CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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20. and it can be the act of explaining.cit. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. etc. op. in appropriate circumstances. directing. arguing. op.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. People have certain purposes. 236-237. when and where the conversation happen. . implicit or explicit in doing communication. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading.11 In this research. etc. 11 Stephen C. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. (1996). If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. Being conscious or not.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. Levinson. variously. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts. An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. one may say of this utterance that. (1993). predicting.9 3.cit. 9 10 Ibid. p. advising the addressee to shoot her. it has the illocutionary force of. promising. I Dewa Putu Wijana. forcing. threatening.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. ordering. apologizing. asking. pp. we will get much information unmentioned.

This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. on the right time. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Unpredictable. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Watson saves him. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts. For example in the beginning of the story. Because of that. . Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. In this context. In this context. Fortunately. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson. Watson. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. In that utterance. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic.

this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. C. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. B. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. the research¶s question is. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script. Then. Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. Sherlock Holmes. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Indirectly. Research Question For the analysis. Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. because of.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication.

Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers. Research Methodology 1. good understanding about speech acts. especially by using John R.7 D. E. especially for linguists or linguistic students. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. selecting. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting. especially for illocutionary acts. 3. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. . the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. 2. In this research. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script.

Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. 4. Analyzing data. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. 7. Searching the film and its script. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. 5. Then.For the script. Instrument of the Research In this research. 4. Reading entire dialogue on script. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 5. Watching the movie thoroughly. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. . 3.8 1. 6. 2. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. Writing a report of the study.

13 It means that you can use language to do thing. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. p. An Introduction to Language. but also warn someone.op. expositive. verdictive. (2009). 14 Victoria Fromkin. you not only say something. and perlocutionary acts. issue warnings. George Yule. 2-3. locutionary acts. Leech (in Nadar. Generally. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. you can use language to make promises. illocutionary acts. 214. (1996). Searle (1979) F. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts.cit. 47. behabitive. In this analysis. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. p.X. 13 12 9 . the writer will use John R. and commissive. Nadar.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. op. (USA: Heinle. Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. lay bets.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. pp.cit. excercitive.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. etc. 2003).

directives commissives. we can do something. http://www. pragmatics.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. semiotics learns about signs.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. (Bandung: Angkasa. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan.16 Searle. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Morris (in Tarigan. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton. John L. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Accessed on January 29. Generally.nd. and linguistics. expressives. 30. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. Pengajaran Pragmatik. and declarations.15 For the first time.htm. 15 . p. After Morris. 2011. assertives. 2009). Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. A.

Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. Austin says. p. speech acts. In this research. B. All the utterance shows speech acts. etc. 6. and the kinds of actions (for example. 18 17 . presupposition. p. op. he also does something. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). (1983).18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings.cit. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings). when somebody says something. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time. op. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way.20 In pragmatics. their purposes or goals. op. there are so many things learned such as deixis. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). Later. Levinson.cit. basically. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. their assumptions. Speech Acts For the first time.cit.11 meaning´. 4. consist of. p. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words. 19 Ibid. 207.19 Another definition. requests) that they are performing when they speak.17 According to Yule. George Yule (1996).

which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. How to Do Things with Words. undertaking. ordering. and there is a meaning in behind. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. 14. 23 J. 108. 1962). 1994).For him. warning. ( Cambridge: Blackwell. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. ordering. p. speech acts is used by Austin. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. Austin. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶).e. thanking. by saying something. So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). p.22 C.. Nadar (2009). Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. Approaches to Discourse. we do something. 22 21 . op. &c. such as asserting. apologizing. i. Thirdly. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. congratulating.cit. Second. p. 24 Ibid. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. questioning. not just the utterance which has performative verb. He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. F. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. explaining.X. the speakers solely do not just utter something. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. 94. 51. etc.L. p.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication.

cit. On the example above. (1996). p. 2009). persuading. 1999). 17. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. 44. [1] Man has two arms and legs. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. . phonic act (producing sounds). C. 27 Abdul Chaer.25 According to Wijana (1996). deterring. 78.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. Pragmatics. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. and even. saying. and also does not influence the hearer. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. locutionary act consists of. He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. without the inclination to do something. c. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei. such as convincing. a. p. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary). locutionary act is called the act of saying something. surprising or misleading.27 For example. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. b.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. (Great Britain: Routledge. In details. p.1. op. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. I Dewa Putu Wijana. Moreover.

