This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵ
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism
5.1. Belt drive
5.1.1. Introduction
Belts are used Ior transmitting power Irom one shaIt to another shaIt. The belts may be Ilat belts,
Vbelts etc. other method oI transmitting power are ropes and chains. The belts are and ropes are
running over the pulleys. The pulleys are mounted on the two shaIts.
Belts, ropes and chains are used where the distance between the shaIts is large. For small
distances gears are used. Belts and ropes are not having constant velocity ratios whereas chains
and gears have constant velocity ratios.
The Ilat belt drives are the Iollowing important types:
1. pen belt drive,
2. Cross belt drive and
3. Compound belt drive.
Selection oI a belt drive depends upon:
(i) Center distance between the shaIts,
(ii) Power to be determined,
(iii) Speed oI the driving and driven shaIts and
(iv) Speed reduction ratio
Though there are many types oI belts, yet the Iollowing types are important:
(i) Flat belt rectangular in section as shown in Iigure 5.1(a)
(ii) Vbelt trapezoidal in section as shown Iigure 5.1 (b)
(iii) Circular belt or rope circular in section as shown Iigure 5.1 (c).
a. b. c.
Fig 5.1. Types oI belt
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷ
5.1.2. Open flat belt
n open belt drive consisting pulleys and B are shown in Iigure 5.2. The pulley which is
keyed to the rotating shaIt is known as the driver pulley whereas the pulley which is keyed to the
shaIt which is to be rotated is known as driven pulley or Iollower pulley. Here pulley is driver
pulley and Pulley B is driven pulley.
Fig 5.2. pen Ilat belt
When the shaIts are arranged in parallel and rotating in the same direction, open belt drive as
shown in Iigure 5.2 is used. The driver pulley pulls the belt Irom lower side and drivers it to
the upper side. Hence the tension in the lower side oI the belt will be more than the tension in the
upper side. The lower side belt is known as tight side whereas the upper side belt is as slack side.
5.1.2.1. Velocity ratio of open belt drive
The ratio oI the velocity oI the Iollower (or driven) to the velocity oI driver is known as velocity
ratio. Mathematically, it is given as:
Let =
1
N speed oI the driver in r.p.m.
=
1
d iameter oI the driver
=
2 2
, d N Speed and diameter oI the Iollower respectively
Let us consider the length oI the belt that passes over the driver and the Iollower in one minute.
Length oI belt passing over the driver in one minute
÷circumIerence oI the driver x number oI revolution per minute.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷ
1 1
N d  x
Similarly, length oI belt passing over the Iollowing in one minute
Length oI belt passing over the driver in one minute
÷circumIerence oI the driver x number oI revolution per minute.
2 2
N d  x
But the length oI belt passing over the driver in one minute is equal to the length oI belt passing
over Iollower in one minute,
2 2 1 1
N d N d  =  x x
r
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
=
Velocity ratio,
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
= 5.1
Effect of belt thickness on velocitv ratio
II belt thickness is considered, then Ior exact analysis the mean diameter oI rotation is used Ior
the calculation oI the velocity ratio. The mean diameter oI rotation will be equal to the diameter
oI the driver (or Iollower) plus the thickness oI belt. Hence the radius oI rotation will become as
the radius oI the driver (or Iollower) plus halI the belt thickness. II there is no slip between the
belt and the pulleys, then the peripheral speed oI the two pulleys should be the same. lso this
will be equal to the velocity oI belt.
2 2 1 1 m m
r r J æ æ = = (i)
Where
60
2
1
1
N
driver the of velocitv Angular
x
æ = =
60
2
2
2
N
driven the of velocitv Angular
x
æ = =
2
1 1
t
r pullev driver of rotation of radius Mean r
m
+ = =
2
1
2 2
+ = = r pullev driven of radius Mean r
m
belt of Thickness t =
Equation (i) becomes, as
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿ
¦
'
+
'
+ = ¦
'
+
'
+
2 2
2 2 1 1
t
r
t
r æ æ
t d
t d
t r
t r
t
r
t
r
+
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
æ
æ
r
t d
t d
N
N
+
+
=
2
1
1
2
5.2
lternate method
Let =
1
N r.p.m oI driver pulley
=
2
N r.p.m oI driven pulley (Iollower)
=
1
d iameter oI driver pulley
1
2r =
=
2
d iameter oI driven pulley
2
2r =
=
1
æ ngular velocity oI driver pulley
60
2
1
N x
=
=
2
æ ngular velocity oI driven pulley
60
2
2
N x
=
II there is no slip between the belt and the pulleys and also thickness oI the belt negligible, then
peripheral speed oI the two pulleys should be same. lso this will be equal to the velocity oI belt.
Hence iI V is the velocity oI belt, then
2 2 1 1
r r J æ æ = =
r
2 60
2
2 60
2
2 2 1 1
d N d N
 = 
x x
¦
'
+
'
= = etc
d
r
N
2
&
60
2
1
1
1
1
x
æ
r
2 2 1 1
d N d N =
r
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
=
In the above equation is known as velocity ratio. lso Irom the above equation it is clear
that speed oI the pulley is inversely proportional to its diameter.
!roblem 5.1. Find the speed oI the shaIt which is driven with the help oI a belt by an engine
running at 200 r.p.m. The diameter oI the engine pulley is 51 cm and that oI the shaIt is 30 cm.
1
2
N
N
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ź
$olution:
iven
Speed oI engine (driver), . . . 200
1
m p r N =
iameter oI the engine (driver) pulley . 51
1
cm d =
iameter oI the driven shaIt . 30
2
cm d =
Let =
2
N speed oI driven shaIt
Using equation (5.1), we get,
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
=
. . . 340 200
30
51
1
2
1
2
m p r N
d
d
N =  =  =
!roblem 5.2. II in the above equation, the thickness oI the belt is 10mm, then Iind the speed oI
the shaIt.
Solution:
iven
Thickness, cm mm t 1 10 = =
Speed oI engine (driver), . . . 200
1
m p r N =
iameter oI the engine (driver) pulley . 51
1
cm d =
iameter oI the driven shaIt . 30
2
cm d =
Let =
2
N speed oI driven shaIt
Using equation (5.2), we get,
t d
t d
N
N
+
+
=
2
1
1
2
. . . 4 . 335 200
1 30
1 51
1
2
1
2
m p r N
t d
td d
N =  ¦
'
+
'
+
+
= 
¦
¦
'
+
'
+
+
=
5.1.2.2. Slip of the belt
When the driver pulley rotates, it carries the belt, due to a Iirm grip between its surIace and the
belt. The Iirm grip between the pulley and the belt is obtained by Iriction. This Iirm grip is
known as Irictional grip. But sometimes the Irictional grip is not suIIicient. This may cause some
Iorward motion oI the driver pulley without carrying the belt with it. This means that there is a
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ź
relative motion between the driver pulley and the belt. The diIIerence between the linear speeds
oI the pulley rim and the belt is a measure oI slip. enerally, the slip is expressed as a
percentage. In some cases, the belt moves Iaster in the Iorward direction, without carrying the
driven pulley with it. Hence in case oI driven pulley, the Iorward motion oI the belt is more than
that oI driven pulley.
Let = v Velocity oI belt, passing over the driver pulley, rim
=
1
N r.p.m oI driver pulley
=
2
N r.p.m oI driven pulley (Iollower)
=
1
s Slip between the driver and the belt in percentage
=
2
s Slip between the Iollower and the belt in percentage
The peripheral velocity oI the driver pulley
s m
d N
d N
r
/
60
2 60
2
1 1
1 1
1 1
x
x
æ
=
 =
=
Now due to slip between the driver pulley and the belt, the velocity oI belt passing over the
driver pulley will decrease
100 60 60
1 1 1 1 1
s d N d N
belt of Jelocitv  ¦
'
+
'
=
x x
¦
'
+
'
=
100
1
60
1 1 1
s d N
belt of Jelocitv
x
Now this belt is passing over the Iollower pulley (i.e. driven pulley). nd as there is a slip
between the belt and the driven pulley, the velocity (i.e. peripheral velocity) oI the Iollower
pulley will decrease.
Peripheral velocity oI Iollower
¦
'
+
'
 =
100
2
s
belt of Jelocitv belt of Jelocitv
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ż
¦
'
+
'
 =
100
1
2
s
belt of Jelocitv
=
100
1
100
1
60
2 1 1 1
s s d N x
(i)
¦
'
+
'
=
100
1
60
1 1 1
s d N
belt of Jelocitv
x
!
But peripheral velocity oI Iollower pulley
2 60
2
2 2
2 2
d N
r
 =
=
x
æ
¦
'
+
'
= =
2
&
60
2
2
2
2
2
d
r
N x
æ !
60
2 2
d N x
= (ii)
Equating the two values given in equations (i) and (ii), we get
=
100
1
100
1
60 60
2 1 1 1 2 2
s s d N d N x x
=
100
1
100
1
2 1
1 1 2 2
s s
d N d N
+ =
10000 100 100
1
2 1 1 2
1 1 2 2
s s s s
d N d N
+
=
100
1
2 1
1 1 2 2
s s
d N d N ¦
'
+
'
10000
2 1
s s
g negelectin
=
100
1
1 1 2 2
s
d N d N
(Where
2 1
s s s + = i.e. total percentage oI slip between driver and Iollower)
=
100
1
2
1
1
2
s
d
d
N
N
7.3
II the belt thickness (t) is taken in to account, then
¦
'
+
'
¦
¦
'
+
'
+
+
=
100
1
2
1
1
2
s
t d
t d
N
N
7.4
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page 8
5.1.2.3. Creep of the belt
In a belt drive, the belt is passing over the driver pulley and driven pulley (i.e. Iollower). When
the power is transmitted with the help oI this belt, the belt is subiected to tensions. The part the
belt which leaves the Iollower and approaches the driver is known as the tight side oI the belt and
is subiected to tension T
1
. But the part oI the belt which leaves the driver and approaches the
Iollower is known as slack side oI the belt and subiected to tension T
2
. The two tensions are not
equal in magnitude, i.e.
2 1
T T . Hence the stretch in the belt due to diIIerent tensions the on the
two sides oI the pulley will be diIIerent. certain portion oI the belt when passes Irom slack side
to tight side, extends and the same portion contracts again when the belt passes Irom the tight
side to slack side. ue to these changes in length, there exists a relative motion between the belt
and the pulleys surIaces. This relative motion is known as creep. The creep reduces slightly the
speed oI the Iollower (i.e. driven pulley).
The velocity ratio when creep is considered is given by,
+
+
 =
1
2
2
1
1
2
f E
f E
d
d
N
N
5.5
Where = E oung`s modulus Ior the material oI the belt
=
1
f Stress in the belt on the tight side, and
=
2
f Stress in the belt on the slack side.
Problem 5.3. shaIt running at 200 r.p.m. is to drive a parallel shaIt at 300 r.p.m. The pulley on
the driving shaIt is 60 cm diameter. Calculate the diameter oI the pulley on the driven shaIt:
(i) Neglecting belt thickness.
(ii) Taking belt thickness into account, which is 5mm thick.
(iii) ssuming in the later case a total slip oI 4°.
Solution:
iven
. . . 200
1
m p r N = . . . 300
2
m p r N = cm d 60
1
= & cm mm t 5 . 0 5 = =
Total slip ° 4 = s
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page 9
(i) Neglecting belt thickness
Let =
2
d iameter oI the pulley on driven shaIt
Using equation (5.1)
cm d
N
N
d
d
d
N
N
40 60
300
200
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
=  =  = ÷ =
(ii) Taking belt thickness into account only,
Using equation (5.2), we get
t d
t d
N
N
+
+
=
2
1
1
2
r
2
1
1 2
N
N
t d t d  + = +
3
2
5 . 60
300
200
5 . 0 60 5 . 0
2
 =  + = + d
5 . 0
3
121
5 . 0
3
2
5 . 60
2
=  = d
cm d 83 . 39 5 . 0 33 . 40
2
= =
(iii) Considering the belt thickness and total slip.
Using equation (5.4), we get
¦
'
+
'
¦
¦
'
+
'
+
+
=
100
1
2
1
1
2
s
t d
t d
N
N
¦
'
+
'
¦
¦
'
+
'
+
+
=
100
4
1
5 . 0
5 . 0 60
200
300
2
d
72 . 38
300
200
96 . 0 5 . 60 5 . 0
2
=   = + d
cm d 22 . 38 5 . 0 72 . 38
2
= =
Problem 5.4. The power is transmitted Irom a pulley to 1m diameter running at 200 r.p.m. to a
pulley 2.5m diameter by means oI a belt. Find the speed lost by the driven pulley as a result oI
the creep, iI the stress on the tight and slack side oI the belt is 1.44 N/mm
2
and 0.49 N/mm
2
respectively. The oung`s modulus Ior the material oI the belt is 100 N/mm
2
.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŴ
Solution:
iven
iameter oI the driver pulley, m d 1
1
=
Speed oI the driver pulley, . . . 200
1
m p r N =
iameter oI the driven pulley, m d 5 . 2
2
=
Stress on tight side,
2
1
/ 44 . 1 mm N f =
Stress on slack side,
2
1
/ 49 . 0 mm N f =
oung`s modulus,
2
/ 100 mm N E =
Let =
2
N speed oI the driven pulley.
Using equation (5.5), we get
+
+
 =
1
2
2
1
1
2
f E
f E
d
d
N
N
=
+
+
 =
12 . 101
7 . 100
5 . 2
1
44 . 1 100
49 . 0 100
5 . 2
1
200
2
N
. . . 67 . 79
12 . 101
7 . 100
5 . 2
200
2
m p r N =
=
II the creep is neglected, then Irom equation (5.1), we get
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
=
. . . . 80 200
5 . 2
1
1
2
1
2
m p r N
d
d
N =  =  =
Speed lost by driven pulley due to creep
. . . 33 . 0 67 . 79 80 m p r = =
5.1.2.4. Cross belt drive
In an open belt drive both the pulleys rotate in the same direction, whereas in the cross belt drive
they rotate in the opposite direction. Hence the crossbelt drive is used when the shaIts are
arranged in parallel and rotate in the opposite direction as shown in Iigure 5.3. the driver pulley
pulls the belt Irom C side and delivers it to EF. Hence the tension in the belt C will be
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŵ
more than that in the portion FE. nd so the belt C is known as light side and portion FE is
known as slack side.
Fig 5.3. Cross belt drive
5.1.2.5. Compound belt drive
When the power is to be transmitted Irom one shaIt to another through a number oI pulleys, then
a compound belt drive is used. Figure 5.4 shows a compound belt drive, in which the pulley 1
drives the pulley 2. But pulleys 2 and 3 are keyed (or Iixed) to the same shaIt, thereIore the
pulley 1 also drives pulley 3. But pulley 3 drives pulley 4 as shown in Iigure 5.4.
Fig 5.4 Compound belt drive
Velocity ratio oI compound belt drive
Let =
1
N Speed oI pulley 1 in r.p.m.
=
1
d iameter oI pulley 1
=
2 2
, d N Speed and diameter oI pulley 2 respectively
=
4 4 3 3
, & , d N d N Speed and diameter oI pulleys 3 and 4 respectively.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŶ
From equation (5.1), we know that the velocity ratio oI pulleys 1 and 2 is given by
2
1
1
2
d
d
N
N
= (i)
Similarly, the velocity ratio oI pulleys 3 and 4 is given by
4
3
3
4
d
d
N
N
= (ii)
Multiplying equation (i) and (ii), we get
4
3
2
1
3
4
1
2
d
d
d
d
N
N
N
N
 = 
But
3 2
N N = as the pulleys 2 and 3 are keyed to the same shaIt
4
3
2
1
1
4
d
d
d
d
N
N
 = 5.6
The above equation can be written as
followers of dia of oduct
drivers of dia of oduct
driver first of Speed
follower last of Speed
. Pr
. Pr
= 5.7
!roblem. With the help oI a belt, an engine running at 200 r.p.m., drives a line shaIt. The
diameter oI the pulley on the engine is 80 cm and the diameter oI the pulley on the line shaIt is
40cm. 100 cm diameter pulley on the line shaIt drives a 20 cm diameter pulley keyed on a
dynamo shaIt. Find the speed oI the shaIt when:
(i) There is no slip
(ii) There is a slip oI 2.5° at each drive
Solution:
iven
Engine speed 200
1
= N r.p.m.
iameter oI the pulley on the engine, cm d 80
1
=
iameter oI the Iollower pulley, cm d 40
2
=
iameter oI the driver pulley on the shaIt line, cm d 100
3
=
iameter oI the Iollower pulley on the dynamo shaIt, cm d 20
4
=
Slip at each drive, 5 . 2
2 1
= = s s
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŷ
Let =
4
N speed oI the dynamo shaIt.
(i) When there is no slip
Using equation (5.6), we get
4
3
2
1
1
4
d
d
d
d
N
N
 =
r . . . 2000 200
20
100
40
80
1
4
3
2
1
4
m p r N
d
d
d
d
N =   =   =
(ii) When there is a slip oI 2.5° at each drive.
In this case, we will have the equation
¦
'
+
'
¦
'
+
'
 =
100
1
100
1
2 1
4
3
2
1
1
4
s s
d
d
d
d
N
N
1
2 1
4
3
2
1
4
100
1
100
1 N
s s
d
d
d
d
N  ¦
'
+
'
¦
'
+
'
 =
200
100
5 . 2
1
100
5 . 2
1
20
100
40
80
4
 ¦
'
+
'
¦
'
+
'
 = N
. . . 25 . 1901
100
5 . 97
100
5 . 97
2000
4
m p r N = ¦
'
+
'
¦
'
+
'
=
5.1.2.ô. Length of belt
The length oI a belt means the total length oI the belt required to connect a driver and Iollower.
There are two cases to be considered. They are:
(i) Length oI an open belt drive, and
(ii) Length oI crossbelt drive.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŸ
5.1.2.ô.1. Length of an open belt drive
II the distance between the centers oI the two shaIts and the diameter oI pulleys are known, the
required length oI the belt may be easily calculated.
Fig 5.6. Length oI open belt drive
The total length oI an open belt is equal to the length oI the belt not in contact with either pulley
¹ the length oI belt in contact with the larger pulley ¹ length oI belt in contact with smaller
pulley.
Let = istance between the centers oI the two pulleys (i.e. length B)
=
1
r #adius oI the larger pulley
=
2
r #adius oI the smaller pulley
= Total length oI belt.
Both the pulleys in this case will rotate in the same direction as shows in Iigure 5.6.
The belt leaves the larger pulley at C and and smaller pulley at E and F. Join C and with .
lso ioin E and F with B.
From B draw BN parallel to EC. But CE is tangent at C. Hence C is perpendicular to CE,
which means
0
90 = .ACE or
2
x
. s BN is parallel to CE, hence
0
90 = .ANB or
2
x
radians.
Let the angle ¬ = ABN radians. Then angle ¦
'
+
'
= ¬
x
2
ABN . But angle
0
90 = BAK or .
2
x
hence angle . ¬ = KAC similarly, it can be shown that angle . ¬ = MBE
Now length
2 1
r r CN AC AN = =
2
2 1
2 2 2
r r AN AB BN = =
r
2
2 1
2
r r CE BN = =
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŹ
lso Irom triangle BN
r r
AB
AN
2 1
sin
= = ¬
Since u is very small, hence ¬ ¬ = sin
r r
2 1
sin
= = ¬ ¬ (i)
Now total length (L) oI the belt is given by,
EH Arc CE C Arc + + + =
) EH Arc CE C Arc + + = 2
) CE = !
¦
'
+
'
+ + ¦
'
+
'
+ = ¬
x
¬
x
2 2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
r r r r
(ii)
+ + + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 r r r r r r ¬
x
5.7
The above equation gives the exact length oI the open belt drive. n approximate relation Ior the
length oI the belt can also be obtained as given below:
s
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
1 ¦
'
+
'
=
r r
r r
2 / 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
1
¦
'
+
'
=
r r
r r
+ ¦
'
+
'
= .........
2
1
1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
r r
r r ansion Binomial rom exp
=
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
1
r r
r r terms smaller Neglecting
Substituting these values in equation (ii), we get
¦
'
+
'
+
¦
¦
'
+
'
+ ¦
'
+
'
+ = ¬
x
¬
x
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2 1
1
r
r r
r
¦
¦
'
+
'
+ + + =
r r
r r r r
2 2
2
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
¬
x
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵź
r r
r r r r
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2
+ + + = ¬ x
But Irom equation (i), we have
r r
2 1
= ¬
Substituting this value oI u in the above equation, we get
r r
r r
r r
r r
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 2
+ ¦
'
+
'
 + + = x
r r
r r
r r
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
+ + + = x
r r
r r 2
2
2 1
2 1
+
+ + = x
5.8
The above equation gives the approximate length oI open belt drive. From the above equation,
we observe that the length oI the open belt depends upon the sum and diIIerence oI the radii.
5.1.2.ô.2. Length of crossbelt drive
The crossbelt is shown in Iigure 5.7.
Let = istance between the centers oI the two pulleys, length B,
=
1
r #adius oI the larger pulley,
=
2
r #adius oI the smaller pulley,
= Total length oI the crossbelt.
Fig 5.7 Length oI crossbelt
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵŻ
Both the pulleys and in this case will rotate in the opposite directions as shown in Iigure 5.7.
The belt leaves the larger pulley at C and and smaller at E and F. From B, draw BN parallel to
FC. Now angle
0
90 = . = ANB AC . Let angle . ¬ = ABN then it can be shown that angle
¬ = KAC and also angle ¬ = EBM .
Length B r CN AC AN + = + =
1
B CN = !
2 1
r r AN + =
2
r B = !
In triangle BN,
2
2 1
2 2 2
r r AN AB BN + = =
nd
r r
AB
AN
2 1
sin
+
= = ¬
¬ ¬ = sin
r r
2 1
sin
+
= = ¬ ¬ (i)
Now total length (L) oI the belt is given by,
E HE Arc C C Arc + + + =
) HE Arc C C Arc + + = 2
) C E = !
¦
'
+
'
+ + + ¦
'
+
'
+ = ¬
x
¬
x
2 2
2
2 1
r BN r
) BN C = !
¦
'
+
'
+ + + + ¦
'
+
'
+ = ¬
x
¬
x
2 2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
r r r r
(ii)
+ + + + + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 r r r r r r ¬
x
5.8
The above equation gives the exact length oI the crossbelt drive.
n approximate relation Ior the length oI the belt can be obtained as given below:
s
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
1 ¦
'
+
'
+
= +
r r
r r
2 / 1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
1
¦
'
+
'
+
= +
r r
r r
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵ8
+ ¦
'
+
'
+
= + .........
2
1
1
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
r r
r r ansion Binomial rom exp
+
= +
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
1
r r
r r terms smaller Neglecting
Substituting this values in equation (ii), we get
¦
'
+
'
+ + ¦
'
+
'
+
+ ¦
'
+
'
+ = ¬
x
¬
x
2 2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
1
r
r r
r
¦
¦
'
+
'
+
+ + + + =
r r
r r r r
2 2
2
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
¬
x
r r
r r r r
2
2 1
2 1 2 1
2 2
+
+ + + + = ¬ x
But Irom equation (i), we have
r r
2 1
+
= ¬
Substituting this value oI u in the above equation, we get
r r
r r
r r
r r
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 2
+
+ + ¦
'
+
'
+
 + + = x
r r
r r
r r
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 +
+ + + + = x
r r
r r 2
2
2 1
2 1
+
+
+ + = x
5.9
The above equation gives the approximate length oI crossbelt drive. From the above equation,
we observe that the length oI the crossbelt depends only upon the sum oI the radii.
Hence Ior the belt connecting two stepped pulleys, the length oI the crossed belt is constant iI the
sum oI the radii oI the corresponding steps is constant. II
2 1
r r + is constant,
2 1
r r is not a
constant hence this rule does not apply Ior an open belt.
!roblem: Two parallel shaIts 6 m apart are to be connected by a belt running over pulleys oI
diameter 60 cm and 40 cm respectively. etermine the exact and approximate lengths oI the belt
required:
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŵ9
(i) II the belt is open
(ii) II the belt is crossed.
Solution:
iven
istance between the center oI shaIts (or oI pulleys), cm m 600 6 = =
iameter oI larger pulley cm 60 =
#adius oI larger pulley, cm r 30
2
60
1
= =
iameter oI smaller pulley cm 40 =
#adius oI smaller pulley, cm r 20
2
40
2
= =
Let = required length oI the belt.
(i) II the belt is open
Exact length. Exact length Ior the open belt is given by equation (5.7), as
+ + + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 r r r r r r ¬
x
Where u Ior open belt drive is given by
r r
2 1
sin
= ¬
¦
'
+
'
= ¦
'
+
'
=
600
20 30
sin sin
1 2 1 1
r r
¬
0 1 1
955 . 0 01666 . 0 sin
600
10
sin = = ¦
'
+
'
=
¬
radians radians 01666 . 0
180
955 . 0
0
=  =
x
¬
The value oI u is 0.955
0
which is very small. Hence u in radians will be equal to sinu. Here is
also u in radian ÷ 0.01666 and sinu ÷ 1/60 ÷ 0.01666.
Substituting this value oI u and also values oI r
1
and r
2
and x in the above equation, we get exact
length as
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŶŴ
) ) cm
24 . 1357 62 . 678 2 916 . 599 1666 . 0 25 2
20 30 600 20 30 01666 . 0 20 30
2
2
2 2
= = + + =
+ + + =
x
x
pproximate length, using equation (5.8), we get
cm
r r
r r
16 . 1357 600 2
600
20 30
20 30
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
=  +
+ + =
+
+ + =
x
x
ii) If belt is crossed
Exact length: exact length oI crossbelt drive is given by equation (5.8) as
+ + + + + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 r r r r r r ¬
x
Where u is given by,
0 1 1 2 1 1
78 . 4 08333 . 0 sin
600
20 30
sin sin = = ¦
'
+
'
+
=
+
=
r r
¬
. 08343 . 0
180
78 . 4
0
radians radians =  =
x
¬
Substituting this value oI u in the above equation, we get exact length as
) ) cm
24 . 1361 6243 . 680 2 913 . 597 1715 . 4 25 2
20 30 600 20 30 08343 . 0 20 30
2
2
2 2
= = + + =
+ + + + + =
x
x
pproximate length, using equation (5.9), we get
r r
r r 2
2
2 1
2 1
+
+
+ + = x
. 31 . 1361 600 2
600
20 30
20 30
2
cm =  +
+
+ + = x
5.1.2.ô.3. Ratio of belt tensions
Figure 5.9 shows a driver pulley and driven pulley B rotating in the clockwise direction.
Figure 5.10 shows only the driven pulley B. Consider the driven pulley B.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷŵ
Fig 5.9. Pulley and B Iig 5.10 riven pulley B
Let =
1
T Tension in the belt on the tight side
=
2
T Tension in the belt on the slack side
= o ngle oI contact, i.e. the angle subtended by the arc EF at the center oI the
driven pulley,
= u CoeIIicient oI Iriction between the belt and pulley.
The ratio oI the two tensions may be Iound by considering an elemental piece oI the belt MN
subtending an angle oo at the center oI the pulley as shown in Iigure 5.10. The various Iorces
which keep the elemental piece MN in equilibrium are:
(i) Tension T in the belt at M acting tangentially,
(ii) Tensions T T 0 + in the belt at N acting tangentially,
(iii) Normal reaction # acting outward at P, where P is the middle point oI MN,
(iv) Frictional Iorce # u = acting at right angles to # and in the opposite direction oI
the motion oI pulley.
Now angle
2
0o
= !BM . lso angle
2
0o
= T!
#esolving all the Iorces acting on the belt MN in the horizontal direction, we get
2
sin
2
sin
0o
0
0o
T T T # + + =
Since the angle oo is very small,
2
sin
0o
can be written as
2
0o
. Hence the above equation
becomes as
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŶŶ
2 2
0o
0
0o
T T T # + + =
2 2 2
0o
0
0o 0o
T T T # + + =
2
0o
0 0o T T # + =
0o T # = ¦
'
+
'

