CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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one may say of this utterance that. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. ordering.9 3. etc. Being conscious or not. in appropriate circumstances. op. variously. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. it has the illocutionary force of. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. advising the addressee to shoot her. threatening.cit. etc. 20. we will get much information unmentioned. promising.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. asking. implicit or explicit in doing communication. apologizing. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. Levinson. arguing. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. directing. People have certain purposes. 9 10 Ibid. forcing. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. I Dewa Putu Wijana. when and where the conversation happen. (1993). (1996). op. 11 Stephen C. predicting. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. 236-237. pp.cit.11 In this research. . the people apply pragmatics in their communication.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. and it can be the act of explaining. p.

Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. . It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. Unpredictable. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. In this context. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. Watson saves him. Watson. on the right time. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. In that utterance.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. In this context. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Fortunately. Because of that. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. For example in the beginning of the story. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately.

this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Sherlock Holmes. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. B. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Then. the research¶s question is. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. C. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. Research Question For the analysis. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Indirectly. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. because of. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper.

Research Methodology 1. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. good understanding about speech acts. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. E. especially for illocutionary acts.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts.7 D. 3. In this research. . Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. especially for linguists or linguistic students. especially by using John R. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. selecting. 2. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation.

Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Writing a report of the study.8 1. Searching the film and its script. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 4. Instrument of the Research In this research. Then.For the script. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 4. Reading entire dialogue on script. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. . 3. Analyzing data. 7. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. 5. Watching the movie thoroughly. 6. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. 2. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. 5.

By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet.X. pp. An Introduction to Language. you can use language to make promises.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. In this analysis. the writer will use John R. illocutionary acts.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. issue warnings. (USA: Heinle.cit.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. locutionary acts. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. Generally. but also warn someone. p. lay bets. Nadar. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. (2009). you not only say something. verdictive. 2-3. excercitive. op. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. 47. (1996). Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. and perlocutionary acts. behabitive. and commissive. Leech (in Nadar.op. expositive. 214. Searle (1979) F. George Yule. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. p. 2003). etc. 14 Victoria Fromkin. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning.cit. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. 13 12 9 .

and declarations. directives commissives.htm. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. pragmatics. 15 . 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. assertives. 30.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. Pengajaran Pragmatik. and linguistics. p. A. 2011. semiotics learns about signs. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. expressives. John L. we can do something. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. Generally. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. 2009). Accessed on January 29.nd. Morris (in Tarigan. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter.16 Searle.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. After Morris. http://www. (Bandung: Angkasa.15 For the first time.

Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context.20 In pragmatics. op. 19 Ibid. consist of. Austin says. 207. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. there are so many things learned such as deixis.19 Another definition.cit. 18 17 . a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. p. Speech Acts For the first time. op. 4. p.11 meaning´. and the kinds of actions (for example. speech acts. 6. presupposition. basically. when somebody says something.17 According to Yule.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. Later. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). their assumptions. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). Levinson. he also does something. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. B.cit. op.cit. (1983). the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. p. their purposes or goals. All the utterance shows speech acts. In this research. George Yule (1996). requests) that they are performing when they speak. etc.

24 Ibid. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press.For him. questioning. by saying something. explaining. Thirdly. i. 14. apologizing. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. How to Do Things with Words.e. warning. the speakers solely do not just utter something. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. such as asserting. Austin. Approaches to Discourse.cit. F.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). 1994). utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. 108. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. undertaking. p.L. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. Second. ordering. Nadar (2009). we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. thanking. ordering. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). 94.. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. and there is a meaning in behind.X. p. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. p.22 C. op. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. &c.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. 22 21 . 51. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. etc.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. not just the utterance which has performative verb. 23 J. we do something. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. p. congratulating. 1962). speech acts is used by Austin.

1999). and even. 44. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). surprising or misleading. without the inclination to do something. . deterring. (Great Britain: Routledge. 78. p. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. saying. a. 2009).13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. persuading. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal.cit. Pragmatics. [1] Man has two arms and legs. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. On the example above. p. Moreover. (1996). I Dewa Putu Wijana. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. phonic act (producing sounds). such as convincing. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. locutionary act consists of. p. it can be done without involving the context of utterance.27 For example. b. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense.25 According to Wijana (1996). this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. op. and also does not influence the hearer. Locutionary Acts According to Austin.1. c. 17.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. In details. C. 27 Abdul Chaer.

(Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. etc. Nadar (2009).cit. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. or. but also to do something. 18. 44.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). this act is known as the act of doing something. p. 2007). thanking. op. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. apologizing. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. Semantic. p. ordering. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. and aspect C refers to the meaning. threatening. C. F. p.31 For example. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. asking. threatening. Nevertheless. promising. promising. op.cit.19.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. offering. p.cit. Therefore. 29 28 . 6.29 According to Austin. etc.14 certain meaning). 14. op. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. Wachyu Sandayana. or by a wife to her husband. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding.2.X. and it can be the act of asserting. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son.

This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. 110. the speaker wants to asking. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. In other words.32 Through those utterances. 33 32 . etc. C. warning. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. et al. p. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. informing.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. Thus.3. 2005). Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer.cit. loc.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. By using illocutionary force. promising. when and where the conversation happen. this effect is created by the speaker.. or ordering something. Deliberately or not. Kushartanti. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. (2007). then that information will be received by the hearer.

35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. 37 Ibid. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Searle. In other words. behabitive. misleading. p. convincing.36 The most important weakness is simply this. etc. op.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. For example. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. 1. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. p. and commissive.16 affecting someone. 35 34 . D. 1979). 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. 8.cit. 10. p. p. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. 36 Ibid. etc. such as shocking. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. expositive. excercitive. 20. [3] I was very busy yesterday. John R. (New York: Cambridge University Press. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer.

Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. the world is actually not flat anymore. to the truth of the expressed proposition. hypothesize. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. Directive verbs are order. pp.cit. command. According to Yule. p. In using a directive.17 Because of those weaknesses. In the utterance above. 53. affirm. etc. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing).Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. 38 39 Ibid. assert. In this example. inform. boast. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something.2. For example: [4] The earth is flat. report. suggest. predict. describe. 12-20. op. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). George Yule (1996). Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. advice. D. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. request. They express what the speaker wants. complain. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). Assertive verbs are state. claim. argue. . tell.1.

plead. D. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. In using a commissive. offer.3. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). In the utterance above. dare. pray. invite. For example promise ± request. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. defy. entreat. beg. permit. etc. . the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). For example: [5] Open the door. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). pledge. refusal. Commissive verbs are vow. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising).18 recommend. Etc. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). ask. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action).Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. promise. James!´. challenge. threat. They express what the speaker intends.

appoint. dislike. name. thank you very much for coming. In using an expressive. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. excommunicate. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. these actions are. compliment. disapprove. normally speaking. deplore. In using a declaration. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). praise. Declaration verbs are resign. For example: [7] Sir. congratulate. welcome. condol e. ministers or religion christening babies. etc.19 D. D. dignitaries naming ships. etc. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance.5. confirm. sentence.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. greet. nominate. leave-taking. pardon. offenders. or sorrow. etc. like. christen. approve. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. In this. apologize. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. In that utterance.4. Expressive verbs are thank.) . That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. dismiss. cure. the speaker changes the world via the words. pain. declare. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). joy. blame. mock. bless.

p. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. legal.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. p. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. op. (1983).cit..) action is performed. Moreover. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. the judge has complete authority in doing so. 55. religious. As institutional rather than personal acts. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. In this example. take a look at the table below. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). op. George Yule (1996). etc. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. For example.cit.106. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. .

Leech refers to addressers and addressees. will always signify one or more addressees. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. in the widest sense. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). op.43 E. 13. The use of symbol h. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. According to Mey (in Nadar. Ibid. p. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983).21 E. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. . The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. etc.cit. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s.1. p.2. gender. however. Therefore. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance.6. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. intimacy level. E.

cit.5.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. The term goal is more neutral than intention. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). op. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities.22 intelligible. 44 F. or s¶s intention in uttering it. E.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. 3-4. . in time. In this respect.4. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. rather than to the verbal act itself.X. (2009). because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. E. E. Nadar. pp.

or sentencetoken. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. However. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. it cannot be a sentence. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. However.23 For example. late 19 th century. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. In fact. identified by their use in a particular situation. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. or as a question. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. . and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer.) and his partner Dr. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. F. or as a request. but strictly speaking. might be described as a sentence. In this second sense. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance.

