (1983). George Yule (1996).19 Another definition. speech acts.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. op. B. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). requests) that they are performing when they speak. All the utterance shows speech acts.cit. consist of. Levinson. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. p. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). basically. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. op. 18 17 . Later. 4. 19 Ibid. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. etc. and the kinds of actions (for example. Austin says. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively.20 In pragmatics.11 meaning´.17 According to Yule. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. 6.

etc. Approaches to Discourse. questioning. 94. and there is a meaning in behind. p. 14. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. explaining. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. ordering. undertaking. p. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. p.e. 1962). we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference.cit. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. Austin.22 C. ordering. not just the utterance which has performative verb. 23 J.L. speech acts is used by Austin. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. Thirdly. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. F.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. 22 21 .12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶).X. How to Do Things with Words.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. apologizing. 1994). the speakers solely do not just utter something. op. 24 Ibid. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. congratulating. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. such as asserting. p. 51. &c. 108. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. we do something. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). warning. Nadar (2009).For him. i. by saying something.. thanking. Second.

[1] Man has two arms and legs. surprising or misleading. (Great Britain: Routledge.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. without the inclination to do something. C.27 For example. and even. 78. 17. 27 Abdul Chaer.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. p. p. persuading. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 44. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. (1996). locutionary act is called the act of saying something. saying. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. 1999). c. op. such as convincing. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. a. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). Moreover. phonic act (producing sounds). the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. On the example above. Pragmatics. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. I Dewa Putu Wijana.1. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. locutionary act consists of. In details. 2009). which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. p. deterring. b. and also does not influence the hearer. .25 According to Wijana (1996).cit.

thanking. F.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. threatening. promising. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen.cit. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something.cit. Semantic. or by a wife to her husband.19. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. p.X. 18. and aspect C refers to the meaning. p. and it can be the act of asserting. Therefore. p. op. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. etc. 6. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. promising. threatening. 2007).14 certain meaning). that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. op. asking. or. p. this act is known as the act of doing something. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). offering.29 According to Austin. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. Wachyu Sandayana. Nadar (2009). C. op. etc.31 For example. 29 28 . ordering. 14. 44.cit. apologizing.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. Nevertheless. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son.2. but also to do something.

This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. promising. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik.32 Through those utterances. In other words. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. when and where the conversation happen. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´.3.cit.. this effect is created by the speaker. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. informing. or ordering something. C. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. Thus. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. loc. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. warning. 33 32 . 110. et al. then that information will be received by the hearer. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. 2005). p. etc. the speaker wants to asking. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. Deliberately or not. By using illocutionary force.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. Kushartanti. (2007).

p. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance.16 affecting someone. D. For example. In other words. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. 35 34 . Searle. 36 Ibid. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. p. (New York: Cambridge University Press. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. and commissive. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised.cit. 1979). 37 Ibid. 20. expositive. 10. John R. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. 1. excercitive. 8. etc. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). convincing. such as shocking. op. [3] I was very busy yesterday.36 The most important weakness is simply this. behabitive. p. etc. p. misleading.

In this example. tell. argue. For example: [4] The earth is flat. According to Yule. pp. affirm. Assertive verbs are state. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. op. inform. boast. Directive verbs are order. George Yule (1996). request. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing).17 Because of those weaknesses.cit.2. D. They express what the speaker wants. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. claim. report. In using a directive. complain. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). . etc. hypothesize. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). assert. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. advice. 53.1.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. predict. the world is actually not flat anymore. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. p. 38 39 Ibid. suggest. 12-20. In the utterance above. describe. command. to the truth of the expressed proposition.

permit. threat. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. ask. James!´. In using a commissive.18 recommend. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). Etc. pray. entreat. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). D.3. dare. etc. They express what the speaker intends. For example promise ± request. promise. For example: [5] Open the door. pledge. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). invite. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). In the utterance above. plead. offer. refusal. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). challenge. beg. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). defy. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). Commissive verbs are vow. .

etc. offenders. etc. leave-taking. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. thank you very much for coming. In using an expressive. compliment. normally speaking. dignitaries naming ships. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. name.4. joy.19 D. etc. bless. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. approve. Declaration verbs are resign. welcome. dismiss. D. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). or sorrow. In this. greet. praise. ministers or religion christening babies. apologize. (Classical examples are judges sentencing.5. blame. In using a declaration. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. pain. excommunicate. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. pardon. congratulate. nominate. sentence. disapprove. the speaker changes the world via the words. these actions are. For example: [7] Sir. In that utterance. like. cure. condol e. confirm. declare. appoint.) . christen. mock.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. dislike. Expressive verbs are thank. deplore.

they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. As institutional rather than personal acts. religious. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). George Yule (1996).106. the judge has complete authority in doing so. (1983). .20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. p. op.) action is performed. Moreover. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker.cit. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear.. legal. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. take a look at the table below. For example. p.cit. etc. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. op. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. In this example. 55.