2
0o 0T
quantitv small the Neglecting (i)
Now resolving all the Iorces vertically, we get
2
cos
2
cos
0o 0o
0 T T T + =
Since oo is very small, hence
2
cos
0o
reduces to unity i.e. 1. Hence the above equation becomes
as
T T T T 0 0 = + =
r T # 0 u = # u = !
r
u
0T
# = (ii)
Equating the two values oI # given by the equations (i) and (ii), we get
u
0
0o
T
T = 
Integrating the above equation between the limits T
2
and T
1
, we get
=  = o u o u d d
T
dT
T
T
1
2
r
o u  =
2
1
log
T
T
e
r
o u
= e
T
T
2
1
5.10
In equation (5.10), o should be taken in radians. Here o is known as angle oI contact. For an
open belt or a crossed belt the angle oI contact is determined.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷŷ
5.1.2.ô.4. Angle of contact for open belt drive
With open belt drive, the belt will begin to slip on the smaller pulley, since the angle oI lap is
smaller on this pulley than on the large pulley. The angle o should be taken as the minimum
angle oI contact. Hence in equation (5.10), the angle oI contact oI lap (o) at the smaller pulley
must be taken into consideration.
With the reIerence to Iigure 5.6 Ior open belt, the angle oI lap on the smaller pulley is equal to
angle EBF which is equal to ¬ 2 180
0
.
ngle oI contact, ¬ o 2 180
0
= 5.11
But the value u is given by,
r r
2 1
= ¬ 5.12
Where =
1
r #adius oI larger pulley,
=
2
r #adius oI smaller pulley and
= istance between the centers oI two pulleys.
5.1.2.ô.5. Angle of contact for crossed belt drive
For a crossed belt, the angle oI lap on both the pulleys is same. With the reIerence to Iigure 5.7
Ior crossed belt, the angle oI lap on the smaller pulley or larger pulley is equal to ¬ 2 180
0
+ .
ngle oI contact, ¬ o 2 180
0
+ = 5.13
But the value u is given by,
r r
2 1
+
= ¬ 5.14
Where =
1
r #adius oI larger pulley,
=
2
r #adius oI smaller pulley and
= istance between the centers oI two pulleys.
5.1.2.ô.ô. !ower transmitted bv belt
Let =
1
T Tension in the tight side oI the belt,
=
2
T Tension in the slack side oI the belt
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŶŸ
= v Velocity oI the belt in m/s
The eIIective tension or Iorce acting at the circumIerence oI the driven pulley is the diIIerence
between the two tensions (i.e.
2 1
T T ).
EIIective driving Iorce
2 1
T T =
Work done per second Jelocitv force  =
s Nm v T T /
2 1
 =
Power transmitted atts v T T  =
2 1
5.15
k
v T T
!
1000
2 1