he darts between columns. located on 221B Baker Street. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. In that house. there is also a housekeeper. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). Hudson (Geraldine James). He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent.and finally enters a non-descript building. where a black magic ritual is taking place. Holmes continues running down the stairs. As he taunts Watson. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. and then attacks him. Watson comes running over. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. but is stopped by Holmes. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Once inside. as Blackwood has requested to see him. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. until he reaches the basement.24 This movie is open with Dr. After that. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. named Mrs. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Most of the guards are afraid of . he brings Holmes to the prison. In the center of the room. Then. He is in a tremendous hurry . Turns out.

and try to cover and help Blackwood. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. In the British court. But in fact. Fortunately. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. He is planning on killing three more people.25 getting closer to Blackwood. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. Holmes will help him. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Holmes and Watson have to face them. He . they can defeat and chase them away. Getting the clues is very hard. After that. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. For instance. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. In the other sides. but as a result. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. nevertheless. Watson feels for a pulse. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). and then legally declares him dead. There are many people involved. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. he is genuinely curious about the situation. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes.

He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. The house of Parliament will be the next site. 2011. but. 45 . Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. http://www. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript.html. 45 IMDb. Holmes wants to destroy that device. Accessed on February 4. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish.imdb. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness.

All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. the writer compiles. 1. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. classifies. 2. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. A. As though. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A.1. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. he can get inside their heads. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. a pale. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Asserting (Sure) 27 . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Data Description In this part. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing.

That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes:Agreed. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Asserting (Agree) 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room . trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. I don¶t agree. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. close to Holmes. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. So. Holmes. midget. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Informing (found) .28 3. Furthermore. In his cell.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. you agree? Holmes:No. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. She likes gingered dwarfs. But. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. Luke Reordan. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Setting: London Street . 4.

Holmes: I feel safer already. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. Irene: Oh dear. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Setting: Unknown building . (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . (Film script page 62) A. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). 1. Holmes thinks that it is true.29 which is dead. (Observe) grabbing his collar.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. 7. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So.2. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. . almost invisible. If you still need him. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. Setting: Attic . Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. 2. . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. and that¶s my area of expertise.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson .

Holmes: I can¶t but. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. . (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Setting: Holmes¶ room . . 4. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. 5. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. agree. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. Mr. Asking (Allow) . Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Irene: Well. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Hudson: Tea. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. give me a problem.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Nanny? Mrs. consider it a wager that you will. Setting: Holmes¶ room . My mind is in a terrible condition.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Everything is in its proper place.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. puts the tray before him.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Insisting (Admit) . Setting: Pawnbrokers . he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. 8. Based on that prediction. Holmes begins examining the body.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. admit it! 9. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . he becomes dirty. Setting: Grave yard . He is a much smaller man than him. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. From that place.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. Therefore.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood.

32 10.(gun¶s sound) 11. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. Setting: Reordan¶s room . and finds some clues. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. assembly line ± night. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. antechamber . Holmes inspects it. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. (Suddenly comes. Advising (Leave) 12. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Advising (Save) 13. disappear.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. Holmes:Leave now. . (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. moves through a door. You¶re good at that. . Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. bang.

and Irene are in the sewers. take us onto the bridge port side.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. that leads us to the sewers. When Holmes fight. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. boots echoing. sir. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. hands it to Watson. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. he cannot handle it. Holmes:Give us a leg up. . That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Watson. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. kept by Blackwood¶s followers.morning The Participants: Holmes. Setting: Attic . and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. Ordering (Follow) 15. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Watson. then save him. Then. Tanner: Right away. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. After Holmes is safe. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. These German locks always give me trouble. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. old boy. 16. Setting: Sewers .

Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Oh my lord. he is still alive. Watson. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . I think my legs have fallen . Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. She cannot pass it. 18. Indications 1. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution.3. Please. Setting: Tower bridge . He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. . (Film script page 78) A.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. . (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Fare thee well. I can¶t feel my cheeks . He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. In fact.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. . Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Watson. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. He looks dead.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . Then. . Holmes tumbles to the ground).

he is burned. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. And certainly not for a price. cut. bruised. Refusal (Must) 4. Captain Tanner. slaughterhouse. (Film script page 72) 2. and scraped. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Holmes: Well.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Setting: On the boat . The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. She cannot pass it. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. In the hospital. Consider it done. Promising (Won¶t) . I will stop him. Promising (Guarantee) 3.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. Setting: Tower bridge . But not for you. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. Setting: Hospital room . His eyes still closed. I¶ll tell you everything. Fare thee well. I must attend to my other patients.

