CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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it has the illocutionary force of. variously.9 3. implicit or explicit in doing communication. pp. etc. (1993). asking. Levinson. op. or frightening the addressee into shooting her.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. Being conscious or not. 11 Stephen C. p. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. in appropriate circumstances. People have certain purposes. we will get much information unmentioned. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. etc. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. promising.cit. predicting. when and where the conversation happen.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. op. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. advising the addressee to shoot her. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. (1996).10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. I Dewa Putu Wijana.cit. arguing. ordering. 236-237. apologizing. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. threatening. one may say of this utterance that. and it can be the act of explaining. 20. .11 In this research. 9 10 Ibid. directing. forcing.

Fortunately. In that utterance. . [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Watson saves him. In this context. Watson. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. In this context. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Unpredictable. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. on the right time. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. For example in the beginning of the story. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Because of that. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.

this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. B. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Then. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. Research Question For the analysis. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. because of. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. Indirectly. the research¶s question is. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Sherlock Holmes. C. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated.

the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. .and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. selecting. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. Research Methodology 1. E.7 D. 2. especially for illocutionary acts. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. especially by using John R. especially for linguists or linguistic students. good understanding about speech acts. In this research. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. 3.

3. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. 5. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. 4. Watching the movie thoroughly. Searching the film and its script. 5. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Analyzing data. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. 2. Reading entire dialogue on script. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. 6. Writing a report of the study.8 1. Instrument of the Research In this research. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. 7. Then. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts.For the script. . 4.

13 It means that you can use language to do thing. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. etc. Leech (in Nadar. In this analysis. p. (2009). George Yule.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. 14 Victoria Fromkin. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. you not only say something. the writer will use John R.op. An Introduction to Language. op. Nadar. illocutionary acts. 2-3. Searle (1979) F. (1996). Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. lay bets. p. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer.X.cit. issue warnings. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet.cit. excercitive. locutionary acts. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. behabitive. 47. but also warn someone. 2003). 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. 13 12 9 . pp. (USA: Heinle. expositive. Generally. 214. and commissive. you can use language to make promises. verdictive.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. and perlocutionary acts.

Pengajaran Pragmatik. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event.15 For the first time. 2009). directives commissives. 30. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. (Bandung: Angkasa. After Morris.16 Searle. assertives. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Morris (in Tarigan.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. http://www. John L. 15 .nd.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. p. Generally. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. 2011. Accessed on January 29. pragmatics. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics.htm. we can do something. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. and linguistics. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. expressives. A. semiotics learns about signs. and declarations.

Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. Levinson. speech acts. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way.cit.cit. (1983). op. there are so many things learned such as deixis. op. 18 17 . Speech Acts For the first time. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003).20 In pragmatics. p. and the kinds of actions (for example. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. when somebody says something.17 According to Yule. Austin says. 207. their purposes or goals. basically.cit. op.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings.19 Another definition. consist of. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time.11 meaning´. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. requests) that they are performing when they speak. Later. 19 Ibid. their assumptions. All the utterance shows speech acts. p. George Yule (1996). 6. In this research. he also does something. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. etc. B. presupposition. p. 4.

p. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. i. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. Austin. we do something. speech acts is used by Austin.22 C.cit.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. not just the utterance which has performative verb. warning. apologizing.For him. Approaches to Discourse. 1994). 24 Ibid. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. Second. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. questioning. ordering. How to Do Things with Words. such as asserting. congratulating. etc. the speakers solely do not just utter something. by saying something.. undertaking. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. Thirdly.X. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. p. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 23 J.e.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. ordering. p. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. op. and there is a meaning in behind. 108. 1962). p. F. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). 14. explaining. &c. thanking.L. 94. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. 22 21 . 51. Nadar (2009).

a. On the example above. 2009). Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. without the inclination to do something. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 17. Pragmatics.1. deterring. C.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. phonic act (producing sounds). [1] Man has two arms and legs. p. persuading. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. c. 1999). Locutionary Acts According to Austin. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. surprising or misleading. (Great Britain: Routledge. locutionary act consists of. such as convincing.cit. Moreover. 27 Abdul Chaer. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. I Dewa Putu Wijana.25 According to Wijana (1996).(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. . b. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei.27 For example. and even.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. and also does not influence the hearer. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. op. 44. saying. In details. p. 78. (1996). p.

threatening. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. thanking. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. 2007). promising.31 For example.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar.19. etc. or by a wife to her husband.cit. threatening. p. 18. apologizing. p. and aspect C refers to the meaning. 14.29 According to Austin. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). Wachyu Sandayana. asking. 44. 29 28 . Therefore. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. Nadar (2009). op. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). op. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. but also to do something. F. p. Semantic. or. etc. promising. 6. this act is known as the act of doing something. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut.2. ordering.X.cit. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. op.cit. Nevertheless. p.14 certain meaning). C. and it can be the act of asserting. offering.