= 5.16
Equation (5.15) gives the power in Watts, whereas equation (5.16) gives the power in kW. In the
case equation (5.16), the tensions T
1
and T
2
are taken in Newton`s.
Torque exerted on the driving pulley
1 2 1
r T T  = 5.17
nd Torque exerted on the driven pulley
2 2 1
r T T  = 5.18
Example: belt is running over a pulley oI diameter 120 cm at 200 r.p.m. The angle oI contact
is 165
0
and coeIIicient oI Iriction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3. iI the maximum tension
in the belt is 3000 N, Iind the power transmitted by the belt.
Solution:
iven
diameter oI pulley, m cm d 2 . 1 120 = =
Speed oI the pulley, . . . 200 m p r N =
ngle oI contact, .
180
165 165
0 0
radians
x
o  = = ¦
'
+
'
= radian
180
1
0
x
!
CoeIIicient oI Iriction, 3 . 0 = u
Maximum tension, N T 3000
1
=
Velocity oI belt, s m
dN
v / 56 . 12
60
200 2 . 1
60
=
 
= =
x x
Let =
2
T Tension on the slack side oI the belt.
Using equation (5.7), we get
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŶŹ
u o
= e
T
T
2
1
3714 . 2
8635 . 0
3 . 0 165
2
1 180
= = =
 
e e
T
T
x
3714 . 2
3000
2
=
T
N T 1265
3714 . 2
3000
2
= =
Power transmitted is given by equation (5.16) as,
1000
2 1
v T T
!

