CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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People have certain purposes. Levinson. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. Being conscious or not.9 3. implicit or explicit in doing communication.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something.cit. variously. asking. when and where the conversation happen. op. forcing.cit. 11 Stephen C. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. 9 10 Ibid. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. apologizing. promising. it has the illocutionary force of. in appropriate circumstances. pp. and it can be the act of explaining. (1996). arguing. 236-237. we will get much information unmentioned. directing. ordering. etc. . op. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. I Dewa Putu Wijana. threatening. p.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. (1993). or frightening the addressee into shooting her. etc. advising the addressee to shoot her. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. predicting.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze.11 In this research. 20. one may say of this utterance that.

on the right time. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Because of that. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. In this context. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. In this context. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. . Holmes is happy after meet Watson. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Watson.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. For example in the beginning of the story. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. Fortunately. Unpredictable.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. In that utterance. Watson saves him. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him.

Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Then. the research¶s question is. B. Indirectly. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Sherlock Holmes. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. because of. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. C. Research Question For the analysis. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive.

the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. good understanding about speech acts. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. Research Methodology 1. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. E. 3. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. especially for illocutionary acts. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script.7 D. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. 2. especially for linguists or linguistic students. . selecting. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. In this research. especially by using John R.

Then. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Searching the film and its script. 3. 7. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 4. 5. 5. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. 2. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Instrument of the Research In this research. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data.For the script. 6. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Analyzing data. . the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. Watching the movie thoroughly.8 1. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. Writing a report of the study. 4. Reading entire dialogue on script.

An Introduction to Language. pp. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. 47. Generally. you can use language to make promises. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. (2009). op. Searle (1979) F. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. In this analysis. 14 Victoria Fromkin. 2003). issue warnings.cit.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning.X. the writer will use John R.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. George Yule. you not only say something. p. excercitive. but also warn someone. expositive. lay bets. locutionary acts.cit. illocutionary acts. 2-3. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. and commissive. Leech (in Nadar. etc. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. 13 12 9 . Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. behabitive.op. and perlocutionary acts.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. p. 214. (USA: Heinle. (1996). Nadar. verdictive.

Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Generally. A. http://www. 2011.16 Searle. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. semiotics learns about signs. Morris (in Tarigan. we can do something. 2009). Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. 30. 15 . directives commissives. (Bandung: Angkasa.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories.htm. assertives. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. and declarations. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. John L. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. After Morris. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. Accessed on January 29. Pengajaran Pragmatik. p. expressives. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. and linguistics.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio.15 For the first time. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics.nd. pragmatics.

19 Another definition. 207. Later. 19 Ibid. their purposes or goals. and the kinds of actions (for example. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. presupposition. All the utterance shows speech acts. there are so many things learned such as deixis. consist of.17 According to Yule. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. 18 17 . Levinson. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings).11 meaning´.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings.cit. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. their assumptions. p. George Yule (1996). basically. when somebody says something. op. requests) that they are performing when they speak. p. op. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. etc. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. B. speech acts. (1983). In this research. op. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. Austin says.20 In pragmatics. p. 4. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). he also does something.cit. Speech Acts For the first time. 6. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003).cit.

not just the utterance which has performative verb. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. ordering.22 C.L. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. explaining. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). p. Second. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. How to Do Things with Words. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense.cit. 14.. Thirdly.e. Nadar (2009).X.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. 51. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. Approaches to Discourse. i. apologizing. the speakers solely do not just utter something. speech acts is used by Austin.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning.For him. we do something. 1994). thanking. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. op. undertaking. 24 Ibid. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. ordering. warning. 22 21 . ( Cambridge: Blackwell. p. 23 J. p. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. Austin. p. questioning. and there is a meaning in behind. F. etc. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. 94. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. &c. by saying something. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). congratulating. 108. such as asserting. 1962). (Great Britain: Oxford University Press.