1993:38) context as the surroundings.43 E. p. . The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. however. will always signify one or more addressees. intimacy level.2. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). Ibid. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). Therefore.1. According to Mey (in Nadar. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. E.cit. op. in the widest sense.6. 13. The use of symbol h. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. p. gender. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. etc. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer.21 E. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s.

op. In this respect.22 intelligible. 44 F. E.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. pp. 3-4.X. or s¶s intention in uttering it. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. . The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. rather than to the verbal act itself. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. E. The term goal is more neutral than intention.cit. E. in time.4. Nadar. (2009).5.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance.

utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. it cannot be a sentence. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. might be described as a sentence. but strictly speaking. However. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. late 19 th century. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. or sentencetoken. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities.) and his partner Dr. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. . However. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. or as a question. In fact. identified by their use in a particular situation. In this second sense.23 For example. F. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. or as a request.

and finally enters a non-descript building. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. named Mrs. Turns out. and then attacks him. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. In that house. He is in a tremendous hurry . Watson comes running over. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Most of the guards are afraid of . He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. he brings Holmes to the prison. Holmes continues running down the stairs. until he reaches the basement. After that. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . Hudson (Geraldine James).he darts between columns. Once inside. as Blackwood has requested to see him. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. In the center of the room. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. but is stopped by Holmes. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Holmes and Watson live together in the house.24 This movie is open with Dr. located on 221B Baker Street. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. Then. As he taunts Watson. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. where a black magic ritual is taking place. there is also a housekeeper.

so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. He is planning on killing three more people. Watson feels for a pulse. There are many people involved. but as a result. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. nevertheless. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). Holmes and Watson have to face them. In the British court. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. Getting the clues is very hard. and then legally declares him dead. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. Holmes will help him. and try to cover and help Blackwood. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four.25 getting closer to Blackwood. Fortunately. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. they can defeat and chase them away. He . Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. But in fact. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. he is genuinely curious about the situation. In the other sides. For instance. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. After that.

com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. Holmes wants to destroy that device. The house of Parliament will be the next site. 2011. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. http://www. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. 45 IMDb.html. 45 . He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move.imdb. but. Accessed on February 4. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device.

Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Asserting (Sure) 27 . Holmes can see guard¶s fear.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. A. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. As though. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Data Description In this part. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. 2. he can get inside their heads. a pale. 1. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. classifies.1. the writer compiles.

Furthermore. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. 4. Informing (found) . (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. In his cell. She likes gingered dwarfs. you agree? Holmes:No. Holmes:Agreed. close to Holmes. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. So.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Holmes. Luke Reordan. I don¶t agree. Asserting (Agree) 5. But.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. midget.28 3. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Setting: London Street .

morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). . He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. If you still need him.2. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. 2. and that¶s my area of expertise. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. Holmes thinks that it is true. . 7. (Film script page 62) A.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Irene: Oh dear. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . 1. Setting: Attic .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. Holmes: I feel safer already. almost invisible. Setting: Unknown building . (Observe) grabbing his collar.29 which is dead.

. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. agree. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Setting: Holmes¶ room . 5. puts the tray before him. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Holmes: I can¶t but.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. consider it a wager that you will. Mr. give me a problem. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. 4. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Asking (Allow) . Hudson: Tea. Everything is in its proper place. . (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Irene: Well. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Hudson Mrs. Nanny? Mrs.

Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Therefore.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. he becomes dirty. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Insisting (Admit) . 8. He is a much smaller man than him. Based on that prediction. They have already gone from the pawnshop.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Holmes begins examining the body. Setting: Grave yard .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. From that place. admit it! 9.31 garbage bin but he lands badly.

You¶re good at that. disappear. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house.32 10. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Advising (Leave) 12. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. moves through a door. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. bang.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. assembly line ± night. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Holmes:Leave now. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Holmes inspects it. antechamber . Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Advising (Save) 13. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you.(gun¶s sound) 11. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. and finds some clues. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. . .

(Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. take us onto the bridge port side. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Holmes:Give us a leg up.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. . Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. 16. Tanner: Right away. After Holmes is safe. When Holmes fight.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. he cannot handle it. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. sir. Ordering (Follow) 15. Setting: Attic . These German locks always give me trouble. Then.morning The Participants: Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. boots echoing. Watson. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. old boy. that leads us to the sewers. and Irene are in the sewers. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Setting: Sewers . he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Watson. then save him. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. hands it to Watson. Watson.

Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. (Film script page 78) A. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. In fact.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . She cannot pass it. he is still alive. . I think my legs have fallen . Watson. Indications 1. . Then. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Please. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. . Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Oh my lord. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. 18. Fare thee well. Watson. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. He looks dead. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down.3. . (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Setting: Tower bridge .34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore.

Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. She cannot pass it. Consider it done. In the hospital. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. slaughterhouse. Holmes: Well. Promising (Won¶t) . he is burned. bruised. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Refusal (Must) 4. And certainly not for a price. His eyes still closed. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Setting: Tower bridge . I will stop him.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. (Film script page 72) 2. I¶ll tell you everything. Setting: Hospital room . But not for you. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. I must attend to my other patients. Setting: On the boat . cut. Promising (Guarantee) 3. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. and scraped. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Fare thee well. Captain Tanner.

Thanking (Thank you) 4. On the table next to him. 3. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Praising (Excellent) . Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. big man. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Congratulations. out of sight. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Indications 1. Holmes has no case to be solved.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Setting: Cathedral crypts .. In the middle of the match. Fortunately. McMurdo. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. You won. We¶re done. talks to him. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room.36 A.4. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. playing scale on his violin. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. and hands him the newspaper..

Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Right. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Individually. listens and gets closer to him. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Nine Elms. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Praising (Well done) . I¶ve been at it for six hours. hence the scratches. in his house. Praising (Very good) 7. Watson. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. his hand slipped.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Setting: Prison .morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. Setting: London street . (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. 5. Well done. strolls. Watson. Holmes: Very good. Every time he wound the watch. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. He tries to identify where the man comes from. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Praising (Love) 6.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. A factory by the river.

Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Holmes: Well. He looks like very interested with the new case so. he decides to take it. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. well. 1. Holmes. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. with us. (Film script page 62) A. I took the shrapnel out myself.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Watson: Yes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. .5. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Setting: Holmes¶ house .38 8. Mary said I had a lousy doctor.

to the truth of the expressed proposition. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy.39 B. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. Holmes says to Watson. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. When arriving. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Data Analysis In this part. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. In that utterance.

Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Data 2 Context: In the prison. to the . Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business.40 prepositions are true. Holmes is led by prison guard. As though. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. In this context. Considering that reason. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. he is better to die than live. Based on that utterance. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. the guard looks like pale and nervous. As though. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. It makes Holmes confuse. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. a pale. he can get inside their heads´ . The guard says. he can get inside their heads. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. because of that. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell.

close to Holmes. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death.He says to Blackwood. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. In his cell. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. His . Without courtesy. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. According to that utterance. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.41 truth of the expressed proposition. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic.

Holmes decides to back home. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. In the utterance ³No. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. So. I don¶t agree. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. you agree? Holmes:No. ³You¶re obviously not her type. When Holmes wants to open it. Luke Reordan. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. She likes gingered dwarfs. Because of that. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. I don¶t agree´. ³No. So. Setting: Holmes¶ room . midget. Luke Reordan. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future.42 partner. She likes gingered dwarfs. Midget. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. I don¶t agree´.

At this time. They are very curious about that weird thing. Holmes:Agreed.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. He does not . it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. Holmes. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. According to those utterances. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). ³Agreed. But. Holmes says to him. Setting: London Street . But. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.

He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. if you still need him´.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. ³I found your man. he just can assume. Furthermore. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Without it. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. If you still need him. to the truth of the . After doing that. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. He says. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. .44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Irene : Oh dear. . He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. The data is very important for him to find the truth. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. not make conclusion to solve the case. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen.

Apparently. to the truth of the expressed proposition. and that¶s my area of expertise. Setting: Attic .45 expressed proposition. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. Holmes: I feel safer already. And she will help him if he wants to do that. he sleeps in the attic. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. ³I feel safer already´. tonight. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. Without courtesy. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . he sees Watson and Irene near him. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. she suggests him to work outside the law. Because of that. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Holmes¶ eyes are open. However. Irene tells him that police looks for him.

Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. Holmes holds him and says. Holmes saves the woman. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. . ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Before stopping him. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. almost invisible. they have to defeat his followers first.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes stops him. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. grabbing his collar. But suddenly. Setting: Unknown building . That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. After all followers defeated. especially for Watson and Irene. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. and he wants nobody worry about him. In this context.46 belief that he is safe.

Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. give me work!´. ³I can¶t but agree. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. agree. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Holmes says. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting).´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Give me a problem. give me a problem. Holmes thinks that it is true. Holmes wants Watson to . and asks to give him a case.47 In the utterance. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . My mind is in a terrible condition. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Holmes :I can¶t but.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one.