=
. 79 . 21
1000
56 . 12 1265 3000
k ! =

=
5.1.2.ô.7. Centrifugal tension
The tension caused in the running belt by the centriIugal Iorce is known as centriIugal tension.
Whenever a particle oI miss m is rotated in a circular path radius r at a uniIorm velocity v, a
centriIugal Iorce is acting radially outward and its magnitude is equal to
r
mv
2
, where m is mass
oI the particle.
The centriIugal tension in the belt can be calculated by considering the Iorces acting on a
elemental length oI the belt (i.e. length MN) subtending an angle oo at the center as shown in
Iigure 5.11.
Let v ÷ velocity oI belt in m/s
r ÷ #adius pulley over which belt runs
M ÷ Mass oI elemental length oI belt MN
m ÷ Mass oI belt per meter length
T
C
÷ CentriIugal tension acting at M and N tangentially
# ÷ CentriIugal Iorce acting radial outward
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷź
Fig 11. CentriIugal tension
The centriIugal Iorce # acting radially outwards is balanced by the components oI T
C
acting
radially inwards. Now elemental length oI belt MN ÷ r x oo.
Mass oI belt MN
÷ (mass per meter length) x length oI MN
0o   = r m M
CentriIugal Iorce,
r
v
r m
r
v
M #
2 2
   =  = 0o
Now resolving the Iorces horizontally, we get
# T T
C C
= +
2
sin
2
sin
0o 0o
r
r
v
r m T
C
2
2
sin 2    = 0o
0o
s the angle oo is very small, hence
2 2
sin
0o 0o
=
Then the above equation becomes as
r
v
r m T
C
2
2
2    =  0o
0o
2
v m T
C
 =
5.19
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŶŻ
Note (i). From the above equation, it is clear that the centriIugal tension is independent oI T
1
and
T
2
. It depends upon the velocity oI the belt. For lower belt speed (i.e. belt speed less than 10 m/s)
the centriIugal tension is very small and may be neglected.
(ii). When centriIugal tension is to be taken in to consideration then total tensions on tight side
and slack side oI the belt is given as
For tight side 5.20
For tight side 5.21
(iii). Maximum tension (T
m
) in the belt is equal to maximum saIe stress in the belt multiplied by
crosssectional area oI the belt.
5.22
Where Maximum saIe stress in the belt
belt the of idth b =
belt the of Thickness t =
Then iI centriIugal tension is to be considered
II centriIugal tension is to be neglected
5.1.2.6.8. Maximum power transmitted by a belt
Let =
1
T Tension in the tight side oI the belt,
=
2
T Tension in the slack side oI the belt
= v Velocity oI the belt in m/s
Then the power transmitted is given by equation (5.15) as
v T T !  =
2 1
(i)
But Irom equation (5.10), we know that
o u
= e
T
T
2
1
r
o u
=
e
T
T
1
2
Substituting the value oI T
2
in equation (i) , we get
v
e
T
T !  ¦
'
+
'
=
o u
1
1
C
T T + =
1
C
T T + =
2
t b f T
m
  = !
= f
+ =
C m
T T T
1
+ =
C m
T T T
1
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷ8
v
e
T !  ¦
'
+
'
=
o u
1
1
1
(ii)
Let k
e
= ¦
'
+
'
o u
1
1
The above equation becomes as
v kT or v k T !
1 1
  = (iii)
Let Maximum tension, and
CentriIugal tension which equal to
Then
C
T T T + =
1 max
C
T T T =
max 1
Substituting this oI T
1
in equation (iii), we get
v T T k !
C
 =
max
v mv T k !  =
2
max
2
mv T
C
= !
3
max
mv v T k ! = (iv)
The power transmitted will be maximum, iI
0 =
dv
d!
Hence diIIerentiating equation (iv) with respect to v and equating to zero Ior maximum horse
power, we get
0
3
max
= = mv v T k
dv
d!
r 0 3
2
max
=  v m T
r
2
max
3 v m T  = (v)
r
m
T
v
3
max
= 5.23
Equation (5.23) gives the velocity oI the belt at which maximum power is transmitted. From
equation (v),
C
T T 3
max
=
2
mv T
C
= !
=
max
T
2
mv =
C
T
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ŷ9
Hence when the power transmitted is maximum, centriIugal tension would be
3
1
oI the
maximum tension. We also know that
C
T T T + =
1 max
3
max
1 max
T
T T + = ¦
'
+
'
=
3
max
T
T
C
!
3
max
max 1
T
T T =
max 1
3
2
T T = (vi)
Hence conditions Ior the transmission oI maximum power are:
(i)
max
3
1
T T
C
= and
(ii)
max 1
3
2
T T =
The maximum power transmitted is obtained by substituting the values oI T
1
Irom (vi) and v
Irom equation (5.23) in equation (ii).
Maximum power
3
1
1
3
2
max
max
T
e
T  ¦
'
+
'
=
o u
5.24
Example: belt embraces the shorter pulley by an angle oI 165
0
and runs at a speed oI 1700
m/min. imensions oI the belt are: width ÷ 20 cm and thickness ÷ 8mm. Its density is 1 gm/cm
3
.
etermine the maximum power that can be transmitted at the above speed, iI the maximum
permissible stress in the belt is not to exceed 250 N/cm
2
and u ÷ 0.25.
$olution: Civen
ngle oI contact, rad 88 . 2
180
165 165
0
=  = =
x
o
Speed oI belt, s m m v / 33 . 28
60
1700
min / 1700 = = =
Width oI belt, cm b 20 =
Thickness oI belt, cm mm t 8 . 0 8 = =
ensity oI belt,
3
/
1000
1
/ 1 cm kg cm gm = = o
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŴ
Maximum permissible stress,
2
/ 250 cm N f =
Value oI 25 . 0 = u
Let us Iirst Iind the maximum tension and centriIugal tensions in the belt. Using equation (5.22),
maximum tension (T
m
) is given by:
. 4000 8 . 0 20 250 N T
t b f belt of Area f T
m
m
=   =
  =  =
CentriIugal tension (T
C
) is given by equation (5.19),
2
v m T
C
 =
Where = m mass oI belt per meter length
length m of belt of Jolume m 1  = o
) ( length belt of area m   = o
t b m    = o
kg m 100 8 . 0 20
1000
1
   = cm m of ength 100 1 = !
kg m 6 . 1 =
Substituting this value in the above equation (i), we get
N T
C
1284 33 . 28 6 . 1
2
=  =
But we know that,
N T T T
T T T
C m
C m
2716 1284 4000
1
1
= = =
+ =
Let =
2
T Tension on the slack side oI the belt. Using equation (5.10), we get
056 . 2
88 . 2 25 . 0
2
1
= = =
 
e e
T
T
o u
N
T
T 1321
056 . 2
2716
056 . 2
1
2
= = =
Now the maximum power transmitted is given by,
. 52 . 39
1000
33 . 28 1321 2716
1000
2 1
k
v T T
! =

=

=
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŵ
Example: belt oI density 1 gm/cm
3
has a maximum permissible stress oI 250 N/cm
2
.
etermine the maximum power that can be transmitted by a belt oI 20 cm x 1.2 cm iI the ratio oI
the tight side to slack side tension is 2.
Solution: given
Width oI belt, cm b 20 =
Thickness oI belt, cm t 2 . 1 =
ensity oI belt,
3
/
1000
1
/ 1 cm kg cm gm = = o
Maximum permissible stress,
2
/ 250 cm N f =
#atio oI the tension, 0 . 2
2
1
=
T
T
Let us Iind the mass oI 1m length oI the belt and also the maximum tension in the belt.
Let = m Mass oI one meter length oI belt
length m of belt of Jolume m 1  = o
) ( length belt of area m   = o
100    = t b m o cm m of ength 100 1 = !
kg m 100 2 . 1 20
1000
1
   =
kg m 40 . 2 =
Using equation (5.22),
Tension Maimum T
m
=
belt of tion cross of Area stress Ma T
m
sec .  =
. 6000 2 . 1 20 250 250 N t b T
m
=   =   =
Now Ior maximum power transmitted, the velocity oI the belt is given by equation (5.23) as
s m
m
T
v
m
/ 86 . 28
4 . 2 3
6000
3
=

= =
Now maximum power transmitted is given by equation,
1000
2 1
v T T
!

= (i)
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŶ
Let us Iind the values oI T
1
and T
2
We know that
C m
T T T + =
1
Where =
C
T CentriIugal tension, and
=
1
T Tight side tension
But Ior maximum power transmission,
m C
T T
3
1
=
Substituting this value in equation (ii), we get
m m
T T T
3
1
1
+ =
N T T T
m m
4000 6000
3
2
3
1
1
=  = =
But 2
2
1
=
T
T
(iven)
N
T
T 2000
2
4000
2
1
2
= = =
Substituting the values oI T
1
, T
2
and v in equation (i), we get
. 18 . 57
1000
86 . 28 2000 4000
k ! =

