CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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etc. 20. we will get much information unmentioned. Being conscious or not. arguing. advising the addressee to shoot her. and it can be the act of explaining. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. directing. .For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. ordering. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. variously. one may say of this utterance that. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. pp.cit. People have certain purposes. (1996). it has the illocutionary force of. in appropriate circumstances. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. 236-237. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. etc. p. op. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. 9 10 Ibid. forcing. apologizing. (1993).cit.11 In this research. predicting. Levinson. 11 Stephen C. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. op. when and where the conversation happen. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. threatening. I Dewa Putu Wijana. asking. implicit or explicit in doing communication.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. promising.9 3.

He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Fortunately. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. In this context. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. For example in the beginning of the story. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. Watson. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. Watson saves him. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. In that utterance. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. on the right time. In this context. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. Unpredictable. . Because of that. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim.

the research¶s question is. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. Then. Research Question For the analysis. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Indirectly. because of.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. B. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. C. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. Sherlock Holmes.

selecting. . In this research. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps.7 D. good understanding about speech acts. especially for linguists or linguistic students. especially for illocutionary acts. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. Research Methodology 1. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. E. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. 2. especially by using John R. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. 3. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie.

Writing a report of the study. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. . 3. 4. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script.For the script. 5. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 2. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 6. Instrument of the Research In this research. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. 4.8 1. Analyzing data. Searching the film and its script. 5. Then. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Reading entire dialogue on script. 7. Watching the movie thoroughly.

2-3.cit. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. but also warn someone.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts.op. op. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. Searle (1979) F.cit.X. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. locutionary acts. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. 13 12 9 . (1996). p. the writer will use John R. Leech (in Nadar. you not only say something. 14 Victoria Fromkin. George Yule. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. In this analysis. (2009). expositive. issue warnings. Nadar. lay bets. and commissive. etc. 47. An Introduction to Language. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. 214.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. pp. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. (USA: Heinle. behabitive. excercitive. p. 2003). Generally. illocutionary acts. and perlocutionary acts. you can use language to make promises. verdictive.

Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. assertives. 2011. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. 2009). A.16 Searle. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. (Bandung: Angkasa. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. After Morris. http://www. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. 30. Pengajaran Pragmatik. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics.15 For the first time. Morris (in Tarigan. Accessed on January 29.htm. p. and declarations. pragmatics. semiotics learns about signs. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. directives commissives. and linguistics. John L. 15 .nd. expressives. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. Generally. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. we can do something.

he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). basically.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings.20 In pragmatics. (1983). All the utterance shows speech acts. p. and the kinds of actions (for example. 18 17 . Levinson. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. their assumptions.11 meaning´. op. 207.19 Another definition. there are so many things learned such as deixis. George Yule (1996). 19 Ibid. op. Later. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. requests) that they are performing when they speak.cit. 6. consist of. op.cit. presupposition. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. their purposes or goals. when somebody says something. p. B. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings).cit. 4. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. speech acts. etc. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. In this research. p. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. he also does something. Austin says. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003).17 According to Yule. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. Speech Acts For the first time. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955.

thanking. Austin.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. questioning. Second. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. and there is a meaning in behind. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. i. speech acts is used by Austin. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. How to Do Things with Words. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. undertaking. p. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force.. etc.X. Approaches to Discourse. congratulating. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something.For him. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. 94.22 C. 24 Ibid. 23 J. explaining. ordering. p.L. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. 1962). 108.cit. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. p. op. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication.e.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. by saying something. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. Nadar (2009).21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. 14. 1994). the speakers solely do not just utter something. we do something. p. warning. 51. such as asserting. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. 22 21 . and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). F. &c. ordering. Thirdly. not just the utterance which has performative verb. apologizing.