Deliberately or not. when and where the conversation happen. p.32 Through those utterances. the speaker wants to asking. promising. In other words. then that information will be received by the hearer. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are.. 2005). C. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. 110. loc. informing. or ordering something.3. this effect is created by the speaker. (2007). By using illocutionary force. et al. warning. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. Kushartanti. Thus.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts.cit. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. 33 32 . etc.

op. (New York: Cambridge University Press. expositive. p. 37 Ibid. etc. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. For example. 1979). convincing. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. p. 8. misleading. excercitive. Searle. D. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. p. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. 20.16 affecting someone. and commissive. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. [3] I was very busy yesterday. 1.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). John R. In other words. behabitive.36 The most important weakness is simply this. 35 34 . 36 Ibid.cit. etc. p. 10. such as shocking. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs.

39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). op. boast. argue. pp.cit. claim.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. the world is actually not flat anymore. In using a directive. 12-20. affirm. inform. etc. 53.2. Assertive verbs are state. p. complain. command. hypothesize. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). . describe. In the utterance above. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. predict. For example: [4] The earth is flat. D. to the truth of the expressed proposition. request.1. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. advice.17 Because of those weaknesses. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. In this example.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. Directive verbs are order. They express what the speaker wants. George Yule (1996). report. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). According to Yule. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. assert. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. tell. suggest. 38 39 Ibid.

In the utterance above. For example promise ± request. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. D. For example: [5] Open the door. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). promise. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising).Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. They express what the speaker intends. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). invite. entreat. defy. beg. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker).3. pray. Etc. ask. In using a commissive. permit. pledge. plead. offer. threat. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). James!´. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action).18 recommend. dare. . etc. challenge. Commissive verbs are vow. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. refusal.

christen. welcome. Expressive verbs are thank. thank you very much for coming. congratulate. pardon. Declaration verbs are resign. etc. approve. leave-taking. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. excommunicate. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. appoint. compliment. nominate.) .4. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). (Classical examples are judges sentencing. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. offenders. sentence. these actions are. normally speaking. mock. confirm. deplore. dismiss.5.19 D. cure. disapprove. dignitaries naming ships. In using an expressive. joy. etc. In using a declaration. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. greet. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). or sorrow. name. D. bless. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. etc. pain. praise. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. the speaker changes the world via the words. apologize. declare. ministers or religion christening babies. In this.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. condol e. In that utterance. blame. dislike. like. For example: [7] Sir.

take a look at the table below. the judge has complete authority in doing so. 55.cit. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. In this example.. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). .) action is performed. George Yule (1996). For example. As institutional rather than personal acts. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. legal. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. (1983). the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. op. Moreover. etc. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do.106. p.cit. p.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. op. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. religious.

The use of symbol h. p. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. 13.43 E. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s.21 E.6. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. op. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. gender.2.cit. in the widest sense. . will always signify one or more addressees. etc. p. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. however. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. According to Mey (in Nadar. Ibid.1. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). Therefore. E. intimacy level.

5. (2009).X. or s¶s intention in uttering it. rather than to the verbal act itself. E. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. .cit.4. pp. 3-4. 44 F. op. in time. In this respect. E. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). E. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. The term goal is more neutral than intention. Nadar.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance.22 intelligible. in preference to talking about its intended meaning.

.23 For example. or sentencetoken. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. or as a request. identified by their use in a particular situation. it cannot be a sentence. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. In fact. F. However. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. However. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. might be described as a sentence. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. or as a question. but strictly speaking. late 19 th century. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance.) and his partner Dr. In this second sense. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics.