=
5.2. Gears
5.2.1. Introduction
The motion Irom one shaIt to another shaIt may be transmitted with belts, ropes and chains.
These methods are mostly used when the two shaIts are having long center distance. But iI the
distance between the two shaIts is small, then gears are used to transmit motion Irom one shaIt to
another. In case oI belts and ropes, the drive is not positive. There is slip and creep which
reduces velocity ratio. But gear drive is a positive and smooth drive, which transmits exact
velocity ratio. The gear is deIined as toothed element which is used Ior transmitting rotary
motion Irom one shaIt to another.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŷ
From small power transmission, the Iriction wheels as shown in Iigure 5.12 can be used. These
wheels are mounted on the two shaIts, having suIIicient rough surIaces and pressing against each
other.
Fig 5.12. Friction wheels
The Iriction wheel 1 is keyed to the rotating shaIt whereas the Iriction wheel 2 is keyed on the
shaIt wheel is to be rotated. When the Iriction wheel 1 rotates, it will rotate the Iriction wheel 2
in the opposite direction as shown iI Iigure 5.12. There will be no slip between the two wheels
Ior small power transmission. Hence the same motion can be transmitted easily as explained
below:
For no slip oI the two surIaces (i.e. no relative motion between the two surIaces oI the Iriction
wheels), their tangential velocities at the contact surIaces should be same.
i.e.
2 1
J J =
r
2 2 1 1
r r æ æ =
2 2 2 1 1 1
& r J r J æ æ = = !
r
2
2
1
1
60
2
60
2
r
N
r
N
 = 
x x
¦
'
+
'
=
60
2 N x
æ !
r
¦
¦
'
+
'
= =
1
2
1
2
2
1
d
d
or
r
r
N
N
5.25
Where =
1
N Speed oI Iriction wheel 1 in r.p.m.
=
2
N Speed oI Iriction wheel 2 in r.p.m.
=
1
r #adius oI wheel 1, and
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŸ
=
2
r #adius oI wheel 2.
From equation (5.25), it is clear that iI two wheels are rotating without slip then the speeds the
two wheels will be inversely proportional to their radii. In order to prevent the slip the two
surIaces, a number oI proiections (known as length) are provided on the periphery oI the wheel
1, which will be Iit in to the corresponding recesses will much with each other and slip between
them will be prevented.
Fig 5.13
The Iriction wheel with teeth cut on it is known as gear wheel or gear. The motion between the
two Iriction wheels is rolling whereas the motion between the gear is sliding.
Note (i). II the wheel 1 rotates in clockwise direction, the wheel 2 will rotate in anti clockwise
direction.
(ii). The Iriction wheels are rotating without slip and tooth gears are identical.
(iii). Friction wheels are used Ior small power transmission. For large power by Iriction
wheels, slip occurs. Hence deIinite motion can not be transmitted.
5.2.2. Classification gears
The Iollowing are the important classiIication oI gears:
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŹ
1. ClassiIication based on the position axes oI the shaIts
The axes oI two shaIts between which motion is to be transmitted may be
(a) Parallel shaIts
(b)Intersecting, and
(c) Nonparallel and nonintersecting
a). parallel shafts
The Iollowing are the main types oI gears to ioin parallel shaIts
(i) Spur gears
(ii) Helical gears
(iii) ouble helical gears
i) $pur gear
The gears used to connect two parallel shaIts and having straight teeth parallel to the axes oI the
wheel as shown in Iigure 5.14 are known as spur gears. Figure 5.14 (a) the gears have external
teeth on the outer surIaces and the two shaIts rotate in opposite direction. In Iigure 5.14 (b), the
internal teeth are Iormed over the outer wheel and external teeth are Iormed over the inner wheel.
The inner wheel having external gears (smaller gear) is known as pinion. The two shaIts will
rotate in the same direction. In spur gears, the contact occurs across a line. Hence spur gears are
having line contact.
Fig 5.14 Spur gears
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷź
ii) Helical gears
The gears used to connect two parallel shaIts and having teeth inclined (or curved) to the axes oI
the shaIts as shown in the Iigure 5.15 are known as helical gears. In helical gears each teeth is
helical in shape. The two matting gears have the same helix angle, but have teeth opposite hands.
In helical gears, the contact occurs at a point oI curved teeth at the beginning oI engagement and
aIterwards extends along a diagonal line across the teeth.
Figure 5.15 Helical gears
iii) ouble helical gears
pair oI helical gears secured together, one having a righthand helix and the other a leIthand
helix is known as double helical gears as shown in Iigure 5.16. This pair is mounted on one shaIt
and the similar other pair (having teeth oI opposite hand) is mounted on other parallel shaIt is to
be connected.
The double helical gear is known as herringbone gear iI the leIt and the right inclinations oI the
double helical gears meet at a common apex and there is no groove in between as shown in the
Iigure 5.16.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷŻ
Fig 5.16 ouble helical gear
b) Intersecting shaft
The gears used to connect two intersecting shaIts are known as bevel gears. II the teeth on the
gears are straight radial to the point oI intersection oI shaIt axes then gears are known as straight
bevel. But iI teeth are inclined then gears are known as helical bevel (or spiral bevel) as shown in
Iigure 5.17 and 5.18.
Fig 5.17 intersecting shaIt
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷ8
Fig 5.18 Bevel gears
c). Aonparallel and nonintersecting shafts
The gears used to connect two nonparallel and nonintersecting shaIts, are known as skew bevel
gears or skew spiral gears.
2. Classification based on the peripheral velocitv of the gears
ccording to the peripheral velocity, the gears are classiIied as:
(a) Low velocity gears
(b)Medium velocity gears, and
(c) High velocity gears.
II the velocity oI the gears is less than 2 m/s, they are known as low velocity gears. For medium
velocity gears, the velocity oI the gears are between 3 m/s and 15 m/s. but iI the velocity oI gears
are more than 15 m/s, the gears are known as high velocity (or high speed) gears.
3. Classification based on the position of teeth on the wheel
ccording to the position oI the teeth on the wheel, the gears are classiIied as:
(a) Straight
(b)Inclined and
(c) Curved
The spur gears have straight teeth, helical gears have inclined teeth (which are inclined to the
wheel rim surIace) and spiral gears have curved teeth over the rim surIace.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŷ9
4. Classification based on tvpe of gearing
(a) External gear
(b)Internal gear and
(c) #ack and pinion
II the gears oI the two shaIts mesh externally with each other, then the gears are known, external
gears as shown in Iigure 5.14(a). For external gears, the two shaIts rotate in opposite direction.
The smaller wheel is known as pinion whereas the larger wheel is called spur wheel.
For internal gears, the two gears mesh internally with each other and the shaIts rotate in the same
direction as shown in Iigure 5.14 (b). The smaller wheel is known pinion whereas the larger
wheel is known as annular wheel.
II the gear oI a shaIt meshes with the gears in a straight line (a wheel oI inIinite radius is known
as a straight line), then the gears are known as rack and pinion as shown in Iigure 5.19.
Figure 5.19 #ack and pinion
The straight line gear is known as rack (rack is shown in Iigure 5.19 (a)) and the circular wheel is
called pinion. The rack and pinion combination converts rotary motion in to linear motion or vice
versa.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŸŴ
Fig 5.19 (a) #ack
5.2.3. Definition of the terms used in gears
Figure 5.20 shows the proIile oI a gear along with important terms, which are used in the study
oI the gears.
Fig 5.20 the proIile oI a gear along with important terms
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿŵ
The terms are deIined as:
(i) %he pitch circle diameter: it is the diameter oI a circle which by pure rolling action
would produce the same motion as the toothed gear wheel. It is also known as pitch
diameter.
(ii) !itch point: it is the point oI contact oI two pitch circles oI the mating gears.
(iii) Circular pitch p
c
): it is the distance measured along the circumIerence oI the pitch
circle Irom a point on one tooth to a corresponding point on the adiacent tooth. It will
be equal to the pitch circle circumIerence divided by the number oI teeth on the
wheel. It is denoted by p
c
. hence
T
pitch Circular
x
=
T
p or
c
x
= 5.26
Where = diameter oI pitch circle
= T Number oI teeth
=
c
p Circular pitch
iv) %he diameteral pitch p
d
): it is equal to the number oI teeth per unit length oI pitch
circle diameter. It is denoted by p
d
T
p
d
= 5.27
II we multiply equation (5.26) and (5.27), we get
x = 
d c
p p 5.28
v) odule m): it is deIined as the length oI the pitch circle diameter per tooth. It is
denoted by m. hence
T
m = 5.29
m is generally expressed in millimeter. Module is the reciprocal oI diameteral pitch. Equation
(5.26) can be written as:
x
x
 =

= m
T
p
c
5.29(a)
vi) %he addendum. It is the radial distance oI the tooth above pitch circle. Its value is
generally one module. It is denoted by a`.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŸŶ
vii) %he dedendum: it is the radial distance oI the tooth below the pitch circle. Its value is
generally 1.157 modules or ¦
'
+
'
+
20
1
x
module.
viii) Addendum circle: it is the circle which passes through the top oI the teeth. iameter
oI addendum circle m d c p 2 . . + = .
ix) edendum circle: it is the circle which passes through the bottom oI the teeth.
iameter oI dedendum circle m d c p 157 . 1 2 . . + + = .
x) Face of the teeth: it is that part oI tooth surIace which is above the pitch circle.
xi) Flank of the tooth: it is that part oI the tooth surIace which is below the pitch circle.
xii) !ath of contact: It is the curve traced by the point oI contact oI the two mating teeth
Irom the beginning to the end oI engagement oI the two teeth.
xiii) !ath of approach: It is the path oI contact Irom the beginning oI the engagement to
the pitch point oI the two mating teeth.
xiv) !ath of recess: It is the path oI contact Irom the end oI the engagement oI two mating
gears.
xv) !ressure angle: It is the angle which the common normal to the two teeth at the point
oI contact makes with the common tangent to the two pitch circle at the pitch point.
xvi) Clearance: The radial height diIIerence between the addendum and dedendum is
known as clearance. Hence, clearance m m m 157 . 0 157 . 1 = .
xvii) !rofile: The curve Iorming Iace and Ilank is known as proIile.
xviii) !inion: It is the smaller and usually the driving gear oI the pair mated gear.
xix) Rack: gear wheel oI the inIinite diameter is known as rack as shown in Iigure
5.19(a).
xx) Cear ratio C): the ratio oI number oI teeth on the gear to that on the pinion is known
as gear ratio. It is denoted by . hence
t
T
= 5.30
Where = T Number oI teeth on the gear
= t Number oI teeth on the pinion and
= ear ratio.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿŷ
xxi) Jelocitv ratio J.R): The ratio oI the angular velocity oI the Iollower to the angular
velocity oI the driving gear is known as velocity ratio. It is denoted by V.#. Hence
velocity ratio,
driver of velocitv Angular
follower of velocitv Angular
# J = . .
1
2
. .
æ
æ
= # J
1 1 2 2
2 & 2 N N x æ x æ = =
1
2
. .
N
N
# J =
1
2
. .
d
d
# J =
¦
¦
'
+
'
= =
1
2
2
1
2 2 1 1
N
N
d
d
N d N d ! ! x x
2
1
. .
T
T
# J =
¦
¦
'
+
'
= = =
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
N
N
d
d
T
d
T
d
p
c
! !
x x
5.31
xxii) !ressure line or line of action): The common normal at the point oI contact oI the
mating gears is known as pressure line (or line oI action). This is also the line Irom
the pitch point to the point oI contact oI two gears. ctually the Iorces is transmitted
Irom the driving tooth to the driven tooth along this line.
Example: etermine the number oI teeth and speed oI the driver iI the driven gear has 60 teeth
oI 8mm module and rotates at 240 r.p.m. The two spur gears have a velocity ratio oI
4
1
. lso
calculate the pitch line velocity.
Solution:
iven
Number oI teeth on driven gear, 60
2
= T
Speed oI driven gear, . . . 240
2
m p r N =
Module, mm m 8 =
Velocity ratio,
4
1
. . = # J
Let =
1
T No. oI teeth on the driver gear,
=
1
N Speed oI driver gear
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŸŸ
Using the equation (5.31), we get
2
1
1
2
. .
T
T
N
N
# J = =
1
2
4
1
N
N
=
. . . 960 240 4 4
2 1
m p r N N =  =  =
lso
2
1
. .
T
T
# J =
. 15 60 4 . .
2 1
=  =  = T # J T
Pitch line velocity (V
p
) is given by
2 2 1 1
r or r J
p
æ æ =
2 60
2
1 1
d N
J
p
 =
x
2 60
2
1 1
mT N
J
p
 =
x
2
15 8
60
960 2 


