CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

1

1

2

good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

2

3

1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
7

Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

236.
8

20. 11 Stephen C. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. (1996). variously. threatening.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze.9 3. etc. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. I Dewa Putu Wijana. p. one may say of this utterance that. it has the illocutionary force of.11 In this research.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. Levinson. 236-237. op. arguing. forcing. Being conscious or not. People have certain purposes. and it can be the act of explaining. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. pp. in appropriate circumstances. asking. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something.cit.cit. (1993). predicting. promising. op. advising the addressee to shoot her. when and where the conversation happen. ordering. directing. etc. . apologizing. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. implicit or explicit in doing communication. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. 9 10 Ibid. we will get much information unmentioned.

Fortunately.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Watson. In this context. In this context. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. . He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. For example in the beginning of the story. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Watson saves him. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. In that utterance. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. Unpredictable. on the right time. Because of that. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner.

The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . the research¶s question is. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Indirectly. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. Research Question For the analysis. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. because of. C. Then. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. B. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Sherlock Holmes. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character.

and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. In this research. especially by using John R. especially for illocutionary acts. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. selecting. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. good understanding about speech acts. Research Methodology 1. especially for linguists or linguistic students. E. 2. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation.7 D. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. 3. . Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts.

Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important.8 1. 6. Watching the movie thoroughly. Analyzing data. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 3. 5. Reading entire dialogue on script. 4. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Then. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website.For the script. . the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. 2. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. 4. Instrument of the Research In this research. 5. Searching the film and its script. 7. Writing a report of the study.

actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. 2003). and perlocutionary acts. expositive. Generally. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. Searle (1979) F. (1996).cit. issue warnings. p. pp. verdictive. In this analysis. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. op. illocutionary acts. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts.op. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. you not only say something. excercitive. etc. 214. the writer will use John R. (USA: Heinle. Nadar. locutionary acts. behabitive. but also warn someone.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories.cit.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. (2009). you can use language to make promises.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. 14 Victoria Fromkin. An Introduction to Language. 2-3. and commissive. 13 12 9 . lay bets. Leech (in Nadar. 47. p. George Yule. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts.X. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet.

Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. After Morris. p. 15 . 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. Accessed on January 29. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. 30.nd. John L. (Bandung: Angkasa. 2009). Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories.15 For the first time. semiotics learns about signs. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Generally.16 Searle. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. we can do something. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. 2011.htm. A. and declarations.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. pragmatics. expressives. Morris (in Tarigan. assertives. and linguistics. directives commissives. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. Pengajaran Pragmatik. http://www.

20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. their assumptions. there are so many things learned such as deixis.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. George Yule (1996). that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. p.20 In pragmatics. Austin says. 6. Later.17 According to Yule. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. he also does something. presupposition. op. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). 18 17 . The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. requests) that they are performing when they speak. basically. p. Speech Acts For the first time.19 Another definition. and the kinds of actions (for example. speech acts.11 meaning´.cit. 19 Ibid. p. etc. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings).cit. consist of. op. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. In this research. their purposes or goals. 207. B.cit. op. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. Levinson. All the utterance shows speech acts. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. when somebody says something. (1983). 4.

by saying something.L. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. op. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. 1994).21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. 24 Ibid.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). How to Do Things with Words. p. warning. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. the speakers solely do not just utter something. Nadar (2009). This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. 108. and there is a meaning in behind. p. congratulating. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. Thirdly. 23 J. p. undertaking. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. p. 1962).. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. &c. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference.22 C.e. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. F. speech acts is used by Austin. 14. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. not just the utterance which has performative verb. questioning. we do something. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. thanking. 94. etc. Austin. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. such as asserting. explaining.cit.For him. 22 21 . 51. ordering. ordering. i. apologizing.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. Approaches to Discourse. Second. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts.X.

locutionary act is called the act of saying something. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense.27 For example. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying.25 According to Wijana (1996).cit. 44.1. saying. 17. 1999). (Great Britain: Routledge. without the inclination to do something.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. 78. deterring.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. op. C. and also does not influence the hearer. I Dewa Putu Wijana. Pragmatics. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. Moreover. locutionary act consists of. p. 27 Abdul Chaer. On the example above. p. . persuading. p. c. such as convincing. a. surprising or misleading. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. phonic act (producing sounds). He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. and even. b. In details. [1] Man has two arms and legs. (1996). Locutionary Acts According to Austin. 2009). Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). it can be done without involving the context of utterance.

Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. p. or by a wife to her husband. etc. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. Wachyu Sandayana. 29 28 . op. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. F.cit. p. C. but also to do something. p.X. 14. p.14 certain meaning). that utterance is meant the hair must be cut.2. 6. etc. 44.cit. Therefore. threatening. and it can be the act of asserting. or. promising. 2007). and aspect C refers to the meaning. Nevertheless. op. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). promising. apologizing. this act is known as the act of doing something. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. asking. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. ordering. 18. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. Nadar (2009).29 According to Austin.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar.cit. Semantic. threatening. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. op.19. thanking.31 For example. offering.

C. 2005). The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. By using illocutionary force. the speaker wants to asking. In other words. p. then that information will be received by the hearer. or ordering something.3. (2007). (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. informing.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. 33 32 . This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. Thus.. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. loc.cit. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana.32 Through those utterances. warning. Kushartanti. 110. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. when and where the conversation happen. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. promising. Deliberately or not. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. etc. this effect is created by the speaker.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. et al.

8. p. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. expositive. p. excercitive. 20.36 The most important weakness is simply this. etc. [3] I was very busy yesterday.16 affecting someone. such as shocking. misleading. op. 35 34 . D. 36 Ibid. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. Searle. For example.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). convincing. 10. 37 Ibid. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. John R. (New York: Cambridge University Press. 1979). 1.cit. In other words. behabitive. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. and commissive. p. etc. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. p. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised.

They express what the speaker wants. In using a directive. tell. complain. inform. the world is actually not flat anymore. report. suggest.17 Because of those weaknesses. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. pp. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. In this example. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). . boast. According to Yule.1. etc. op. argue. describe. 53. p. predict. Directive verbs are order. For example: [4] The earth is flat. 38 39 Ibid. advice. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. command.cit. assert. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). to the truth of the expressed proposition. George Yule (1996). the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing).Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. affirm. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. In the utterance above.2. D. 12-20. claim. hypothesize. Assertive verbs are state. request.

In using a commissive. For example: [5] Open the door. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker).18 recommend. etc. defy. invite. promise. In the utterance above. refusal. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). threat. challenge. . ask. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it).3. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. Commissive verbs are vow. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). entreat. D. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). beg. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. dare.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. James!´. Etc. permit. For example promise ± request. They express what the speaker intends. plead. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). pledge. offer. pray. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door).

declare. confirm. Expressive verbs are thank.4. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. greet.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. congratulate. nominate. the speaker changes the world via the words. normally speaking. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks.5.) . D. In using a declaration. or sorrow. compliment. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. etc. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. sentence. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). excommunicate. deplore. like. ministers or religion christening babies. christen. these actions are. In that utterance. In using an expressive. dislike. In this. approve. mock. cure. bless. pardon. offenders. leave-taking. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. dignitaries naming ships. pain. appoint. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). condol e. For example: [7] Sir. etc. disapprove. etc. praise. thank you very much for coming. dismiss. name. joy. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. welcome. Declaration verbs are resign. apologize. blame.19 D.

. 55.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´. the judge has complete authority in doing so. p. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness.. George Yule (1996). etc.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech.106. op.) action is performed.cit. (1983). For example. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. Moreover.cit. religious. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. In this example. p. As institutional rather than personal acts. legal. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). op. take a look at the table below.

cit. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion.2. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Therefore. E. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. etc. intimacy level. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer.43 E. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. The use of symbol h. 13. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. gender. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). will always signify one or more addressees.6. According to Mey (in Nadar. . in the widest sense.1. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. Ibid. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. p.21 E. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. however. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. p. op. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations.

The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations.cit. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities.22 intelligible. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar.4.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. pp. Nadar. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. .5. 3-4. E. or s¶s intention in uttering it.X. in time. E. E. op. 44 F. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). in preference to talking about its intended meaning. rather than to the verbal act itself. The term goal is more neutral than intention.3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. (2009). In this respect.

it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system.) and his partner Dr. F. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. However. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens.23 For example. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. might be described as a sentence. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. In fact. In this second sense. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. or as a question. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. but strictly speaking. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. identified by their use in a particular situation. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. or as a request. it cannot be a sentence. However. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. or sentencetoken. late 19 th century. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. . as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning.