[2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. op. 14. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). p. Therefore. p. F. 18. 6. etc.2. Semantic.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). 2007). p.cit. this act is known as the act of doing something.19.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. etc. 29 28 . but also to do something. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. or by a wife to her husband. promising. Wachyu Sandayana. threatening. C. offering. threatening. (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. Nadar (2009).X. promising. apologizing.cit. by a teacher to male student at such institutions. or. So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. 44.cit. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. asking. and aspect C refers to the meaning. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. op. op. ordering.31 For example. and it can be the act of asserting. p. thanking. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. Nevertheless.14 certain meaning). if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration.29 According to Austin.

cit. By using illocutionary force. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer.. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik. 33 32 . p. 2005).33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. Deliberately or not.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. Kushartanti. In other words. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. then that information will be received by the hearer. when and where the conversation happen. this effect is created by the speaker. Thus. et al. warning. the speaker wants to asking. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. or ordering something. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. loc. 110.32 Through those utterances. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. etc. (2007). The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´. informing.3. C. promising. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes.

op. John R. excercitive.36 The most important weakness is simply this. convincing.cit. etc. [3] I was very busy yesterday. (New York: Cambridge University Press. such as shocking. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. behabitive. 35 34 . expositive. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. and commissive. 10. p. 1979). There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. 37 Ibid. For example. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. Searle. 1. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. p.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). In other words. misleading. 20.16 affecting someone. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. 36 Ibid. p. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. etc. 8. D. p.

op. command. predict. George Yule (1996).2. 12-20. . affirm. etc. In using a directive. advice. the world is actually not flat anymore. suggest. Assertive verbs are state. describe. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D.cit. tell. Directive verbs are order. According to Yule. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). In the utterance above. In this example. complain. They express what the speaker wants. D.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. 38 39 Ibid. assert. pp. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. request. to the truth of the expressed proposition.17 Because of those weaknesses.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. boast. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. report. claim.1. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). p. inform. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. For example: [4] The earth is flat. argue. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. hypothesize. 53.

beg. plead. refusal. challenge. dare. For example promise ± request.Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. James!´. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). In the utterance above. the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). . permit. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). pledge. Commissive verbs are vow. promise. the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker). ask. Etc. entreat. pray. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). threat. D. They express what the speaker intends. defy. offer.18 recommend.3. the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). invite. etc. In using a commissive. For example: [5] Open the door.

5. praise. ministers or religion christening babies. christen. cure. etc. (Classical examples are judges sentencing. In that utterance. nominate. pain. declare. thank you very much for coming. In this.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. D. bless. deplore. For example: [7] Sir. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. offenders. pardon. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). In using a declaration. welcome. greet. etc. Expressive verbs are thank. as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. etc. condol e. appoint. Declaration verbs are resign. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed.) . leave-taking. In using an expressive. disapprove. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. compliment. congratulate. normally speaking. blame. or sorrow. mock. the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure.19 D. the speaker changes the world via the words. excommunicate. sentence. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. approve. joy. apologize. name. dislike.4. like. confirm. dignitaries naming ships. these actions are. dismiss.

legal. take a look at the table below.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player.) action is performed. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness. (1983). In this example. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. etc. p. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. George Yule (1996). As institutional rather than personal acts.106.cit. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. the judge has complete authority in doing so. op. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. .20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´.cit. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker. p. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring). op.. 55. For example. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. Moreover. religious.

cit. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. will always signify one or more addressees. in the widest sense. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. however. etc.6. . Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. gender.43 E. According to Mey (in Nadar.2.1. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. intimacy level. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation. p. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. 13. E. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. Ibid. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. op. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. Therefore. The use of symbol h.21 E. p.

pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. 3-4. op. Nadar. in time. The term goal is more neutral than intention. because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation.X. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics). but can be used generally of goal oriented activities.5. E. .4.22 intelligible. rather than to the verbal act itself. E.44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. or s¶s intention in uttering it. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar.cit. (2009).3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance. In this respect. 44 F. E. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. pp.

we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. However. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. or as a question. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. but strictly speaking. In this second sense. .) and his partner Dr.23 For example. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. identified by their use in a particular situation. or as a request. might be described as a sentence. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. In fact. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. or sentencetoken. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. it cannot be a sentence. late 19 th century. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. F. utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. However.