=
x
p
J
s m s mm J
p
/ 0318 . 6 / 8 . 6031 = =
5.2.4. Law of gearing or condition for constant velocitv ratio of gear wheels
Law oI gearing states that the common normal to the two surIaces at the point oI contact
intersects the line ioining the centers oI rotation oI the two surIaces at a Iixed point, which
divides the center distance inversely as the ratio oI angular velocities.
Let the two curved bodies 1 and 2 are rotating about the centers and B as shown Iigure 5.21.
The two bodies are contact at point C. the body 1 is rotating clockwise with angular velocity
1
æ
and the body 2 is rotating anticlockwise with angular velocity
2
æ . Let tt is the common tangent
to the curves at point C and nn is the common normal to the two surIaces at point C.
Let =
1
J linear velocity oI point C when point is assumed to be on the surIace oI the body 1. This
velocity will be * to the line C and will be equal to AC 
1
æ .
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŸŹ
=
2
J Linear velocity oI point C when point C is assumed to be on the surIace oI the body 2. This
velocity will be * to the line BC and will be equal to BC 
2
æ .
Join the two centers and B which cuts the common normal at point P.
Fig 5.21
Let = o ngle made by
2
J with common normal nn.
= o ngle made by
1
J with normal nn.
From B draw B * on nn and Irom draw E * on nn.
s
2
J is perpendicular BC hence .BC
2
J ÷90
0
. Now
o o o = = . = . 90 90 180 180
2
BCJ CB
Similarly as V
1
is perpendicular to C, hence .CV
1
÷90
0
. Now
o o o = = . = . 90 90 180 180
1
ACJ ACE
In BC, .CB ÷ 90
0
 o .BC ÷ o
In EC, .CE ÷ 90
0
 .CE ÷
II the two surIaces are to remain in contact, one surIace may slide relative to the other along a
common tangent tt. But relative motion between the surIaces along the common normal nn
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿź
must be zero to avoid separation oI the two surIaces or the penetration oI the two surIaces in to
each other.
Component oI V
1
along normal nn
o cos
1
J =
Component oI V
2
along normal nn
o cos
2
J =
#elative motion along normal nn
o o cos cos
2 1
J J =
For proper contact,
#elative motion along normal ÷ zero
r
0 cos cos
2 1
= o o J J
r
o o cos cos
2 1
J J =
r
o æ o æ cos cos
2 1
BC AC  = 
BC AC J   =
2 1 1
&æ æ !
r
BC
B
BC
AC
AE
AC   =  
2 1
æ æ
¦
'
+
'
= =
BC
B
BC in
AC
AE
ACE In o o cos , & cos , !
r
B AE  = 
2 1
æ æ
r
AE
B
=
2
1
æ
æ
A!
B!
=
2
1
æ
æ
5.32
The above equation shows that the common normal to the two surIaces at the point oI contact
divides the line ioining the centres oI rotation in the inverse ratio oI the angular velocities. But
this ratio oI angular velocities must be constant Ior all positions oI the wheel. This will be, iI the
point P is Iixed point (i.e. pitch point).
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŸŻ
Thus Ior constant angular velocity ratio oI the two surIaces, the common normal at the point oI
contact must pass through the pitch (Iixed point) on the line ioining the center oI rotation. This
statement is the law oI gearing.
The s BP and EP are similar
!E
!
A!
B!
=
Substituting the value oI in equation (5.32), we get
!E
!
=
2
1
æ
æ
r
! !E  = 
1 1
æ æ
5.33
5.2.5. Velocity of sliding
II the two surIaces are to remain in contact, one surIace may slide relative to other along the
common tangent tt oI Iigure 5.21.
The velocity oI sliding is the velocity oI one surIace relative to the other surIace along the
common tangent at the point oI contact. #eIerring to Iigure 5.21.
Component oI V
1
along tangent tt
o sin
1
J =
Component oI V
2
along normal nn
o sin
2
J =
(ve sign is due to opposite direction)
Velocity oI sliding ÷ #elative velocity between two surIace along tangent tt
) cos ( sin
2 1
o o J J =
o o cos sin
2 1
J J + =
o æ o æ sin sin
2 1
BC AC  +  =
BC J AC J  =  =
2 2 1 1
& æ æ !
A!
B!
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿ8
BC
C
BC
AC
EC
AC   =   =
2 1
æ æ
¦
'
+
'
= =
BC
C
BC in
AC
EC
ACE In o o sin , & sin , !
C EC  =  =
2 1
æ æ
!C ! !E !C +  =  =
2 1
æ æ
!C ! C !E !C EC + = = & !
!C ! !E !C  +  +   =
2 2 1 1
æ æ æ æ
!C !C  +  =
2 1
æ æ
! !E equation rom  = 
2 1
33 . 5 ( æ æ !
!C sliding of Jelocitv
2 1
æ æ + =
5.34
The above equation shows that the velocity oI sliding is equal to the product oI the sum oI the
angular velocities and the distance Irom the point oI contact to the point oI intersection oI the
common normal and the lining ioining the centers oI rotation (i.e. pitch point).
5.2.ô. Length of path of contact
Figure 5.22 shows the two gear wheels in contact, with and B as centers. The pinion is
rotating in clockwise direction and is driving the wheel in anticlockwise direction. Hence the
pinion is the driver and the wheel is driven. The two pitch circles meeting at point P. The line
C is the common tangent to the two base circles. This line is also known as line oI action.
The point E is the intersection oI the common tangent and addendum circle oI the wheel. The
point F is the intersection oI common tangent and addendum circle oI pinion. The contact oI two
teeth begins where the addendum circle oI the wheel meets the common tangent (i.e. point E)
and ends where the addendum circle oI the pinion meets the common tangent (i.e. point F). The
line EF gives the length oI path contact. The length EP is known as path oI approach whereas
length PF is known as path oI recess.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ÿ9
Fig 5.22 Length oI path oI contact
Let r ÷ #adius oI pitch circle oI pinion i.e. length P
# ÷ #adius oI pitch circle oI wheel i.e. length oI BP
r
a
÷ ddendum circle radius oI pinion i.e. length F
#
a
÷ ddendum circle radius oI wheel i.e. length BE
From Iigure 5.22, we know that
Length oI path oI contact ÷ path oI approach ¹ path oI recess
r
! E! E + =
C! C ! E E + =
(i)
Let us now Iind the values oI E, P, CF and CP.
In right angled triangle BP,
o o sin sin # B! ! = =
o o cos cos # B! B = =
In right angled triangle BE,
o
2 2 2 2 2
cos # # B BE E
a
= =
o cos # B = !
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŹŴ
In right angled triangle CP,
o o sin sin r !A C! = =
r !A = !
o o cos cos r !A CA = =
In the right angled triangle FC,
2 2
CA A C =
o
2 2 2
cos r r C
a
=
Path oI approach
! E E! =
o o sin cos
2 2 2
# # # E!
a
=
5.34 (b)
Path oI recess
C! C ! =
o o sin cos
2 2 2
r r r !
a
=
5.34 (c)
Length oI path oI contact,
o o o o sin cos sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 2
r r r # # # E
a a
+ =
o o o o sin cos sin cos
2 2 2 2 2 2
r r r # # # E
a a
+ =
5.35
The above equation gives the length oI path oI contact. II dimensions oI driven wheel are given
then path oI approach can be calculated. Similarly is dimensions oI the driving wheel (pinion)
are known, path oI recess can be obtained.
5.2.7. Length of arc of contact
The arc oI contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle Irom the beginning to the end
oI engagement oI a pair oI teeth. In Iigure 5.23, the driving wheel both at the beginning oI
engagement with the driven wheel tooth is shown as H whereas at the end engagement it is
shown as FL. The arc oI contact is P`PP¨ where the point P` is on the driving wheel pitch circle
at the beginning oI engagement and point P¨ is on the same pitch circle at the end oI
engagement. This arc oI contact is divided into two parts i.e. arc P`P and arc PP¨. The arc P`P is
known as arc oI approach and arc PP¨ is known arc oI recess.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Źŵ
From Iigure 5.23, we know that,
rc oI approach
o cos
'
E!
! Arc! = =
rc oI recess
o cos
"
!
Arc!! = =
Now length oI arc oI contact
" ' Arc!! ! Arc! + =
o o o cos cos cos
! E! ! E! +
= + =
o cos
E
=
5.35(a)
o cos
contact of ength
=
5.36
contact of path of length E = !
Fig 5.23 length oI arc oI contact
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŹŶ
5.2.8. Aumber of pair of teeth in contact or contact ratio)
The number oI pairs oI teeth in contact is deIined as the ratio oI length oI arc oI contact to the
circular pitch. Hence,
Number oI pairs oI teeth in contact (or contact ratio)
pitch Circular
contact arc of enght
=
5.36(a)
But Irom the equation (5.35(a)) length oI arc oI contact is equal to
o cos
E
=
nd circular pitch Irom equation (5.29 (a)) is
m p
c
 = x
Where m ÷ module
Number oI pairs oI teeth in contact
m
E
x o
1
cos
 =
5.37
From the continuous transmission oI motion, at least one tooth oI one wheel must be in contact
with another tooth oI the second wheel. Hence number oI pairs oI teeth in contact (which is also
known as contact ratio) must be greater than one. II contact ratio lies between 1 and 2, the
number oI teeth in contact at any time will be more than one but will never be more than two. II
contact ratio is 1.6, this means that one pair oI teeth is always in contact and second pair oI teeth
is in contact 60° oI the time. The gears will operate more quietly iI contact ratio is large.
Example . Calculate:
(i) Length oI path contact,
(ii) rc oI contact and
(iii) The contact ratio when a pinion having 23 teeth drives having teeth 57. The proIile oI
the gears is involute with pressure angle 20
0
, module 8mm and addendum equal to
one module.
Solution:
iven
No. oI teeth on the pinion,
23 = t
No. oI teeth on gear,
57 = T
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Źŷ
Pressure angle
0
20 = o
Module,
mm m 8 =
ddendum
mm ule 8 mod 1 = =
We know that the pitch circle radius oI pinion is given by,
mm
t m
r 92
2
23 8
2
=

=

=
nd pitch circle radius oI gear is given by,
mm
T m
# 228
2
57 8
2
=

=

=
Now the radius oI addendum circle oI pinion and gear are calculated
pinion of circle addendum of #adius r
a
=
mm addendum r r
a
100 8 92 = + = + =
gear of circle addendum of #adius #
a
=
mm addendum # #
a
236 8 228 = + = + =
(i) Length oI path oI contact
Now using equation (5.35) Ior the length oI path oI contact, we get
Length oI path oI contact
o o o sin cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2
r # r r # #
a a
+ + =
0 0 2 2 2 0 2 2 2
20 sin 92 228 20 cos 92 100 20 cos 228 236 + + =
(ii)rc oI contact
Length oI arc oI contact is obtained Irom equation (5.36), as
mm
contact of path of ength
contact of arc of ength 33 . 42
20 cos
78 . 39
cos
0
= = =
o
(iii)The contact ratio
The contact ratio is given by equation (5.36 a). hence using equation (5.36 a), we get
pitch Circular
contact arc of ength
ratio Contact =
mm 78 . 39 44 . 109 26 . 50 96 . 98 = + =
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŹŸ
Where circular pitch
mm mm m p
c
13 . 25 8 =  =  = x x
nd length oI arc oI contact ÷ 42.33 mm
. 2 68 . 1
13 . 25
33 . 42
sav
mm
mm
pitch Circular
contact arc of ength
ratio Contact = = = !
5.2.9. Helical gears
In article 5.2.2, it is already mentioned that the gears used to connect two parallel shaIts and
having teeth inclined to the axes oI shaIts are known helical gears. Helical gears are already
shown in the Iigure 5.15. In the helical gears, the contact occurs at a point oI curved teeth at the
beginning oI the engagement and aIterwards extends along a line across the teeth.
Figure 5.24 shows two helical gears. The gear 1 in Iigure 5.24 (a) is a leIthanded helical gear, as
the helix slopes towards the leIt oI viewer when this gear is viewed parallel to the axis oI the
shaIt. Similarly gear 2 in Iigure 5.24 (b) is a righthanded helical gear.
Fig 5.24 Helical gears
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŹŹ
5.2.1ô. Important terms for helical gears
1. elix angle. The angle, to which the teeth are inclined to the axis oI a gear, is known as helix
angle. It is denoted by as shown in Iigure 5.25. Helix angle is also known as spiral angle oI the
teeth.
2. Normal pitch (p
n
). The shortest distance between similar Iaces oI the adiacent teeth is known
as normal pitch. It is denoted by p
n
. The normal pitch oI two mating gears must be same.
3. Circular pitch (p
c
). The distance measured parallel to the axis between similar Iaces oI
adiacent teeth is known as circular pitch. It is denoted by p or p
c
. it is also known as axial pitch
or transverse pitch. From Iigure 5.23, we have
o cos
c n
p p =
5.38
Fig 5.25. Important terms Ior helical gears
5.2.11. $piral gears
The gears used to connect two nonparallel and nonintersecting shaIts are known as spiral gears.
They are used where small power is to be transmitted. The spiral gears may be oI the same hand
or opposite hand. There is a point oI contact between two mating gears oI spiral gears. The pitch
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Źź
surIaces are cylindrical. The shortest distance between the two shaIts gives the center distance
Ior a pair oI spiral gears. Two mating spiral gears have a point contact. This is proved by having
two cylinders. When the axes oI the two cylinders are parallel, they have a line contact. But iI
one cylinder is rotated through same angle, so that their axes are no longer parallel, then they
have a point contact only.
Figure 5.26 shows two pairs oI spiral gears (i.e. gear 1 and gear 2). Let us Iirst deIine the shaIt
angle. The shaIt angle is the angle through which the axis oI one shaIt must be rotated in order to
bring it parallel to the axis oI other shaIt and the two shaIts revolving in opposite directions. The
normal pitch oI the teeth must be same Ior both wheels, but the circular pitch will be diIIerent.
Expression for center distance. The shortest distance between the two shaIts is known as center
distance between the two shaIts.
Let normal pitch
The spiral angle oI the teeth Ior gear 1,
The spiral angle oI the teeth Ior gear 1,
Circular pitch Ior gear 1,
Circular pitch Ior gear 2,
No. oI teeth on gear 1 and 2,
Pitch circle diameter Ior gear 1 and 2,
Speed oI gear 1 and 2,
ShaIt angle,
= C
Center distance
2
1
2
1
N
N
T
T
ratio ear = = =
We know that, normal pitch in terms oI helix angle (or spiral angle) and circular pitch is given
by,
¬ cos
c n
p p =
For gear 1,
¬
¬
cos
cos
1 1
n
n
p
p p p = = !
=
n
p
= ¬
= 0
=
1
p
=
2
p
=
2 1
& T T
=
2 1
&
=
2 1
& N N
= o
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŹŻ
nd Ior gear 2,
0
0
cos
cos
2 2
n
n
p
p p p = = !
We also know that circular pitch in terms oI pitch circle diameter and number oI teeth on the
wheels, is given by
T
p
c
x
=
5.39
For gear 1, we have
x
x
1 1
1
1
1
T p
or
T
p

= =
nd Ior gear 2, we have
Fig 5.26 expression Ior center distance
x
x
2 2
2
2
2
T p
or
T
p

= =
The center distance (c) is given by
2 2
2 2 1 1
2 1 x x
T p T p
c

+

=
+
=
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ź8
x 0 x ¬ x x 2 cos 2 cos 2 2
2 1 2 2 1 1
T p T p T p T p
c
n n
 +  =

+

=
¦
¦
'
+
'
= =
0 ¬ cos
;
cos
2 1
n n
p
p
p
p !
 +

=
1
2 1
cos
1
cos
1
2 T
T T p
c
n
0 ¬ x
 +

=
T p
c
n
0 ¬ x cos
1
cos
1
2
1
¦
¦
'
+
'
=
T
T
1
2
!
+

=
0 ¬ x cos cos
1
2
1
T p
c
n
5.40
5.2.18. %he efficiencv of the spiral gears
Figure 5.27 shows two spiral gears and B in mesh at point P. The gear is driving the gear B.
Hence gear is the driving gear and gear B is driven gear. These two gears are in contact along
the inclined surIace CC (or along teeth line).
Fig 5.27 Two spiral gears in mesh
Let F
a
÷ xial Iorce on gear
F
b
÷ xial Iorce on gear B
#
N
÷ Normal reaction at the point oI contact
÷ ngle oI Iriction i.e. angle made by the resultant reaction with the normal
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Ź9
# ÷ #esultant reaction at the point oI contact, and
o ÷ ShaIt angle
0 ¬ o + =
Where u ÷ ngle between axis oI shaIt (to which gear is Iixed) and inclined surIace CC.
0 ÷ ngle between axis oI shaIt (to which gear B is Iixed) and inclined surIace CC.
NN ÷ Line normal to CC.
()Idle case i.e. no Iriction
Let us Iirst consider that there is no Iriction between the mating gears. Then Iorce oI Iriction (i.e.
u * #
N
) will be zero. t the point oI contact , the Iollowing Iorces will be acting on gear at as
shown in Iigure 5.27 (a):
(i) The normal reaction #
N
which is normal to surIace CC and towards the surIace CC at
point oI contact.
Fig 5.27 (a) Iig 5.27 (b)
(ii) The axial Iorce F
a
For the equilibrium oI gear in the direction oI axial Iorce, we have
¬ cos
N a
# =
r
¬ cos
a
N
=
(i)
Now consider the equilibrium oI gear B. The Iollowing Iorces will be acting on gear B at the
point oI contact as shown in Iigure 5.27 (b):
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŴ
(i) Normal reaction #
N
which is normal to surIace CC and towards the surIace CC at the
point contact.
(ii) The axial Iorce F
b
For the equilibrium oI gear B in the direction oI axial Iorce (F
b
), we have
0 cos
N b
# =
r
0 cos
b
N
=
(ii)
From equations (i) and (ii), we have
0 ¬ cos cos
b a
=
(Aote. The reaction oI B and is equal to reaction oI and B)
¬
0
cos
cos
 =
b
a
5.41
(B)Considering Iriction
In actual case, there is a Iriction between the contact surIaces oI the mating gears. Hence the
Iorce oI Iriction (u *F
N
) will be acting on the contact surIaces in the direction opposite to that oI
relative sliding.
The resultant reaction (#) will not be mount to the surIace but will inclined at angle oI Iriction
() with the normal to the surIaces. Hence the Iollowing Iorces will be acting on gear at the
point oI contact as shown in Iigure 5.27 (c):
(i) The normal reaction F
N
(ii) Force oI Iriction, u *F
N
(iii) (The sliding surIace oI gear is having relative motion downward and hence Iorce oI
Iriction acts opposite to the direction oI motion).
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŵ
Fig 5.27 (c) Friction Iorce
(iv) The axial Iorce F
a
*
.
(xial Iorce is the Iorce required with Iriction when F
b
is constant)
The normal reaction #
N
and Iorce oI Iriction u *F
N
combine into a single resultant Iorce #,
which is inclined at an angle with the normal. For the equilibrium oI gear in the direction oI
axial Iorce (F
a
*
), we have
o ¬ = cos
*
#
a
r
o ¬
=
cos
*
a
#
(iii)
Now consider the equilibrium oI gear B. The Iollowing Iorces will be acting on gear B at the
point oI contact as shown in Iigure 5.27 (d):
Fig 5.27(d)
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŶ
(i) The normal reaction, F
N
(ii) Force oI Iriction, u *F
N
(iii) The axial Iorce, F
b
.
The normal reaction #
N
and Iorce oI Iriction u *F
N
combine into a single resultant Iorce #,
which is inclined at an angle with the normal. For the equilibrium oI gear B in the direction oI
axial Iorce (F
b
), we have
o ¬ + = cos #
b
r
o ¬ +
=
cos
b
#
(iv)
From equations (iii) and (iv), we have
o 0 o ¬ +
=
cos cos
*
b a
r
o ¬
o 0

+
=

cos
cos
b
a
5.42
EIIiciency oI spiral gears
The eIIiciency oI spiral gear is given by the ratio oI the Iorce F
a
required without Iriction to that
required with Iriction when F
b
is constant. Hence Irom equations (5.41) and (5.42), we have
friction with orce
friction without orce
a
a
= =
*
n
o 0
o ¬
0
¬
n
+

¦
¦
'
+
'
=
cos
cos
cos
cos
b
b
o ¬ 0
o 0 ¬
n
+
=
cos cos
cos cos
5.43
But 0 ÷ o  u, hence above equation becomes
o ¬ ¬ o
o ¬ o ¬
n
+
=
cos cos
cos cos
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŷ
o ¬ ¬ o
o ¬ o ¬
n
+
=
cos cos 2
cos cos 2
(Multiplying the numerator and denominator by 2)
) )
) ) o ¬ ¬ o o ¬ ¬ o
o ¬ o ¬ o ¬ o ¬
n
+ +
+ + + +
=
cos cos
cos cos
) B A B A B A + + = cos cos cos cos 2 !
o ¬ o o o
o o ¬ o o
n
+
+ +
=
2 cos cos
2 cos cos
o o ¬ o o
o o ¬ o o
n
+
+ +
=
2 cos cos
2 cos cos
5.44
) A A cos cos = !
For a give value oI o and , the eIIiciency will be maximum, when cos (2u  o  ) is a
maximum. But maximum value oI cos (2u  o  ) is 1
0
0 cos 1 2 cos = = o o ¬
) 1 0 cos
0
= !
o o ¬ 2
r
o o ¬ + = 2
r
2
o o
¬
+
=
5.45
Substituting the value oI u in equation (5.44), we get the maximum eIIiciency.
o o o o o o
o o o o o o
n
+ +
+ + +
=
cos cos
cos cos
max
0 cos cos
0 cos cos
max
+
+ +
=
o o
o o
n
1 cos
1 cos
max
+
+ +
=
o o
o o
n
) 1 0 cos
0
= !
5.57
Example: The appropriate center distance between two meshing gears is 375 mm and gear ratio
is 2. The angle between the shaIt is 50
0
and normal circular pitch is 19 mm. iI the driving and
driven wheels are having same spiral angles and Iriction angle ÷ 6
0
, then determine:
(i) Number oI teeth on each wheel,
(ii) The exact center distance and
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŸ
(iii) EIIiciency oI the drive.
$olution:
iven
pproximate center distance, C ÷ 375 mm; ear ratio, ÷ 2; shaIt angle, o ÷ 50
0
; Normal pitch,
p
n
÷ 19 mm; Iriction angle, ÷ 6
0
.
Spiral angle oI driving wheel ÷ spiral angle driven wheel
Let u ÷ Spiral angle oI driving wheel
0 ÷ Spiral angle oI driven wheel
0 ¬ =
(given)
But shaIt angle,
0 ¬ o + =
r
0 ¬ + = 50
0
25
2
50
= = = 0 ¬
(i) Number oI teeth on driving wheel
Let T
1
÷ Number oI teeth on the driving wheel
T
2
÷ Number oI teeth on the driven wheel
The center distance (C) between two shaIt is given by equation (5.51) as,
+