Holmes has no case to be solved. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. and hands him the newspaper. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Indications 1. McMurdo. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. On the table next to him. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies.36 A. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. talks to him.. We¶re done. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. 3. You won. big man. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Fortunately.. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Thanking (Thank you) 4. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. In the middle of the match. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. out of sight. Praising (Excellent) . Congratulations. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson.4. Setting: Holmes¶ room . playing scale on his violin. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. there is an upside down ³beer stein´.

What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Right. listens and gets closer to him. Watson. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Setting: Holmes¶ house .37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. A factory by the river. Praising (Love) 6. Watson. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. his hand slipped. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Individually. Praising (Very good) 7. He tries to identify where the man comes from. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. strolls. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. 5. Setting: Prison . Setting: London street .morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Holmes: Very good. Praising (Well done) . in his house. Well done. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. hence the scratches. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Every time he wound the watch. Nine Elms. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore.

(Film script page 62) A.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. with us. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. he decides to take it. well. 1. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Holmes: Well. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. Setting: Holmes¶ house . I took the shrapnel out myself.38 8. Watson: Yes.5. Holmes. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .

³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. Data Analysis In this part.39 B. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. In that utterance. When arriving. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes says to Watson.

Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic.40 prepositions are true. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. Data 2 Context: In the prison. he can get inside their heads´ . Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. because of that. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes is led by prison guard. a pale. It makes Holmes confuse. the guard looks like pale and nervous. Based on that utterance.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. to the . On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. As though. As though. In this context. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. he is better to die than live. The guard says. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. he can get inside their heads. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. Considering that reason.

Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. In his cell. His . trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). close to Holmes. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. to the truth of the expressed proposition. According to that utterance. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself.He says to Blackwood.41 truth of the expressed proposition. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Without courtesy.

midget. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. you agree? Holmes:No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Midget. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. ³You¶re obviously not her type. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Luke Reordan. She likes gingered dwarfs. So. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Because of that. Luke Reordan. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. ³No. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene.42 partner. When Holmes wants to open it. She likes gingered dwarfs. I don¶t agree´. So. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes decides to back home. In the utterance ³No. I don¶t agree. I don¶t agree´.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget.

But. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing).43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. ³Agreed. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. According to those utterances. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. But. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Holmes says to him. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. He does not .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. They are very curious about that weird thing. Holmes. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Setting: London Street . Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. At this time. Holmes:Agreed.

After doing that. to the truth of the . Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . ³I found your man. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. Without it. He says. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. If you still need him. he just can assume. not make conclusion to solve the case. Furthermore. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. . The data is very important for him to find the truth. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. if you still need him´. Irene : Oh dear.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. . Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for.

Irene tells him that police looks for him. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. he sees Watson and Irene near him. she suggests him to work outside the law. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. he sleeps in the attic. Because of that. tonight. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. Holmes: I feel safer already. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. and that¶s my area of expertise.45 expressed proposition. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). And she will help him if he wants to do that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Apparently. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Without courtesy. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Holmes¶ eyes are open. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. ³I feel safer already´.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. However. Setting: Attic . Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb.

In this context.46 belief that he is safe. But suddenly. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Before stopping him. especially for Watson and Irene. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. Holmes stops him. After all followers defeated. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. . grabbing his collar. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes saves the woman. and he wants nobody worry about him. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. almost invisible. Setting: Unknown building . they have to defeat his followers first. Holmes holds him and says.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. and asks to give him a case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. My mind is in a terrible condition. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes thinks that it is true. Holmes :I can¶t but. In that utterance. give me work!´. Holmes wants Watson to . Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. ³I can¶t but agree. agree. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Give me a problem.47 In the utterance. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). give me a problem. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Holmes says.

He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Then Mrs. Everything is in its proper place. as per usual. Hudson comes into the room. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. puts the tray before him. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Based on the characteristic. ´Don¶t touch that. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Hudson. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. He uses . Nanny? Mrs. She crosses Holmes. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Hudson : Tea. In that utterance. Holmes says to Mrs. give me work´to entreat his partner. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Everything is in its proper place. Data 3 Context: Mrs.48 give him work. Hudson Mrs. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Suddenly. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. she removes an old tray before he goes. brings a tray of bread and tea.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Nanny´. After that. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Mr. Setting: Holmes¶ room . He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not.and puts it onto the table.

consider it a wager that you will. he rejects it and says. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. ³Keep your money. He wants her to keep it.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. . she gives a large bag of coins for him. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. Setting: Holmes¶ room .Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. For that reason. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. Apparently. Irene : Well. Without courtesy. He will take the case if it can make him curious. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. carrying a case. Immediately. According to that utterance.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes.

50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. . He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. In that utterance. ³Allow me to explain´. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. . In this story. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Setting: Holmes¶ room . . Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking).

It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. Nevertheless. he falls into garbage bin. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Watson decides to not help him by closing that window.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. help! Watson!´. ³Watson. he screams. . Holmes plans to shadow Irene. But for the second jumps. he becomes dirty. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. In that situation. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Through that utterance. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. Therefore.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself.

´May I borrow your pen?´. . The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Therefore. Lestrade shows the coffin.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. In this story.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). He is a much smaller man than him. In Blackwood¶s grave. Setting: Grave yard . He says to Lestrade. In that utterance. This case becomes something interesting for him. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. but Reordan. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. Holmes begins examining the body.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Setting: Pawnbrokers .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. Based on that prediction. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. He tries to convince him by saying. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. Based on that utterance. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Data 9 . He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. There. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin.

They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. moves through a door. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. From that place. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. In that utterance. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. and finds some clues. ´Give her my best. and the family as well´. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes inspects it. In the other sides.

Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. In that utterance. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. . Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. They find very many chemical materials. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. Watson says to Holmes. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Apparently. He says to Watson. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. Together. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). and something strange in the corner. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. some experiments.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). In the other sides. . They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. he immediately takes a wine bottle. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. antechamber . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. disappear. Irene walks behind dressing screen. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . (Suddenly comes. He tries to find out what she doing is. In that utterance.56 Holmes:Leave now. He does not want something bad happen to her. bang. opens it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and then disappear) : Bang. disappear. ³Leave now. Irene is too far involved. After entering the room. Holmes says to Irene. and pours into glasses.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. You¶re good at that. Watson! : A gift for you. you¶re good at that´.

They try . (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. they try to find and stop him. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Therefore she cannot hang for more time.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. There. They are also aware that woman is Irene. exactly in Slaughter house. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. ³Save the bullet. According to that utterance. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Holmes says to Watson. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. These German locks always give me trouble. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Watson!´.Suddenly. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. old boy.

Before those police approach the attic.morning The Participants: Holmes. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. Data 14 Context: Holmes. old boy. Holmes says to Watson.58 to help her but it is very difficult. Watson. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Watson. Setting: Attic . Holmes . Then. According to those utterances. boots echoing. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. These German locks always give me a trouble´. hands it to Watson. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Watson. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. ³Give us a leg up. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Minutes later. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).

take us onto the bridge port side.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. sir. orders them to arrest Holmes. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In that piece of paper. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). After Holmes is safe. Tanner: Right away. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. that leads us to the sewers. then save him. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Because of the situation are dangerous. ³Follow these instruction!´. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. and they must follow it.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. In that utterance. . Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament.

kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). that leads us to the sewers´. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. Watson. Watson and Irene await him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. On the boat. They see a chemical weapon. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. When Holmes fight. Setting: Sewers . After Holmes is safe.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). he cannot handle it. ³If you would a captain. Data 16 Context: Holmes. and Irene are in the sewers. take us onto the bridge port side. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. (Film script page 72) . Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. he gets difficult to handle it. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).61 Holmes. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Fare thee well. she has the gun. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. Setting: Tower Bridge . they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. She cannot pass it. However. In these utterances. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. He screams to Irene. Watson. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. Fortunately. ³Shoot him! Now please!´.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Watson: Worse things could happen? . In fact. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. . chasing her to the tower. I think my legs have fallen . In this case. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. . He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. I can¶t feel my cheeks . so. . Watson. In those utterances. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Knowing Irene¶s situation.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. he is still alive. In the tower. there is no way for her to pass. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Holmes is aware about that. Watson. Oh my lord. Please. He looks dead. Then she runs and brings it with her. fare thee well´. Irene still can run and hide or not.

He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. Oh my lord. Then. But. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. ³Oh dear. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Please. . . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. . In fact. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. I think my legs have fallen . He says to Watson. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. In those utterances. . cheeks. Watson. his crime is totally over. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! .

of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Consider it done. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. In addition. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. According to those utterances. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). I¶ll stop him´. Holmes has no desire to work for money. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). As great consulting detective. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Holmes says. ³Well. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. Data 2 . Consider it done. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that.64 Holmes :Well.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

In that utterance. Fortunately. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Holmes says. . Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Fortunately. Watson.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. comes on the perfect time to save him. out of sight. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. In this context.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Because too focus. out of sight. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). his partner. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him.

He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. ³Thank You´. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. So he decides to give it. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. Therefore. and hands him the newspaper. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Expressive states what the speaker feels. McMurdo.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes has no case to be solved. In this story. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. He fights his opponent. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. (Film script page 6) Since three months. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Holmes has no case to be solved. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. In the middle of the match. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). talks to him.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months.night . as a partner and close friend. Setting: Holmes¶ room . In that utterance. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says.

but in the middle. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. Congratulations. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Based on those utterances. You won. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. You won. On the table next to him. Therefore. . Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). playing scale on his violin. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. In the beginning of the match. . McMurdo. ³That¶s it. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. We¶re done. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. big man . he decides to end the match by saying. big man . Congratulations´. Expressive states what the speaker feels. . there is an upside down ³beer stein´. he can fight very well. We¶re done. .70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. He fights his opponent.

Individually. listens and gets closer to him. Individually. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.71 Holmes: Excellent question. He asks Holmes. I¶ve been at it for six hours. exactly in . playing scale on his violin. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . In his experiment. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. In those utterances. He just wants to respect it. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. ³How did you lure them in?´. ³Excellent question. In the prison. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. who looks at that. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. Then Holmes answers. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. Watson. : So glad you can accept my invitation. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. Expressive states what the speaker feels. strolls.

Every time he wound the watch. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. Watson.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. Watson predicts the . Setting: London Street . Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. According to that utterance. his hand slipped. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. He says to Blackwood. they can get the address of the watch owner. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. he does not know and understand about that. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. they hope. By looking for that store. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. hence the scratches. even though. Holmes:Very good. Expressive states what the speaker feels.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it.

Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. his hand slipped. A factory by the river. ³Very good.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. After hearing Watson¶s predictions.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). He identifies some features on that body. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. Watson. Watson. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. in his house. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. He is proud of him about that. Nine Elms. Setting: Holmes¶ house . such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. Well done. Holmes says. In those utterances. He tries to identify where the man comes from. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. According to those feature. hence the scratches. That should lead us right to Blackwood. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. he begins getting some clues that can lead them .

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). In the beginning. with us.74 to the murderer. Sohe can find the place. they get Holmes still fall asleep. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Nine Elms. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. He says his prediction to Holmes. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. And when Holmes is awake. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. he assumes that Watson . A factory by the river. including the address. Nevertheless. Holmes:Well. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. . Mary said I had a lousy doctor. well. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Holmes can find that place by saying. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Watson. Holmes. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. Watson: Yes. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Well done. Finally. I took the shrapnel out myself.

he decides to take it. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. with us´. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. well. ³Well. . there is a new case from Clarky. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. In this case. He looks like very interested with the new case so.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Expressive states what the speaker feels. And the most important thing is. He just can say. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. In that utterance. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. . Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel.

He says to Clarky. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. ³Case reopened!´. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). . like Blackwood¶s case. He will investigate and solve that case immediately.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. Based on that utterance. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes.

Insisting(2). 2. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Ordering(3). commissive. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. Based on the findings. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Requesting(2). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Inviting(1). Praising(4). Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. Congratulating(1). directive. Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. 4. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). Informing(2). Conclusions In this chapter. expressive. and declaration. 5. Representative Directive Asserting(3). In his utterances. Asking(1). Telling(1) Commanding(6). No. Entreating(2).CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Advising(1) Promising(3). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. Arguing(1). They are representative.

the writer suggests: 1.They are performed. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. because in that movie. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. B.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. normally speaking. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. especially when they have cases to be solved. John Watson. literal and non-literal. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. Then. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. they have much time together to spend. direct and indirect. Suggestions In this research. . In the directive.78 According to the table. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.

especially in illocutionary act. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. such as comic. etc. magazine. Finally. . The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. especially illocutionary acts. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act.79 2. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts.

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