(1996). C. Moreover. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. b. deterring. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. 17. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei.27 For example. without the inclination to do something. locutionary act consists of.cit. surprising or misleading. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. . and also does not influence the hearer.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. [1] Man has two arms and legs. p. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. c. 2009).1. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. p. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. such as convincing.25 According to Wijana (1996). persuading. 78. In details. (Great Britain: Routledge. Pragmatics. On the example above.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. phonic act (producing sounds). 44. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. p. 27 Abdul Chaer. a. and even. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. op. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. saying. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). I Dewa Putu Wijana. 1999).

threatening.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something.cit. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. offering. promising.29 According to Austin. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. p. Therefore. by a teacher to male student at such institutions.19. but also to do something.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. and it can be the act of asserting. asking. apologizing.X. Semantic. 29 28 . Nadar (2009). (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.14 certain meaning). or.cit. F. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). p. p.cit. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. thanking. op.31 For example. etc. C.2. 14. this act is known as the act of doing something. threatening. 2007). ordering. p. op. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). 44. or by a wife to her husband. promising. etc. 6. 18. op. and aspect C refers to the meaning. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. Wachyu Sandayana. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. Nevertheless.

By using illocutionary force. informing. et al. (2007). (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Kushartanti. p. etc. 2005). The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. C. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication.3. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. loc. In other words. or ordering something.cit. promising. when and where the conversation happen. warning. 33 32 . this effect is created by the speaker.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. Thus. the speaker wants to asking.32 Through those utterances.. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. then that information will be received by the hearer. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. 110. Deliberately or not. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer.

etc. 35 34 . 10. op. 36 Ibid. p. D. p. excercitive. misleading. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that.16 affecting someone. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. 37 Ibid. John R. In other words. 1979). [3] I was very busy yesterday.36 The most important weakness is simply this. p. For example. Searle. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. etc. expositive.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). behabitive. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. p. 20. 1. such as shocking. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer.cit. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. 8. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. (New York: Cambridge University Press. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. and commissive. convincing.

In the utterance above. Directive verbs are order. command. 53. hypothesize. boast.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. request. complain. describe. inform. 38 39 Ibid. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). predict. In using a directive. D. claim. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. For example: [4] The earth is flat. op.cit. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer).17 Because of those weaknesses. p. 12-20. In this example. They express what the speaker wants. George Yule (1996). suggest. the world is actually not flat anymore. . The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. advice. affirm. pp. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. tell. Assertive verbs are state. argue. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. to the truth of the expressed proposition. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). assert.1. etc. report. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. According to Yule.2.

In using a commissive. invite. plead. entreat. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. Commissive verbs are vow. permit.3. ask.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). threat. James!´. refusal. challenge. dare. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). For example: [5] Open the door. They express what the speaker intends. For example promise ± request. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). beg. defy. . etc. promise. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action).18 recommend. pray. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). In the utterance above. D. pledge. offer. Etc.

praise. offenders. D. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. pardon. like.) . mock.5. normally speaking. christen. approve. For example: [7] Sir. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. etc. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. dignitaries naming ships. welcome. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). In using an expressive.4. cure. dislike. compliment. In this. condol e. disapprove. ministers or religion christening babies. Declaration verbs are resign. declare. congratulate. deplore. the speaker changes the world via the words. bless. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. Expressive verbs are thank. joy. In using a declaration. thank you very much for coming. excommunicate. blame. pain.19 D. nominate. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. sentence. greet. or sorrow. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. confirm. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. name. apologize. etc. etc. appoint. these actions are. leave-taking. In that utterance. dismiss.

X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. op. As institutional rather than personal acts. .cit. George Yule (1996).) action is performed. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. legal.. op. etc.cit. take a look at the table below. the judge has complete authority in doing so. p. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. Moreover. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.106. p. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). 55.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. In this example. (1983). Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. For example. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. religious. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do.

pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation.2. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. Therefore. p. Ibid. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion.43 E. in the widest sense. The use of symbol h. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. intimacy level. 13. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983).1. etc. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know.21 E. According to Mey (in Nadar. op.cit. . E. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. gender. p. however. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background.6. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. will always signify one or more addressees.

pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations.cit. . E.5. 3-4.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. (2009).4.X. rather than to the verbal act itself. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation.22 intelligible. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). The term goal is more neutral than intention. op.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. Nadar. 44 F. E. In this respect. or s¶s intention in uttering it. pp. E. in time. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities.

utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. might be described as a sentence. it cannot be a sentence. In this second sense. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. late 19 th century. F. or as a request.23 For example. However. but strictly speaking. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. . or sentencetoken. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. or as a question. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective.) and his partner Dr. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. However. In fact. identified by their use in a particular situation.

and finally enters a non-descript building. Watson comes running over. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Then. As he taunts Watson. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. and then attacks him.he darts between columns. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. Hudson (Geraldine James). He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer.24 This movie is open with Dr. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. After that. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. In the center of the room. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Most of the guards are afraid of . John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. He is in a tremendous hurry . he brings Holmes to the prison. but is stopped by Holmes. as Blackwood has requested to see him. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . Holmes continues running down the stairs. where a black magic ritual is taking place. located on 221B Baker Street. Turns out. named Mrs. until he reaches the basement. In that house. Once inside. there is also a housekeeper.

Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. Watson feels for a pulse. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. There are many people involved. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Holmes will help him. After that.25 getting closer to Blackwood. and then legally declares him dead. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. but as a result. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. He is planning on killing three more people. In the British court. he is genuinely curious about the situation. nevertheless. He . Getting the clues is very hard. For instance. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. Holmes and Watson have to face them. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. But in fact. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). Fortunately. In the other sides. and try to cover and help Blackwood. they can defeat and chase them away.

26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. http://www.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. 45 IMDb. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. 2011. The house of Parliament will be the next site.html. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device.imdb. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. Holmes wants to destroy that device. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. 45 . it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Accessed on February 4. but.

All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. A. Data Description In this part. a pale. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. he can get inside their heads. As though. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. 1.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. 2. Asserting (Sure) 27 . Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. the writer compiles. classifies. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor.1.

Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Luke Reordan. In his cell. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. But. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. midget. She likes gingered dwarfs. 4. you agree? Holmes:No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Holmes:Agreed. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Holmes. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Asserting (Agree) 5. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. Furthermore. Informing (found) . Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. close to Holmes. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. So. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it.28 3. Setting: London Street . I don¶t agree.

Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Holmes thinks that it is true. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. . Irene: Oh dear. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. 2. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. almost invisible. . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). (Observe) grabbing his collar.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Setting: Attic . Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Holmes: I feel safer already. 1.2.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. (Film script page 62) A. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire.29 which is dead. Setting: Unknown building . and that¶s my area of expertise. 7. If you still need him.

Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Irene: Well. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Hudson Mrs. 5. . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Asking (Allow) . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Everything is in its proper place. puts the tray before him. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Holmes: I can¶t but. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. 4. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Nanny? Mrs. My mind is in a terrible condition. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. consider it a wager that you will. Mr. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Hudson: Tea. . Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. agree. give me a problem.

They have already gone from the pawnshop. he becomes dirty. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. admit it! 9. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. 8. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Setting: Pawnbrokers . Based on that prediction. Insisting (Admit) . Therefore. Setting: Grave yard . Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. From that place. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. He is a much smaller man than him. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Holmes begins examining the body. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it.31 garbage bin but he lands badly.

Advising (Leave) 12. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. assembly line ± night. Advising (Save) 13. Setting: Reordan¶s room . disappear. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. . bang. and finds some clues.(gun¶s sound) 11. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Holmes:Leave now. antechamber .32 10. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. Holmes inspects it. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. . moves through a door. You¶re good at that. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse.

old boy. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. 16. boots echoing. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. hands it to Watson. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Watson. Ordering (Follow) 15.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Setting: Sewers . These German locks always give me trouble. Setting: Attic . Holmes folds up his piece of paper. When Holmes fight. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat .33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. take us onto the bridge port side. Watson. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river.morning The Participants: Holmes. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. he cannot handle it. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. and Irene are in the sewers. that leads us to the sewers. Tanner: Right away. . Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. After Holmes is safe. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. sir. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Then. then save him. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes.

The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Then. I think my legs have fallen . (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Setting: Tower bridge . He looks dead.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Watson. She cannot pass it. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous.3. . . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Fare thee well. Oh my lord. . Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Indications 1. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. In fact. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. 18. he is still alive. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . (Film script page 78) A. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Please. Watson. . He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations.

Promising (Won¶t) . (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Setting: Hospital room .35 Lord Coward: Name your price. Setting: Tower bridge . Holmes: Well.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Consider it done. She cannot pass it. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. In the hospital. I must attend to my other patients. and scraped. bruised. Promising (Guarantee) 3. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. cut. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. Captain Tanner. Setting: On the boat . I will stop him. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. he is burned. Refusal (Must) 4. But not for you.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. (Film script page 72) 2. Fare thee well. slaughterhouse. I¶ll tell you everything. His eyes still closed. And certainly not for a price. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now.

Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. and hands him the newspaper. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him.4. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. You won. On the table next to him. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Praising (Excellent) .. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Fortunately. talks to him. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Indications 1. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. out of sight. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. 3. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. big man. Thanking (Thank you) 4. In the middle of the match. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. We¶re done. playing scale on his violin.. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Holmes has no case to be solved. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. McMurdo. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.36 A. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Congratulations. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You.

You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. A factory by the river. Watson. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Praising (Love) 6. his hand slipped. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Praising (Well done) . 5. Individually. in his house. Right. strolls. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Setting: London street . but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. Every time he wound the watch. Nine Elms. hence the scratches. Well done. listens and gets closer to him. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Setting: Prison .morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Watson. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Holmes: Very good. Praising (Very good) 7. I¶ve been at it for six hours.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this.

Holmes. he decides to take it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. with us.5. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . 1. well. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . Holmes: Well. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Setting: Holmes¶ house . I took the shrapnel out myself. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No.38 8. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Watson: Yes. He looks like very interested with the new case so. . (Film script page 62) A. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .

In that utterance. Holmes says to Watson. When arriving. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged.39 B. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Data Analysis In this part. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´.

Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. The guard says. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. he can get inside their heads. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). a pale. It makes Holmes confuse. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. As though. Based on that utterance. In this context. he can get inside their heads´ . to the . Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. Holmes is led by prison guard. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic.40 prepositions are true. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. because of that. Considering that reason. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. the guard looks like pale and nervous. he is better to die than live. Data 2 Context: In the prison. As though.

Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.He says to Blackwood. His . He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. close to Holmes. In his cell. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic.41 truth of the expressed proposition. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. According to that utterance. Without courtesy. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Blackwood is at right side of the bars.

Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Holmes decides to back home.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . you agree? Holmes:No. So. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. So. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. Luke Reordan. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Luke Reordan. When Holmes wants to open it. ³No. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Because of that. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Midget. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. ³You¶re obviously not her type. She likes gingered dwarfs. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. She likes gingered dwarfs. I don¶t agree´. midget. I don¶t agree.42 partner. I don¶t agree´. In the utterance ³No.

He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. They are very curious about that weird thing. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. But. Setting: London Street . He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. At this time. Holmes. Holmes says to him. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes:Agreed. ³Agreed. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. But. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. According to those utterances. He does not .

He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. He says. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. . He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. Without it. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing).44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. not make conclusion to solve the case. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. to the truth of the . he just can assume. Irene : Oh dear. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. if you still need him´. Furthermore. If you still need him. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. After doing that. The data is very important for him to find the truth. ³I found your man.

Apparently. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes¶ eyes are open. and that¶s my area of expertise. Setting: Attic . However. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Irene tells him that police looks for him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). she suggests him to work outside the law. Without courtesy. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. to the truth of the expressed proposition. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . And she will help him if he wants to do that. tonight. Because of that. Holmes: I feel safer already. ³I feel safer already´. he sleeps in the attic. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. he sees Watson and Irene near him. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´.45 expressed proposition.

Holmes stops him. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. and he wants nobody worry about him. grabbing his collar. almost invisible. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye.46 belief that he is safe. Setting: Unknown building . Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. In this context. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. After all followers defeated. Before stopping him. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. . Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. especially for Watson and Irene. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. they have to defeat his followers first.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes saves the woman. But suddenly. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Holmes holds him and says.

Holmes thinks that it is true. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. agree. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes :I can¶t but. ³I can¶t but agree. and asks to give him a case. give me work!´. Holmes says. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Give me a problem.47 In the utterance. Holmes wants Watson to . give me a problem.

Then Mrs. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Hudson. as per usual. give me work´to entreat his partner. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. puts the tray before him. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Hudson Mrs. She crosses Holmes. Nanny? Mrs. Hudson : Tea. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.and puts it onto the table. After that. Everything is in its proper place. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes says to Mrs. ´Don¶t touch that. she removes an old tray before he goes. He uses . Data 3 Context: Mrs. Based on the characteristic. brings a tray of bread and tea. Everything is in its proper place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. In that utterance.48 give him work. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Suddenly. Nanny´. Hudson comes into the room. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Mr. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned.

he rejects it and says. Irene : Well. . consider it a wager that you will. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. she gives a large bag of coins for him. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. Setting: Holmes¶ room .49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. Apparently. ³Keep your money.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. He wants her to keep it. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. carrying a case. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. For that reason. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. According to that utterance. Without courtesy. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. He will take the case if it can make him curious. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Immediately.

caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. . Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. . In that utterance. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. In this story. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Allow me to explain´. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene.