The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name.he darts between columns. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. named Mrs. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. and then attacks him. Watson comes running over. as Blackwood has requested to see him.and finally enters a non-descript building. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood. Once inside. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. After that. As he taunts Watson. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . where a black magic ritual is taking place. Then. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. he brings Holmes to the prison. Holmes and Watson live together in the house. He is in a tremendous hurry . He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Most of the guards are afraid of . located on 221B Baker Street. until he reaches the basement. but is stopped by Holmes. In that house. Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. Turns out. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase. Holmes continues running down the stairs. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Hudson (Geraldine James). In the center of the room. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl.24 This movie is open with Dr. there is also a housekeeper.

Fortunately. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. He is planning on killing three more people.25 getting closer to Blackwood. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. they can defeat and chase them away. and try to cover and help Blackwood. and then legally declares him dead. For instance. but as a result. But in fact. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. he is genuinely curious about the situation. In the British court. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. He . In the other sides. Getting the clues is very hard. After that. Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. Holmes will help him. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Holmes and Watson have to face them. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. Watson feels for a pulse. nevertheless. There are many people involved.

He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. Holmes wants to destroy that device. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. 45 IMDb.html.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. 2011. Accessed on February 4. The house of Parliament will be the next site. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime. http://www.imdb. 45 . Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. but.

As though. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts.1. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Asserting (Sure) 27 . All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. classifies. 1. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts. A. a pale. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. 2. he can get inside their heads. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. the writer compiles. Data Description In this part. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison.

28 3. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. In his cell. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. I don¶t agree. Informing (found) . So. Luke Reordan. But. Holmes:Agreed. Setting: London Street . 4. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. close to Holmes. Asserting (Agree) 5. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. Holmes. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. you agree? Holmes:No. She likes gingered dwarfs. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. midget. Furthermore. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it.

Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). . Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. (Observe) grabbing his collar. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye.29 which is dead. Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. Holmes thinks that it is true. Setting: Unknown building . and that¶s my area of expertise. 7. Holmes: I feel safer already. If you still need him.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . . it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. (Film script page 62) A. almost invisible. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. 1. Irene: Oh dear. Setting: Attic . 2. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand.2. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. . Holmes: I can¶t but. consider it a wager that you will. Setting: Holmes¶ room . and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Irene: Well. Mr. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. 4.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Nanny? Mrs. Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. My mind is in a terrible condition. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Everything is in its proper place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Asking (Allow) . Holmes:Don¶t touch that. Hudson Mrs. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. puts the tray before him. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. 5. . Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table. agree. give me a problem. Hudson: Tea.

Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Based on that prediction. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Insisting (Admit) . From that place.31 garbage bin but he lands badly. Setting: Grave yard .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. admit it! 9. Holmes begins examining the body. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Therefore. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. 8. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. he becomes dirty. He is a much smaller man than him. Setting: Pawnbrokers .

. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. assembly line ± night. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. (Suddenly comes. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse.32 10.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. You¶re good at that.(gun¶s sound) 11. antechamber . . Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Holmes inspects it. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. Holmes:Leave now. disappear. Advising (Leave) 12. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Advising (Save) 13. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. moves through a door. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . and finds some clues. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. bang.

Setting: Sewers .33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Ordering (Follow) 15. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. Holmes:Give us a leg up. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. sir.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14.morning The Participants: Holmes. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. Then. and Irene are in the sewers. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. . He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. he cannot handle it. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. take us onto the bridge port side. Watson. Watson. Setting: Attic . Watson. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. When Holmes fight. boots echoing. then save him. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. old boy. 16.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. that leads us to the sewers. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . These German locks always give me trouble. hands it to Watson. After Holmes is safe. Tanner: Right away.

Please. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Watson. I think my legs have fallen . I can¶t feel my cheeks . 18. (Film script page 78) A. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution.3. . He looks dead. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. Oh my lord. Watson. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters .morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . She cannot pass it. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. Then. Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. . Fare thee well. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Setting: Tower bridge . he is still alive. Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Indications 1. In fact. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all.

(Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. Setting: On the boat . I¶ll tell you everything. In the hospital.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. Captain Tanner. cut. Setting: Tower bridge . Promising (Guarantee) 3. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Refusal (Must) 4. And certainly not for a price. But not for you. I must attend to my other patients. She cannot pass it. Setting: Hospital room . Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. he is burned. Consider it done. Fare thee well.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. His eyes still closed.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. (Film script page 72) 2. Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Holmes: Well. slaughterhouse. Promising (Won¶t) . and scraped. I will stop him. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. bruised.