where a black magic ritual is taking place. As he taunts Watson. he brings Holmes to the prison. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. named Mrs. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. In the center of the room. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. Watson comes running over. Once inside.and finally enters a non-descript building. Then. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. Hudson (Geraldine James). Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Holmes continues running down the stairs. and then attacks him.he darts between columns.24 This movie is open with Dr. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. until he reaches the basement. After that. In that house. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. there is also a housekeeper. located on 221B Baker Street. but is stopped by Holmes. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . Most of the guards are afraid of . Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Turns out. as Blackwood has requested to see him. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. He is in a tremendous hurry . The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase.

but as a result. Fortunately. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. In the British court. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. There are many people involved. He is planning on killing three more people. and try to cover and help Blackwood. Watson feels for a pulse. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture.25 getting closer to Blackwood. After that. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). they can defeat and chase them away. Holmes and Watson have to face them. and then legally declares him dead. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Getting the clues is very hard. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. For instance. he is genuinely curious about the situation. In the other sides. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. But in fact. Holmes will help him. He . there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. nevertheless.

Holmes wants to destroy that device.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. Accessed on February 4. 45 .26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. but. http://www. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. The house of Parliament will be the next site. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device.html.imdb. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. 45 IMDb. 2011.

The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. the writer compiles. A. Asserting (Sure) 27 . Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. classifies. a pale. 1. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. 2.1. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. he can get inside their heads. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. As though. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. Data Description In this part. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts.

Luke Reordan.28 3. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. But. She likes gingered dwarfs. Holmes. So. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes:Agreed. In his cell. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Informing (found) .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. 4.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Asserting (Agree) 5. close to Holmes. I don¶t agree. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. Setting: London Street . Furthermore. you agree? Holmes:No. midget.

it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. If you still need him. .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Setting: Unknown building . One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. 1. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page).morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. (Observe) grabbing his collar.2. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. almost invisible. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. Setting: Attic . Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. and that¶s my area of expertise. Holmes thinks that it is true. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . (Film script page 62) A. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. 2. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.29 which is dead. Holmes: I feel safer already. . Irene: Oh dear. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. 7. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene.

Asking (Allow) .morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Nanny? Mrs. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Setting: Holmes¶ room . consider it a wager that you will. agree. Setting: Holmes¶ room . She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Everything is in its proper place. give me a problem. 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. puts the tray before him. My mind is in a terrible condition.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Irene: Well. 4. Hudson Mrs. . (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. Holmes: I can¶t but. Mr.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. . give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. Hudson: Tea.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Therefore. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre.31 garbage bin but he lands badly.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. 8. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Setting: Grave yard . admit it! 9. Based on that prediction. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Holmes begins examining the body. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . He is a much smaller man than him. From that place.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. he becomes dirty. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Insisting (Admit) .

(Suddenly comes. assembly line ± night. and finds some clues.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. moves through a door. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. . Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house.32 10. Holmes inspects it. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. antechamber . Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Advising (Save) 13. Holmes:Leave now. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Advising (Leave) 12. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. You¶re good at that. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. . They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you.(gun¶s sound) 11. disappear. bang. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood.

They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament.morning The Participants: Holmes. boots echoing. hands it to Watson. After Holmes is safe. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. 16. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . . Watson. Ordering (Follow) 15. Setting: Attic . take us onto the bridge port side. Setting: Sewers . Tanner: Right away. and Irene are in the sewers. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. When Holmes fight. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. Watson. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. sir. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. that leads us to the sewers. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. then save him. he cannot handle it. old boy. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Then. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Holmes:Give us a leg up. These German locks always give me trouble. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon.

The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. (Film script page 78) A.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. He looks dead. Watson. . Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. . I think my legs have fallen . 18. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. In fact. he is still alive. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Please. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Fare thee well. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Indications 1.3. I can¶t feel my cheeks .34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. Setting: Tower bridge . Watson. . Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Oh my lord. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Then. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. She cannot pass it. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters .

Promising (Guarantee) 3. I must attend to my other patients. he is burned.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. I¶ll tell you everything. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. And certainly not for a price. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. She cannot pass it. bruised.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. In the hospital. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Setting: Hospital room . cut. and scraped. Consider it done. Refusal (Must) 4. Fare thee well. But not for you. Promising (Won¶t) . Holmes: Well. (Film script page 72) 2. Setting: Tower bridge .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. Setting: On the boat . His eyes still closed. I will stop him. slaughterhouse.

