# EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1. INVERTING, NON INVERTING AND DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER 2. INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR 3. INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER 4. SECOND ORDER ACTIVE FILTERS 5. BAND PASS FILTER 6. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 7. SCHMITT TRIGGER (REGENERATIVE COMPARATOR) 8. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR 9. RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR 10. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR USING OP-AMP IC 11. DESIGN OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR – 555IC 12. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR – 555IC 13. FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER USING PLL IC 14. 723 VOLTAGE REGULATOR 15. STUDY OF SMPS CONTROL IC SG3524 / SG3525

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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

1.INVERTING, NON INVERTING AND DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

AIM: To Design, construct and test inverting, non inverting and differential amplifier using IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUUIRED: i. ii. iii. iv. RPS, DMM IC 741, Resistors Breadboard, Connecting wires.

THEORY: INVERTING AMPLIFIER: A typical inverting amplifier with input resistor R1and a feedback resistor Rf is shown in the figure. Since the op-amp is assumed to be an ideal one the input bias current is zero and hence the non -inverting input terminal is at ground potential. The voltage at node A is Zero, as the non-inverting input terminal is grounded. The nodal equation by KCL at node A is given by V1/R1 + Vo/Rf =0 or Vo = -Rf(V1/R1).In a practical circuit input bias current compensating resistor R comp should be provided =Ri||Rf = R1 ||Rf NON-INVERTING AMPLIFIER: A typical noninverting amplifier with input resistor R1 and a feedback resistor Rf is shown in the figure. The input voltage is given to the positive terminal. The output voltage is given by

Vo = (1+Rf /R1) Vi

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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER: Basic differential amplifier is shown in figure. The output voltage is given by Vo = (R2 / R1) (V1 – V2) PROCEDURE: (i) Give the connection as per the circuit diagram. (ii) For various input voltage measure and record the output voltage. (iii) Repeat the same for non-inverting and differential amplifier.

RESULT: Thus a inverting amplifier, non inverting amplifier and differential amplifier circuits were designed, constructed and tested.

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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

TABULATION:

INVERTING AMPLIFIER S.No. Rf R1 Vi volts 1 Vo = - Rf (Vi / R1) volts theoretical practical

ohms ohms 1. 2.2K 1K

2.

2.2K

1K

2

3.

3.3K

2.2K

2

4.

5.6K

5.6K

5

5.

6.8K

2.2K

2

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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB

DEPARTMENT OF ECE

AC Source:

DC Source:

NON INVERTING AMPLIFIER

S.No. Rf

R1

Vi volts Vo= (1+Rf /R1) Vi volts

ohms ohms

Theoretical 1. 2.2K 2. 2.2K 3. 3.3K 4. 5.6K 5. 6.8K 1K 1K 2.2K 5.6K 2.2K 1 2 2 5 2

Practical

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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
AC Source:
Model
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
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.

No.2K 5. 5.6K 2.2K 5 2 2 5 2 1 4 5 2 3 Practical
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. 2. 2.8K 1K 1K 2. R2
R1
V1
V2
Vo = (R2 / R1) (V2 – V1) volts
ohms ohms volts volts Theoretical 1. 3.2K 2.2K 3. 6.3K 4.6K 5.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
S.

iii. that is . IC 741. RPS.c = Rf /R1
10 = Rf /R1
The input frequency = 10 KHz For proper integration f > 10 fa . The output voltage Vo (t) = . where fa is the break frequency of the practical integrator. f/fa = 10. Capacitors Bread board. Function generator. fa = f/10. Connecting wires
THEORY: INTEGRATOR: The circuit performs the mathematical operation of integration. here 10 x 103 = 1KHz fa = 1/2πRfCf Let R1 = 10KΩ Rf = 10 x R1 = 100KΩ ∴Cf = 1/2πRf fa = µF or nF Rcomp = R1 || Rf ∴ Rcomp = KΩ
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. Resistors. iv. INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR AIM: To Design. ii. CRO.( 1 / R C )∫Vi(t) dt Design: (a) The gain for the practical integrator is | A | d. the o/p waveform is the integral of the i/p waveform. construct and test integrator and differentiator
APPARATUS REQUUIRED: i.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
2.

Measure and record the peak value of Vo and the phase angle of Vo w.1µ F Design: fa = fmax = 1/2 RfC1 Rf = KΩ Now fb = 10fa . Sine wave at 100Hz. Sine wave at 5kHz. b.r. let C = 0.R C (dVi / dt) Design Specification: fa = fmax = 100Hz. b. Square wave at 100 Hz (ii) Observe i/p and o/p waveform on the oscilloscope.t Vi.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
(b) f = 1KHz and T = 1msec The change in output voltage is ∆ Vo = VinT/2R1Cf
DIFFERENTIATOR: The circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation . ∴ fb = 1KHz and fb = 1/2π R1 C1 R1 = KΩ . Adjust the signal generator to produce a 1V peak a. the o/p waveform is the derivative of the i/p waveform. Square wave at 5kHz
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. (iii) Connect the integrator circuit Adjust the signal generator to produce a 1V peak a. The output voltage Vo(t) = . Since RfCf = R1 C1 Cf = R1 C1/Rf = µF
(b) Vmax = 1V and f = 100Hz Vo = -RfC1dV/dt = -[ RfC12π ]
d (sin 2∏ ft ) dt
= -Vcos[2πft] Volts
PROCEDURE: (i)Connect the differentiator circuit. that is .

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.
RESULT: Thus a integrator and differentiator circuit were designed. constructed and tested.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Observe and record the input and the output waveforms.

Input Time/Division No. of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Integrator Circuit:
Integrator circuit. of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
Waveforms
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. of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No. of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
Output Time/Division No.

of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No. of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
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.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Differentiator Circuit:
Differentiator circuit. Input Time/Division No.

of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
Waveforms
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.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Output Time/Division No. of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No.

). constructed and tested
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. This configuration is better than inverting or non-inverting amplifier because it has minimum non-linearity . very low offset and drift voltage. strain gauges and biological probes. ii.V2 ) [ 1 + (2 R1 / R2 )] Gain = 1+ (2R1 / R2) PROCEDURE : (i) Connect the instrumentation amplifier circuit. (ii)For various input voltage V1 . Output voltage V0 = ( V1 .EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
3. IC 741 Resistors RPS. INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER AIM : To design and test the operation of Instrumentation Amplifier for various gain.
APPARATUS REQUIRED : i. V2 measure and record the output voltage. stable voltage gain and high CMRR ( > 100 dB. RESULT : Thus the instrumentation amplifier is designed. This type of amplifier are used in thermocouples. iii. DMM
THEORY : Instrumentation amplifier is an amplifier with high input impedance.

2. R2 R1 V1 V2 Vo = ( V1 . 2. 1K 5.2K 2.V2 ) [ 1 + (2 R1 / R2 )]
ohms ohms volts volts volts theoretical 1.2K 3. 2K 1K 1K 1K 1K 1K 2 3 4 2 1 1 2 2 5 4 practical
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. 1K 4.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
+15
V1
3
7 IC 741 2 _ 4 -15
+
6
R1
+15
R1 R2 R1 R1 R1
2 _ 7 IC 741 3 + 4 -15 6
V0
+15 2 _ 7 IC 741 3 + 4 -15 6
R
1
V 2
TABULAR COLUMN : S.No.

Connecting wires
THEORY:
An improved filter response can be obtained by using a second order active filter. The transfer function of a Low pass filter is A0ω2h H(s) = S2 + αωhS + ω2h For n=2.1 µF. SECOND ORDER ACTIVE FILTERS AIM :
To construct and plot the frequency response of second order low pass .
Design: F = 1KHz Assume C = 0.586= 1+0. Function generator .586.586. the pass band gain A0 = 3 – α = 1. RPS. CRO. Ri = 10 kohm
HIGH PASS FILTER:
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.414 . iv. ii.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
4. Let Rf = 5.86 kohm . Capacitors Bread board. Resistors. IC 741. A second order filter consist of two RC pairs has a roll-off rate of –40db/decade. Cutoff frequency of the filter = 1/ 2π RC . R= ohms
Ao = 1+ Rf / Ri = 1. high pass filter having the fc of 1KHz. the damping factor α = 1. iii. APPARATUS REQUIRED: i.

Theoretical = ii.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
HPF is the complement of the Low pass filter and can be obtained simply by interchanging R and C in the low pass configuration as shown in figure. 2. 4. cutoff frequency of LPF i. Practical =
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. Give an input signal Vi of 1-V (p-p) and measure the output voltage for different frequency. 3.
RESULT: Thus the frequency response of a second order high pass filter & low pass filter are plotted. Determine the cut-off frequency.
PROCEDURE: 1. 5. Connect the Low pass filter circuit as shown in the diagram. Practical =
cutoff frequency of HPF i. Theoretical = ii. Plot the frequency response 20 logVo/Vi versus input frequency and find 3db frequency. Repeat the above for HPF.

1MFd
CRO
INPUT VOLTAGE Vi = S. 10.1MFd 0. 15. 3. 7.86KOhm
-15V
5 4 741 + 1 7 2 6
1. 4. 8. 12.6KOhm
3
+15V FUNCTION GENERATOR 0. 14.
volts Output voltage Vo volts Gain in dB 20 logVo/Vi
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.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
LOW PASS FILTER
10 KOhm
5. 13. 5.6KOhm
1. 2. 9. Frequency Hz 1. 6.No. 11.

1MFd 0.
Frequency Hz
Output voltage Vo volts
1.86 KOhm
0.6 KOhm
INPUT VOLTAGE Vi =
volts
S. 2. 4. 8. 5. 3. 6.
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+ 1 7
CRO
Gain in dB 20 logVo/Vi
. 9. 7.No.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
MODEL GRAPH:
HIGH PASS FILTER
10 KOhm -15V
5 4 2
5.6KOhm FUNCTION GENERATOR
+15V 1.1MFd
3
6
1.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
10. 15.
MODEL GRAPH:
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. 14. 13. 12. 11.

R1 = fl = 1/ (2 π R2 C2) = 400 Hz let C2= . A wide band pass filter formed by cascading I order HPF and I order LPF is shown in the circuit diagram. RPS.01µ F . Resistors. BAND PASS FILTER AIM: To design construct and test a wide band pass filter APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. CRO. Connecting wires
THEORY: A wide band pass filter can be formed by cascading a HPF and LPF section. fl = 400 Hz pass band gain = 4 Design: LPF and HPF sections may be designed to have a gain of 2. iii. R2 =
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. then the band pass filter(BPF) will have a roll off rate of -20 dB/decade. Function generator .
Design Specifications:
fh = 2 K Hz . iv.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
6. If the HPF and LPF are of the first order.01 µ F . Ao = 1+ (Rf/Ri) Let Rf = Ri =10 k fh = 1/(2π R1 C1) = 2 KHz let C1 = . IC 741. Capacitors Bread board. ii.

Practical =
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. Practical = ii. 2. Connect the Band pass filter circuit as shown in the diagram. 4.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
PROCEDURE: 1. Determine the cut-off frequency fh and fl .
RESULT: Thus the frequency response of a first order band pass filter is plotted. Theoretical = ii. Lower cutoff frequency i. Theoretical = Upper cutoff frequency i. Plot the frequency response 20 logVo/Vi versus input frequency and find 3db frequency. Give an input signal Vi of 1-V (p-p) and measure the output voltage for different frequency. 3.

5. 6. 15.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
INPUT VOLTAGE Vi = S. 9.No. 13. 2. 10. 14. 12. 4. Frequency Hz 1. 8. 3. 7. MODEL GRAPH:
volts Output voltage Vo volts Gain in dB 20 logVo/Vi
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. 11.

IC 741. Capacitors Bread board.
The time period T of the out wave form is T = 2 RC ln ( (1+β)/(1-β)) β=R2/(R1+R2) If R1 = 1. iv. depending whether the differential voltage is positive or negative. Resistors. That is. The output of the OPAMP in this circuit will be in positive or negative saturation. resulting in the square
wave output. respectively. Astable multivibrator circuit is shown in figure.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
6.6k
. ii.05 µF
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. the out put of the OPAMP is forced to swing repetitively between positive saturation V
sat
and negative saturation –Vsat.16 R2 T = 2RC Frequency = 1/(2RC)
Design specification: f0 = 1 KHz Design: R1 = 1.
R1 = 11.16 R2 Let R2 = 10 k Let C= . Connecting wires
THEORY: Square wave outputs are generated when the OPAMP is forced to operate in the saturated region. RPS. ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
AIM: To design a square wave generator for fo = 1kHz and study its performance. APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. CRO. iii.

Determine the frequency. ii. constructed and tested.
RESULT: Thus the square wave generator is designed . Connect the circuit shown in figure using component values as obtained in design.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
R = 1/( 10 X10-8X1000) = 10 k
PROCEDURE: i.
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. Observe and sketch the capacitor voltage wave form and output wave form. iii.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
10 KOhm
-15V
5 4 2 3 + 1 7 6
0.Vsat
βVsat
.βVsat
T (S)
Frequency Hz
theoretical practical
WAVE FORM:
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.049MFd
+15V
11.6 KOhm CRO
10KOhm
Vsat
.

Vsat [R2/(R1+R2)] Design specifications: VUT = + 0. Connecting wires
THEORY: Schmitt trigger circuit is an inverting comparator with positive feed back. RPS. VLT = . Function generator IC 741. The input voltage Vi triggers the output every time it exceeds certain voltage levels called upper threshold and lower threshold voltage. SCHMITT TRIGGER (REGENERATIVE COMPARATOR)
AIM: To design a Schmitt trigger circuit and show its use for generating a square wave output.
VUT = Vsat [R2/(R1+R2)] VLT = . CRO.5V Design: For 741.5 = 14 [R2/(R1+R2)] R1=27 R2 Let R2 = 1 k R1 = 27k
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. iii. with supply voltages ±15V.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
7. iv. Resistors Bread board. ii.5V. the saturation voltage ±V sat = ±14V 0. APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. The input voltage is applied to the (-) terminal and feed back voltage to the (+) terminal.0. This circuit converts an irregular shaped waveform to a square wave or pulse.

2. Adjust the signal generator so that Vi =2V p-p sine wave at 1kHz
3.
RESULT: Thus Schmitt trigger circuit is designed.
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. Observe and plot the input and output waveforms. constructed and tested.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No. of (s) Divisions Time Period T (s) Frequency Amplitude/Division No. of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
WAVE FORM:
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.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
SCHMITT TRIGGER (REGENERATIVE COMPARATOR)
5 4
1 KOhm
2 3 + 1 7
6
V
27KOhm CRO
in +15V
1 KOhm
Input Time/Division No. of f=1/T (V) Divisions Amplitude (V)
Output Time/Division No.

then T =0.
THEORY: Monostable multivibrator is a square wave shaping circuit having one stable state and another quasi stable state. Observe the output voltage across the capacitor Vc and the output waveform Vo and trace it. 3.5. It is oftenly referred as single shot multivibrator. capacitors Breadboard . construct and test a monostable multivibrator
APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
AIM: To design.1 µF. Apply a negative going pulse as the input signal. It can be made to switch to other state by the application of triggering pulse. RPS.
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. R=
PROCEDURE : 1. iii. ii.
T = RC ln ((1+VD / Vsat)/ (1-β)) Where β = R2 / (R1+R2) If. The connection is made as per the circuit diagram. It is also used as a gating circuit and delay circuit. Vsat >> VD and R1= R2 so that β= 0. iv. connecting wires.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
8. but it then returns to its stable state after a time interval determined the RC value.69RC Design specifications : T= 600µs Assume C= 0. Function generator. v. 2. CRO IC 741 Diodes Resistors.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
RESULT : The monostable multivibrator was designed . constructed and tested Time period i. Theoretical = Practical =
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. ii.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
Vsat
.Vsat
-βVsat
VD
Pulse width
Frequency Hz
theoretical practical Trigger signal: p-p amplitude = frequency=
WAVEFORM:
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.

R= Kohm To prevent overloading of the amplifier by RC network . ii iii iv RPS.
THEORY :
Oscillator is a feed back circuit where a fraction of output voltage of an amplifier is fed back to the input in the same phase. RC phase shift oscillators are sine wave oscillators which is used in the audio frequency range. construct and test a RC phase shift oscillator. CRO IC 741 Resistors. capacitors Breadboard .Each RC network gives 60° phase shift.The feedback RC network produces an additional phase shift of 180°. connecting wires. The frequency of oscillation is given by fo = 1 / √ 6 (2πRC)
Design specifications: fo = 100Hz Assume C = 0.
APPARATUS REQUIRED : i.1 µF .EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
9. The amplification is done by the op-amp and as it is used in the inverting mode is gives a phase shift of 180° . RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR AIM : To design. Function generator. R1 ≤ 10R Let R1 = 10 R = Rf = 29 R1 = kohm
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.

Practical =
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.
RESULT: The RC phase shift oscillator is designed and tested Frequency of oscillation fo i.The connection is made as per the circuit diagram. 2. Theoretical = ii.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
PROCEDURE: 1.Observe the output waveform Vo and trace it.

of f=1/T (V) Divisions
Amplitude (V)
WAVEFORM:
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. of (s) Divisions
Time Period T (s)
Frequency Amplitude/Division No.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Time/Division No.

Frequency = f0 = 1/(2π R C ) Design specification : fo=1kHz Design: f0 = 1/(2π R C ) Choose C=0. Capacitors CRO. The phase angle criterion for oscillation is that the total phase shift around the circuit must be 0. iii. The
frequency of oscillation fo is exactly the resonant frequency of the balanced Wien bridge and is given by. This condition occurs only when the bridge is balanced. ii.05µ F So R= 1/ (2π 1000×0. The bridge has a series RC network in one arm and a parallel RC network in the adjoining arm. WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR USING OP-AMP IC
AIM: To design the wien’s bridge oscillator using OP-AMP IC for fo = 1000Hz APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. In the remaining two arms of the bridge. Figure shows the Wien bridge oscillator in which Wien bridge circuit is connected between the amplifier input terminals and the output terminal. RPS
THEORY: The Wien bridge oscillator is the most commonly used audio frequency oscillator because of its simplicity and stability.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
10.1KΩ and Rf = 2R1
Take R1=10R=30 KΩ and Rf=2R1= 60 KΩ( Use 100 KΩ pot)
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. resistors R1 and Rf are connected.05µ F) =3. 741 IC Resistors.

Observe the output wave form on an Oscilloscope.
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. Construct the circuit with the values obtained in the design. Measure the frequency of oscillator and voltage amplitude.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3.
RESULT: Thus the wein bridge oscillator is designed for a particular required frequency and tested. Adjust Rf to obtain a sine wave output.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR
R C +12V
1 7 2 + 5 4 3 6
Vo R f
V
o R C -12V V
R
1
Time/Division No. of (s) Divisions
Time Period T (s)
Frequency Amplitude/Division No. of f=1/T (V) Divisions
Amplitude (V)
WAVEFORM:
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.

693(Ra + R b)C. connecting wires
THEORY: The 555 timer is connected as an astable multivibrator as shown in figure. ii. thus completing the cycle. The discharging continues until the capacitor voltage drops to (1/3) Vcc at which point the internal lower comparator switches states causing the internal flipflop output to go low. iii. For Unsymmetrical waveform : f =1/T = 1.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
11. In this mode of operation the timing capacitor charges up towards Vcc (assuming Vo is high initially) through (Ra + Rb) until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the threshold level (2/3) Vcc .44 / ( Ra + 2Rb )C + t high ) = R b / (Ra + 2Rb )
DutyCycle = D = tlow/ ( tlow
Where thigh = 0. This turns on the discharge transistor and the timing capacitor C then discharges through Rb and the discharging transistor .693 R bC
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. At this point the capacitor starts to charge again. Design of Astable multivibrator using IC 555: i. iv.DESIGN OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING 555IC AIM: To design and test an astable multivibrator for generating symmetrical and unsymmetrical square wave form for the given frequency and duty cycle. RPS Bread board.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. tlow = 0. IC 555 Resistors. Capacitors CRO. turning off the discharge transistor. At this point the internal upper comparator switches state causing the internal flipflop output to go high.

Connect the circuit as given using component values as obtained in designed part (a) 2. constructed and tested.693 Ra C.5 ms = 0.5 ms Ra = PROCEDURE :
1.693 R bC T = thigh + tlow f = 1 / T = 1. 3.44 / (Ra + Rb ) C D = Rb / (Ra + Rb) Design specifications: frequency = 1kHz . For Symmetrical Wave form : thigh = 0.
RESULT: Thus astable multivibrator is designed.1 µF Rb = thigh = 0.25 ms = 0. Measure the frequency and duty cycle of the output waveform.1 µF Rb = thigh = 0.693 R bC Let C= 0.693(Ra + R b)C = 0. Repeat step 2 and 3.693 Ra C = 0. tlow = 0. Duty cycle = 50% Design : tlow = 0. Connect the circuit using component values as obtained from designed part (b). 5. 4.75 ms Ra = ii.
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.693 R bC Let C= 0. Observe and sketch the capacitor voltage waveform and output waveform. Duty cycle = 25% Design: tlow = .EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Design specifications: frequency = 1kHz .

0.01µf
Tabulation: Symmetrical: Duty Cycle = 50 %
tlow (ms)
t high (ms)
Frequency (Hz)
theoretical practical theoretical practical theoretical practical
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.01 µ f
C = 0.1µf
5 1
C 0.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Circuit Diagram : Unsymmetrical Waveform Symmetrical Waveform
+Vcc 8 Outpu t 4
+Vcc
RA
7
O utpu t 3
8
4
RA
7
3 NE 555
NE 555
RB 2 6 IN .0.01 .4001
RB
2 6 5 1 C 0.1 µ f C = 0.01 .

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
Unsymmetrical:
Duty Cycle = 25%
tlow (ms)
t high (ms)
Frequency (Hz)
theoretical practical theoretical practical theoretical practical
WAVEFORM:
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.

is a regenerative device. therefore the circuit is also called a one shot multivibrator or univibrator.1 R C
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.555 timer . pulse of predetermined width. ii. The circuit is also referred to as gating circuit. The device can make a fast transition in time T after the application of input trigger and as such can be used as a delay circuit. Capacitors CRO. which is used to generate rectangular output.MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR
AIM : To design construct and test a monostable multivibrator using IC . IC 555 Resistors. iii. because it generates rectangular wave form. The transition time due to external triggering is very short.
The mono-stable multivibrator also called a one shot multivibrator.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
12. iv. Because. RPS Bread board. connecting wires
THEORY :
Mono-stable multivibrator has only one stable state and one quasi-stable state. whereas the time for the circuit to remain quasistable state is very large. the circuit returns from quasi-stable state by itself after a certain time delay. after triggering. without requiring any external triggering signal.
Pulse width T = 1. which can be used to gate other circuits. The circuit returns to stable state from its quasi-stable state by itself.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. Transition is obtained from the stable to quasi-stable by triggering.

4. constructed and tested.
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. 3.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
PROCEDURE : 1. RESULT: Thus monostable multi vibrator is designed. Apply negative trigger pin 2 . 2. Observe the out put pulse width for different values of C and tabulate. Observe and sketch the out put waveform at pin 3. Connect the circuit as shown in diagram.

1 µ f 4
R
7
6
0 .0 1 .0 .0 1 µ f
TABULATION : C ( µF )
R
Pulse width T (Practical)
Pulse width T (Theoretical)
WAVEFORM:
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.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
+V c c 8 O u tpu t 3 NE 555 2 Tr i g g e r 5 1 C 0 .

The 4 bit binary counter (7490) is configured as a divide by 5 circuit.
PROCEDURE: 1. The transistor Q is used as a driver stage to increase the driving capability of the NE 565. connecting wires. Connect the circuit as shown in figure. C3 is used to eliminate possible oscillation.
THEORY: Figure shows the block diagram of a frequency multiplier using the 565 PLL. the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency. Adjust the signal generator so that Vi =1V p-p square wave at 500Hz
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The desired amount of multiplication can be obtained by selecting a proper divide by N network. Breadboard.
APPARATUS REQUIRED: i. For example.FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER USING PLL IC
AIM: To study the operation of NE 565 PLL as a frequency multiplier. IC NE565. Since the output of the divider is locked to the input frequency fIN.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
13. Rps ii. Capacitors iii. C2 should be large enough to stabilize the VCO frequency. The frequency divider is inserted between the VCO and the phase comparator. Resistors. where N is an integer. a divide by N = 5 network is needed. to obtain the output frequency fOUT = 5 fIN. IC 7490 iv. 2. Transistor 2N3391 v.

The free running frequency fOUT of VCO is varied by adjusting R1 and C1 and the output frequency is determined and it should be 5 times the input frequency.5 KHz.
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RESULT: The frequency multiplier using PLL principle is studied and the output waveform is observed. 4.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
3. Determine the output frequency for different input frequency of 1KHz and 1.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
565 PLL
f out
f in
PHASE COMPARATOR
AMPLIFIER
LPF
VCO
f = f in out N
.N NETWORK (FREQUENCY DIVIDER)
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: FREQUENCY MULTIPLIER CIRCUIT
+5V
C2 10MFd
20KOhm
R1
2KOhm
C3 0.7KOhm 1 2N3391
1
0.01MFd
7490
2 3 6 7
10KOhm
3
2
(.001MFd 10 7 8 4
VCO output
+5V
f = 5f out in
NE565
fin 9 1 5
5 C1 11
4./.5 network)
10
-5V
tlow (ms)
t high (ms)
Frequency (Hz)
theoretical practical theoretical practical theoretical practical
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iv. Ammeter Breadboard . temperature and ac line voltage variations. THEORY: A voltage regulator is an electronic circuit that provides a stable dc voltage independent of the load current .
APPARATUS REQUIRED : i. Measure and record the value of Vref 3. iii. 723 VOLTAGE REGULATOR
AIM: To study the operation of 723 regulator IC. Replace RL with short circuit and measure IL.EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
14. capacitors.For various values of IL . Plot a graph of IL versus VL. 6. Set the dc power supply voltage Vin to +10V. Remove RL and measure the minimum and maximum output voltages by rotating 1Kohm-pot . 8. RPS 723 IC Resistors.Measure IL and VL for below and above the current limiting point 7. Gradually increase IL above 18mA. ii.
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. 2. The 723 regulator can be adjusted over a wide range of both positive or negative regulated voltage. note VL and calculate Load regulation. 723 IC is a l general purpose regulator. VL decreases when IL is about 18 to 20mA.
PROCEDURE: 1. connecting wires. Adjust RL until the IL = 1 mA and note VL . v. 4. potentiometer. Adjust the 1 kohm-pot so that Vo = +5v and measure the voltage between the wiper arm of the 1k and ground
5. This gives the short circuit current Isc.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
9.
RESULT: Thus the 723 regulator is studied and its regulation characteristics are observed. Make Rsc = 0. measure and record VL for various values of input voltage and percentage line regulation.
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. Determine the line regulation. Adjust RL for IL of 1mA. With Vin = 10V. 10. 10mA upto IL(max). measure and record IL and VL for IL: 5mA.

EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
MODEL GRAPH: Line regulation: sno Vi volt V0 volt Line regulation:
sno Vi volt
V0 volt
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EC1257: LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS LAB
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
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