In that utterance. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Suddenly. Data 3 Context: Mrs. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. ´Don¶t touch that. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Hudson comes into the room. Everything is in its proper place. she removes an old tray before he goes.and puts it onto the table. puts the tray before him.48 give him work.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Then Mrs. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Based on the characteristic. Nanny? Mrs. Everything is in its proper place. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. as per usual. Hudson Mrs. After that. She crosses Holmes. Holmes says to Mrs. Nanny´. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. He uses . give me work´to entreat his partner. Mr. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Hudson : Tea. brings a tray of bread and tea. Hudson.

Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. Immediately. He wants her to keep it. consider it a wager that you will. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Apparently. Setting: Holmes¶ room . he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. carrying a case. ³Keep your money. Without courtesy. Irene : Well. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. For that reason. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. According to that utterance. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. she gives a large bag of coins for him. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he rejects it and says. He will take the case if it can make him curious. . Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. .50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Setting: Holmes¶ room . (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. . Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. In that utterance. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. In this story. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. ³Allow me to explain´.

Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Nevertheless. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). he screams. .51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. help! Watson!´. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. ³Watson. In that situation. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. Therefore. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Through that utterance. he becomes dirty. But for the second jumps. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. he falls into garbage bin.

In that utterance. ´May I borrow your pen?´. . He is a much smaller man than him. Lestrade shows the coffin. In this story. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. In Blackwood¶s grave. Holmes begins examining the body. but Reordan. Holmes is asked to investigate that case.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). He says to Lestrade. Therefore. This case becomes something interesting for him. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. Holmes begins examining the body. Setting: Grave yard . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson.

He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. There. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. He tries to convince him by saying.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Based on that prediction. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Data 9 . Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. Setting: Pawnbrokers .53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Based on that utterance. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre.

Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes inspects it. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. ´Give her my best. They have already gone from the pawnshop. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. moves through a door.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Setting: Reordan¶s room . and the family as well´. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). In the other sides. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. In that utterance. From that place. and finds some clues.

Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Apparently. He says to Watson. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. some experiments. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. They find very many chemical materials. Together. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. In that utterance. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . and something strange in the corner. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. . Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. Watson says to Holmes. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). disappear. you¶re good at that´. He tries to find out what she doing is. Watson! : A gift for you. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment.56 Holmes:Leave now. disappear. Holmes says to Irene. he immediately takes a wine bottle. bang.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . After entering the room. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). He does not want something bad happen to her. Irene walks behind dressing screen. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. Irene is too far involved. (Suddenly comes. In the other sides. antechamber . and pours into glasses. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. . Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. and then disappear) : Bang. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. You¶re good at that. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. In that utterance. opens it. ³Leave now.

Holmes:Give us a leg up. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Holmes says to Watson. old boy. exactly in Slaughter house. These German locks always give me trouble. There. they try to find and stop him. They try . ³Save the bullet. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. According to that utterance. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. Watson!´. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets.Suddenly. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness.

58 to help her but it is very difficult. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. According to those utterances. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. boots echoing. Watson. Holmes . Data 14 Context: Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Holmes folds up his piece of paper. old boy. Minutes later. These German locks always give me a trouble´. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes. Setting: Attic . Before those police approach the attic. hands it to Watson. Holmes says to Watson. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Watson. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. ³Give us a leg up. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. Then.

take us onto the bridge port side. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Tanner: Right away. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. In that piece of paper. sir. In that utterance. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. that leads us to the sewers. Because of the situation are dangerous. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. .day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. then save him. and they must follow it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . orders them to arrest Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering).59 hands the paper to Watson and says. ³Follow these instruction!´. After Holmes is safe. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel.

On the boat. Setting: Sewers .60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. that leads us to the sewers´. They see a chemical weapon. take us onto the bridge port side. and Irene are in the sewers. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). After Holmes is safe. he cannot handle it. Data 16 Context: Holmes. Watson and Irene await him. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. ³If you would a captain. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. When Holmes fight. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. Watson. (Film script page 72) . Setting: Tower Bridge .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. He screams to Irene. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. In these utterances. Holmes and Watson have to stop it.61 Holmes. However. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She cannot pass it. he gets difficult to handle it. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. Fortunately. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Fare thee well. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. she has the gun.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. there is no way for her to pass.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. . Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Oh my lord. Irene still can run and hide or not. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. He looks dead. Then she runs and brings it with her. I think my legs have fallen . fare thee well´. . Please. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. Watson: Worse things could happen? . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes is aware about that. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. so. I can¶t feel my cheeks . In the tower. Watson. In fact. . Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. he is still alive. . ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. chasing her to the tower. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. In this case. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Watson. Knowing Irene¶s situation. In those utterances. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying.