On the table next to him. McMurdo. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Fortunately. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Setting: Bare boxing fight . You won. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Thanking (Thank you) 4. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Praising (Excellent) . Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You..night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo.4. and hands him the newspaper. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. In the middle of the match. playing scale on his violin.. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. big man. 3. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Holmes has no case to be solved. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance.36 A. Congratulations. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. out of sight. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. talks to him. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. We¶re done. Indications 1.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson.

hence the scratches. listens and gets closer to him. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Well done. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Praising (Very good) 7. Praising (Well done) .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. 5. Setting: Prison . (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Right. strolls. Individually. Watson. Watson. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. his hand slipped. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. Every time he wound the watch. Nine Elms. Praising (Love) 6. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. in his house. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Setting: London street . He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Holmes: Very good. A factory by the river.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room.

Watson: Yes. 1. he decides to take it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . with us. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. Holmes. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. . Mary said I had a lousy doctor. (Film script page 62) A. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Setting: Holmes¶ house . I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um .5.38 8. He looks like very interested with the new case so. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Holmes: Well. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. well. I took the shrapnel out myself.

³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Holmes says to Watson. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. When arriving.39 B. In that utterance. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. Data Analysis In this part. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting).

´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. to the . because of that. he can get inside their heads´ . (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone.40 prepositions are true. Holmes is led by prison guard. Data 2 Context: In the prison. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. he is better to die than live. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Based on that utterance. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. As though. The guard says. Considering that reason. a pale. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. the guard looks like pale and nervous. As though. he can get inside their heads. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. It makes Holmes confuse. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. In this context. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell.

He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Without courtesy. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. His . trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. close to Holmes. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. According to that utterance. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.41 truth of the expressed proposition. Blackwood is at right side of the bars.He says to Blackwood. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. In his cell. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´.

So. Luke Reordan. Because of that. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Setting: Holmes¶ room .42 partner. ³No. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. I don¶t agree´. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. Holmes decides to back home. ³You¶re obviously not her type.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. She likes gingered dwarfs. midget. I don¶t agree´. So. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. you agree? Holmes:No. I don¶t agree. In the utterance ³No. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. When Holmes wants to open it. Luke Reordan. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. She likes gingered dwarfs. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Midget.

it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). Holmes says to him. They are very curious about that weird thing. At this time. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. Holmes:Agreed. According to those utterances. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. But. He does not . But. Holmes. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. ³Agreed. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. Setting: London Street .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit.

if you still need him´. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. to the truth of the .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. Without it. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). ³I found your man. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. He says. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. . If you still need him. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. Irene : Oh dear. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. . Furthermore. The data is very important for him to find the truth. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. he just can assume. not make conclusion to solve the case. After doing that. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. and that¶s my area of expertise. tonight. he sees Watson and Irene near him. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So.45 expressed proposition. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. However. And she will help him if he wants to do that. Holmes¶ eyes are open. ³I feel safer already´. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Apparently. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Irene tells him that police looks for him. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). Setting: Attic . Because of that. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling).morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Holmes: I feel safer already. to the truth of the expressed proposition. she suggests him to work outside the law. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. Without courtesy. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. he sleeps in the attic.

This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. Before stopping him. Holmes stops him. In this context. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. and he wants nobody worry about him. grabbing his collar. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. After all followers defeated. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. Holmes holds him and says. Holmes saves the woman. especially for Watson and Irene.46 belief that he is safe. . Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. they have to defeat his followers first. Setting: Unknown building . But suddenly. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. almost invisible.

Holmes thinks that it is true. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. and asks to give him a case. ³I can¶t but agree. give me a problem. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. My mind is in a terrible condition. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes says. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. In that utterance. Holmes wants Watson to . Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. My mind is in a terrible condition. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Holmes :I can¶t but.47 In the utterance. agree. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Give me a problem. give me work!´.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).

