CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

A. Background of Study In every day¶s life, as a human, we always interact each other in the society. That thing must be happened and cannot be avoided. The interaction to the society is a need, In other words, we cannot live alone without any help from other people. So, communication is very important thing at anytime and anywhere. In communication, language holds the important role for process in communication. Language is an arbitrary spoken symbol used by the member of society for communication and interaction each other based on culture they have.1 Language is used in every aspectin life, like economy, culture, social and politics. Language has various purposes. We can use it for some different purposes. In daily life, we may use language as referential, affective, esthetic, or phatic. As referential, language functions to give information or just inform something. As affective, language functions to convey the information precisely. As esthetic, language functions for aesthetics and as phatic, language functions to create a

Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Psikolinguistik: Pengantar Pemahaman Bahasa Manusia 2nd edition, (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2008), p. 16.

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good social relationship and avoid friction (social fabrication).2 All function explained above relates to the pragmatics. Pragmatics is the branch of study of language becoming popular nowadays. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. Pragmatics itself is the branch of linguistics learning about language structure in external way. It means how unit of language is used in communication.3According to Yule, pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms.4The meaning learned in pragmatics is context-bound or context dependent. It is different with semantics learning the meaning without context. Context holds the important role and cannot be separated in learning pragmatics. According to Firth, study of language cannot be done without considering situation context, such as; participation, the act of participation (verbal and nonverbal), the characteristics of relevant situations with continuous thing, and the impact of speech acts which is showed by types of change, occurs by participant¶s action.5 In reality, how do we know we are dealing with pragmatic, rather than with semantic phenomena? Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situations will be a criterion. 6

Linda Thomas & Shan Wareing, Bahasa, Masyarakat & Kekuasaan, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar, 2007), pp. 12-14. 3 I. Dewa Putu Wijana, Dasar-Dasar Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Andi Offset,1996), p.1. 4 George Yule, Pragmatics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 9. 5 Ibid, p. 5. 6 Geoffrey Leech, Prinsip-Prinsip Pragmatik, (Jakarta:UI-Press. 1993), p. 19.

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1. Addressers or addressees 2. The context of an utterance 3. The goal (s) of an utterance 4. The utterance as a form of act or activity : a speech act 5. The utterance as a product of a verbal act One of pragmatics¶ objects is ³speech acts´. The termof speech actsfor the first time is used by J.L. Austin. He is known as´Father of Speech Acts¶ Theory´. For him, uttering something means do something, such as; [1] I name this ship the Queen Elizabeth¶ ± as uttered when smashing the bottle against the stern. On the first Austin¶s theory, that utterance is named performative. By issuing his book entitle ³How to do things with words´ which has implication by using words, we can do many things. Austin isolates three basic senses in which in saying something one is doing something, and hence three kinds of acts that are simultaneously performed7:

1. Locutionary Acts: the utterance of a sentence with determinate sense and reference.This act is kind of speech acts which solely state something.8 2. Illocutionary Acts: the making of statement, offering, promising, etc. in uttering a sentence, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it (or with its explicit performative paraphrase).This act is what
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Stephen C. Levinson. Pragmatic,(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. F.X. Nadar, Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik, (Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu, 2009), p. 14.

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An Illocutionary acts is so difficult to be identified because we have to consider who the speaker and hearer are. Being conscious or not. etc. apologizing. 11 Stephen C. predicting.10 The bringing about of effects on the audience by means of uttering the sentence.For example of the explanation above: [2] Shoot her! We can analyze. such effects being special to the circumstances of utterance. in appropriate circumstances. 20. op. we will get much information unmentioned. That causesillocutionary actsbecome center to understand speech acts.11 In this research. threatening. variously. and it can be the act of explaining. If we can understand the implicit meaning of utterance. (1996). arguing. forcing. when and where the conversation happen. . pp. directing. Perlocutionary Acts: kind of speech acts that the purpose of the utterance is to influence the hearer to do something. or frightening the addressee into shooting her. Levinson.cit. p. ordering. illocutionary acts become special studies rather than locutionary acts and perlocutionary acts. promising.9 3. implicit or explicit in doing communication. People have certain purposes. I Dewa Putu Wijana.4 the speaker wants to achieve when uttering something. advising the addressee to shoot her.cit. the people apply pragmatics in their communication. asking. (1993). 9 10 Ibid. 236-237. etc. but the perlocutionary effect of persuading. it has the illocutionary force of. op. one may say of this utterance that.

. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Because of that. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner. In that utterance. This utterance is an illocutionary act of expressive. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it.This utterance means as a warning for Watson to be careful and not emotional when getting angry. The utterance above is illocutionary act of directive. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous tool to kill. In this context. Holmes spies on Blackwood¶s crime toward the woman. on the right time. [4] Watson! Don¶t!Observe. Watson. Watson saves him. [5] This woman needs hospital immediately. Unpredictable. It is not caused he has been for a long time does not meet him but because his partner always on his side when he is in big trouble and helpshim. Holmes is happy after meet Watson. For example in the beginning of the story. This utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner Watson.5 In the ³Sherlock Holmes¶ movie´ produced by director Guy Ritchie. Holmes holds Watson and says µDon¶t! Observe¶. Blackwood¶s follower is aware of Holmes existence and tries to attack him. Fortunately. [3] Always nice to see you Watson. to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. In this context. has much unique utterances that contain illocutionary acts.

Watson uses the word µneed¶ to indirectly ask Sheriff to bring the woman to the hospital. B. The writer chooses the illocutionary acts to analyze the main character. Research Question For the analysis. Focus of the Study According to the background of study above. The writer also chooses Sherlock Holmes¶ movie because it is very interesting to be analyzed since Holmes as great consulting detective and Watson as a doctor have unique and various ways in their communication. what types of illocutionary acts are dominantlypresented in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie spoken by Sherlock Holmes? . Some utterances above are parts of the illocutionary actsin this paper. Watson says to sheriff that the woman must have hospital immediately since she is in serious condition and must be cured. this research will focus on the types of illocutionary acts in the Sherlock Holmes¶ moviespoken by Sherlock Holmes and its script.6 The utterance above is an illocutionary act of Assertive and also directive. this moviebecomes more interesting to be analyzed. Sherlock Holmes. Holmes and Watson are so closed in many things in their life. C. the research¶s question is. Then. because of. this kind of act has become the center to understand speech acts entirely. Because of they are so closed and cannot be separated. Indirectly. in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie since it analyzes what the speaker¶s intends and what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something.

Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to know the types of illocutionary acts which are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as main character in the Sherlock Holmes¶ movie through its script. especially for linguists or linguistic students. E. selecting. Method of the Research The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative where the writer describes and analyzes the selected of illocutionary acts taken from the script of the movie. 2. and clarifying the suitable utterances with the method and relevant concept. good understanding about speech acts. . Technique of Data Analysis The data will be analyzed through descriptive qualitative by collecting.and then classifies them according to the types of illocutionary acts. especially by using John R. 3.7 D. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts. Research Methodology 1. In this research. the process of collecting data is done through the following steps. especially for illocutionary acts. This research gives the description about the types of illocutionary acts used dominantly by Sherlock Holmes in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie and its representation. Significance of the Study The writer hopes this research will give the readers.

Then. 7. the writer inserts the page number by himself to make it easier to refer. the writer uses himself as main instrument to get the required data. Searching the film and its script.For the script. This movie is produced by director Guy Ritchie. 5. Reading entire dialogue on script. 4. Remembering that the involvement of the writer is very important.8 1. 2. Analyzing data. 6. Unit of Analysis The unit analysis of this research is a Sherlock Holmes¶movie and its script. Writing a report of the study. the writer will follow some steps of the research neatly. Grouping the dialogue in relation to types of illocutionary acts. Watching the movie thoroughly. story from fiction novel written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. . Instrument of the Research In this research. Choosing the illocutionary acts on the script. the writer searches on the internet and finds it unofficial with no page. 4. The writer cannot find the official one since there is no final script for this movie from its official website. 3. 5.

47. locutionary acts. Searle (1979) F. George Yule. 2003). Generally. Searle¶s taxonomy of illocutionary acts to analyze the utterances since Searle¶s taxonomy has greater clarity and force than Austin¶s. Nadar. etc.cit. the writer will use John R. (2009). (USA: Heinle.14 Austin (1962) divides speech acts into three basic categories. 13 12 9 . Both of them depend on the context of utterance and use. but also warn someone. Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts. 214.12 This study has closed relation with speech acts. p. By saying I warn you that there is a sheepdog in the closet. op. In this analysis. Leech (in Nadar. you not only say something. 2009: 2) shows two types of the meaning. lay bets. and perlocutionary acts. 14 Victoria Fromkin. you can use language to make promises. There are intended meaning and interpreted meaning. (1996). expositive.cit.op. issue warnings. behabitive. verdictive. illocutionary acts. actions performed via utterances are called ³speech acts´. Intended meaning is the meaning that the speaker wants to achieve and interpreted meaning is the meaning that is interpreted by the hearer.X. An Introduction to Language. p. pp. and commissive.CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Studying pragmatics is very interesting because it learns the meaning of utterance by involving the context. 2-3.13 It means that you can use language to do thing. excercitive.