Holmes is still alive and not suicide. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). In fact. I think my legs have fallen . . He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. . Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters .morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Then. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. cheeks. I can¶t feel my cheeks . and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. But. his crime is totally over. ³Oh dear. Watson. . Oh my lord. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. In those utterances. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Please. . He says to Watson.

According to those utterances. ³Well. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Data 2 . He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Holmes has no desire to work for money. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. I¶ll stop him´. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. Consider it done. Holmes says. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. In addition. Consider it done.64 Holmes :Well. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. As great consulting detective. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Expressive states what the speaker feels. comes on the perfect time to save him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). In that utterance. In this context. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Because too focus. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Fortunately. . Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Holmes says. out of sight. out of sight. Fortunately. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Watson. his partner. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Setting: Cathedral crypts .

Expressive states what the speaker feels. So he decides to give it. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. McMurdo. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. He fights his opponent. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). (Film script page 6) Since three months. Holmes has no case to be solved.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. Setting: Holmes¶ room . exactly after Blackwood¶s case. Therefore. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. In the middle of the match. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. ³Thank You´. as a partner and close friend. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. talks to him.night . Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. In this story. and hands him the newspaper. Holmes has no case to be solved. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . In that utterance. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You.

. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. ³That¶s it. On the table next to him. You won. We¶re done. there is an upside down ³beer stein´.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. big man . He fights his opponent. big man . McMurdo. You won. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. Expressive states what the speaker feels. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. . . . In the beginning of the match. Based on those utterances. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). he decides to end the match by saying. Congratulations. We¶re done. he can fight very well. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. but in the middle. Therefore. playing scale on his violin. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Congratulations´.

playing scale on his violin. In his experiment. exactly in . He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. I¶ve been at it for six hours. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request.71 Holmes: Excellent question. He just wants to respect it. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . Then Holmes answers. Individually. ³How did you lure them in?´. : So glad you can accept my invitation. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. In the prison. In those utterances. Individually. He asks Holmes. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. who looks at that. listens and gets closer to him. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). strolls. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. ³Excellent question.

Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. even though. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. hence the scratches. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. By looking for that store. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). He says to Blackwood. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Every time he wound the watch. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Expressive states what the speaker feels. he does not know and understand about that. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. they can get the address of the watch owner. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. Holmes:Very good. Setting: London Street . According to that utterance. Watson predicts the . Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Watson.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. they hope. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. his hand slipped. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound.

³Very good. He identifies some features on that body. Holmes says. Nine Elms. Well done. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. According to those feature. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. in his house.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. hence the scratches. Setting: Holmes¶ house . his hand slipped. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson. In those utterances. He is proud of him about that. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. A factory by the river. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. He tries to identify where the man comes from. That should lead us right to Blackwood. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Watson.

Finally.74 to the murderer. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Nine Elms. Watson. they get Holmes still fall asleep. In the beginning. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. Expressive states what the speaker feels. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. Holmes:Well. Watson: Yes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising).morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Holmes can find that place by saying. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. Holmes. Nevertheless. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Well done. A factory by the river. he assumes that Watson . Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Based on Holmes¶ utterances. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. he sees his partner and Irene near him. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. I took the shrapnel out myself. Sohe can find the place. . And when Holmes is awake. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. well. He says his prediction to Holmes. with us. including the address.

He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. And the most important thing is. In this case. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. . He just can say. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. he decides to take it. well. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. .75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. In that utterance. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. with us´. there is a new case from Clarky. ³Well.

³Case reopened!´. like Blackwood¶s case. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. . Based on that utterance. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). He says to Clarky.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one.

Requesting(2). Insisting(2). and declaration. They are representative. Asking(1). Entreating(2). 5. Representative Directive Asserting(3). In his utterances. expressive.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Telling(1) Commanding(6). 4. Advising(1) Promising(3). Inviting(1). Conclusions In this chapter. commissive. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). No. Praising(4). Arguing(1). Based on the findings. Informing(2). Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . directive. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. 2. Ordering(3). Congratulating(1). these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script.

direct and indirect. literal and non-literal. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. Then. because in that movie. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. Suggestions In this research. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. In the directive. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition.They are performed. especially when they have cases to be solved. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. . B. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. they have much time together to spend. the writer suggests: 1. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. normally speaking. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. John Watson.78 According to the table.

the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. etc. magazine. especially illocutionary acts.79 2. . especially in illocutionary act. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. such as comic. Finally.

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