He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). Holmes :Don¶t touch that. as per usual. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Hudson Mrs. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem.and puts it onto the table. puts the tray before him. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. ´Don¶t touch that. Hudson. Based on the characteristic. He uses . Hudson comes into the room. she removes an old tray before he goes. Nanny´. Data 3 Context: Mrs.48 give him work. Hudson : Tea. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. brings a tray of bread and tea. She crosses Holmes. Everything is in its proper place. Then Mrs. Nanny? Mrs. Suddenly. Setting: Holmes¶ room . give me work´to entreat his partner. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. In that utterance. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Holmes says to Mrs. Mr. After that. Everything is in its proper place.

he rejects it and says. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. consider it a wager that you will. carrying a case. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. Without courtesy. According to that utterance. Setting: Holmes¶ room .Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. He will take the case if it can make him curious. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. . Hudson to not touch everything in his room.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. she gives a large bag of coins for him. Immediately. For that reason. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. ³Keep your money. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Irene : Well. Apparently. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. He wants her to keep it.

Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. . Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. In that utterance. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. ³Allow me to explain´. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. In this story.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. . (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain.

. Therefore. ³Watson. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. he falls into garbage bin. Holmes plans to shadow Irene.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. he screams.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Nevertheless. he becomes dirty. But for the second jumps. In that situation. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. Through that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. help! Watson!´.

52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. . Therefore. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. In that utterance. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Holmes begins examining the body.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Lestrade shows the coffin. He is a much smaller man than him. but Reordan. He says to Lestrade. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In Blackwood¶s grave. Setting: Grave yard .He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. In this story. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. ´May I borrow your pen?´. This case becomes something interesting for him.

She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. Based on that utterance. There. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting).Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Setting: Pawnbrokers . admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. He tries to convince him by saying. Based on that prediction.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. Data 9 . Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future.

In the other sides. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. moves through a door. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. They have already gone from the pawnshop. and finds some clues. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. In that utterance. and the family as well´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. From that place. ´Give her my best. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Holmes inspects it.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Apparently. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Together. . In that utterance. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. and something strange in the corner. He says to Watson. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. They find very many chemical materials. some experiments. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Watson says to Holmes. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house.

After entering the room. disappear. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. Irene is too far involved. Watson! : A gift for you. disappear. and pours into glasses. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. He does not want something bad happen to her. In that utterance. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. you¶re good at that´. Holmes says to Irene. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her).56 Holmes:Leave now. You¶re good at that. ³Leave now.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . He tries to find out what she doing is. he immediately takes a wine bottle. Irene walks behind dressing screen. and then disappear) : Bang.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. opens it. . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. antechamber . They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. (Suddenly comes. In the other sides. bang. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room.

exactly in Slaughter house. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. They try . There. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. they try to find and stop him. According to that utterance. ³Save the bullet. Holmes says to Watson. These German locks always give me trouble.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. Watson!´. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain.Suddenly. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. old boy. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself.

Holmes folds up his piece of paper. ³Give us a leg up. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Holmes says to Watson. Holmes . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Data 14 Context: Holmes. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor.morning The Participants: Holmes. Before those police approach the attic. hands it to Watson. Watson. Setting: Attic . old boy. boots echoing. These German locks always give me a trouble´. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. Watson. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. Then. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Minutes later. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. According to those utterances. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him.58 to help her but it is very difficult. Watson.

Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. Tanner: Right away. take us onto the bridge port side. Because of the situation are dangerous. Setting: Tanner¶s boat .day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and they must follow it.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. In that piece of paper. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. sir. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. that leads us to the sewers. In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Follow these instruction!´. . orders them to arrest Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. After Holmes is safe. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. then save him. The Lord Coward who has power to control police.

He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. After Holmes is safe. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. he cannot handle it. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. When Holmes fight. Watson and Irene await him. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house).day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. and Irene are in the sewers. Setting: Sewers . that leads us to the sewers´. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Watson. take us onto the bridge port side. ³If you would a captain. On the boat. They see a chemical weapon. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Data 16 Context: Holmes. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

Watson. (Film script page 72) . they have to fight Blackwood¶s first.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. She cannot pass it. He screams to Irene. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.61 Holmes. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. she has the gun. Fortunately. However. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Setting: Tower Bridge . Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. In these utterances. he gets difficult to handle it. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament.

fare thee well´. . He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. chasing her to the tower. . Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. Watson: Worse things could happen? . He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Knowing Irene¶s situation. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). In those utterances. . I think my legs have fallen . . In the tower. In this case. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Watson. In fact. Oh my lord. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. I can¶t feel my cheeks . He looks dead. Watson. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. Irene still can run and hide or not. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Then she runs and brings it with her. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. he is still alive. there is no way for her to pass.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Please. so. Holmes is aware about that.

and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. ³Oh dear.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. I think my legs have fallen . . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). In those utterances. Please. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. In fact. his crime is totally over. I can¶t feel my cheeks . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Oh my lord. . He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. He says to Watson. But. Watson. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . . Then. . Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. cheeks. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. As great consulting detective. Data 2 . Holmes says. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Consider it done. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. I¶ll stop him´. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.64 Holmes :Well. In addition. ³Well. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. Consider it done. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. Holmes has no desire to work for money. According to those utterances. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside.