On the table next to him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo.36 A. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Fortunately. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You. big man. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. McMurdo. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Praising (Excellent) . Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Thanking (Thank you) 4. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. In the middle of the match. The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Indications 1. Setting: Cathedral crypts .. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson..morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. and hands him the newspaper. playing scale on his violin. 3. We¶re done. out of sight. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. Holmes has no case to be solved.4. Congratulations. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. You won. talks to him.

Praising (Well done) . Watson. I¶ve been at it for six hours. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. strolls. Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. 5.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Every time he wound the watch. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. in his house. Individually. Setting: London street . (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question. Holmes: Very good. hence the scratches.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. A factory by the river. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Well done. He tries to identify where the man comes from. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Praising (Very good) 7. Setting: Holmes¶ house . He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Nine Elms. Right.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. Praising (Love) 6. his hand slipped. Setting: Prison . Watson. listens and gets closer to him. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Watson is actually interested and curious about that.

Holmes: Well. I took the shrapnel out myself. 1. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Setting: Holmes¶ house . Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No.38 8. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. with us. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. (Film script page 62) A. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . he decides to take it. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Holmes.5. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Watson: Yes. He looks like very interested with the new case so. .

(Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some . Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). In that utterance.39 B. to the truth of the expressed proposition. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. When arriving. Holmes says to Watson. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Data Analysis In this part. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy.

As though. Considering that reason. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. to the . he can get inside their heads. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. As though. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. the guard looks like pale and nervous. he can get inside their heads´ . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business.40 prepositions are true. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. because of that. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. Data 2 Context: In the prison. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. In this context. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. It makes Holmes confuse. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. a pale. Based on that utterance. he is better to die than live. Holmes is led by prison guard. The guard says.

³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. His . Blackwood is at right side of the bars. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Without courtesy. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. close to Holmes. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. In his cell. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company.41 truth of the expressed proposition. He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself.He says to Blackwood. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. According to that utterance.

Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). She likes gingered dwarfs. When Holmes wants to open it. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Luke Reordan. She likes gingered dwarfs. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. Luke Reordan. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to . I don¶t agree´. So.42 partner. ³You¶re obviously not her type. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. I don¶t agree´. Holmes decides to back home. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. ³No. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Midget. Because of that. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. you agree? Holmes:No.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. midget. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. So. In the utterance ³No. I don¶t agree.

Holmes says to him. He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. But. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. They are very curious about that weird thing. to the truth of the expressed proposition. He does not . ³Agreed. Holmes:Agreed. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. Setting: London Street . Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. But. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Holmes. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. According to those utterances. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. At this time.

he just can assume. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. to the truth of the . Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. . He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation. Without it. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Furthermore. ³I found your man. . Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. After doing that.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. If you still need him. Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. The data is very important for him to find the truth. Irene : Oh dear. He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. not make conclusion to solve the case.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. if you still need him´. He says. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data.

He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. to the truth of the expressed proposition. tonight. she suggests him to work outside the law. Holmes: I feel safer already. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now.45 expressed proposition. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. Without courtesy. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). And she will help him if he wants to do that. However. Irene tells him that police looks for him. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. Holmes¶ eyes are open. he sees Watson and Irene near him. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Because of that. and that¶s my area of expertise. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. he sleeps in the attic. Apparently. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. ³I feel safer already´.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Setting: Attic .

46 belief that he is safe. Before stopping him. almost invisible. especially for Watson and Irene. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. Holmes stops him. they have to defeat his followers first. But suddenly. In this context. After all followers defeated. Holmes holds him and says. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. grabbing his collar. and he wants nobody worry about him. Holmes saves the woman. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. . Setting: Unknown building . Watson becomes mad and then attacks him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands.

Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. My mind is in a terrible condition. Holmes says. agree. and asks to give him a case.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). ³I can¶t but agree. In that utterance. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes :I can¶t but. My mind is in a terrible condition.47 In the utterance. give me work!´. Holmes thinks that it is true. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). Holmes wants Watson to . Give me a problem. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters. give me a problem. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. exactly since Blackwood¶s case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). She crosses Holmes. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. as per usual. Hudson. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Suddenly. she removes an old tray before he goes. Then Mrs. ´Don¶t touch that. Everything is in its proper place. give me work´to entreat his partner. Everything is in its proper place. brings a tray of bread and tea. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. He uses . Nanny? Mrs. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. After that.and puts it onto the table. Data 3 Context: Mrs. Based on the characteristic. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Hudson Mrs. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Nanny´. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. Hudson : Tea.48 give him work. Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. Hudson comes into the room. In that utterance. Mr. He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Holmes says to Mrs. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. puts the tray before him. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. He wants her to keep it. According to that utterance. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´. Without courtesy. He will take the case if it can make him curious.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. Irene : Well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. . Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. Immediately. ³Keep your money. carrying a case. Apparently. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. consider it a wager that you will.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case. she gives a large bag of coins for him. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. he rejects it and says. Hudson to not touch everything in his room. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. Setting: Holmes¶ room . For that reason.

. In this story. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. ³Allow me to explain´. In that utterance. (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). Setting: Holmes¶ room . caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house. Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten. . He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper.

Therefore. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. help! Watson!´. . Through that utterance. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. he becomes dirty. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house .51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. he screams. But for the second jumps.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. he falls into garbage bin. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. In that situation. Nevertheless. ³Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating).

. but Reordan.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. He says to Lestrade. Setting: Grave yard . Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). In Blackwood¶s grave. He is a much smaller man than him. ´May I borrow your pen?´. This case becomes something interesting for him. In that utterance. Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Lestrade shows the coffin. Therefore. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. In this story.

Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. There. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides. She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. ³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. Based on that prediction. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting). Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. Based on that utterance. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. He tries to convince him by saying. Data 9 . Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. Setting: Pawnbrokers .

and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Holmes inspects it. They have already gone from the pawnshop. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). From that place.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. In the other sides. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . moves through a door. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. and the family as well´. and finds some clues. In that utterance. ´Give her my best. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her.

Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. He says to Watson. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. and something strange in the corner. (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. . Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. They find very many chemical materials. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. In that utterance. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . Together. Apparently. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. some experiments. Watson says to Holmes. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen.

He does not want something bad happen to her. and then disappear) : Bang.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). He tries to find out what she doing is. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. In the other sides. opens it. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. antechamber . disappear. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. You¶re good at that. . Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. ³Leave now. Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. After entering the room. and pours into glasses. (Suddenly comes.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Irene is too far involved. In that utterance.56 Holmes:Leave now. you¶re good at that´. Watson! : A gift for you. Irene walks behind dressing screen. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). he immediately takes a wine bottle. disappear. Holmes says to Irene. bang. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room.

(Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. exactly in Slaughter house. Holmes says to Watson. According to that utterance.Suddenly. These German locks always give me trouble. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Holmes:Give us a leg up. they try to find and stop him. They try . Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. There. ³Save the bullet. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Watson!´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. old boy. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. They are also aware that woman is Irene. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering).

He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. These German locks always give me a trouble´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding).morning The Participants: Holmes. he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor.58 to help her but it is very difficult. Data 14 Context: Holmes. boots echoing. ³Give us a leg up. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. Setting: Attic . Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Then. He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. hands it to Watson. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Minutes later. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. Holmes says to Watson. Holmes . Watson. Watson. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. Before those police approach the attic. According to those utterances. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. old boy. Watson. so he has to do it quickly and carefully.

.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Tanner: Right away.59 hands the paper to Watson and says.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. that leads us to the sewers. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. take us onto the bridge port side. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. orders them to arrest Holmes. sir. Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. In that utterance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Because of the situation are dangerous. and they must follow it. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. then save him. After Holmes is safe. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. ³Follow these instruction!´. In that piece of paper.

Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Data 16 Context: Holmes. Setting: Sewers . They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. and Irene are in the sewers. he cannot handle it. On the boat. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. Watson and Irene await him. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. that leads us to the sewers´. take us onto the bridge port side. ³If you would a captain. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. Watson. After Holmes is safe. He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . When Holmes fight. They see a chemical weapon.

In these utterances. He screams to Irene. Fare thee well. he gets difficult to handle it. Fortunately. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. She cannot pass it. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. However. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. Setting: Tower Bridge . (Film script page 72) . That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). she has the gun.61 Holmes.

. In those utterances. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Watson. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Then she runs and brings it with her. He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Watson. so. Please. . Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He looks dead. . In fact. fare thee well´. Oh my lord. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. he is still alive. In this case. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. Holmes is aware about that. I think my legs have fallen . In the tower. there is no way for her to pass. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. Watson: Worse things could happen? . chasing her to the tower.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. . I can¶t feel my cheeks . Knowing Irene¶s situation. Irene still can run and hide or not. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all.

Watson. Please. Oh my lord. . Then. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death.63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. his crime is totally over. . He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. . . He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. But. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court. In fact. cheeks. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. ³Oh dear. I think my legs have fallen . He says to Watson. In those utterances. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged.

Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. In addition. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. ³Well. According to those utterances. Holmes says. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. Consider it done. As great consulting detective. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). I¶ll stop him´. Data 2 . Consider it done. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future.64 Holmes :Well. Holmes has no desire to work for money. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Fortunately. Because too focus. In this context. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). Watson. . out of sight.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him. In that utterance. out of sight. his partner. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance. Holmes says. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. comes on the perfect time to save him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. Fortunately.

Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. Holmes has no case to be solved. McMurdo. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. He fights his opponent. exactly after Blackwood¶s case.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. Setting: Holmes¶ room . In the middle of the match.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. as a partner and close friend. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. (Film script page 6) Since three months. talks to him. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition.night . He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Holmes has no case to be solved. In that utterance. Expressive states what the speaker feels. So he decides to give it. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Therefore. ³Thank You´. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. and hands him the newspaper. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . In this story. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case.

The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. he can fight very well. Therefore. Congratulations. You won. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . In the beginning of the match. big man . You won. . . We¶re done. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. Expressive states what the speaker feels. big man . On the table next to him. . but in the middle. he decides to end the match by saying. He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. Congratulations´.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Based on those utterances. McMurdo. . ³That¶s it. McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. We¶re done. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. playing scale on his violin. He fights his opponent. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night.

: So glad you can accept my invitation. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . I¶ve been at it for six hours. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. He asks Holmes. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. exactly in .71 Holmes: Excellent question. ³How did you lure them in?´. In his experiment. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. In the prison. Individually. listens and gets closer to him. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. He just wants to respect it. who looks at that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising). In those utterances. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. ³Excellent question. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. strolls. Then Holmes answers. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell. Watson. Individually. playing scale on his violin.

he does not know and understand about that. Setting: London Street . he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising). He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. Holmes:Very good. Every time he wound the watch. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. they can get the address of the watch owner. By looking for that store. Watson predicts the . his hand slipped.72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. hence the scratches. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. Watson.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. He says to Blackwood. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. they hope. even though. According to that utterance. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it.

³Very good. Watson. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. A factory by the river. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. Holmes says. Well done. Nine Elms. In those utterances. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. in his house. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. hence the scratches. his hand slipped. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. Setting: Holmes¶ house . (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. He is proud of him about that. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. He identifies some features on that body. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). According to those feature. That should lead us right to Blackwood. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction.

Based on Holmes¶ utterances. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Holmes:Well. Watson.74 to the murderer. Well done. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. including the address. A factory by the river. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . In the beginning. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. he assumes that Watson . That should lead us right to Blackwood´. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. I took the shrapnel out myself. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Watson: Yes. Holmes can find that place by saying. Sohe can find the place. He says his prediction to Holmes. And when Holmes is awake. they get Holmes still fall asleep. Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Holmes. Nine Elms. well. Finally. Nevertheless. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. with us. he sees his partner and Irene near him. . Expressive states what the speaker feels.

Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). Expressive states what the speaker feels.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. ³Well. well. He looks like very interested with the new case so. In that utterance. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. he decides to take it. He just can say. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . with us´. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. . And the most important thing is. In this case. Setting: Holmes¶ house . there is a new case from Clarky. . He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. Holmes predicts who the murderer is.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him.

. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing). Based on that utterance. He says to Clarky. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. like Blackwood¶s case.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. ³Case reopened!´.

Informing(2). In his utterances. No. Congratulating(1). Telling(1) Commanding(6). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. expressive. Arguing(1). these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. Insisting(2). Based on the findings. Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . directive. and declaration. Advising(1) Promising(3). Entreating(2). Asking(1). They are representative. 4. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Praising(4). 5. Ordering(3). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. commissive. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). Requesting(2). Inviting(1). Representative Directive Asserting(3).CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions In this chapter. The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. 2.

78 According to the table. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. Suggestions In this research. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act. B. especially when they have cases to be solved.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. John Watson. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. direct and indirect. the writer suggests: 1. Then. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. normally speaking. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. they have much time together to spend. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. literal and non-literal. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In the directive. because in that movie. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework.They are performed. . the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved.

Finally. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. etc. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. especially illocutionary acts. especially in illocutionary act. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. such as comic. magazine. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act.79 2. .