He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. C. p. and even. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. 1999). On the example above.25 According to Wijana (1996). 78. surprising or misleading. 44. p. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. I Dewa Putu Wijana.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. saying. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. b. persuading. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). 17. p. c. . phonic act (producing sounds).26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. 27 Abdul Chaer. (Great Britain: Routledge. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. In details. Pragmatics. (1996). op. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. and also does not influence the hearer. such as convincing. a. [1] Man has two arms and legs.27 For example. deterring.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal.cit. 2009). without the inclination to do something. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. Moreover.1. locutionary act consists of.

cit. p. this act is known as the act of doing something. 2007). Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. asking.X. and aspect C refers to the meaning. F. but also to do something. p.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). p. C. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen.19.29 According to Austin. 6. apologizing. op. etc. op. p. 44. ordering.cit. threatening.cit. or by a wife to her husband. op. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. promising. offering. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. threatening. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. Nadar (2009).31 For example. 14. 29 28 .2. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). promising. or. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. and it can be the act of asserting. etc. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. Therefore. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. 18. Nevertheless. thanking. Wachyu Sandayana.14 certain meaning). Semantic.

loc. then that information will be received by the hearer. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik.32 Through those utterances. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. warning. (2007). Deliberately or not. promising.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. the speaker wants to asking. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´.. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. p. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana.cit.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. informing. Kushartanti. 2005).3. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. when and where the conversation happen. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. 110. 33 32 . By using illocutionary force. et al. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. etc. C. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. In other words. or ordering something. Thus. this effect is created by the speaker.

cit. convincing.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. 37 Ibid. p. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. p. and commissive. 1. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. 1979). 20. 36 Ibid.36 The most important weakness is simply this. op. etc. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. [3] I was very busy yesterday. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised.16 affecting someone. behabitive. expositive. (New York: Cambridge University Press. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. p. such as shocking. 8. 35 34 . If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. misleading. excercitive. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. 10. In other words. D. For example. etc. John R. Searle. p.

53. 38 39 Ibid.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. command. . to the truth of the expressed proposition. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. affirm. hypothesize. In this example. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not.1. assert. Assertive verbs are state. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. 12-20. D. George Yule (1996). argue. In the utterance above. op.17 Because of those weaknesses. tell. boast. the world is actually not flat anymore.cit. For example: [4] The earth is flat. suggest. advice. In using a directive. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). p. inform. They express what the speaker wants.2. describe. request. claim. predict. pp. According to Yule. complain. Directive verbs are order. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. report. etc. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief).

The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). In the utterance above. beg. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. For example: [5] Open the door.3. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). dare.18 recommend. invite. refusal. Commissive verbs are vow. Etc. entreat. offer.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. pledge. James!´. They express what the speaker intends. . For example promise ± request. ask. challenge. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). permit. defy. threat. promise. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). plead. etc. In using a commissive. D. pray.

mock. apologize. bless. In this. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. like. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. approve. name. pardon. disapprove. sentence. congratulate. praise. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. declare. dismiss. For example: [7] Sir. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. these actions are. blame. Declaration verbs are resign. christen. thank you very much for coming. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. condol e. excommunicate. compliment. D. In using an expressive. etc. dislike. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. ministers or religion christening babies. etc.4. In using a declaration. appoint. etc. welcome. dignitaries naming ships. joy. the speaker changes the world via the words. greet. offenders. deplore. Expressive verbs are thank. pain.5. normally speaking. cure. leave-taking. or sorrow. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks.19 D. nominate.) . confirm.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. In that utterance.

p. In this example. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness.cit. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. As institutional rather than personal acts. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. George Yule (1996). 55. the judge has complete authority in doing so. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. etc.) action is performed. legal. p. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. religious. (1983). politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. op. take a look at the table below.. For example.106.cit. . although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. op. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). Moreover.

intimacy level. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer.21 E. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). The use of symbol h. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. Ibid.2. . gender. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. E.1.cit.43 E. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. in the widest sense. p. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. etc. Therefore. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. op. however. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion.6. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. 13. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). Leech refers to addressers and addressees. p. According to Mey (in Nadar. will always signify one or more addressees.

22 intelligible. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. in time.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics).cit. pp. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar.5. 44 F. . 3-4. rather than to the verbal act itself.4. Nadar. E.X. or s¶s intention in uttering it.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. E. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. The term goal is more neutral than intention. E. In this respect. (2009). but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. op.

or as a request. or sentencetoken. In this second sense. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. F. . we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. might be described as a sentence. However. late 19 th century. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. However. it cannot be a sentence. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. but strictly speaking.23 For example. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. In fact. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system.) and his partner Dr. or as a question. identified by their use in a particular situation. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation.

He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. but is stopped by Holmes. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. In the center of the room. Then.24 This movie is open with Dr. as Blackwood has requested to see him. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. Most of the guards are afraid of . The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. In that house. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Watson comes running over. he brings Holmes to the prison. Holmes continues running down the stairs. As he taunts Watson.he darts between columns. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. After that. He is in a tremendous hurry . until he reaches the basement. where a black magic ritual is taking place. located on 221B Baker Street. and then attacks him. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Hudson (Geraldine James).and finally enters a non-descript building. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. named Mrs. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . there is also a housekeeper. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Once inside. Turns out.

He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. Getting the clues is very hard. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. he is genuinely curious about the situation. He . Fortunately. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Watson feels for a pulse. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. Holmes will help him. Holmes and Watson have to face them. There are many people involved. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. nevertheless. but as a result. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. But in fact. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. For instance. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. and then legally declares him dead. After that. In the other sides. In the British court. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. they can defeat and chase them away. He is planning on killing three more people. and try to cover and help Blackwood.25 getting closer to Blackwood.

He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. Accessed on February 4. Holmes wants to destroy that device. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. but.imdb. 2011. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. The house of Parliament will be the next site.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. 45 . Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. http://www. 45 IMDb.html.

and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. A. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. 2. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Data Description In this part. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. Asserting (Sure) 27 . Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. As though. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. he can get inside their heads. 1. classifies. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. a pale.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. the writer compiles.1. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor.

Setting: London Street . 4. Furthermore. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. In his cell. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data.28 3. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Asserting (Agree) 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room . That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. But. Informing (found) . close to Holmes. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. you agree? Holmes:No. Holmes:Agreed. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. She likes gingered dwarfs. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. midget. I don¶t agree. Luke Reordan. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. So. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget.

Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.2. almost invisible. Setting: Unknown building .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes: I feel safer already. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand.29 which is dead. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). 7. (Film script page 62) A. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. If you still need him. Setting: Attic . Irene: Oh dear. (Observe) grabbing his collar. Holmes thinks that it is true. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . and that¶s my area of expertise.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. 2. . The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. 1. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man.

Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. give me a problem. Mr. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. consider it a wager that you will. Asking (Allow) . Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Everything is in its proper place. Hudson Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. My mind is in a terrible condition.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Nanny? Mrs. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. 5. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. agree. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. Irene: Well. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Hudson: Tea. puts the tray before him. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. 4. . She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes: I can¶t but. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea.

Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. Setting: Grave yard .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Based on that prediction.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Therefore. Insisting (Admit) . Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Holmes begins examining the body.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. He is a much smaller man than him. he becomes dirty. 8. admit it! 9. From that place.

They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. . Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. (Suddenly comes. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. bang. antechamber . (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Holmes inspects it. disappear. Advising (Leave) 12. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Holmes:Leave now. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. assembly line ± night. and finds some clues. Advising (Save) 13.32 10. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. You¶re good at that.(gun¶s sound) 11. Setting: Reordan¶s room . moves through a door. .

Watson. After Holmes is safe.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. that leads us to the sewers. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. and Irene are in the sewers. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Setting: Sewers . These German locks always give me trouble. When Holmes fight. boots echoing. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. he cannot handle it.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. sir. Then. Watson. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. old boy. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. Ordering (Follow) 15. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. 16. Setting: Attic .morning The Participants: Holmes. take us onto the bridge port side. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. . he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Setting: Tanner¶s boat .day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Watson. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. hands it to Watson. Tanner: Right away. then save him. kept by Blackwood¶s followers.

and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . 18. Holmes tumbles to the ground). He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. In fact. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. He looks dead. Fare thee well. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Indications 1. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. . I think my legs have fallen . (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. . Oh my lord. Then. . Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. (Film script page 78) A.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Setting: Tower bridge . . Watson. Please. he is still alive. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more.3. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. She cannot pass it.

day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Holmes: Well. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. I will stop him. Setting: Hospital room . Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Fare thee well.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. and scraped. Setting: Tower bridge . bruised. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Refusal (Must) 4. But not for you. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. Captain Tanner. he is burned. And certainly not for a price.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. In the hospital. slaughterhouse. (Film script page 72) 2.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. Promising (Won¶t) . Setting: On the boat . I¶ll tell you everything. Consider it done. cut. I must attend to my other patients. She cannot pass it. Promising (Guarantee) 3. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. His eyes still closed.