65

Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

66

is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

67

aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

his partner. comes on the perfect time to save him. In that utterance. Holmes says. out of sight. Watson. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Because too focus. In this context.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. Fortunately.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. out of sight. . Setting: Cathedral crypts . Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Fortunately. Expressive states what the speaker feels.

Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. ³Thank You´. Holmes has no case to be solved. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. In that utterance. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. talks to him.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . Holmes has no case to be solved. as a partner and close friend. Setting: Holmes¶ room . In the middle of the match. Therefore. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room.night . He fights his opponent. So he decides to give it. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking).69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. In this story. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Expressive states what the speaker feels. (Film script page 6) Since three months. McMurdo. and hands him the newspaper.

(Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. You won. He fights his opponent. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Based on those utterances. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. We¶re done. Congratulations´. We¶re done. Congratulations. . The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. playing scale on his violin. but in the middle.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. . McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. big man . On the table next to him. McMurdo. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. You won. . Therefore. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . there is an upside down ³beer stein´. he can fight very well. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. big man . Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. ³That¶s it. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). he decides to end the match by saying. In the beginning of the match. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene.

He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room.71 Holmes: Excellent question. exactly in . In the prison. He asks Holmes. He just wants to respect it. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Individually. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. listens and gets closer to him. I¶ve been at it for six hours´.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. Then Holmes answers. Watson. ³Excellent question. In those utterances. In his experiment. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. strolls. I¶ve been at it for six hours. playing scale on his violin. who looks at that. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . : So glad you can accept my invitation. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. ³How did you lure them in?´. Individually.

Every time he wound the watch. Holmes:Very good. He says to Blackwood. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. According to that utterance. Setting: London Street . Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. they hope. his hand slipped. even though. Watson predicts the . What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. they can get the address of the watch owner. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. Watson. By looking for that store. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. hence the scratches. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. he does not know and understand about that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising).

According to those feature. Holmes says. Setting: Holmes¶ house . He is proud of him about that. A factory by the river. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. That should lead us right to Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. He tries to identify where the man comes from. hence the scratches. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. his hand slipped. In those utterances. Nine Elms.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. in his house. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. Watson. ³Very good. Well done. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. He identifies some features on that body. Watson. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. Expressive states what the speaker feels.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Based on Holmes¶ utterances. he assumes that Watson . . He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. with us. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Finally. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. He says his prediction to Holmes. Holmes. including the address.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. Watson: Yes. A factory by the river. Holmes can find that place by saying. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Well done. they get Holmes still fall asleep. And when Holmes is awake. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. Sohe can find the place. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. well. Holmes:Well. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Nevertheless. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains.74 to the murderer. Nine Elms. Watson. In the beginning. I took the shrapnel out myself.

with us´. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. . And the most important thing is. ³Well. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. Setting: Holmes¶ house . He looks like very interested with the new case so. In that utterance. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Expressive states what the speaker feels. he decides to take it. In this case. well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. there is a new case from Clarky. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. He just can say. . Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says.

Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. like Blackwood¶s case. He says to Clarky. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. . ³Case reopened!´. Based on that utterance. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing).

They are representative. 2. Advising(1) Promising(3). Inviting(1). In his utterances. Representative Directive Asserting(3). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. 4. Congratulating(1). Requesting(2). Insisting(2). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. Conclusions In this chapter. expressive. Telling(1) Commanding(6). Informing(2). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). No. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . commissive. Arguing(1). Praising(4). directive. 5. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Based on the findings. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. Ordering(3). and declaration. Entreating(2).CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Asking(1). these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.

That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. Suggestions In this research. John Watson.They are performed. normally speaking. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance.78 According to the table. especially when they have cases to be solved. Then. In the directive. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. the writer suggests: 1. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. they have much time together to spend. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. B. because in that movie. direct and indirect. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. . literal and non-literal.

etc. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. . The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it.79 2. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. such as comic. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. especially in illocutionary act. especially illocutionary acts. Finally. magazine.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful