CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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the people apply pragmatics in their communication. arguing.11 In this research.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. etc. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. in appropriate circumstances. op. p. apologizing. pp. asking. (1993). threatening. . 9 10 Ibid. predicting. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. it has the illocutionary force of. implicit or explicit in doing communication. when and where the conversation happen. op. ordering. advising the addressee to shoot her. I Dewa Putu Wijana.cit. People have certain purposes. and it can be the act of explaining. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. etc. (1996). we will get much information unmentioned. one may say of this utterance that. variously. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. 20.cit. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance.9 3. Being conscious or not. directing. Levinson. forcing. promising. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. 236-237. 11 Stephen C.

. Fortunately. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. Because of that. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. on the right time. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. Watson. In this context. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. For example in the beginning of the story. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. In that utterance. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. In this context. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. Unpredictable. Watson saves him. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry.

The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. Sherlock Holmes. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. Then. because of. the research¶s question is. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. B. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Indirectly. Research Question For the analysis. C. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely.

This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. 3. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. selecting. especially for linguists or linguistic students. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. Research Methodology 1. . 2. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. In this research. E. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. good understanding about speech acts. especially by using John R.7 D. especially for illocutionary acts. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps.

4. Writing a report of the study. Instrument of the Research In this research. 2. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Analyzing data. 3. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page.For the script. 4. 5. Then.8 1. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. Searching the film and its script. 7. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. 5. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Reading entire dialogue on script. Watching the movie thoroughly. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. . 6.

Nadar. you can use language to make promises. 2003). Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer.cit. In this analysis. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning.X.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. issue warnings. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. lay bets. the writer will use John R.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context.cit. An Introduction to Language. 47. Leech (in Nadar. Generally. behabitive. and perlocutionary acts. p. but also warn someone.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. 2-3. expositive. p. 13 12 9 . and commissive. George Yule. illocutionary acts. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. etc. op. pp. 14 Victoria Fromkin. 214. (1996). Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. (USA: Heinle. locutionary acts. you not only say something. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. verdictive. excercitive.op. Searle (1979) F. (2009).

15 For the first time.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. assertives. and linguistics. 2009). semiotics learns about signs. expressives. 30. pragmatics. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. and declarations. John L. A.16 Searle. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. 15 . Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. we can do something. Generally. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories.nd. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. http://www. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. directives commissives. After Morris. Accessed on January 29. (Bandung: Angkasa. Morris (in Tarigan.htm. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. 2011. Pengajaran Pragmatik. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. p. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics.

All the utterance shows speech acts.20 In pragmatics. Levinson. Later.19 Another definition. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. op. basically. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. George Yule (1996). p.11 meaning´. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C.17 According to Yule. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. and the kinds of actions (for example. B. presupposition. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). op. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. Austin says. 19 Ibid. (1983). When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. consist of. when somebody says something. 207. 6. op.cit. their assumptions. speech acts. p. Speech Acts For the first time. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. 4. he also does something. etc. In this research. p.cit. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. their purposes or goals.cit. 18 17 . there are so many things learned such as deixis. requests) that they are performing when they speak. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise).

Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts..e. p. such as asserting. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. thanking. Approaches to Discourse. op.cit.L.X. 22 21 . congratulating. 14. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. we do something. undertaking. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. 108. i.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. Thirdly. ordering. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. &c. speech acts is used by Austin. Nadar (2009). apologizing. and there is a meaning in behind. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. p. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1962). not just the utterance which has performative verb.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. Austin. p. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something.For him. 51. p. by saying something. 23 J. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. the speakers solely do not just utter something. etc.22 C. F. warning. explaining. questioning. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication. 24 Ibid. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. 94. Second. How to Do Things with Words. 1994). ordering.

Moreover.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. I Dewa Putu Wijana. In details.cit. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. 17.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference.25 According to Wijana (1996). 44. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. 78. b. p. and even. 27 Abdul Chaer. On the example above.1. p.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. phonic act (producing sounds). and also does not influence the hearer. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. op. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. persuading. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. saying. 2009). 1999). locutionary act consists of. surprising or misleading. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. (1996). without the inclination to do something. Pragmatics. deterring. (Great Britain: Routledge. p. [1] Man has two arms and legs. a. . C. such as convincing. c.27 For example.