But for the second jumps. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. ³Watson. . Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . he screams. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. In that situation. he falls into garbage bin. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. help! Watson!´. Therefore. Through that utterance. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. he becomes dirty. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Nevertheless.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly.

The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Holmes begins examining the body. ´May I borrow your pen?´. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Holmes is asked to investigate that case.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Lestrade shows the coffin. but Reordan. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. In that utterance. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. In this story. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer).morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. He is a much smaller man than him. In Blackwood¶s grave. This case becomes something interesting for him. . Setting: Grave yard . Holmes begins examining the body. Therefore. He says to Lestrade.

He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Based on that utterance. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Setting: Pawnbrokers . He tries to convince him by saying. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting).53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Based on that prediction. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Data 9 . There. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.

and finds some clues. and the family as well´. moves through a door. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. ´Give her my best. In the other sides. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. From that place.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: Reordan¶s room . In that utterance. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Holmes inspects it. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address.

In that utterance. He says to Watson. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Apparently. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Together. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. and something strange in the corner. some experiments. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. They find very many chemical materials. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Watson says to Holmes. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. . He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house.

. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. and then disappear) : Bang. disappear.56 Holmes:Leave now. Irene walks behind dressing screen. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. In that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). You¶re good at that. He tries to find out what she doing is. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. and pours into glasses. In the other sides. bang.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . ³Leave now. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. (Suddenly comes. opens it. After entering the room. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). He does not want something bad happen to her. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. antechamber . you¶re good at that´. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. he immediately takes a wine bottle. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. Watson! : A gift for you. Irene is too far involved. Holmes says to Irene. disappear.

They try . They are also aware that woman is Irene. There. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. exactly in Slaughter house. Holmes:Give us a leg up. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes says to Watson. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood.Suddenly. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. According to that utterance. Watson!´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. they try to find and stop him. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. old boy. These German locks always give me trouble. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. ³Save the bullet.

and Irene hear doors slamming outside. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. Before those police approach the attic. Minutes later. Holmes says to Watson. hands it to Watson. Holmes . Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path.morning The Participants: Holmes. Watson. According to those utterances. Data 14 Context: Holmes. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. These German locks always give me a trouble´. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Watson. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. boots echoing. old boy. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Watson. Then. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Setting: Attic .58 to help her but it is very difficult. ³Give us a leg up.

Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. sir. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. Because of the situation are dangerous. then save him. In that piece of paper. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. orders them to arrest Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). and they must follow it. . Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. that leads us to the sewers.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. In that utterance. After Holmes is safe. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. take us onto the bridge port side. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. ³Follow these instruction!´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Tanner: Right away.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain.

He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. he cannot handle it. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . take us onto the bridge port side. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. After Holmes is safe. ³If you would a captain. Watson. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Watson and Irene await him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and Irene are in the sewers. Setting: Sewers . kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Data 16 Context: Holmes. They see a chemical weapon. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). When Holmes fight. On the boat. that leads us to the sewers´.

(Film script page 72) . Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. However. he gets difficult to handle it. Fortunately.61 Holmes. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). In these utterances. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Watson. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. She cannot pass it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. He screams to Irene. Setting: Tower Bridge . and Irene have arrived in the sewers. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. she has the gun.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well.

³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. . He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Irene still can run and hide or not. so. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. He looks dead. In this case. Please. In the tower. . Watson. I think my legs have fallen .62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Holmes is aware about that. he is still alive. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Oh my lord. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). . chasing her to the tower. In those utterances. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. In fact. . Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Watson: Worse things could happen? . He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson. there is no way for her to pass. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. fare thee well´. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Then she runs and brings it with her. Knowing Irene¶s situation. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear.

He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. In those utterances. But. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. . Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. Watson. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. . I think my legs have fallen . . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Oh my lord. his crime is totally over. In fact. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. I can¶t feel my cheeks . He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. ³Oh dear. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. cheeks. Please.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! .63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. He says to Watson. Then. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants.

of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Consider it done. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. In addition. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Holmes has no desire to work for money. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price.64 Holmes :Well. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. Consider it done. According to those utterances. ³Well. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. Holmes says. Data 2 . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. As great consulting detective. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. I¶ll stop him´. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

out of sight.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Because too focus. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Fortunately. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. In that utterance.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. In this context. comes on the perfect time to save him. . Holmes says. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. his partner. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. out of sight. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Fortunately. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance.

Setting: Bare boxing-fight . He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Holmes has no case to be solved. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. So he decides to give it. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. he just stays at home and do nothing useful.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. He fights his opponent. talks to him. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). Therefore. Holmes has no case to be solved. In this story. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room.night . Setting: Holmes¶ room . as a partner and close friend. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. In that utterance. In the middle of the match. ³Thank You´. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. and hands him the newspaper. Expressive states what the speaker feels. McMurdo. (Film script page 6) Since three months.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper.

The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. . On the table next to him. . Expressive states what the speaker feels. big man . Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). Therefore. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. but in the middle. . We¶re done. We¶re done. . He fights his opponent. You won. playing scale on his violin.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. he can fight very well. McMurdo. he decides to end the match by saying. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. ³That¶s it. Based on those utterances. big man . In the beginning of the match. Congratulations. Congratulations´. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. You won. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). Then Holmes answers. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Expressive states what the speaker feels. who looks at that.71 Holmes: Excellent question. Watson. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. In the prison. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. He just wants to respect it. Individually. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. Individually. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . strolls. In those utterances. exactly in . feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. In his experiment.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. He asks Holmes. ³Excellent question. playing scale on his violin. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. : So glad you can accept my invitation. listens and gets closer to him. ³How did you lure them in?´.

He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. they can get the address of the watch owner. hence the scratches. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson predicts the . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). He says to Blackwood. Every time he wound the watch. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. his hand slipped. he does not know and understand about that. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. even though. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Setting: London Street . Watson. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. According to that utterance. they hope. By looking for that store. Holmes:Very good. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell.

hence the scratches. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. his hand slipped.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Watson. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. A factory by the river. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). He is proud of him about that. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Setting: Holmes¶ house . According to those feature. in his house. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He tries to identify where the man comes from. ³Very good. That should lead us right to Blackwood. Well done. Nine Elms. Holmes says. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. In those utterances. Watson is actually interested and curious about that.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. He identifies some features on that body.

with us. they get Holmes still fall asleep. Nine Elms. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising).74 to the murderer. He says his prediction to Holmes. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Expressive states what the speaker feels. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Well done. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Sohe can find the place. A factory by the river. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. . well. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . That should lead us right to Blackwood´. And when Holmes is awake. he assumes that Watson . Holmes can find that place by saying. including the address. Finally. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. Watson. In the beginning. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Holmes:Well. Watson: Yes. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. Nevertheless. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. I took the shrapnel out myself. Based on Holmes¶ utterances.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. he decides to take it.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Setting: Holmes¶ house . He just can say. well. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. with us´. He looks like very interested with the new case so. there is a new case from Clarky. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. . ³Well. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. And the most important thing is. In this case. In that utterance. .

He says to Clarky.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. like Blackwood¶s case. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. ³Case reopened!´. Based on that utterance. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes.

Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). 4. expressive. Telling(1) Commanding(6). Conclusions In this chapter. Informing(2). 2. Insisting(2). Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. Representative Directive Asserting(3). Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. Requesting(2). Entreating(2). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Ordering(3). commissive. directive. They are representative. Arguing(1). Praising(4). Based on the findings.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. 5. Congratulating(1). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Asking(1). No. Inviting(1). In his utterances. Advising(1) Promising(3). and declaration.

especially when they have cases to be solved. literal and non-literal. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. John Watson. . so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. direct and indirect. they have much time together to spend. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. normally speaking.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants.78 According to the table. In the directive. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. Suggestions In this research.They are performed. because in that movie. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. Then. B. the writer suggests: 1. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved.

. especially in illocutionary act. Finally. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. magazine. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. especially illocutionary acts. such as comic. etc. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act.79 2. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts.

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