The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. McMurdo.36 A. In the middle of the match. Setting: Holmes¶ room . there is an upside down ³beer stein´. 3. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Fortunately. and hands him the newspaper. out of sight. On the table next to him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Praising (Excellent) . he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson.. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. big man. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. You won. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him.. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Indications 1.4. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Congratulations. talks to him. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Holmes has no case to be solved. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. We¶re done. Thanking (Thank you) 4. playing scale on his violin. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months.

in his house. hence the scratches.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. Praising (Well done) . I¶ve been at it for six hours. Holmes: Very good. Right. Setting: Prison . Praising (Love) 6. Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ house . listens and gets closer to him.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. A factory by the river.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Nine Elms. his hand slipped. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Well done. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Every time he wound the watch. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Watson. He tries to identify where the man comes from. 5. Individually. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Setting: London street . Praising (Very good) 7. strolls.

well. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Holmes: Well.38 8.5. I took the shrapnel out myself. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. (Film script page 62) A. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Watson: Yes. he decides to take it. 1. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Holmes. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . with us. . He looks like very interested with the new case so.

³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison.39 B. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. to the truth of the expressed proposition. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. Data Analysis In this part. In that utterance. When arriving. Holmes says to Watson. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy.

a pale. As though. In this context. The guard says. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes is led by prison guard. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. Based on that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). he can get inside their heads´ . he is better to die than live. to the . It makes Holmes confuse. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. the guard looks like pale and nervous. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Considering that reason. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor.40 prepositions are true. because of that. he can get inside their heads. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. As though. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. Data 2 Context: In the prison.

Without courtesy. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.He says to Blackwood. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. close to Holmes. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore.41 truth of the expressed proposition. In his cell. According to that utterance. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. His . Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing).

Holmes decides to back home. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. to the truth of the expressed proposition. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Luke Reordan. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Midget. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. When Holmes wants to open it. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. I don¶t agree. midget. ³You¶re obviously not her type.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. I don¶t agree´. So. Setting: Holmes¶ room . I don¶t agree´. She likes gingered dwarfs. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. you agree? Holmes:No. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. So. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Because of that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting).42 partner. She likes gingered dwarfs. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. ³No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. In the utterance ³No. Luke Reordan.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. to the truth of the expressed proposition. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. He does not . They are very curious about that weird thing. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. At this time. Holmes. But. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. According to those utterances. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Holmes says to him. Setting: London Street . But. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). Holmes:Agreed. ³Agreed.

The data is very important for him to find the truth. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. If you still need him. After doing that. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. Without it. not make conclusion to solve the case.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. he just can assume. if you still need him´. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . ³I found your man. He says. Furthermore. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. . He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene : Oh dear. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. to the truth of the . .

Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Because of that. And she will help him if he wants to do that. he sleeps in the attic. ³I feel safer already´.45 expressed proposition. Without courtesy.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Holmes¶ eyes are open. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Holmes: I feel safer already. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. she suggests him to work outside the law. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). tonight. Setting: Attic . and that¶s my area of expertise. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. However. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). he sees Watson and Irene near him. Apparently. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Irene tells him that police looks for him. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. to the truth of the expressed proposition.

. Before stopping him. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. After all followers defeated. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Setting: Unknown building . Holmes holds him and says. grabbing his collar. they have to defeat his followers first. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. Holmes saves the woman. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. especially for Watson and Irene. almost invisible. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. Holmes stops him. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. and he wants nobody worry about him. In this context. But suddenly.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe.46 belief that he is safe.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. In that utterance. give me a problem. and asks to give him a case. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Holmes says. ³I can¶t but agree.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes :I can¶t but.47 In the utterance. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Give me a problem. My mind is in a terrible condition. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. Holmes wants Watson to . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes thinks that it is true.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. agree. give me work!´.

as per usual. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem.and puts it onto the table. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Hudson. He uses . Nanny´. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. She crosses Holmes. Hudson Mrs. Everything is in its proper place. After that. In that utterance. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Data 3 Context: Mrs. Mr. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. she removes an old tray before he goes. puts the tray before him. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes says to Mrs. Hudson comes into the room. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem.48 give him work. Suddenly. Then Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . brings a tray of bread and tea. Everything is in its proper place. ´Don¶t touch that.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson : Tea. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. give me work´to entreat his partner. Based on the characteristic. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Nanny? Mrs.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Immediately. According to that utterance. carrying a case. He will take the case if it can make him curious. she gives a large bag of coins for him. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. Apparently. For that reason. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Irene : Well. he rejects it and says. consider it a wager that you will. ³Keep your money. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. Without courtesy. He wants her to keep it.

. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . In this story. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. ³Allow me to explain´. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. In that utterance. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house.

Through that utterance. Therefore. he falls into garbage bin. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). But for the second jumps. he becomes dirty. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. . Nevertheless. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he screams. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. In that situation. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. help! Watson!´. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. ³Watson. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof.

Holmes begins examining the body.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Lestrade shows the coffin. He is a much smaller man than him. but Reordan. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. In that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). ´May I borrow your pen?´. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). Holmes begins examining the body. He says to Lestrade.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Therefore. This case becomes something interesting for him. In this story. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In Blackwood¶s grave.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. . Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Setting: Grave yard . Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade.

Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. Based on that utterance. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. Based on that prediction. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. There. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). Data 9 . He tries to convince him by saying. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Setting: Pawnbrokers . ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin.

Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. and the family as well´. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Holmes inspects it. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . moves through a door. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). From that place. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. and finds some clues. In the other sides. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. In that utterance. ´Give her my best. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Setting: Reordan¶s room .

Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. . Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . some experiments. In that utterance. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. They find very many chemical materials. He says to Watson. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Watson says to Holmes. Apparently. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Together. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. and something strange in the corner. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

He does not want something bad happen to her. After entering the room. and pours into glasses. ³Leave now. He tries to find out what she doing is. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. and then disappear) : Bang. Holmes says to Irene. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . disappear. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Irene is too far involved. In the other sides.56 Holmes:Leave now. (Suddenly comes. bang. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. opens it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). disappear. In that utterance. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. he immediately takes a wine bottle. You¶re good at that. you¶re good at that´. Irene walks behind dressing screen. . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. antechamber .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson! : A gift for you. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising).

He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Holmes says to Watson. They try . These German locks always give me trouble.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. There. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. According to that utterance. ³Save the bullet.Suddenly. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. They are also aware that woman is Irene. exactly in Slaughter house. Watson!´. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Holmes:Give us a leg up. old boy. they try to find and stop him. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Knowing there is Blackwood in there. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night.

Setting: Attic . Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location.58 to help her but it is very difficult. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). hands it to Watson. Minutes later. Holmes .morning The Participants: Holmes. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. boots echoing. These German locks always give me a trouble´. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. According to those utterances. Holmes says to Watson. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. Watson. Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. ³Give us a leg up. Before those police approach the attic. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Then. Watson. old boy. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Data 14 Context: Holmes. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes.

Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . . orders them to arrest Holmes. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. take us onto the bridge port side. Tanner: Right away. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and they must follow it. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. Because of the situation are dangerous. sir. that leads us to the sewers. The Lord Coward who has power to control police.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. ³Follow these instruction!´. After Holmes is safe. then save him. In that utterance. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. In that piece of paper.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide.

³If you would a captain. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. Setting: Sewers . They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. When Holmes fight. take us onto the bridge port side. Watson. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. On the boat. Watson and Irene await him. he cannot handle it.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . After Holmes is safe. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. They see a chemical weapon. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. that leads us to the sewers´. and Irene are in the sewers. Data 16 Context: Holmes. kept by Blackwood¶s followers.

³Shoot him! Now please!´. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. she has the gun. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. he gets difficult to handle it. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. (Film script page 72) . It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Fortunately. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Holmes and Watson have to stop it.61 Holmes. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. He screams to Irene.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Watson. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. She cannot pass it. In these utterances. Setting: Tower Bridge . He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. Fare thee well. However.

He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. In those utterances. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. . Watson. Then she runs and brings it with her. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. . He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. fare thee well´. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Please. so. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. In the tower. . Oh my lord. Watson. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Knowing Irene¶s situation. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. Holmes is aware about that. In this case. I think my legs have fallen . . Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. I can¶t feel my cheeks .62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. chasing her to the tower. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. he is still alive. In fact. there is no way for her to pass. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Watson: Worse things could happen? . Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. He looks dead. Irene still can run and hide or not.

He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. his crime is totally over. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. cheeks. Please. In fact.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . . Oh my lord. . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Watson. In those utterances. . He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. But. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. He says to Watson. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. I can¶t feel my cheeks . ³Oh dear. I think my legs have fallen . Then.

Holmes has no desire to work for money. Data 2 . of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. As great consulting detective. ³Well. Consider it done. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. I¶ll stop him´.64 Holmes :Well. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). According to those utterances. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. In addition. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. Holmes says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. Consider it done. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Setting: Cathedral crypts . Because too focus. Holmes says. comes on the perfect time to save him.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. In this context. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. out of sight. . out of sight. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Fortunately. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. In that utterance. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Fortunately. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. ³Always nice to see you Watson´.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. his partner. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Watson.

So he decides to give it. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Therefore. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. exactly after Blackwood¶s case.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. (Film script page 6) Since three months. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. ³Thank You´. and hands him the newspaper. McMurdo. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. as a partner and close friend. In that utterance. In the middle of the match. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. Holmes has no case to be solved. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes has no case to be solved. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition.night . He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. talks to him. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . In this story.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. He fights his opponent.

On the table next to him. Expressive states what the speaker feels. . Congratulations. He fights his opponent. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. We¶re done. there is an upside down ³beer stein´.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. but in the middle. We¶re done. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. McMurdo. he can fight very well. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). You won. . he decides to end the match by saying. Therefore. . . In the beginning of the match. big man . playing scale on his violin. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. ³That¶s it. big man . Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. You won. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . Based on those utterances. Congratulations´.

Then Holmes answers. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. exactly in . I¶ve been at it for six hours.71 Holmes: Excellent question. ³Excellent question. : So glad you can accept my invitation. In his experiment. In the prison. Expressive states what the speaker feels. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). who looks at that. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. In those utterances. He just wants to respect it. playing scale on his violin. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . Individually. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. He asks Holmes. Individually. Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. listens and gets closer to him. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. ³How did you lure them in?´. strolls. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway.

He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. Holmes:Very good. He says to Blackwood. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. they hope. Watson predicts the . You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. he does not know and understand about that. they can get the address of the watch owner.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. According to that utterance. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Every time he wound the watch. Setting: London Street . his hand slipped. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. hence the scratches. even though. By looking for that store. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.

Well done.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. ³Very good. He tries to identify where the man comes from. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . He is proud of him about that. According to those feature. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. A factory by the river. That should lead us right to Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Holmes says. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. his hand slipped. Watson. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. He identifies some features on that body. Expressive states what the speaker feels. hence the scratches. Nine Elms. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Watson. in his house. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. In those utterances. Setting: Holmes¶ house .

Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. with us. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. He says his prediction to Holmes. Nevertheless. well. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. including the address. Holmes can find that place by saying. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. I took the shrapnel out myself. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. Holmes. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Sohe can find the place. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising).morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. In the beginning. Watson: Yes. Holmes:Well. they get Holmes still fall asleep. And when Holmes is awake. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. Well done. . A factory by the river. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Nine Elms.74 to the murderer. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Finally. he assumes that Watson . Watson.

That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. with us´. He just can say. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. And the most important thing is. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Setting: Holmes¶ house . there is a new case from Clarky. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. In that utterance. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. In this case. well. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . .75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. . Expressive states what the speaker feels. ³Well. He looks like very interested with the new case so.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. he decides to take it. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel.

. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. like Blackwood¶s case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. Based on that utterance. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. He says to Clarky.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. ³Case reopened!´.

In his utterances. Conclusions In this chapter. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. and declaration.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. 2. They are representative. Telling(1) Commanding(6). Requesting(2). Asking(1). Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. Praising(4). Refusal(1) Thanking(2). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Inviting(1). Insisting(2). 5. Informing(2). Congratulating(1). Based on the findings. No. Arguing(1). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Advising(1) Promising(3). expressive. Representative Directive Asserting(3). 4. Entreating(2). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. Ordering(3). Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . commissive. directive.

John Watson. literal and non-literal. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. B. because in that movie. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. direct and indirect. In the directive.They are performed. especially when they have cases to be solved. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner.78 According to the table. Suggestions In this research. the writer suggests: 1. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. they have much time together to spend. normally speaking. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Then. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. .

magazine. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. . The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. especially illocutionary acts. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. etc. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts.79 2. especially in illocutionary act. Finally. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. such as comic.

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