Wachyu Sandayana.cit. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). by a teacher to male student at such institutions. promising. op. ordering. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. 6.2.19. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. C. and it can be the act of asserting. or by a wife to her husband. Therefore.14 certain meaning). or.cit. 14. asking.cit. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. op. p. offering. thanking. 44.31 For example. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. op. Nevertheless.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. threatening. Nadar (2009). p. 2007). p. threatening. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). this act is known as the act of doing something. etc. etc. F. 29 28 . 18. apologizing.X. but also to do something.29 According to Austin. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. and aspect C refers to the meaning. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. Semantic. p. promising.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar.

this effect is created by the speaker. Kushartanti. Thus. 33 32 . In other words. Deliberately or not. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. etc. when and where the conversation happen. then that information will be received by the hearer. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. loc. C. 110. promising.3.32 Through those utterances. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. By using illocutionary force. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. p.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts.cit. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. warning. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. or ordering something. informing.. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. 2005). every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. (2007). This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes. the speaker wants to asking. et al.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are.

In other words. p. op. p. etc. D. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. behabitive. 36 Ibid. (New York: Cambridge University Press. [3] I was very busy yesterday. 1979). John R. 8. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised.36 The most important weakness is simply this. 1. For example. p. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. Searle. excercitive. expositive. convincing. 35 34 . p. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. 10. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. 37 Ibid.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). and commissive. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. such as shocking.16 affecting someone. 20. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance.cit. etc. misleading. There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed.

advice. predict. 53. D. George Yule (1996). . According to Yule. inform. hypothesize.cit.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. op. request. Directive verbs are order. command. report. argue. In this example. the world is actually not flat anymore. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief).17 Because of those weaknesses. claim. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. 38 39 Ibid. pp. They express what the speaker wants.2. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. suggest. p. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. complain. to the truth of the expressed proposition. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). For example: [4] The earth is flat. etc. affirm. boast. 12-20.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. In using a directive. Assertive verbs are state.1. assert. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). tell. In the utterance above. describe.

threat. .3. James!´. They express what the speaker intends. For example: [5] Open the door. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising).18 recommend. defy. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). For example promise ± request. entreat. The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). ask. promise. Commissive verbs are vow. D. plead. permit. Etc. challenge. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). refusal. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. dare. beg. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. etc. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). pledge. In the utterance above. invite. In using a commissive. pray. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). offer.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions.

congratulate. compliment. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). ministers or religion christening babies. deplore. declare. For example: [7] Sir. offenders. appoint. etc.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. In using an expressive. In this. dignitaries naming ships. normally speaking.) . In that utterance. cure. or sorrow. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. Declaration verbs are resign. sentence. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. condol e.5. leave-taking. joy. approve. confirm. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). greet. thank you very much for coming. dislike. In using a declaration. pain. D. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. welcome. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. etc. these actions are. blame.4. apologize. etc. pardon. Expressive verbs are thank. the speaker changes the world via the words. name. disapprove. bless. christen. excommunicate. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. praise. mock. like. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. dismiss.19 D. nominate.

p.. . In this example. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social.cit. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. As institutional rather than personal acts. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. op. Moreover.20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´.) action is performed. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring).40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. religious. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. George Yule (1996). For example. (1983). Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. the judge has complete authority in doing so.cit. legal. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. p.106. 55. take a look at the table below. op. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. etc.

as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations.6. however. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. op. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. According to Mey (in Nadar. in the widest sense. Ibid. p.cit. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. The use of symbol h. 13. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. etc. E. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. . will always signify one or more addressees. intimacy level. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s.43 E. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent.2. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance.1. p. gender.21 E. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. Therefore. Leech refers to addressers and addressees.

3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. The term goal is more neutral than intention. 44 F. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). Nadar. E. . pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. E.5.22 intelligible. op. rather than to the verbal act itself. In this respect. 3-4.cit.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance.X. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. pp. (2009). in time. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. E. or s¶s intention in uttering it.4. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act.

or as a request. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. F. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. In fact. identified by their use in a particular situation. but strictly speaking. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. late 19 th century. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. However. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. In this second sense. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. or as a question. .23 For example. it cannot be a sentence. However. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. might be described as a sentence. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning.) and his partner Dr. or sentencetoken.

The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Most of the guards are afraid of . In that house.24 This movie is open with Dr. As he taunts Watson. and then attacks him. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Turns out. After that. until he reaches the basement. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. Hudson (Geraldine James). and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. there is also a housekeeper. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. as Blackwood has requested to see him. located on 221B Baker Street. where a black magic ritual is taking place. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself.and finally enters a non-descript building. Once inside. he brings Holmes to the prison. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. In the center of the room. He is in a tremendous hurry . He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. named Mrs. Holmes continues running down the stairs.he darts between columns. but is stopped by Holmes. Watson comes running over. Then. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer.

After that. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. There are many people involved. In the other sides. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. they can defeat and chase them away. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. Getting the clues is very hard. Watson feels for a pulse. In the British court. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. and then legally declares him dead. Holmes and Watson have to face them. he is genuinely curious about the situation. He .25 getting closer to Blackwood. Holmes will help him. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. Fortunately. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. He is planning on killing three more people. so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. But in fact. but as a result. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). they are arrested by the police because of major damages. and try to cover and help Blackwood. nevertheless. For instance. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes.

html. He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device.imdb. but.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. http://www. 45 IMDb. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. 45 . Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. Holmes wants to destroy that device. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. Accessed on February 4. The house of Parliament will be the next site. 2011.

Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. A. Data Description In this part. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. 1. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. As though. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. he can get inside their heads. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Asserting (Sure) 27 .CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. the writer compiles. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. a pale. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. 2. classifies. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts.1. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison.

he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. close to Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. you agree? Holmes:No. Holmes. Informing (found) . Luke Reordan. Asserting (Agree) 5. But. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. So. midget. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Setting: London Street . Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. In his cell. 4. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. Holmes:Agreed.28 3. I don¶t agree.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. She likes gingered dwarfs. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Furthermore.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. . (Observe) grabbing his collar. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising.2. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Irene: Oh dear. Setting: Unknown building . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. 1.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Setting: Attic . Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. almost invisible.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. (Film script page 62) A. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Holmes thinks that it is true. Holmes: I feel safer already. 2. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. 7.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . . and that¶s my area of expertise. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room .29 which is dead. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. If you still need him.

Irene: Well. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. give me a problem. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Hudson Mrs. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. 5. Asking (Allow) . Hudson: Tea. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. Holmes: I can¶t but.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Mr. consider it a wager that you will. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Everything is in its proper place. Setting: Holmes¶ room . She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. agree. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. . Nanny? Mrs. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. puts the tray before him. 4.

31 garbage bin but he lands badly. Setting: Grave yard . Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Insisting (Admit) . She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. They have already gone from the pawnshop.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Therefore. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. 8. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. he becomes dirty. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Based on that prediction. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . From that place. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. admit it! 9. Setting: Pawnbrokers . He is a much smaller man than him. Holmes begins examining the body.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary.

moves through a door. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula.(gun¶s sound) 11. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Advising (Leave) 12. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Holmes:Leave now. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. antechamber . disappear. .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets.32 10. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. and finds some clues. Advising (Save) 13. You¶re good at that. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. bang.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . . Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. assembly line ± night. Holmes inspects it.

Setting: Attic . Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Watson. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Watson.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Setting: Sewers . kept by Blackwood¶s followers. and Irene hear doors slamming outside.morning The Participants: Holmes. After Holmes is safe. hands it to Watson. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Watson.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. . Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. he cannot handle it.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. 16. Then. take us onto the bridge port side. that leads us to the sewers. old boy. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. and Irene are in the sewers. When Holmes fight. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. Tanner: Right away. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Ordering (Follow) 15. sir. These German locks always give me trouble. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. then save him. boots echoing. Holmes:Give us a leg up.

and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Watson. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. He looks dead. . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. . Then. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. Indications 1. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. (Film script page 78) A. Please.3. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . Watson. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. In fact. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. . 18. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Setting: Tower bridge . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. I think my legs have fallen . he is still alive. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Oh my lord. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. I can¶t feel my cheeks . She cannot pass it. .

Consider it done. And certainly not for a price. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. Holmes: Well.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. Setting: On the boat . But not for you.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. Fare thee well. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Setting: Hospital room . Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Captain Tanner. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. I¶ll tell you everything. cut. (Film script page 72) 2. In the hospital. She cannot pass it. slaughterhouse. His eyes still closed. bruised. I must attend to my other patients.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Setting: Tower bridge . he is burned. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Refusal (Must) 4. Promising (Won¶t) . Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. I will stop him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Promising (Guarantee) 3. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. and scraped.

McMurdo. On the table next to him. talks to him.36 A.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Fortunately. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Holmes has no case to be solved.. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match.4. In the middle of the match. You won. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. big man. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Setting: Cathedral crypts . (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. and hands him the newspaper. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Thanking (Thank you) 4. out of sight.. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. 3. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Indications 1. We¶re done. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Praising (Excellent) . Congratulations. playing scale on his violin. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. Nine Elms. Every time he wound the watch. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. I¶ve been at it for six hours. Holmes: Very good. his hand slipped. Right.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Well done. strolls. Setting: Holmes¶ house . What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Praising (Love) 6. Setting: Prison . Watson. A factory by the river. listens and gets closer to him. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. in his house. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Watson. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Praising (Well done) . Setting: London street . Individually. 5. Praising (Very good) 7. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. hence the scratches.

The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . I took the shrapnel out myself. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. Holmes: Well. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. with us. Setting: Holmes¶ attic .38 8. Holmes. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.5. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. he decides to take it. well. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Watson: Yes. (Film script page 62) A. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. 1.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) .

When arriving. Holmes says to Watson. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. In that utterance. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. to the truth of the expressed proposition. (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged.39 B. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data Analysis In this part.

Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. Holmes is led by prison guard. Considering that reason. It makes Holmes confuse. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). the guard looks like pale and nervous. As though. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. he can get inside their heads´ . Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. he can get inside their heads. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. a pale. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. to the . Data 2 Context: In the prison.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. In this context. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. The guard says. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. because of that. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. Based on that utterance.40 prepositions are true. As though. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. he is better to die than live.

He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself.41 truth of the expressed proposition. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. According to that utterance. In his cell. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). His . Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. close to Holmes. Without courtesy. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.He says to Blackwood. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case.

Because of that. Luke Reordan. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. Setting: Holmes¶ room . ³No.42 partner. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. ³You¶re obviously not her type. midget. She likes gingered dwarfs. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. So. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. When Holmes wants to open it. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). I don¶t agree´. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. I don¶t agree. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. So. Luke Reordan. In the utterance ³No. I don¶t agree´. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. She likes gingered dwarfs. Holmes decides to back home. you agree? Holmes:No. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Midget.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. He does not . Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. But. Holmes says to him. They are very curious about that weird thing. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. to the truth of the expressed proposition. But. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. According to those utterances. At this time. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Holmes.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. ³Agreed. Holmes:Agreed. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. Setting: London Street .Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. if you still need him´. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Furthermore. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. . He says. Without it. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. Irene : Oh dear. He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. After doing that. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. not make conclusion to solve the case.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. The data is very important for him to find the truth. ³I found your man. . he just can assume.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . If you still need him. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). to the truth of the .

He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). to the truth of the expressed proposition. tonight. Holmes¶ eyes are open.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. and that¶s my area of expertise. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). she suggests him to work outside the law.45 expressed proposition. Holmes: I feel safer already. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Because of that. Apparently. ³I feel safer already´. And she will help him if he wants to do that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Without courtesy. he sleeps in the attic. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. he sees Watson and Irene near him. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. Irene tells him that police looks for him. Setting: Attic . However. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page.

grabbing his collar. almost invisible. . Watson becomes mad and then attacks him. especially for Watson and Irene. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye.46 belief that he is safe. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. they have to defeat his followers first. Before stopping him. Holmes saves the woman. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. In this context. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. After all followers defeated. and he wants nobody worry about him. But suddenly. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Holmes stops him. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Holmes holds him and says. Setting: Unknown building .

Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood.47 In the utterance. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. In that utterance. Holmes thinks that it is true. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. agree. Holmes says. My mind is in a terrible condition. and asks to give him a case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). exactly since Blackwood¶s case.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. ³I can¶t but agree. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. My mind is in a terrible condition. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. give me a problem. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . give me work!´. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. Holmes :I can¶t but. Holmes wants Watson to . give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. Give me a problem.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).

give me work´to entreat his partner. Hudson comes into the room. Based on the characteristic. Suddenly. she removes an old tray before he goes. Holmes says to Mrs. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Then Mrs. Mr. In that utterance. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Nanny´. Nanny? Mrs. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. Everything is in its proper place. Hudson : Tea. puts the tray before him. Hudson. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. brings a tray of bread and tea. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. Data 3 Context: Mrs. as per usual. She crosses Holmes. ´Don¶t touch that. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Hudson Mrs. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Setting: Holmes¶ room .48 give him work. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. He uses .and puts it onto the table. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Everything is in its proper place. Holmes :Don¶t touch that.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. After that.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. carrying a case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Without courtesy. Irene : Well. consider it a wager that you will. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. he rejects it and says. For that reason. Immediately. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. He will take the case if it can make him curious. He wants her to keep it. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. she gives a large bag of coins for him. According to that utterance. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. Apparently. . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. ³Keep your money.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room .

. . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. In that utterance. caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. ³Allow me to explain´. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking).morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. In this story. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. . He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten.

He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. he falls into garbage bin. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . But for the second jumps. Through that utterance. he screams. In that situation. ³Watson. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). help! Watson!´. . Therefore. he becomes dirty. Nevertheless.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window.

. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. ´May I borrow your pen?´. He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Setting: Grave yard . Therefore. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. Lestrade shows the coffin. Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). He says to Lestrade. Holmes is asked to investigate that case.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Holmes begins examining the body. but Reordan. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. He is a much smaller man than him. In that utterance. In Blackwood¶s grave.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. This case becomes something interesting for him. In this story. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson.

admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. Data 9 . He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Based on that utterance. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. He tries to convince him by saying. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. There. Based on that prediction. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. ³Admit it! Admit it!´.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre.

From that place. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. and finds some clues. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. In that utterance. Holmes inspects it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . They have already gone from the pawnshop. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. In the other sides. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. ´Give her my best. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. and the family as well´. moves through a door. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary.

day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. They find very many chemical materials. . He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper. Watson says to Holmes. Apparently. He says to Watson. Together. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. and something strange in the corner. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting).55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. some experiments. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. In that utterance. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room.

because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). Irene is too far involved. Holmes says to Irene. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. After entering the room. In the other sides. you¶re good at that´.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . (Suddenly comes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). .56 Holmes:Leave now. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. You¶re good at that. Watson! : A gift for you. She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. and pours into glasses. bang. Irene walks behind dressing screen. ³Leave now. In that utterance. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. disappear. opens it. antechamber . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. he immediately takes a wine bottle.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. He does not want something bad happen to her. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. He tries to find out what she doing is. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. disappear. and then disappear) : Bang. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him.

Suddenly. Watson!´. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. exactly in Slaughter house. Holmes says to Watson. There. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. These German locks always give me trouble. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. they try to find and stop him. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. old boy. They are also aware that woman is Irene. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. They try . They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. According to that utterance. Holmes:Give us a leg up. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. ³Save the bullet.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe.

and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Watson. so he has to do it quickly and carefully.58 to help her but it is very difficult. Holmes says to Watson. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. Minutes later. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Setting: Attic . These German locks always give me a trouble´. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. boots echoing. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. Watson. hands it to Watson. Then. Data 14 Context: Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Watson. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. ³Give us a leg up. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. According to those utterances. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. Before those police approach the attic. old boy. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Holmes .

and they must follow it. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. sir. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. Because of the situation are dangerous. take us onto the bridge port side. Tanner: Right away. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. orders them to arrest Holmes. In that piece of paper. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. After Holmes is safe.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. The Lord Coward who has power to control police.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. ³Follow these instruction!´. . Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. In that utterance. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. then save him. that leads us to the sewers.

day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . Watson. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. he cannot handle it. On the boat. that leads us to the sewers´. After Holmes is safe. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. take us onto the bridge port side. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). When Holmes fight. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³If you would a captain. and Irene are in the sewers. Data 16 Context: Holmes. Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). They see a chemical weapon. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. Setting: Sewers . Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. Watson and Irene await him.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes.

day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. She cannot pass it. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. (Film script page 72) .61 Holmes. Watson. she has the gun. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. He screams to Irene. In these utterances. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. Fare thee well. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. However. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. he gets difficult to handle it. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Setting: Tower Bridge . When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. Fortunately.

there is no way for her to pass. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. In those utterances. . . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. In this case. In fact. fare thee well´. he is still alive. so. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Oh my lord. Watson. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. Holmes is aware about that. Then she runs and brings it with her. Watson: Worse things could happen? . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Knowing Irene¶s situation. . He looks dead. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Watson. Please. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. . Irene still can run and hide or not. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. In the tower. I think my legs have fallen . He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. chasing her to the tower. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation.

He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. ³Oh dear. . Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . In fact. In those utterances. . Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . Please.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. He says to Watson. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. I think my legs have fallen . and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. . He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. Then. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Watson. cheeks. Oh my lord.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. But. his crime is totally over. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged.

Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). ³Well. Consider it done. Holmes has no desire to work for money. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. Holmes says. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Data 2 . He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. I¶ll stop him´. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. According to those utterances.64 Holmes :Well. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). In addition. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. Consider it done. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. As great consulting detective.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Setting: Cathedral crypts . Because too focus. Watson. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. out of sight. Fortunately. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. his partner. In that utterance. comes on the perfect time to save him.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. In this context. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. . Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. out of sight. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Holmes says. Fortunately.

In that utterance. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. In this story.night . In the middle of the match. Therefore. So he decides to give it. McMurdo.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. talks to him. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. and hands him the newspaper. He fights his opponent. ³Thank You´. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Holmes has no case to be solved. Holmes has no case to be solved. (Film script page 6) Since three months. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). as a partner and close friend. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. exactly after Blackwood¶s case.

Therefore. On the table next to him. playing scale on his violin. Based on those utterances. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. You won. but in the middle. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Expressive states what the speaker feels. McMurdo. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. In the beginning of the match. Congratulations. We¶re done. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). ³That¶s it. He fights his opponent. big man . (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. he can fight very well. Congratulations´. We¶re done. .70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. big man . Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. . a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. . he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. he decides to end the match by saying. You won. .

He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. Individually. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. ³Excellent question. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). strolls. He asks Holmes. Then Holmes answers. Expressive states what the speaker feels. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell.71 Holmes: Excellent question. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. He just wants to respect it. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. Watson. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. I¶ve been at it for six hours. exactly in . In those utterances. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. : So glad you can accept my invitation. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. In his experiment. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. who looks at that. ³How did you lure them in?´. In the prison. listens and gets closer to him. Individually. playing scale on his violin.

Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Setting: London Street . What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. hence the scratches.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. Holmes:Very good. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. According to that utterance. He says to Blackwood. they hope. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. his hand slipped. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. even though. Watson predicts the . By looking for that store. he does not know and understand about that. Every time he wound the watch. they can get the address of the watch owner.

Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. He identifies some features on that body.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. hence the scratches. Well done. Watson. He is proud of him about that. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. In those utterances. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´. in his house. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. ³Very good. Watson. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Holmes says. According to those feature. He tries to identify where the man comes from. his hand slipped. That should lead us right to Blackwood. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Nine Elms. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. A factory by the river.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs.

That should lead us right to Blackwood´. well. He says his prediction to Holmes. he sees his partner and Irene near him. In the beginning. Nine Elms. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. And when Holmes is awake. Sohe can find the place. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. with us. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. Watson: Yes. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Holmes. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Holmes:Well.74 to the murderer.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. he assumes that Watson . Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Finally. they get Holmes still fall asleep. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . ³Queen side slaughterhouse. . He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. Watson. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Well done. I took the shrapnel out myself. Holmes can find that place by saying. A factory by the river. Nevertheless. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. including the address. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.

I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . he decides to take it. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. In this case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). with us´. well. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He just can say. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Holmes predicts who the murderer is.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. . He looks like very interested with the new case so.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. Setting: Holmes¶ house . ³Well. In that utterance. . And the most important thing is. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. there is a new case from Clarky.

He says to Clarky. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. Based on that utterance.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). ³Case reopened!´. like Blackwood¶s case. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. . He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear.

Ordering(3). Insisting(2). Entreating(2). Asking(1). Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. expressive. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. 2. Based on the findings. Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. and declaration. Telling(1) Commanding(6). 4. Praising(4). Arguing(1). Refusal(1) Thanking(2). commissive.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Inviting(1). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. Representative Directive Asserting(3). 5. No. In his utterances. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. Requesting(2). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Congratulating(1). Informing(2). Advising(1) Promising(3). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. Conclusions In this chapter. They are representative. directive.

the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. direct and indirect. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. Suggestions In this research. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. John Watson. B. especially when they have cases to be solved. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Then. In the directive. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. normally speaking. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework.78 According to the table. the writer suggests: 1. . they have much time together to spend.They are performed. because in that movie. literal and non-literal. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning.

Finally. especially illocutionary acts. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. magazine. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. etc. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. especially in illocutionary act.79 2. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. . in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. such as comic.

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