In that house. In the center of the room. named Mrs. Most of the guards are afraid of . there is also a housekeeper.he darts between columns. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . until he reaches the basement. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. Then. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. He is in a tremendous hurry . As he taunts Watson. he brings Holmes to the prison. After that. where a black magic ritual is taking place. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Holmes continues running down the stairs. but is stopped by Holmes. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. Watson comes running over. Turns out. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Once inside. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. Hudson (Geraldine James). Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot.24 This movie is open with Dr. located on 221B Baker Street.and finally enters a non-descript building. as Blackwood has requested to see him. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. and then attacks him. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court.

asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. He is planning on killing three more people. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. In the other sides. He . After that. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. For instance. nevertheless. he is genuinely curious about the situation. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. and then legally declares him dead. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. Fortunately. But in fact. Holmes will help him. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. In the British court. Holmes and Watson have to face them. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. Watson feels for a pulse. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Getting the clues is very hard. they can defeat and chase them away.25 getting closer to Blackwood. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. but as a result. There are many people involved. and try to cover and help Blackwood. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself.

but. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. The house of Parliament will be the next site. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. Holmes wants to destroy that device. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. 45 . http://www.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move.imdb. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. 2011.html. Accessed on February 4. 45 IMDb.

nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. Data Description In this part. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. A. As though. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. 2. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. a pale. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Asserting (Sure) 27 . Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. 1.1. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. classifies. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. the writer compiles.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. he can get inside their heads.

midget. In his cell. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. you agree? Holmes:No. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Asserting (Agree) 5. So. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. 4. Holmes:Agreed. Setting: London Street . Furthermore. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. close to Holmes. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. But.28 3. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. I don¶t agree. Luke Reordan. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Informing (found) . (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. She likes gingered dwarfs. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Setting: Holmes¶ room .

7. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. . Irene: Oh dear.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. 1. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. (Film script page 62) A. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire.2. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room .29 which is dead. Setting: Attic . and that¶s my area of expertise. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . If you still need him. 2. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. almost invisible. Setting: Unknown building . Holmes: I feel safer already. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. (Observe) grabbing his collar. Holmes thinks that it is true.

30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Nanny? Mrs. Holmes:Don¶t touch that.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. . Everything is in its proper place. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. 4. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. agree. Irene: Well. . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Hudson Mrs. Holmes: I can¶t but.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Asking (Allow) . My mind is in a terrible condition. give me a problem. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. 5. consider it a wager that you will. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Hudson: Tea. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Mr. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. puts the tray before him.

From that place. Insisting (Admit) . Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. admit it! 9. They have already gone from the pawnshop. He is a much smaller man than him. Setting: Grave yard . then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Therefore.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Holmes begins examining the body. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. 8.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. he becomes dirty. Based on that prediction. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address.

Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Holmes inspects it. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. You¶re good at that. Advising (Save) 13.32 10. assembly line ± night. and finds some clues.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. antechamber . Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Advising (Leave) 12. Holmes:Leave now. Setting: Reordan¶s room . . Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. moves through a door. (Suddenly comes.(gun¶s sound) 11. disappear. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. bang.

Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Holmes:Give us a leg up. Then. 16. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Ordering (Follow) 15. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. and Irene are in the sewers. take us onto the bridge port side. Watson. he cannot handle it. When Holmes fight. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Watson. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. . Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. hands it to Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes. After Holmes is safe. These German locks always give me trouble. Watson.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. that leads us to the sewers. old boy. boots echoing. Setting: Sewers . sir. then save him. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Setting: Attic . Tanner: Right away. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him.

Please. . 18.3. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. He looks dead. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Watson. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Watson. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. (Film script page 78) A.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward .34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Oh my lord. I think my legs have fallen . Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Fare thee well. I can¶t feel my cheeks . In fact. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. . . he is still alive.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Setting: Tower bridge . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Indications 1. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Holmes tumbles to the ground). (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. She cannot pass it. Then. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear.

In the hospital. I will stop him.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. And certainly not for a price. Setting: Hospital room . Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Fare thee well. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Holmes: Well. She cannot pass it.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. But not for you. bruised. slaughterhouse.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. (Film script page 72) 2. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. Setting: On the boat . Captain Tanner. I must attend to my other patients. Refusal (Must) 4. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. cut. Setting: Tower bridge . I¶ll tell you everything. Promising (Won¶t) . Consider it done. he is burned. Promising (Guarantee) 3. His eyes still closed. and scraped. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge.

We¶re done. out of sight. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Setting: Cathedral crypts .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Congratulations. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. and hands him the newspaper. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Indications 1. Fortunately. In the middle of the match. Praising (Excellent) . Thanking (Thank you) 4. talks to him. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. McMurdo. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. playing scale on his violin. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. 3. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes has no case to be solved.. On the table next to him.4. You won.. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Setting: Holmes¶ room . McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. big man.36 A. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Setting: Bare boxing fight .

in his house. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Praising (Well done) . Praising (Very good) 7. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. Right. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. listens and gets closer to him. Every time he wound the watch. I¶ve been at it for six hours. 5. Setting: Prison . Setting: London street . He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Watson. Nine Elms. Holmes: Very good. Watson. Praising (Love) 6.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. A factory by the river. strolls. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Well done.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Setting: Holmes¶ house .37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. his hand slipped. He tries to identify where the man comes from. hence the scratches. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Individually.

Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Setting: Holmes¶ house . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. 1. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. He looks like very interested with the new case so. well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. I took the shrapnel out myself. . Holmes. Watson: Yes. Holmes: Well. Mary said I had a lousy doctor.5. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. (Film script page 62) A. with us. he decides to take it. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner.38 8.

Data Analysis In this part. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching.39 B. In that utterance. When arriving. to the truth of the expressed proposition. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes says to Watson. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court.

nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. As though. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Data 2 Context: In the prison. In this context. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. It makes Holmes confuse. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. he can get inside their heads. the guard looks like pale and nervous. a pale. The guard says. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die.40 prepositions are true. Holmes is led by prison guard. he can get inside their heads´ . ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. to the . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting).´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. he is better to die than live. Based on that utterance. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Considering that reason. As though. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. because of that.

Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.He says to Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Without courtesy. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. to the truth of the expressed proposition.41 truth of the expressed proposition. close to Holmes. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. His . According to that utterance. In his cell. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death.

you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. ³You¶re obviously not her type. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Midget. ³No. So. I don¶t agree´.42 partner. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Luke Reordan. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Luke Reordan. I don¶t agree.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. midget. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Because of that. She likes gingered dwarfs. So. you agree? Holmes:No. She likes gingered dwarfs. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Holmes decides to back home. When Holmes wants to open it. I don¶t agree´. In the utterance ³No. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged.

(Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. But. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. Holmes. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. At this time. ³Agreed. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. Holmes says to him. According to those utterances. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Holmes:Agreed. But. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. He does not . They are very curious about that weird thing. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. Setting: London Street .

He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. not make conclusion to solve the case. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He says. After doing that.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Irene : Oh dear. to the truth of the . Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Without it. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. The data is very important for him to find the truth. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. If you still need him. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. if you still need him´. Furthermore. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. . he just can assume. ³I found your man. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .

Holmes¶ eyes are open. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. she suggests him to work outside the law. Without courtesy. However. Irene tells him that police looks for him. Apparently. ³I feel safer already´. Because of that. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. tonight.45 expressed proposition. And she will help him if he wants to do that. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. and that¶s my area of expertise. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. Setting: Attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. he sleeps in the attic. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). he sees Watson and Irene near him. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. to the truth of the expressed proposition. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Holmes: I feel safer already. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling).

In this context.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes stops him. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand.46 belief that he is safe. Holmes holds him and says. almost invisible. Holmes saves the woman. especially for Watson and Irene. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. and he wants nobody worry about him. Before stopping him. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. . That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Setting: Unknown building . Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. After all followers defeated. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. they have to defeat his followers first. grabbing his collar. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. But suddenly.

Holmes :I can¶t but. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. agree.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. In that utterance. Give me a problem. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes wants Watson to . He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood.47 In the utterance. ³I can¶t but agree. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes thinks that it is true.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Holmes says. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. give me a problem. give me work!´. My mind is in a terrible condition. and asks to give him a case. My mind is in a terrible condition.

Then Mrs. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. brings a tray of bread and tea. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. She crosses Holmes. Everything is in its proper place. as per usual. Hudson comes into the room. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. she removes an old tray before he goes. ´Don¶t touch that. Suddenly.48 give him work. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Hudson. Everything is in its proper place. Hudson Mrs. Data 3 Context: Mrs.and puts it onto the table. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Based on the characteristic. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Nanny? Mrs. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. give me work´to entreat his partner. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. In that utterance. Nanny´. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. After that.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson : Tea. He uses . Setting: Holmes¶ room . puts the tray before him. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Holmes says to Mrs. Mr. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem.

She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. Apparently.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Immediately. consider it a wager that you will. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. ³Keep your money. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. Without courtesy. he rejects it and says. . He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. carrying a case. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. He wants her to keep it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Irene : Well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). According to that utterance. she gives a large bag of coins for him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. For that reason. He will take the case if it can make him curious.

Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. In that utterance. ³Allow me to explain´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. . (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. In this story. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. . He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something.

he screams. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Through that utterance. In that situation. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. Nevertheless. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. help! Watson!´. But for the second jumps. ³Watson. he falls into garbage bin.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . he becomes dirty. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. Therefore.

The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). In this story. In Blackwood¶s grave. Holmes begins examining the body. In that utterance. but Reordan. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. ´May I borrow your pen?´. Setting: Grave yard . then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. This case becomes something interesting for him. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Therefore. He says to Lestrade. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Lestrade shows the coffin. He is a much smaller man than him. Holmes begins examining the body.

³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Based on that prediction. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. There. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. Based on that utterance. He tries to convince him by saying. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). Setting: Pawnbrokers . He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. Data 9 . Holmes convinces Watson if it is right.

and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Setting: Reordan¶s room . They have already gone from the pawnshop. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Holmes inspects it. In that utterance. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. and the family as well´. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. In the other sides. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering).Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. ´Give her my best. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. From that place. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. and finds some clues. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. moves through a door.

Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. They find very many chemical materials. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. . Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Watson says to Holmes. some experiments. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . and something strange in the corner. Apparently. In that utterance. Together. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. He says to Watson. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose.

and pours into glasses. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. . antechamber . Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). In the other sides. disappear. he immediately takes a wine bottle. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. Holmes says to Irene. you¶re good at that´. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and then disappear) : Bang. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson! : A gift for you. (Suddenly comes. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. After entering the room.56 Holmes:Leave now. opens it. disappear. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. ³Leave now. You¶re good at that. Irene walks behind dressing screen. Irene is too far involved. In that utterance. He tries to find out what she doing is. bang.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . He does not want something bad happen to her.

The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. old boy.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. Watson!´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). They are also aware that woman is Irene. exactly in Slaughter house. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. ³Save the bullet. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. They try . Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. According to that utterance. These German locks always give me trouble.Suddenly. they try to find and stop him. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Holmes says to Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. There. Holmes:Give us a leg up. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape.

He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. hands it to Watson. Before those police approach the attic. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Then.58 to help her but it is very difficult. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. Holmes says to Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes. Watson. Setting: Attic . and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. ³Give us a leg up. old boy. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. According to those utterances. These German locks always give me a trouble´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Minutes later. Watson. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. Watson. Data 14 Context: Holmes. boots echoing. Holmes . and Irene hear doors slamming outside.

The Lord Coward who has power to control police. Tanner: Right away. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . take us onto the bridge port side.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. that leads us to the sewers. ³Follow these instruction!´. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. In that utterance. In that piece of paper. . Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and they must follow it. After Holmes is safe. Because of the situation are dangerous. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. then save him. orders them to arrest Holmes. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. sir. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building.

Watson and Irene await him. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). take us onto the bridge port side. that leads us to the sewers´. Data 16 Context: Holmes. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Setting: Sewers . kept by Blackwood¶s followers. he cannot handle it. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house).60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. On the boat. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. After Holmes is safe. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. ³If you would a captain. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. They see a chemical weapon. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. and Irene are in the sewers. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Watson. When Holmes fight.

He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. She cannot pass it. In these utterances. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. He screams to Irene. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Fortunately. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s.61 Holmes. However. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he gets difficult to handle it. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. Setting: Tower Bridge . she has the gun. (Film script page 72) . Watson.

. so. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. In the tower. Oh my lord. In those utterances. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. chasing her to the tower.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. . ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. Watson: Worse things could happen? . he is still alive. He looks dead. Watson. . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Holmes is aware about that. Knowing Irene¶s situation. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Irene still can run and hide or not. I can¶t feel my cheeks . . Then she runs and brings it with her. In this case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Watson. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. In fact. I think my legs have fallen . Please. there is no way for her to pass. fare thee well´. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet.

He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. . He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. But.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. Please. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. . . Holmes is still alive and not suicide. In those utterances. I can¶t feel my cheeks . He says to Watson. ³Oh dear.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. his crime is totally over. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. I think my legs have fallen . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Then. cheeks. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. In fact. Oh my lord. Watson. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . .

Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. Holmes says. ³Well. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. Data 2 . He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. Consider it done. Holmes has no desire to work for money. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside.64 Holmes :Well. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. In addition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. Consider it done. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). I¶ll stop him´. As great consulting detective. According to those utterances.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. . he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. In this context. Watson. In that utterance. his partner. out of sight. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Fortunately. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Fortunately. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. comes on the perfect time to save him. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Holmes says. Because too focus. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. out of sight. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking).

Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. So he decides to give it. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). In that utterance. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. and hands him the newspaper. Holmes has no case to be solved. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Therefore. (Film script page 6) Since three months. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . exactly after Blackwood¶s case. In this story. McMurdo.night .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. talks to him. Holmes has no case to be solved. as a partner and close friend. Setting: Holmes¶ room . ³Thank You´. He fights his opponent. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. In the middle of the match. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match.

McMurdo. In the beginning of the match. On the table next to him. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. He fights his opponent. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Congratulations. he decides to end the match by saying. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). playing scale on his violin. We¶re done.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. . there is an upside down ³beer stein´. You won. he can fight very well. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. big man . but in the middle. Based on those utterances. . Therefore. . big man . Congratulations´. ³That¶s it. We¶re done. Expressive states what the speaker feels. You won. .

He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. playing scale on his violin. He just wants to respect it. Then Holmes answers. I¶ve been at it for six hours. : So glad you can accept my invitation. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). exactly in . In those utterances. Individually. He asks Holmes. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. In the prison. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. listens and gets closer to him. Watson.71 Holmes: Excellent question.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. who looks at that. In his experiment. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. ³Excellent question. strolls. Individually. ³How did you lure them in?´.

they hope.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. hence the scratches. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. Setting: London Street . Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. According to that utterance. Watson. Holmes:Very good.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. By looking for that store. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. his hand slipped. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He says to Blackwood. Every time he wound the watch. even though. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. he does not know and understand about that. they can get the address of the watch owner. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Watson predicts the . Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it.

73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. He is proud of him about that. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. hence the scratches. his hand slipped. He identifies some features on that body. According to those feature. ³Very good. Holmes says. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Well done. A factory by the river. Nine Elms. Watson. Watson. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. That should lead us right to Blackwood. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Expressive states what the speaker feels. In those utterances. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. in his house.

Holmes can find that place by saying. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Sohe can find the place. Nine Elms. A factory by the river. Holmes. they get Holmes still fall asleep. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. Nevertheless. Well done. Finally. He says his prediction to Holmes. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. including the address.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). ³Queen side slaughterhouse. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . with us. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.74 to the murderer. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. well. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. . Holmes:Well. he assumes that Watson . he sees his partner and Irene near him. I took the shrapnel out myself. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. Watson. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson: Yes. In the beginning. And when Holmes is awake.

with us´. well. . I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . ³Well. And the most important thing is. Setting: Holmes¶ house . there is a new case from Clarky. he decides to take it. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming).morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. He just can say. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. In this case.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. In that utterance. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. .

He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. . like Blackwood¶s case. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). ³Case reopened!´. Based on that utterance. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. He says to Clarky.

Refusal(1) Thanking(2). No. and declaration.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Asking(1). the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Insisting(2). Inviting(1). Ordering(3). commissive. Conclusions In this chapter. Entreating(2). In his utterances. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Informing(2). 5. Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. expressive. Congratulating(1). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Arguing(1). 4. Based on the findings. Praising(4). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. 2. Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Requesting(2). Advising(1) Promising(3). Telling(1) Commanding(6). Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. Representative Directive Asserting(3). They are representative. directive.

78 According to the table. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. literal and non-literal. they have much time together to spend. normally speaking. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. because in that movie. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. Then. In the directive. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Suggestions In this research. especially when they have cases to be solved. B. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. direct and indirect.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. John Watson. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance.They are performed. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. . the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. the writer suggests: 1.

especially in illocutionary act. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. magazine. such as comic. . especially illocutionary acts. etc. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts.79 2. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. Finally. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects.

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