Pengajaran Pragmatik. After Morris. pragmatics.15 For the first time. Linguists have different point of view about pragmatics. Pragmatics Pragmatics is the study of language becoming popular nowadays. semiotics learns about signs. 15 . assertives. Austin continues studying pragmatics by issuing his book under the title How to Do Things with Words which has implication by using words. Pragmatics originally has its roots in Morris¶ idea of a division of signs concerned with ³the relation of signs to their interpreters or users´. 2011. A. directives commissives. 2009). and declarations. Charles Morris: A Brief Outline of His Philosophywith relations to semiotics. we can do something.16 Searle. Generally.nd. pragmatics¶ term is used by Charles Morris in 1938 in relation with semiotics or semiology. 30. John L. http://www. Accessed on January 29. Morris uses pragmatics¶ term to refer the relation between signs and the people who interpret it. The word µpragmatics¶ comes from Greek which the meaning refers to the activity or event. Morris (in Tarigan. Linguists are aware that the effort to get the essence of language will not give the best result without the understanding about pragmatics. 16 Henry Guntur Tarigan. (Bandung: Angkasa. p. expressives. Kiefer & Bierwisch suggest that ´pragmaticsis one of those words (societal and cognitive are others) that give the impression that something quite specific and technical is being talked about when often in fact it has no clear Eugene Halton.edu/~ehalton/Morrisbio. 2009:30) defines pragmatics as study of signs relation with the interpreter. and linguistics.htm.10 classifies illocutionary acts into five basic categories.

presupposition. op. basically. op. op. p. he does not only say the words but also do the action (promise). 19 Ibid.11 meaning´. B. when somebody says something. pragmatics is the study of the relationships between linguistic forms and the users of those forms. their assumptions. pragmatics is concerned with the interpretation with linguistic meaning in context. consist of.cit. 6. a locutionary act (the production of sounds and words with meanings).19 Another definition. 207.18 The advantage of studying language via pragmatics is that one can talk about people¶s intended meanings. that lectured is published in 1962 under the title How to Do Things with Words.cit. George Yule (1996). In this research. Austin says. The big disadvantage is that all these very human concepts are extremely difficult to analyze in a consistent and objective way. etc. 4. their purposes or goals.20 In pragmatics. speech acts. the writer will focus to analyze speech acts comprehensively. p. 20 Victoria Fromkin (2003). he also does something. Speech acts¶ term comes from Austin¶s lectured in Harvard University in 1955. p. requests) that they are performing when they speak. there are so many things learned such as deixis. Later. All the utterance shows speech acts. and the kinds of actions (for example. Speech Acts For the first time. When somebody uses verb promises in I promise I will come on time.17 According to Yule. 18 17 .cit. an illocutionary act (the issuing Stephen C. (1983). Levinson.

F. 22 21 .L. explaining. &c. the speakers solely do not just utter something. by saying something. Nadar (2009). Second. ( Cambridge: Blackwell.cit.12 of an utterance with conventional communicative force achieved µin saying¶). He develops hypothesis which basically says that every utterance contains an action. we may also perform perlocutionary acts: Deborah Schiffrin. 94. apologizing. ordering. which together we sum up:24 by saying we perform a locutionary acts. and a perlocutionary act (the actual effect achieved µby saying¶). 51. How to Do Things with Words. This opinion has relation with the objects of pragmatics which most of them are speech acts in communication.. congratulating. 14. (Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 23 J. p. etc. Searle (1975) says that the smallest unit in communication is speech acts. we do something. such as asserting. 1994). p.For him. undertaking.X. Approaches to Discourse. p. which is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. 1962). So it can be concluded that speech acts is the activity done by uttering something. warning. questioning. p. ordering.22 C. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. utterances which have a certain (conventional) force. and there is a meaning in behind.23 Austin distinguishes a group of things we do in saying something. 108. thanking. Thirdly.e. Types of Speech Acts In the beginning. speech acts is used by Austin.21 Speech Acts is the basic analysis in pragmatics. op. we say that we also perform illocutionary acts such as informing. i. 24 Ibid. Speech acts¶ term appears as a result of uttering something. not just the utterance which has performative verb. Austin.

and even. surprising or misleading. 2009). He defines this act as the actual form of words used by the speaker and their semantic meaning. 17.13 what we bring about or achieve by saying something. 1999). . 44. saying. this kind of speech acts is the easiest one to be identified since in the process of identifying. locutionary act consists of. which again is roughly equivalent to µmeaning¶ in the traditional sense. p. phonic act (producing sounds). a.25 According to Wijana (1996). On the example above.1. In details. and also does not influence the hearer. 27 Abdul Chaer. [1] Man has two arms and legs. Locutionary Acts According to Austin. c.27 For example. (Great Britain: Routledge. without the inclination to do something. Pragmatics. (1996). 78. the utterance is uttered just to informingthat the man generally has two arms and legs. locutionary act is called the act of saying something. op. b. I Dewa Putu Wijana.cit.26 This act produces sounds of language which means something. Pengantar Semantik Bahasa Indonesia. Locutionary act¶s meaning is literal. it can be done without involving the context of utterance. such as convincing. locutionary act is roughly equivalent to uttering a certain sentence with a certain sense and reference. deterring. Rhetic Act (using sounds with 25 26 Jean Stilwell Peccei.(Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. p. C. persuading. Moreover. p. Phatic act (revealing sounds as a part from any grammar or vocabulary).

F.28 Aspect A and B refer to the grammar. Semantic. Nevertheless. p.14 certain meaning). 6. etc. if it is uttered by a man to his girlfriend means the man wants to express his admiration. that utterance is meant the hair must be cut. 30 Jean Stilwell Peccei (1999). (Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka. 14. Therefore.cit. or. C. p. and it can be the act of asserting. by a teacher to male student at such institutions.30 The function of illocutionary act is not only to utter something. Wachyu Sandayana. op. p. Illocutionary Acts Illocutionary act is what the speaker wants to achieve by uttering something. threatening.19. but also to do something. op. promising. 29 28 . promising. ordering. this act is what the speaker done by uttering these words: commanding. op.31 For example. if that utterance is uttered by a mother to her son. 31 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). this act is known as the act of doing something.29 According to Austin. 44. [2] Your hair is very long! The utterance above. threatening.cit. 2007). So the locutionary act is built from these aspects which simultaneously happen. asking.2. thanking. or by a wife to her husband. Nadar (2009).cit. offering. p.X. apologizing. and aspect C refers to the meaning. 18. etc.

3. p. Kushartanti.33 The illocutionary act is rather difficult to be identified than locutionary act since we have to consider who the speaker and the hearer are. or ordering something. 2005). 110. Thus. (2007).32 Through those utterances. C. the speaker wants to asking. (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. when and where the conversation happen. warning. the illocutionary act is a center to understand speech acts. In other words. This act is known as the act of Wachyu Sandayana. loc. The purpose of illocutionary act is to produce the utterance known as illocutionary force. Perlocutionary Acts The utterance uttered by the speaker usually has a force or effect to the hearer. this effect is created by the speaker. Deliberately or not. By using illocutionary force. Pesona Bahasa: Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik.cit. etc.15 The illocutionary act is thought as the most important act in the speech acts. This act relates to the speaker¶s purposes.. then that information will be received by the hearer. 33 32 . et al. promising. This kind of speech act used to influence the hearer is called ³perlocutionary act´. informing. every speaker has certain purposes by uttering utterances. the speaker informs something in conversation or communication. The illocutionary force is usually expressed by some verbs called ³performative verbs´.

1979). p.37 I Dewa Putu Wijana (1996). 20. D. 36 Ibid. etc. etc. this is kind of illocutionary act to apologize and the effect is the people who invite or the hearer will be understand about that. 1. If that utterance is uttered by somebody who cannot attend in the meeting. misleading.cit. John R. [3] I was very busy yesterday. p. then there is also no clear principle of classification and because there is a persistent confusion between illocutionary acts and illocutionary verbs. 8. 35 34 . There is no clear or consistent principle or set of principles on the basis of which the taxonomy is constructed. 35 But Searle thinks Austin¶s taxonomy of illocutionary act contains several weaknesses and needs to be seriously revised. excercitive. perlocutionary act is the effect created by illocutionary act to the hearer. convincing. In other words. 37 Ibid. (New York: Cambridge University Press. expositive. and commissive. behabitive. For example. p. 10. such as shocking. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Searle.36 The most important weakness is simply this. Classification of Illocutionary Acts Austin categorizes the illocutionary acts into five basic categories of verdictive. p.16 affecting someone. 34 Perlocutionary act appears because of perlocutionary force in the utterance. op.

tell.1. They express what the speaker wants. George Yule (1996). 38 39 Ibid. For example: [4] The earth is flat. Directive verbs are order. The speaker believes the world as he or she believes it iseven though. argue. the speaker attempts to make the world fit the words (via the hearer). request. Searle presents a list of what he regards as the basic categories of illocutionary acts. command. Searle¶s categories are defined as follows:38 D. the world is actually not flat anymore. etc. p. boast. report. inform. claim. 39 In using an assertive the speaker makes the words fit the world (of belief). . assert. the speaker describes that the earth is flat. complain. assertives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker believes to be the case or not. to the truth of the expressed proposition. In using a directive.Representatives/Assertives are to commit the speaker to something¶s being the case. hypothesize. predict.17 Because of those weaknesses. According to Yule. Assertive verbs are state. D. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of representative (describing). op. suggest. affirm. advice.2. In this example. 53. 12-20. In the utterance above.Directives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to get someone else to do something. pp.cit. describe.

the point of a request is trying to get the hearer to do something (and not necessarily to commit or obligate him to do it). the speaker undertakes to make the world fit the words (via the speaker).Commissives are those kinds of speech acts that speakers use to commit themselves to some future actions. They express what the speaker intends. In the utterance above. invite. James! In the utterance ³Open the door. plead. offer. In using a commissive.18 recommend. etc. the point of a promise is to commit the speaker to doing something (and not necessarily to try to get the hearer himself to do it). the speaker wants the hearer (James) to do something (to open the door). For example promise ± request. ask. For example: [6] I promise I will come on time. refusal. the speaker commits himself to come on time (future action). Commissive verbs are vow. beg. The speaker uses the word ³promise´ indicating the illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). pray. entreat. permit. . The speaker uses the word ³open´ indicating the illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). James!´. Etc. pledge.3. For example: [5] Open the door. promise. dare. threat. defy. D. challenge.

the speaker makes the words fit the world (of feeling). christen. The speaker uses the phrase ³thank you´ indicating the illocutionary acts of expressive (Thanking). confirm. In this. etc. In using a declaration. offenders. (Classical examples are judges sentencing.19 D. Expressive verbs are thank. leave-taking. the speaker expresses his/her psychological states to the hearer for coming. sentence. name. joy.5. deplore. nominate. D. condol e. excommunicate. the speaker changes the world via the words. thank you very much for coming. praise. pain. like. etc. blame. mock. these actions are. disapprove. dislike. appoint. pardon. approve. congratulate.Expressivesare those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the world via their utterance. apologize. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object or objects solely in virtue of the fact that declaration has been successfully performed. normally speaking. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional frameworks. dismiss. bless. declare.4. or sorrow. Declaration verbs are resign. cure. In that utterance.) . as Searle says µa very special category of speech acts¶: they are performed. welcome. greet. For example: [7] Sir. etc. They express psychological states and it can be statements of pleasure. compliment. ministers or religion christening babies. dignitaries naming ships. In using an expressive.

106. take a look at the table below. In this example.. 55. etc. although sentencing a person is an unpleasant thing to do. (1983).20 For example: [8] Referee: You¶re out! In the utterance ³You¶re out!´.40 To make the explanation about Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts more clear. op. . p. religious. the judge has complete authority in doing so. politeness is not relevant to declarations because they do not have an addressee in the sense that applies to personal discourse: the person who makes a declaration uses language as an outward sign that some institutional (social. For example. George Yule (1996). the speaker (referee) brings a new state of being to the player. p. the speaker uses the illocutionary acts of declarations (declaring).cit. and can scarcely be said to sentence someone µimpolitely¶. op. legal.cit. Table of The five general functions of speech acts (following Searle 1969)41 Speech Acts type Declarations Representatives Expressives Directives Commissives Direction of fit Words change the world Make words fit the world Make words fit the world Make the world fit words Make the world fit words S= speaker.) action is performed. The referee declares that the status of the player is out of the match because he has gotten his second yellow cards. X= situation S causes X S believes X S feels X S wants X S intends X 40 41 Geoffrey Leech. As institutional rather than personal acts. Moreover. they can scarcely be said to involve politeness.

will always signify one or more addressees. The Context of an Utterance Context has been understood in various ways. as a matter of convenience an s (µspeaker¶) and h (µhearer¶). p.2. The use of symbol h. Thus the use of the abbreviations s and h does not restrict pragmatics to the spoken language. however.6. in the widest sense. 42 Since pragmatics studies meaning in relation to speech situation.1.cit. Some aspects related with s and h are social and economic background. Addressers or Addressees Conversation must have the speaker and the hearer. or person to whom the utterance is addressed by s. pragmatics is study of language which is context-bound/ context dependent. that enable the participants in the communication process to interact and that make the linguistic expression of their interaction 42 43 Geoffrey Leech (1983). 13. 1993:38) context as the surroundings. as the study of meaning in relation to speech situations. . E. According to Mey (in Nadar. p. Leech refers to addressers and addressees. intimacy level. Therefore. for example to include µrelevant¶ aspects of the physical or social setting of an utterance. Leech redefines pragmatics for the purposes of linguistics. op. The Aspects of Speech Situation As we know.21 E.43 E. gender. etc. reference to one or more of the following aspects of the speech situation will be a criterion. Ibid.

cit.5. in preference to talking about its intended meaning. pragmatics deals with verbal acts or performances which takes place in particular situations. E. In this respect. The Utterance as a Product of a Verbal Act There is another sense in which the word µutterance¶ can be used in pragmatics: it can refer to the product of a verbal act. Nadar. The term goal is more neutral than intention. rather than to the verbal act itself. (2009).3 The Goal (s) of an Utterance Leech often finds it useful to talk of a goal or function of an utterance.22 intelligible.4. pragmatics deals with language at a more concrete level than grammar. or s¶s intention in uttering it. E.X. op. 3-4. E. The Utterance as a Form of Act or Activity: Speech Act Whereas grammar deals with abstract static entities such as sentences (in syntax) and propositions (in semantics).44 Leech considers context to be any background knowledge assumed to be shared by s and h which contributes to h¶s interpretation of what s means by a given utterance. . because it does not commit its user to dealing with conscious solution or motivation. but can be used generally of goal oriented activities. 44 F. pp. in time.

we can correctly describe pragmatics as dealing with utterance meaning. as semantics as dealing with sentence meaning. Lord Henry Blackwood (Mark Strong) to do his crimes. Hence an utterance maybe a sentence-instance. Synopsis of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie The Sherlock Holmes¶ movie is an action-comedy movie telling about a famous consulting detective. late 19 th century.23 For example. it is convenient to reserve terms like sentence and question from grammatical entities derived from language system. Sherlock Holmes (Robert Downey Jr. John Watson (Jude Law) in London. They are trying to prevent and stop serial-killer. might be described as a sentence. In this second sense.) and his partner Dr. We may wish to isolate as an utterance a piece of language which is either too short or too long to be classified as a single sentence. there is no need to assume that all utterances are sentence-tokens. F. [9] Would you please be quiet? Those words are spoken with a polite rising intonation. and to reserve the term utterance for instances of such entities. In fact. identified by their use in a particular situation. it cannot be a sentence. However. or as a question. or as a request. but strictly speaking. . utterances are the elements whose meaning we study in pragmatics. or sentencetoken. However.

where a black magic ritual is taking place. until he reaches the basement. Lestrade and his men come and burst in just in the nick of time to catch Blackwood.and finally enters a non-descript building.24 This movie is open with Dr. The hooded figure stops to greet Sherlock by name. Turns out. As he taunts Watson. Holmes starts running down a spiral staircase.he darts between columns. as Blackwood has requested to see him. up and down stairs and around buildings effortlessly . and then attacks him. he brings Holmes to the prison. Watson offers him to attend Blackwood which will be hanged by the court. there is a girl wearing a white dress and lying on a table. The girl reaches up for a dagger and makes to stab herself. In that house. but is stopped by Holmes. Once inside. and is revealed to be Lord Blackwood. After that. Holmes hurries over and stops her just in time. Then. John Watson and Inspector Lestrade (Eddie Marsan) riding in a carriage in the middle of the night. Hudson (Geraldine James). there is also a housekeeper. He analyzes the situation (the audience actually sees in slow-motion how Holmes plans to take the Blackwood¶s follower out). He is in a tremendous hurry . Holmes and Watson live together in the house. Holmes continues running down the stairs. named Mrs. Watson comes running over. located on 221B Baker Street. He then tells Holmes to get up and get decent. Sherlock Holmes follows them on foot. but pauses when he notices a Blackwood¶s follower. Holmes directs Watson to put his energies into tending the girl. Most of the guards are afraid of . Lord Blackwood has large invincibleneedle that will pierce Watson if he has gotten any closer. In the center of the room.

so Holmes tells them that he can find his way out by himself. Getting the clues is very hard. Holmes will help him. He is planning on killing three more people. he is genuinely curious about the situation. when Holmes and Watson investigate Luke Reordan's home. In the British court. they can defeat and chase them away. For instance. and then legally declares him dead. Sir Thomas (Edward Fox) who is Blackwood¶s father and also the head of temple of four. asks Holmes to resolve the situation by stopping his son¶s crimes. He . Blackwood is sentenced and hanged. But in fact. and there is nothing Holmes can do about it. they are arrested by the police because of major damages. Holmes and Watson try to investigate that case by searching some clues. After that. Blackwood greets Holmes and tells him that he is not done killing just yet. In the other sides. There are many people involved. He also tells Holmes that trying to stop him will be an extremely futile gesture. They are his followerswho want to make the facts disappear. He tries to get inside it by creating pictures on the floor (There is really detailed pentacles and animals drawn all over the floor). nevertheless. but as a result. there are three people want to burn Reordan¶s. and try to cover and help Blackwood. Watson feels for a pulse. Holmes knows the only way to truly understand the situation is to understand the magic. Fortunately. It is not motivated of Sir Thomas¶ resources. Blackwood seems alive and gives terror to London. Holmes and Watson have to face them.25 getting closer to Blackwood.

He prepares to kill all the people who rebel against him by using poisonous device. The house of Parliament will be the next site.com/sherlock-holmes-script-transcript. it is kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Holmes wants to destroy that device. Blackwood forces all the people in the parliament to join with him or perish. He must defeat Blackwood and his followers to save England from the darkness. 2011.imdb. Synopsis for Sherlock Holmes.html. 45 . http://www. Accessed on February 4.26 explains to Watson that it allows him to understand Blackwood¶s next move. but. 45 IMDb. Holmes together with Watson and Irene go there to stop Blackwood¶s crime.

They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard: He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. a pale.1. classifies. (Film script page 17) Context: In the prison. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Representatives No. As though. Data Description In this part. and decides to meet Blackwood alone. The wordsare written italic and bold to make them clear in analyzing. he can get inside their heads. and tabulates the collected data into the following table according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts.CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS A. 1. A. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Asserting (Sure) 27 . 2. Indications Asserting (Sure) Data Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. the writer compiles. Holmes can see guard¶s fear. The data are grouped based on the wordsindicated as illocutionary acts.

Informing (found) . In his cell. Holmes. midget. But. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Setting: London Street . He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave. Arguing (Agreed) (Film script page 25) Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London street. So. Blackwood: Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. (Film script page 17) Context:Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell.28 3. Asserting (Agree) 5. She likes gingered dwarfs. 4.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. Informing (thought) Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. close to Holmes. (Film script page 19) Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. Furthermore. I don¶t agree. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. (Film script page 32) Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) 6. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. Setting: Holmes¶ room .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Holmes:Agreed. you agree? Holmes:No. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Luke Reordan.

Holmes thinks that it is true.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: I found your man. Holmes: I feel safer already. . Holmes: Only a name and no picture? Irene: So. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. (Observe) grabbing his collar. 7.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: You made the front page. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. and that¶s my area of expertise. almost invisible. The List of Illocutionary acts of Directives No. Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page).morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson . 2. Requesting (Give) (Film script page 2) Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.29 which is dead. Setting: Unknown building . 1. Telling (Feel) (Film script page 48) Context: The sun is rising. If you still need him. Indications Data Commanding Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. . Holmes¶ eyes are open and he sees there are Watson and Irene. Setting: Attic .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Watson! Don¶t! Observe. (Film script page 62) A. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. Irene: Oh dear.2. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . (crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room .

morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. 6 Entreating (Help) (Film script page 24) Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Holmes: I can¶t but. My mind is in a terrible condition. consider it a wager that you will. give me work! (Film script page 6) Insisting Context: Mrs. She (Don¶t touch) crosses Holmes. Hudson: Tea. (Film script page 7) Commanding Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near (Keep) the table.30 Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Irene: Well. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. Asking (Allow) . (Film script page 23) Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. 4. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Hudson: There¶s enough of that in you already. Everything is in its proper place.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. agree.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Nanny? Mrs. Then he jumps again to the next roof of 3. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. . 5. Mr. give me a problem. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes? Holmes: Is it poisoned. Holmes:Don¶t touch that. puts the tray before him. Hudson Mrs. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes: May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Context: Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . Based on that prediction. he becomes dirty. Requesting (Borrow) (Film script page 26) Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. From that place. Holmes begins examining the body. 8. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. He is a much smaller man than him. Insisting (Admit) . Setting: Grave yard . Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. Therefore. She predicts Watson will marry Mary but in the other sides. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes: Watson! Help! Watson! 7. Ordering (Give) (Film script page 35) Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Setting: Pawnbrokers .31 garbage bin but he lands badly. They have already gone from the pawnshop.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre. admit it! 9.

antechamber . Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of. (Suddenly comes. . .(gun¶s sound) 11. (Film script page 36) Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. You¶re good at that.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. disappear. (Film script page 36) Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . bang. Watson: What was that about saving bullets? (Film script page 57) Commanding Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain (Give) by Blackwood.32 10. and finds some clues.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene: I have never been in over my head. moves through a door. Advising (Leave) 12. assembly line ± night. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Inviting (let) Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlocked the chain. Holmes inspects it. Watson! Blackwood: A gift for you. (Film script page 48) Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. Setting: Reordan¶s room .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Save the bullets. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. and then disappear) Holmes: Bang. Holmes:Leave now. Advising (Save) 13.

Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. old boy. Ordering (Follow) 15. (Film script page 58) Context: Holmes. Setting: Attic .day The Participants: Holmes and Irene 14.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes: If you would captain. and Irene are in the sewers.morning The Participants: Holmes. take us onto the bridge port side. 16.33 The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. and Irene Holmes:Follow these instructions! Watson & Irene: (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Commanding Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward (Take) who tries to kill him. Blackwood wants to kill all the people who do not want to join with him. hands it to Watson. They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. (Shoot) They see a chemical weapon. then save him. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. that leads us to the sewers. Then. Holmes:Give us a leg up. . Tanner: Right away. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. sir. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. They are really sure that police officers areflooding the pub. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. After Holmes is safe. These German locks always give me trouble. (Film script page 69) Commanding Context: Holmes. he cannot handle it. Watson. When Holmes fight. Watson. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. Setting: Sewers . Watson. boots echoing. Watson and Irene have been waiting for him on that river. Then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy.

Watson: (He finally uses his sword stick and slices Holmes down. In fact. Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. Promising (Will) Data Context: Holmes is in a grand office. . Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. 18. Then. (Film script page 70) Commanding Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the (Run off) tower bridge. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. Indications 1. I think my legs have fallen .morning The Participants: Holmes and Lord Coward . and Mary Holmes: Oh dear. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters .3.34 Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene: (Shooting the enemy) 17. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. Holmes tumbles to the ground). Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. Please. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Setting: Tower bridge . Entreating (Please) (Film script page 78) Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. She cannot pass it. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Commissives No. he is still alive. Irene: I don¶t want to run any more. Watson. Watson. Fare thee well. . He looks dead. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. . He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. . (Film script page 78) A. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Oh my lord. He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survive from the execution.

(Film script page 47) Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat. In the hospital. But not for you. cut. Setting: Hospital room . I must attend to my other patients. She cannot pass it. I¶ll tell you everything. Irene: I don¶t want to run anymore. (Film script page 60) Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Setting: On the boat . slaughterhouse. are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes: I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. bruised. (Film script page 72) 2.35 Lord Coward: Name your price. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. (Film script page 56) Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe. Setting: Tower bridge . Is that the best you can do? Holmes: Yes for now. Promising (Won¶t) .night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes. Refusal (Must) 4. and scraped.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes: Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. And certainly not for a price. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. His eyes still closed. Fare thee well. he is burned. Holmes: Well. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Promising (Guarantee) 3. I will stop him. Captain Tanner.night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary: Excuse me. Consider it done.

The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson.4.. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes 2. McMurdo. out of sight. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Expressives No. and hands him the newspaper. Setting: Bare boxing fight . Setting: Holmes¶ room . Praising (Excellent) . Holmes: (shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. Congratulations. he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. (Film script page 13) Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. Setting: Cathedral crypts . On the table next to him. You won. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Indications 1. big man. In the middle of the match. He (Congratulations) fights his opponent. playing scale on his violin. Fortunately.night The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. 3. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. (Film script page 6) Congratulating Context: Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. Holmes has no case to be solved. Thanking (Thank you) 4.36 A.. We¶re done. McMurdo: Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! : That¶s it. (Film script page 1) Context: Since three months. Thanking (Nice) Data Context: Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up. Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies. Watson: Paper? Holmes: Thank You.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. talks to him.

Holmes: Queen side slaughterhouse. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.37 Watson: How did you lure them in? Holmes: Excellent question.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. Setting: Holmes¶ house . I¶ve been at it for six hours. strolls. Individually. Praising (Well done) . Setting: Prison . 5. hence the scratches. Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Right. Praising (Love) 6. listens and gets closer to him. A factory by the river. Every time he wound the watch. Well done. He tries to identify where the man comes from. Blackwood: So glad you can accept my invitation. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. in his house. Praising (Very good) 7. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. Nine Elms. (Film script page 15) Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell.morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes: I love what you¶ve done with the place. Setting: London street . Watson. (Film script page 33) Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. his hand slipped. (Film script page 18) Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. Holmes: Very good. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Watson.

(Film script page 62) A.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes: You seem to be making a rapid recovery. (Film script page 55) Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain. Watson: Yes.38 8. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is actually his partner. Indications Appointing (Reopened) Data Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . 1. with us. He looks like very interested with the new case so. . Setting: Holmes¶ attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes:Clarky? Clarky: (Look at Holmes) Holmes:Case reopened! (Film script page 81) . he decides to take it. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. Welcoming (Very glad) That should lead us right to Blackwood. The List of Illocutionary Acts of Declarations No.5. I took the shrapnel out myself. Holmes. Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Setting: Holmes¶ house . well. Holmes: Well.

When arriving. to the truth of the expressed proposition. the writer analyzes data descriptions according to the Searle¶s categories of illocutionary acts. In that utterance. They see many demonstrantswho want Blackwood to be hanged. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Blackwood certainly seems to have got the crowd into something of fear frenzy. Data Analysis In this part. Holmes says to Watson.39 B. Holmes: I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching. Watson thinks that demonstrants seem to have got the crowd into something of fear Frenzy. Representatives/Assertives Data 1 Context: Holmes and Watson arrive in the prison. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). (Film script page 17) Holmes and Watson go to the Penton Ville prison to see Blackwood. ³I¶m sure it will disperse once his feet have stopped twitching´. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. they see very many demonstrantswho entreat Blackwood to be hanged. The reason why they do that is Blackwood wants to see Holmes for the last time (Holmes is Blackwood¶s the last request) before hanged by the court. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some .

Holmes decides to go by himself by saying. a pale. Watson cannot accompany him because he has other business. he is better to die than live. Considering that reason.40 prepositions are true. All the cells are emptied to avoid Blackwood¶s magic. to the . As though. Setting: Penton Ville prison ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Guard Guard : He (Blackwood) has a peculiar effect on the inmates. Based on that utterance. Holmes is led by prison guard. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (Asserting). nervous guard leads Holmes down the shadowy corridor. ³I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform´. Holmes:I¶m sure I can find my own way if you have other duties to perform. As though.´ Blackwood has a peculiar effect on the inmates. he believes the demonstrants will disperse soon until Blackwood die. Blackwood has given terror to London with his black magic. (Film script page 17) For seeing Blackwood. Holmes can see guard¶s fear and decides to meet Blackwood alone. the guard looks like pale and nervous. It makes Holmes confuse. he can get inside their heads. because of that. In this context. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. The guard says. Data 2 Context: In the prison. Then he asks the guard why he looks like that. On the way to the Blackwood¶s cell. he can get inside their heads´ .

He believes that he can find Blackwood¶s cell by himself. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him. Blackwood : Your mistake is to imagine that anything that is earthly has led us to this moment. He uses the word ³thought´ to inform Blackwood that he will accompany his partner to ensure Blackwood¶s death. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. His . (Film script page 19) Holmes is in front of Blackwood¶s cell. trying to understand what Blackwood wants from him.He says to Blackwood. He is sure that he can face Blackwood without any help. He uses the word ³sure´ to convey his belief that some prepositions are true. He is not afraid with Blackwood and especially for his magic. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. In his cell.41 truth of the expressed proposition. ³Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company´. to the truth of the expressed proposition. Blackwood is at right side of the bars. According to that utterance. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes : Shortly my friend will pronounce you dead and I thought I might keep him company. Without courtesy. He asserts the guard to not accompany him anymore. close to Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (informing).

So. So. He wants to read the case inside the envelope from Irene. Watson is a doctor that will pronounce Blackwood dead or not after hanged. I don¶t agree. Watson who sits on the chair near Holmes says that he has already red it. Because of that. She likes gingered dwarfs. When Holmes wants to open it. Data 4 Context: Holmes wants to read the case in the envelope but Watson has already read it. you agree? ´ Holmes answers Watson.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You¶re obviously not her type. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Luke Reordan. Midget. (Film script page 25) After shadowing Irene. Blackwood is better to die as soon as possible than makes major disorders in the future. Setting: Holmes¶ room . to the truth of the expressed proposition. midget. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. She likes gingered dwarfs. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (asserting). ³No. Holmes decides to back home. ³You¶re obviously not her type. He tells Holmes that Irene wants him to look for a red-haired midget. In the utterance ³No. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men. I don¶t agree´. I don¶t agree´. Watson cracks Holmes joke about Irene's taste in men by saying. Luke Reordan. you agree? Holmes:No.42 partner. He uses the phrase ³Don¶t agree´ to .

He asserts his disagreement about Watson¶s opinion. Holmes. Holmes says to him. Holmes deduces that somebody asks her to visit and giveshim the case to be solved immediately. He does not . it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data´. ³Agreed. But. He uses the word ³agreed´ to argue Watson¶s opinion about supernatural is the reason to this case. Watson thinks that there are some illogical things beyond this case. to the truth of the expressed proposition.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: You have to admit. At this time. Watson believes that supernatural explanation is theoretically possible but Holmes does not. Data 5 Context: Holmes and Watson walk through in the middle of the London Street. it is obvious that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (arguing). Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case.43 convey his belief that Irene does not like that man. According to those utterances. But. Setting: London Street . He believes that Irene looks that man not caused by she likes him but there is other complicated reason. it is a huge mistake to theorize before one has data. (Film script page 32) Holmes and Watson are arguing about Blackwood rising from the grave. That supernatural explanation to this case is theoretically possible. They are very curious about that weird thing. Holmes:Agreed. They are talking about supernatural explanation for Blackwood¶s case since they have seen something weird in Blackwood¶s grave.

³I found your man. Without it.44 blame his partner¶s opinion but he stresses him about the data. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:I found your man. (Film script page 48) Holmes is in Irene¶s hotel room. Data 6 Context: Holmes watches Irene from a shadowy corner. He believes that it will be a huge mistake for his partner to theorize before he gets the complete data. The data is very important for him to find the truth. Holmes tries to move on the situation by informing her about the man she looks for. He¶s buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. not make conclusion to solve the case. Irene : Oh dear. Furthermore. he begins talking about Reordan (midget) which is dead. Irene knows about Holmes¶s situation and tries to attempt him by asking him to set the top button on the back of her dress. if you still need him´. Then he approaches her somewhat tentatively and reaches for the top button on the back of her dress. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. to the truth of the . He sees Irene is dressing behind the dress screen. He says. he just can assume. . Holmes¶s utterances contain illocutionary acts of assertive (informing). After doing that. If you still need him. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . . He is afraid to get closer to Irene because he cannot defend himself from Irene¶s temptation.

to the truth of the expressed proposition. In the utterance ³I feel safer already´. (Film script page 62) When Holmes wakes up. Data 7 Context: The sun is rising. ³I feel safer already´. Assertive commits the speaker to something¶s being the case. Holmes rejects Irene¶s help by saying. Setting: Attic .morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : You made the front page. Irene tells him that police looks for him. and he seesthat there are Watson and Irene. Apparently. and that¶s my area of expertise.45 expressed proposition. He uses the word ³feel´ to convey his . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of assertive (telling). Holmes:Only a name and no picture? Irene : So. Because of that. He uses the word ³found´ to inform Irene that he finds Reordan (midget). Irene tells him that he (Holmes) is wanted by the police (while shows newspaper¶s front page). she suggests him to work outside the law. he sees Watson and Irene near him. he sleeps in the attic. Without courtesy. Holmes¶ eyes are open. She shows newspaper where Holmes¶s name is on the front page. Reordan is dead and found buried in Blackwood¶s tomb. And she will help him if he wants to do that. it looks like you¶ll be need to work outside the law now. Holmes: I feel safer already. tonight. However.

46 belief that he is safe. Watson becomes mad and then attacks him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Watson! Don¶t! Observe. Directives Data 1 Context: Watson is stopped suddenly by Holmes¶ hand. grabbing his collar. almost invisible. especially for Watson and Irene. Setting: Unknown building . Before stopping him. Blackwood tries to defend by provoking Watson to attack him. ´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´. Inches from Watson¶s right eye is the needle-pointed end of a quivering piece of high-tensile wire. One more step and Watson gets impaled in the eye. After all followers defeated. This utterance also means as a warning for Watson to be more careful and not emotional when getting angry. and he wants nobody worry about him. they have to defeat his followers first. That utterance is spoken by Holmes to his partner to not attack Blackwood who provokes him to do anarchic. Holmes knows if Blackwood has prepared unseen poisonous-needle to kill. Holmes saves the woman. . Holmes holds him and says. Watson: How did you see that? (Film script page 2) Holmes and Watson try to stop Blackwood¶s crime toward a woman. It is held between Blackwood¶s hands. Holmes stops him. In this context. But suddenly.

give me a problem. Holmes does not get a new case to be solved. In that utterance. give me work!´. give me work! (Film script page 6) Since three months.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Don¶t you think it¶s time you found another one. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). (Crawls on his hands and knees over the chair and sit) Setting: Holmes¶ room . and asks to give him a case. He also uses the word ³Observe´ to command Watson to watch something carefully (unseen poisonous-needle) and especially learn more about it. agree. Data 2 Context: Watson sits on a chair and begins leaving through the letters.´Watson! Don¶t! Observe´ Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. My mind is in a terrible condition.47 In the utterance. He thinks that Holmes is better to work than just stay at home. Holmes thinks that it is true. My mind is in a terrible condition. ³I can¶t but agree. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes very agrees with Watson¶s opinion. Holmes uses the word ³Don¶t´ to stop his partner when he wants to hit Blackwood. Holmes wants Watson to . Give me a problem. Holmes says. Watson thinks that it is not good for him in this situation constantly. Holmes :I can¶t but. exactly since Blackwood¶s case.

Holmes is a consulting detective who has great capability to solve the problem. Hudson : There¶s enough of that in you already. Holmes? Holmes : Is it poisoned. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (Insisting). He uses the word ³give´ in ³Give me a problem. Holmes :Don¶t touch that. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Then Mrs. Holmes says to Mrs. (Film script page 7) Holmes and Watson aretalking about some cases in the newspaper in Holmes¶s room. and goes to remove an old tray from behind him. give me work´to entreat his partner. That word indicates that Holmes wants Watson to provide him a case or problem. he will be very worried and just stay at home without doing something useful. He uses . Everything is in its proper place. He will be enthusiast if he gets the case but if not. Suddenly. brings a tray of bread and tea. Based on the characteristic. Hudson carries a tray of bread and tea. Nanny´. Everything is in its proper place. Data 3 Context: Mrs. puts the tray before him. She crosses Holmes. as per usual. ´Don¶t touch that. Hudson. Hudson comes into the room. Hudson : Tea. After that. Mr.48 give him work.morning The Participants: Holmes and Mrs. she removes an old tray before he goes. Hudson Mrs. In that utterance. Setting: Holmes¶ room .and puts it onto the table. Nanny? Mrs.

Hudson to not touch everything in his room. . she gives a large bag of coins for him. he wills not everything in his room is lost or removed. Setting: Holmes¶ room . According to that utterance. I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case´.49 phrase ³Don¶t touch´ which indicate that he wants Mrs. Data 4 Context: Holmes and Irene move to sit on the chair near the table. (Film script page 23) Irene comes to Holmes. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Without courtesy. Apparently. Irene : Well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Keep your money I didn¶t say I¶ll take the case. ³Keep your money. consider it a wager that you will. he rejects it and says. She also pulls out a large bag of coins for him to take the case inside the envelope. Holmes¶ room looks like careless and messy. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He uses the word ³keep´ which indicates that Holmes wants Irene to save her money since he does not make decision yet about the case.Holmes tells Irene that he does not want that money. Immediately. She pulls out an envelope and hands it to him. He will take the case if it can make him curious. For that reason. He wants her to keep it. carrying a case. She expects Holmes will take and solve the case.

caused by shadowing Irene after she gets out from his house.50 Data 5 Context: Holmes is washing his face in a basin. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. .morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Look at you! Why is the only woman you¶re ever cared about a world class criminal? Are you a masochist? Holmes:Allow me to explain. Sitting on the chair while leaving the newspaper. . Holmes is interested to Irene whom Watson thinks she is a world-class criminal. Holmes wants Watson to let him explaining his opinion because he cannot accept negative opinion about Irene. He asks Watson to give him a chance to explain the truth. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (asking). (Film script page 24) Holmes is washing his dirty face. He uses the word ³allow´ which indicates to let somebody or something to do something. Watson tries to convince Holmes that Irene is bad girl. In this story. Setting: Holmes¶ room . Holmes tries to push aside Watson¶s opinion by saying. . ³Allow me to explain´. In that utterance. Watson who is near to Holmes tries to convince him that Irene is a bad thing and must be forgotten.

morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes! Where are you going? Holmes:(jump onto the roof) Watson! Help! Watson! (Film script page 26) After Irene gets out from Holmes¶ house.51 Data 6 Context: Holmes flies from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. It is very clear that Holmes entreats Watson¶s help to get him out from garbage bin. he falls into garbage bin. Watson does not want to help him because he thinks that Holmes can do that by himself. He jumps from the window and lands neatly on a tin roof. Therefore. Setting: Behind Holmes¶ house . He goes being incognito using a false nose and Watson¶s coat. he becomes dirty. He just wants to know who send her and give the case to him. Holmes plans to shadow Irene. . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. In that situation. But for the second jumps. He uses the word ³help´ which indicates that he needs Watson¶s help to get out from the garbage bin. ³Watson. help! Watson!´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). he screams. Watson decides to not help him by closing that window. Then he jumps again to the next roof of garbage bin but he lands badly. Through that utterance. Nevertheless.

He must be polite with him in order to get what he wants. Therefore. This case becomes something interesting for him. The coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood. In this story. then he borrows Lestrade¶s pen to do it. Blackwood is pronounced death after hanged by Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes speaks indirectly (Question sentence) to borrow the pen from Lestrade. Holmes is asked to investigate that case. Setting: Grave yard . Holmes begins examining the body. Holmes begins examining the body.morning The Participants: Holmes and Lestrade Holmes : May I borrow your pen? Lestrade: (giving the pen to Holmes) (Film script page 31) Holmes is informed by Lestrade if Blackwood revives from his grave. ´May I borrow your pen?´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (requesting). He is a much smaller man than him. . He says to Lestrade. In Blackwood¶s grave. but Reordan.52 Data 7 Context: The Blackwood¶s coffin is filled by dead body but he is not Blackwood.He uses the word ³borrow´ to take and use Lestrade¶s pen to investigate the death body. Indirect utterance is used because he knows that he speaks with Lestrade (Head police officer). Lestrade shows the coffin. Holmes is carried by Lestrade to the graveyard. In that utterance.

³You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre´ is true. ³Admit it! Admit it!´. He tries to convince him by saying. Based on that utterance. He wants him to believe what Palm Reader says. admit it! (Film script page 35) Holmes and Watson are in Pawnbrokers to find Reordan¶s address. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Setting: Pawnbrokers . Based on that prediction. Holmes convinces Watson if it is right. Holmes agrees with what palm reader says. He uses the word ³admit´ to insist his partner confessing the truth. he can¶t live without the thrill of a macabre. She predicts Watson will marry with Mary but in the other sides.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You are terrified of a life without the thrill of a macabre.53 Data 8 Context:Holmes and Watson meet a palm reader in the pawnbrokers. Watson: Do you have my cut? Holmes:Admit it. The palm reader says that he will marry Mary. There. Reordan is a man who is dead in Blackwood¶s coffin. they meet a palm reader who tries to predict Watson¶s future. Data 9 . She also says that he cannot live without the thrill of macabre. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (insisting).

Holmes inspects it. Holmes:Give her my best and the family as well. Data 10 Context: Holmes and Watson enter the Reordan¶s house. and finds some clues.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson . Setting: London east end ± day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: I have to go see Mary. (Film script page 36) After getting Reordan¶s address. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Watson gets an engagement ring for Mary. moves through a door. From that place. and the family as well´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). and Holmes gets Reordan¶s address. In the other sides. They move further inside where a hallway in a basic bedroom is. ´Give her my best. Holmes cannot force his will to Watson. Setting: Reordan¶s room . Watson cannot accompany Holmes to find clues in the Reordan¶s since he has to meet Mary. He uses the word ³give´ to order him to give his greetings for Mary and her family since he cannot meet her. In that utterance. Watson apparently cannot accompany him as he has to meet Mary. They have already gone from the pawnshop.54 Context: Holmes and Watson move down the street. Holmes plans to find clues together with Watson. He just entrusts his greeting for Mary by saying.

Watson intends to see Mary and lets Holmes find the clues by himself. He uses the word ³Let´ to introduce his partner what Reordan tries to dispose. He says to Watson. Those papers may be important for them as clues to solve the case. Holmes:Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Irene : I have never been in over my head. Setting: Irene¶s hotel room . (Film script page 36) In the previous scene. Holmes and Watson investigate Reordan¶s house. Together. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (inviting). Apparently. Watson says to Holmes. In that utterance. They find very many chemical materials.55 Watson: It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery and scientific formula. . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. She is wearing an array-Victorian undergarment while Holmes opens a wine bottle and pours it into glasses. and something strange in the corner. Data 11 Context: Irene walks behind a dressing screen. ³Let¶s see what he was trying to dispose of´. Watson becomes curious about Reordan¶s experiments. some experiments. Holmes is curious with burnt papers in the corner of the room. Watson is worried about Holmes and decides to help him. ´It looks like he was attempting to combine some kind of sorcery formula´. Holmes walks to the corner and picks some burnt-paper.

Data 12 Context: Holmes and Watson are aware about Blackwood¶s existence by hearing his sounds. He does not want something bad happen to her. because he loves her (Holmes has feeling with Irene but he hides it away from her). He advises her to leave the problem since according to him. . (Film script page 48) Holmes is in front of Irene¶s room. Irene is too far involved. In that utterance.(gun¶s sound) : What was that about saving bullets? . He tries to find out what she doing is.56 Holmes:Leave now. opens it. and then disappear) : Bang. Holmes says to Irene. disappear. (Suddenly comes. They are looking for him and ready to shoot him. He uses the words ³leave and disappear´ which indicate that he wants Irene to go away from the case and hide. Watson! : A gift for you. After entering the room. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he immediately takes a wine bottle. Irene walks behind dressing screen.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes Blackwood Holmes Watson :Save the bullets. Irene is aware of Holmes¶s existence and lets him enter the room. In the other sides. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse. disappear. antechamber . ³Leave now. and pours into glasses. bang. You¶re good at that. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (advising). She is wearing an array Victorian undergarment. you¶re good at that´.

Watson!´. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Knowing there is Blackwood in there. Then Watson comments to his partner that the utterance ³save the bullet´ suits for Holmes himself. Holmes and Watson try to shoot him. they try to find and stop him. Blackwood appears and disappears in the darkness. According to that utterance. ³Save the bullet. Holmes says to Watson.57 (Film script page 57) Holmes and Watson are in Queensithe. Setting: Queenshithe slaughterhouse ± night. exactly in Slaughter house.Suddenly. The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Let me take your weight. Holmes helps her by stepping Watson¶s leg to unlock the chain. Therefore she cannot hang for more time. Watson tries to help Irene by holding her weight on his shoulder. they try to find some clues about Blackwood or Blackwood himself. (Film script page 58) Holmes and Watson are still in slaughter house. They try . Holmes cannot control himself by shooting blindly so that his bullets are gone but Blackwood still can escape. He uses the word ³save´ to order his close friend to avoid wasting his bullets. They are surprised seeing a woman hanged to the chains. They are also aware that woman is Irene. There. Holmes:Give us a leg up. old boy. Data 13 Context: Irene¶s hands are hanged and locked the chain by Blackwood. These German locks always give me trouble. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something.

58 to help her but it is very difficult. Data 14 Context: Holmes. He uses the word ³give´ to his partner who takes Irene¶s weight andalso his weight. According to those utterances. Holmes tells Watson and Irene about the Blackwood¶s crime final location. Before those police approach the attic. ³Give us a leg up. Setting: Attic . boots echoing. Holmes says to Watson. These German locks always give me a trouble´. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes . He does that to release the chain on Irene¶s hands immediately or she will die. Watson. and Irene are gathering in Holmes¶s attic. This trap is showed to hurt Holmes. They are really sure that police officers are flooding the pub. Holmes folds up his piece of paper. so he has to do it quickly and carefully. some polices come to Holmes¶s house and want to catch him. and Irene hear doors slamming outside. old boy. Then. He successfully finds Blackwood¶s crime path. hands it to Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). he asks them to go out through a hatch in the floor. and Irene Holmes Watson & Irene :Follow these instructions! : (Go out through a hatch in the floor) (Film script page 65) Holmes. Minutes later. Watson. Watson. That is such a game that will trap and hurt Holmes.morning The Participants: Holmes.

Blackwood wants to kill all the people who does not want to join with him. He jumps into the river through the window in the middle of high building. Watson and Irene has been waiting for him on that river. In that piece of paper. that leads us to the sewers. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (ordering). Data 15 Context: Holmes successfully escapes from Lord Coward who tries to kill him. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. Setting: Tanner¶s boat . After Holmes is safe. Because of the situation are dangerous. orders them to arrest Holmes. take us onto the bridge port side. In that utterance. Watson and Irene did what Holmes says to leave him through a hatch in the floor. The Lord Coward who has power to control police. . Tanner: Right away. sir. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. Holmes orders Captain tanner to bring them to the tunnel of the parliament. ³Follow these instruction!´. and they must follow it.(Film script page 69) Holmes is brought to Lord Coward¶s house after the police catch him.day The Participants: Holmes and Tanner Holmes:If you would captain.59 hands the paper to Watson and says. He uses the word ³follow´ to order Watson and Irene to accept the paper as their guide. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. there are some instructions that will lead them to some place. then save him.

He uses the word ³take´ to command CaptainTanner to carry him to the parliament¶s tunnel. That weapon is a mean weapon that will kill all the people in the parliament. Proximately 100 yards beyond that you¶ll find a tunnel. Setting: Sewers . Data 16 Context: Holmes.60 Coward tries to kill Holmes. He thinks Holmes is the biggest threat for him and Blackwood. After Holmes is safe. he cannot handle it. Holmes says to Captain Tanner as a captain in the boat and the only man who knows about the river and all the things around it. Watson and Irene await him.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Shoot him! Now please! Irene : (Shooting the enemy) (Film script page 70) . He also gives the detail of the place so that the captain will not confuse. that leads us to the sewers´. What a clever! Holmes can escape from him by jumping into the river from the window in the middle of high building (Lord Coward¶s house). Holmes¶ utterances contain illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). They have to fight Blackwood¶s first. When Holmes fight. Watson. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. They see a chemical weapon. then he asks Irene to help him by shooting the enemy. he plans to stop Blackwood¶s crime in the parliament. ³If you would a captain. and Irene are in the sewers. On the boat. kept by Blackwood¶s followers. Holmes and Watson try to stop that weapon but it is not easy. take us onto the bridge port side.

Data 17 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. She cannot pass it. Holmes and Watson have to stop it. he gets difficult to handle it. He asks Irene not Watson since he knows Irene fights with none and of course. and Irene have arrived in the sewers. ³Shoot him! Now please!´. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. Watson. Fortunately. they have to fight Blackwood¶s first.61 Holmes.day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. ³Shoot him! Now please!´ Holmes uses the word ³Shoot´ to instruct Irene to shoot the enemy quickly because he cannot handle the enemy anymore. In these utterances. When Holmes fights with one of Blackwood¶s. she has the gun. Those are very many Blackwood¶s followers who stay awake keeping something like a dangerous weapon. Setting: Tower Bridge . Holmes prediction about final location of Blackwood¶s crime is right. It is very clear that Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run any more. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. That weapon is a dangerous chemical machine that will kill all the people in the parliament. (Film script page 72) . However. He also uses the word ³Please´ to entreat Irene to shoot his enemy quickly because he does not have much time to stop the weapon and clean up the enemy. He screams to Irene.

I think my legs have fallen . . my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all. He looks dead. ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing anymore. Data 18 Context: Watson and Mary come to Holmes¶ house. . fare thee well´. Please. In the tower. Irene still can run and hide or not. Irene cannot run anymore because the bridge is not complete yet. I can¶t feel my cheeks . He is just trying to deduce the manner in which Blackwood can survivefrom the execution. Holmes pretends to let her go by saying. Knowing Irene¶s situation. and Mary Holmes:Oh dear. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (commanding). Watson. . He explains it to Watson and Mary while hanging. Setting: Holmes¶ house The Participants: Holmes. Watson. Watson opens the door and reveals a horrific scene: Holmes is hanging from a rope. chasing her to the tower. . there is no way for her to pass. In this case. Watson: Worse things could happen? . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. he is still alive. In fact. Holmes is aware about that. He asks Watson to help him down before continuing his explanations. Holmes just wants to know whether in this situation. Then she runs and brings it with her. He uses the phrase ³run off´ which indicates that he commands Irene to run and disappear from him.62 Irene successfully stops the dangerous chemical weapon and takes its chemical material. In those utterances. Oh my lord. so.

Lord Coward offers something to Holmes. . . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of directive (entreating). In those utterances. ³Oh dear. exactly in Sir Thomas¶ place. I can¶t feel my cheeks . Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. He explains to Watson and Mary how Blackwood can slip of from the death. . .63 (Film script page 78) After Blackwood is dead. Watson and Mary are surprise to see that. Please. Commissives Data 1 Context: Holmes is in a grand office. He predicts it by hanging himself from a rope. He says to Watson. cheeks. Holmes is still alive and not suicide. Oh my lord. my tongue is going and I¶ll be of no use to you at all´. Holmes cannot do it anymore while hanged. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ help to find his son (Blackwood) and stop him before he becomes more dangerous. Setting: Temple of four orders headquarters . I think my legs have fallen . In fact. his crime is totally over. Then. He uses the word ³please´ to entreat Watson to get him down.morning The Participants: Holmes and Coward Coward: Name your price! . Watson. But. Mary thinks Holmes is suicide. and tongue which are in terrible conditions in order to get Watson do what he wants. He also tells about his psychical condition such as his leg. Holmes can solve the case but he still curious how Blackwood can slip off from the death after hanged by the court.

Consider it done. Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. Sir Thomas needs Holmes¶ helps to find and stop his son (Blackwood). As great consulting detective. He will do that for neither Sir Arthur nor his money but for himself because he is very curious about the case. Lord Coward (Home secretary) offers retain such a lot of money to do that. Holmes is trusted by Sir Thomas who has great position as ³The Head of Temple of Four Orders´ to do what Sir Thomas¶ wants. Holmes says. (Film script page 47) After Holmes is released by police since making major disorder. He is very worried that Blackwood will make disorder outside. Holmes has no desire to work for money. I¶ll stop him´.64 Holmes :Well. ³Well. In addition. According to those utterances. he is brought by some people to Sir Thomas¶ Headquarters. I will stop him but not for you and certainly not for a price. He asks Holmes to name how much money that he wants. Data 2 . Replying Lord Coward¶s offer. He uses the word ³will´ in the utterance ³I¶ll stop him´ to commit himself to find and stop Blackwood. of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). of great benefit to being a consulting detective is that I can pick and choose my clients. Consider it done.

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Context: Holmes is on the deck along with a much older man who uses a sailor¶s hat, Captain Tanner. Watson is busy with a bucket clearing the boat of a very serious leak. Setting: On the boat - night The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Holmes, are you sure that there is no alternative means of water transportation than that? Holmes:I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better. (Film script page 56) Holmes and Watson are on the way to the slaughter house to find some clues about Blackwood. They use boat as their water transportation because the place that they want to investigate is near the river. There is also the owner of the boat, Captain Tanner. Holmes and Captain Tanner is on the deck, whereas, Watson is busy with a bucket, clearing the boat of a serious leak. Watson is very tired to do that work. He complains Holmes why he takes this transportation. Then, Holmes replies his partner¶s complaint by saying, ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´. In the utterance ³I guarantee you nobody knows London¶s waterways better´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the word ³guarantee´ to give Watson a promise that nobody knows London¶s waterways better than Captain Tanner. He ensures him to believe that Captain Tanner¶s boat

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is the only one transportation which can deliver them to the place where they want to go.

Data 3 Context: Watson is hit by explosion at Queenshithe, slaughterhouse. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. In the hospital, his eyes still closed. The doctor (Holmes) takes care him until the surgeon comes. Setting: Hospital room - night The Participants: Holmes and Mary Mary : Excuse me. Is that the best you can do? Holmes:Yes for now. I must attend to my other patients. (Film script page 60) After releasing Irene from the chain-lock, Watson tries to chase Blackwood who escapes using the boat. Watson runs to catch him, but he is trapped in the explosion. That trap almost kills Watson. He is burned, cut, bruised, and scraped. Because of that, he needs hospital. In the hospital, Holmes pretends as a doctor, tries to help his partner until the real doctor come. Mary who is aware the doctor is, asks him to give Watson another treatment. Nevertheless, Holmes says, ³I must attend to my other patients´. In that utterance, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (refusal). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He used the word ³must´ to refuse Mary¶s requests for giving another treatment to heal Watson. He refuses that because he is not a real doctor and just can give the first

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aid to him. Another reason is; he tries to avoid Mary because he feels guilty since he cannot protect Watson and let the worst thing happen to him.

Data 4 Context: Holmes chases Irene from the sewers to the tower bridge. Irene cannot run anymore because she gets the bridge is not complete yet. She cannot pass it. Setting: Tower Bridge - day The Participants: Holmes and Irene Holmes:Run off!I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well. Irene : I don¶t want to run anymore. I¶ll tell you everything. (Film script page 72) After stopping a chemical weapon, Irene takes its chemical material and runs away with that. Holmes,who is aware about that, tries to chase her from the sewers to the tower bridge. In the tower bridge, Irene cannot run anymore since the bridge is not complete yet. Knowing about Irene¶s situation, Holmes says, ³Run off! I won¶t be chasing you anymore. Fare thee well´. In the utterance ³I won¶t be chasing you anymore´, Holmes uses illocutionary acts of commissive (promising). Commissive is the speaker who commits to do something in the future. He uses the phrase ³Won¶t´ to promises Irene that he will not chase her anymore. He pretends to do that (promise) because he is very sure if the situation will make her giving up. At least, Irene gives up and promises to Holmes that she will not run from him anymore.

He uses the word ³nice´ to express his psychological state of his emotion to thank Watson for saving him.night The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Holmes says. In that utterance. he is not aware if there is Blackwood¶s follower who wants to kill him. Holmes is happy to meet his partner because he is always on his side when he is in big troubles and helps him. . Holmes:(shaking hands) Always nice to see you Watson. comes on the perfect time to save him. his partner. Watson. Expressive states what the speaker feels. out of sight. Fortunately. Suddenly a heavy hand falls on his shoulder to pull him back. In this context. Watson saves Holmes from Blackwood¶s follower who tries to kill him. Watson comes on the perfect time to save him. Fortunately. Because too focus. ³Always nice to see you Watson´. (Film script page 1) Holmes surveys the scene around Blackwood at a distance.68 Expressives Data 1 Context:Holmes surveys the scene at a distance. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (thanking). out of sight. Setting: Cathedral crypts . Where is the inspector? Watson: He¶s getting his troops lined up.

Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (thanking). talks to him. he just stays at home and do nothing useful. He uses the phrase ³thank you´ to express his thank to Watson since Watson cares a lot about his condition. In the middle of the match. Data 3 Context: Holmes is in bare boxing fight at night. ³Thank You´. exactly after Blackwood¶s case. (Film script page 6) Since three months.69 Data 2 Context: Since three months. In this story. Expressive states what the speaker feels.night . Setting: Holmes¶ room . So he decides to give it. Watson comes to Holmes¶s room. Therefore. Holmes has no case to be solved. He fights his opponent. He just needs something like a problem or a case to be solved. Knowing about Holmes¶s condition. Watson offers newspaper and then Holmes says. Setting: Bare boxing-fight . he sees a beautiful woman (Irene) who makes him not focus and leaves the match. In that utterance.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson. Watson: Paper? Holmes:Thank You. McMurdo. and hands him the newspaper. Watson comes and gives him some cases on the newspaper. Holmes has no case to be solved. as a partner and close friend. Watson knows that the only thing can cheer his partner up is a case.

On the table next to him. We¶re done. Congratulations´. In the beginning of the match. ³That¶s it. big man . . McMurdo Holmes : Get up and fight! Come on! Come on! :That¶s it. Congratulations. but in the middle. . The beer stein is full of flies all buzzing about. Therefore. He expresses it to end the match immediately and admits his opponent as a winner because he has no desire to continue the match anymore. he becomes not focus because he sees Irene. big man . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (congratulating). He fights his opponent. a beautiful woman who can make him fall in love. playing scale on his violin. Setting: Holmes¶ room ± early morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: How did you lure them in? . He uses the word ³congratulations´ to congratulate McMurdo for winning the match. McMurdo.70 The Participants: Holmes and McMurdo. Based on those utterances. . You won. he decides to end the match by saying. (Film script page 13) Holmes is in bare boxing-fight at night. You won. Data 4 Context: Holmes is in the corner of his room. there is an upside down ³beer stein´. Expressive states what the speaker feels. he can fight very well. We¶re done. . Holmes shows Watson about his musical theory by using his violin to influence the flies.

Individually. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of expressive (Praising).morning The Participants: Holmes and Blackwood Holmes Blackwood :I love what you¶ve done with the place. : So glad you can accept my invitation. I¶ve been at it for six hours. ³Excellent question. ³How did you lure them in?´. Setting: Blackwood¶s cell . strolls. He experiments with flies to find the relation between music and flies¶ motion. Individually. He praise Watson¶s because he thinks that it is smart one and he respect for it anyway. He uses the word ³excellent´ to praise Watson¶s question. He does that because he is Blackwood¶s the last request. He just wants to respect it. (Film script page 15) Holmes is in the corner of his room. In his experiment. feels curious about Holmes¶s experiment. he successfully makes the flies move clockwise with the melody. I¶ve been at it for six hours´. playing scale on his violin. listens and gets closer to him. In the prison. exactly in . Data 5 Context: Holmes approaches Blackwood¶s cell.71 Holmes: Excellent question. Watson. In those utterances. (Film script page 18) Holmes goes to prison to see Blackwood. who looks at that. Then Holmes answers. He asks Holmes. He sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall.

he does not know and understand about that. They start to find the Reordan¶s watch store. his hand slipped. (Film script page 33) Holmes and Watson together try to find some clues about Reordan. Holmes:Very good. he sees very many pictures on Blackwood¶s cell wall. According to that utterance. Setting: London Street . What does that tell you? Watson: The man was likely a drunk. Holmes observes the watch and finds some scratches on it. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own. By looking for that store. even though. they hope.Day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:Our midget (Reordan) is the key to this. Every time he wound the watch. Data 6 Context: Holmes observes Reordan¶s watch and finds some stretches on it. He is also surprise that Blackwood draws such those pictures in his dark cell. ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´. He uses the word ³love´ in ³I love what you¶ve done with the place´ to praise Blackwood¶s weird pictures. He asks Watson¶s opinion about that. Watson predicts the . Expressive states what the speaker feels. He asks about Watson¶s opinion about Reordan (midget) by looking the watch. Right! Scratches around the keyhole where the watch is wound. they can get the address of the watch owner. Watson. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (Praising).72 front of Blackwood¶s cell. hence the scratches. He says to Blackwood.

in his house. Well done. Holmes admits Watson¶s ability to deduce from a few clues. but he won¶t to be involved with the problem anymore. such as dust on the hair and mud on the legs. He is proud of him about that. Holmes:Queen side slaughterhouse. Watson. Nine Elms. hence the scratches. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). He tries to identify where the man comes from. You have developed considerable deductive powers of your own´.73 owner (Reordan) is likely a drunk and every time he winds the watch. Holmes says. Watson is actually interested and curious about that. his hand slipped. (Film script page 55) Holmes tries to find out the location where the dead body comes from. A factory by the river.day The Participants: Holmes and Watson Watson: Probably be a factory by the river. Data 7 Context: Holmes brings Blackwood¶s victim (dead body) to the room. he begins getting some clues that can lead them . Setting: Holmes¶ house . He identifies some features on that body. According to those feature. In those utterances. Expressive states what the speaker feels. Watson. After hearing Watson¶s predictions. That should lead us right to Blackwood. He uses the phrase ³very good´ to express his amazement to Watson because he thinks Watson¶s is the same as his prediction. ³Very good.

Setting: Holmes¶ attic . Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (praising). I took the shrapnel out myself. Nine Elms. he assumes that Watson . Finally. A factory by the river. Watson. Holmes looks like worry about Watson¶s condition which is not recover yet from his pains. He knows that the doctor who takes care of him last night is his partner. including the address. . I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Expressive states what the speaker feels. And when Holmes is awake. In the beginning. ³Probably be a factory by the river´. Holmes. He says his prediction to Holmes. well.morning The Participants: Holmes and Watson Holmes:You seem to be making a rapid recovery. he sees his partner and Irene near him. Holmes can find that place by saying. Sohe can find the place.74 to the murderer. That should lead us right to Blackwood´. Well done. He uses the phrase ³well done´ to praise Watson since Watson gives some details clues about what Holmes looks for. Watson: Yes. they get Holmes still fall asleep. with us. Mary said I had a lousy doctor. (Film script page 62) Watson and Irene come to meet Holmes who is in the attic. Based on Holmes¶ utterances. Watson seems interested on that and helps Holmes by giving the details of the location. Nevertheless. ³Queen side slaughterhouse. Holmes:Well. Data 8 Context: Watson looks almost recovery from his pain.

he decides to take it. He uses the phrase ³very glad´ to express his gladness because his efforts to rescue him are useful. He just can say. there is a new case from Clarky. ³Well. well. with us´. That place is the place where Holmes stops Blackwood¶s crime yesterday. Setting: Holmes¶ house . . Holmes predicts who the murderer is. Watson knows that the doctor who take care him is his partner. . And the most important thing is. Holmes cannot back away from Watson¶ says. Clarky informs to Holmes that there is a murder in the parliament¶s tunnel. He looks like very interested with the new case so. Watson can work together with Holmes again to solve the case. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Expressive (welcoming). I¶m just so very glad that you¶re um . Expressive states what the speaker feels.morning The Participants: Holmes and Clarky Holmes: Clarky? Case reopened! (Film script page 81) After successfully solving Blackwood¶s case. Declarations Data 1 Context: Clarky asks Holmes to come with him since there is a dead sergeant which is founded by sewage workers in the Parliaments¶ tunnel. In that utterance. In this case.75 will recover soon by looking him do the activities normally. He teases Holmes¶ treatment which is not too bad as a quack for saving him.

like Blackwood¶s case. Declaration brings about some alteration in the status or condition of the referred to object. He uses the word ³Reopened´ which means he ready to bring that case becomes a serious one. Based on that utterance. He says to Clarky. ³Case reopened!´.76 The man killed is a Sergeant. He will investigate and solve that case immediately. This murder becomes interesting case for Holmes. . He is killed by somebody whosethe identity is not clear. Holmes uses illocutionary acts of Declaration (appointing).

Conclusions In this chapter. commissive. Arguing(1). directive. Insisting(2). Holmes presents more illocutionary acts of directive than other acts. Inviting(1). The data is summarized in the table below: Table of Illocutionary Acts of Sherlock Holmes¶ Movie spoken By Sherlock Holmes. Refusal(1) Thanking(2). and declaration. 4. Congratulating(1). In his utterances. the writer makes conclusion clear and explicit from the analysis of illocutionary acts in Sherlock Holmes¶ movie. Advising(1) Promising(3). Welcoming(1) Appointing(1) 7 18 3. 5. Ordering(3). Telling(1) Commanding(6). Requesting(2). Commissive Expressive Declaration 4 8 1 77 . Based on the findings. Representative Directive Asserting(3). Entreating(2). Asking(1). No. Types of Verbs Total Illocutionary Acts 1.CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONSAND SUGGESTIONS A. Praising(4). The purpose of this research is to know the types of illocutionary acts that are dominantly presented by Sherlock Holmes as a main character in the movie through its script. expressive. They are representative. Informing(2). 2. these are five types of illocutionary acts that expressed by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.

. those utterances commonly occur between Holmes and his partner. Directive is the speaker who wants to get the hearer to do something. so they not only find explicit meaning but also find implicit meaning. Suggestions In this research. B.They are performed. direct and indirect. normally speaking. the illocutionary act of directive is often used by Sherlock Holmes in his utterances.This research reveals that Sherlock Holmes as a great consultingdetective has greater ability to solve the problem and the domination as a main character than any other participants. especially when they have cases to be solved. Then.78 According to the table. they have much time together to spend. That act brings about some alteration in the status or condition. John Watson. the writer suggests: 1. because in that movie. by someone who is especially authorized to do so within some institutional framework. the illocutionary act of declarations is seldom used by Holmes in his utterances because he just focuses on facing and solving the case given to him and not making or receiving a new case before the preview one solved. literal and non-literal. Declarations are those kinds of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. The researchers who want to analyze speech act. In the directive. Directive potentially represents the power and the dominance of the speaker. especially illocutionary act to give more attention to the form of speech act.

etc. the writer hopes that this study will benefit for the English Letters Department students who want to do the similar research. Finally. .79 2. especially illocutionary acts. The research is also expected can be referable for further researchers to analyze illocutionary acts or other acts in speech act with the different objects. especially in illocutionary act. such as comic. The writer hopesthis research will be useful for the readers and researchers to get better understanding about speech acts. in order to comprehend more about Austin¶s and Searle¶s concepts and other concepts to identify the categories of illocutionary act to get deep understanding about it. The readers who are interested in analyzing speech act. magazine.

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