=
0 ¬ x cos cos
1
2
1
T p
C
n
r
+

=
0 0
1
25 cos
2
25 cos
1
2
19
375
x
T
) 19 ; 25 ; 375
0
= = = =
n
p mm C 0 ¬ !
0
1
0
1
25 cos
3
2
19
25 cos
2 1
2
19
375 

=
+ 
=
x x
T T
38 46 . 37
3 19
25 cos 2 375
0
1
sav T =

 
==
x
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŹ
nd
(ii)Exact center distance
Using equation (5.51), we get
+

=
0 ¬ x cos cos
1
2
1
T p
C
n
+

=
0 0
25 cos
2
25 cos
1
2
38 19
x
C
. 4 . 380
25 cos
3
2
38 19
0
mm C = 

=
x
(iii)EIIiciency oI the drive
The eIIiciency oI the spiral gears is given by equation (5.54)
o ¬ 0
o 0 ¬
n
+
=
cos cos
cos cos
0 0 0
0 0 0
6 25 cos 25 cos
6 25 cos 25 cos
+
= n
0 0
6 , 25 = = = o 0 ¬ !
° 65 . 90 9065 . 0
9455 . 0
8571 . 0
19 cos
31 cos
0
0
= = = = n
5.2.12. Cear trains
combination oI two or more gears, which are arranged in such a way that the power is
transmitted Irom a driving shaIt to driven shaIt, is known as a gear train. This term is generally
applied to mean more than two gears in mesh between the driving shaIt and driven shaIt. The
gear train may consist oI spur, bevel or spiral gears.
Types oI gear train
(i) Simple gear train and
(ii) Compound gear train
76 38 2
1 2
=  =  = T T
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źź
5.2.12.1. $imple gear train
II the axes oI all gears (or the axes oI the shaIts on the gears are mounted) remain Iixed relative
to each other, the gear train is known as simple gear train or ordinary gear train. In the case oI a
simple gear train, each gear is on a separate shaIt as shown Iigure 5.28 (a). in Iigure 5.28 (a),
there are only two gears. Each gear is mounted on the separate shaIt. The combination oI these
two gears is known as simple gear train. II the power is transmitted Irom gear 1 to gear 2, then
gear 1 is driver whereas gear 2 is driven or Iollower. These two gears rotate in opposite direction.
Fig 5.28 simple gear train
In Iigure 5.28 (b), there are three gears. The shaIts 1 carries only one gear, shaIts 2 also carries
only one gear and shaIt three has only one gear. The combination oI these gears, is known as
simple gear train, when they are arranged in such a way that power is transmitted Irom a driving
shaIt to driven shaIt. The shaIt 1 is a driver whereas the shaIt 3 is known as driven shaIt or
Iollower. The shaIt 2 is called intermediate shaIt. It may be noted that when the number oI
intermediate shaIts are even, the motion oI Iollower will be in the opposite direction oI the
driver.
5.2.12.2. Compound gear train
In a compound gear train there are more than one gear on a shaIt, generally intermediate shaIt
have two gears rigidly Iixed to the shaIt so that these two gears have the same speed as they, are
mounted on same shaIt.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page źŻ
Figure 5.29 shows a compound gear train in which gear 1 (or wheel 1) drives the gear 2 mounted
on the intermediate shaIt. n the intermediate gear train shaIt is mounted another gear 3 which
meshes with gear 4 mounted on the driven shaIt. ears 2 and 3 rotate at the same speed as they
are on the same shaIt.
Fig 5.29 Compound gear train
5.2.12.3. Jelocitv ratio of gear trains
The ratio oI the speed oI the driver to the speed oI the Iollower is known as velocity ratio or
speed ratio oI the gear train. Mathematically, it is written as
driven of Speed
driver of Speed
# J ratio Jelocitv = . .
The reciprocal oI the speed ratio (or velocity ratio) is known as train value oI gear train.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ź8
5.2.12.3.1. Jelocitv ratio of simple gear train
First case
Figure 5.30 shows a simple gear train in which each shaIt carries only one gear. The power is
transmitted Irom gear 1 to gear 2. Hence gear 1 is known as driver and gear 2 is known as driven
or Iollower. The driving gear (i.e. gear 1) is moving clockwise whereas the driven gear (i.e. gear
2) is moving anticlockwise. Hence in a simple gear train, the meshing gears always in opposite
direction.
Fig 5.30 Velocity ratio oI simple gear train
Let =
1
N Speed oI driver (i.e. gear 1)
=
2
N Speed oI driven (i.e. gear 2)
=
1
T No. oI teeth on gear 1, and
=
2
T No. oI teeth on gear 2.
Speed ratio (velocity ratio)
2
1
N
N
follower of Speed
driver of Speed
= =
But the ratio oI speeds oI any pair oI gears in mesh is the inverse oI their number oI teeth.
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
=
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ź9
Speed ratio
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
= =
The reverse oI the speed ratio is known as the train value oI the gear train.
Train value
2
1
1
2
T
T
N
N
= =
$econd case
Figure 5.31 shows a simple gear train with one intermediate shaIt
Fig 5.31 Simple gear train with one intermediate shaIt
Let =
1
T No. oI teeth on driver wheel
=
2
T No. oI teeth on intermediate gear
=
3
T No. oI teeth on Iollower gear.
=
3 2 1
, N and N N Speed oI driver, intermediate and Iollower respectively in r.p.m.
When the driver and intermediate gears are in mesh, we get
2
1
1
2
T
T
N
N
= (i)
Similarly, when the intermediate gear and Iollower are in mesh, we get
3
2
2
3
T
T
N
N
= (ii)
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŻŴ
Multiplying equations (i) and (ii), we get
3
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
T
T
T
T
N
N
N
N
 = 
r
3
1
1
3
T
T
N
N
=
follower on teeth of No
driver on teeth of No
driver of Speed
follower of Speed
.
.
=
r
driver on teeth of No
follower on teeth of No
follower of Speed
driver of Speed
ratio Speed
.
.
= = 5.47
From equation (5.58), we see that the velocity ratio is independent oI the no. oI teeth on
intermediate wheels (or gears). It depends only upon the number oI teeth on the driver and
Iollower. s the intermediate wheels do not aIIect the velocity ratio, hence they are known as
idler. These idlers are used only:
(i) To change the direction oI rotation and
(ii) To bridge a gap when the distance between the driver and Iollower shaIts is too great
Ior iust two gears.
Equation (5.47) holds well even iI there are any numbers oI intermediate wheels (or gears). The
driver and Iollower will rotate in the same direction iI the numbers oI intermediate shaIts are odd
whereas they will rotate in opposite direction iI the numbers oI intermediate shaIts are even.
Example: simple gear train consists oI two gears only, each gear mounted on separate shaIts.
The shaIts are parallel. The gear 1 is driving the gear 2. The speed oI Iirst gear is 1000 r.p.m. The
number oI teeth oI gears 1 and 2 are 24 and 60 respectively. etermine:
(i) Speed ratio oI the gear train,
(ii) Train value oI the gear train,
(iii) Speed oI the second gear
(iv) irection oI rotation oI second gear iI the Iirst gear is rotating clockwise
Solution:
iven
N
1
÷ 1000 r.p.m. ; T
1
÷ 24; T
2
÷ 60
(i) Speed ratio
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Żŵ
Speed ratio oI simple gear train is given by,
Speed ratio
1
2
2
1
T
T
N
N
= =
Here the values oI T
2
and T
1
are given
Speed ratio 5 . 2
24
60
1
2
= = =
T
T
Fig 5.32
(ii) Train value
Train value 4 . 0
5 . 2
1 1
= = =
ratio Speed
(iii) Speed oI second gear
Speed ratio
2
1
N
N
=
r
2
1000
5 . 2
N
=
. . . 400
5 . 2
1000
2
m p r N = =
Example: simple gear train consists oI three gears, each mounted on separate shaIt as shown
in Iigure 5.33. The shaIts are parallel. The gear 1 is the driver and gear 3 is Iollower. The gear 1
is rotating clockwise at a speed oI 750 r.p.m. The no. oI teeth on gears 1, 2 and 3 are 30, 45 and
75 respectively. Find:
(i) Speed ratio oI the gear train,
(ii) irection oI rotation and speed oI rotation oI Iollower.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŻŶ
Fig 5.33
Solution:
N
1
÷ 750 r.p.m.; T
1
÷ 30; T
2
÷ 45 and T
3
÷ 75
(i) Speed ratio
Using equation (5.47), we get
driver on teeth of No
follower on teeth of No
follower of Speed
driver of Speed
ratio Speed
.
.
= =
5 . 2
30
75
1
3
= = =
T
T
ratio Speed
(ii) irection and speed oI rotation oI Iollower
follower of Speed
driver of Speed
ratio Speed =
. . . 300
5 . 2
750
5 . 2
1
m p r
N
ratio Speed
driver of Speed
follower of Speed = = = =
irectionofrotation
In a simple gear train with intermediate gears, the driver and Iollower will rotate in the same
direction iI the numbers oI intermediate shaIts (gears) are odd. Hence the number oI intermediate
shaIt is only one (i.e. number gear is odd), hence Iollower will rotate clockwise.
5.2.12.3.2. Jelocitv ratio of compound gear train
In a compound gear train as shown in Iigure 5.34, the intermediate shaIts have two wheels (or
gears) rigidly Iixed to it so that these two gears have the same speed. ne oI these two gears
meshes with the driver and the other with Iollower.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page Żŷ
In Iigure 5.34, the gear 1 (or wheel 1) drives gear 2 mounted on the intermediate shaIt. n the
intermediate shaIt is mounted another gear 3 which meshes with gear 4 mounted on driven (or
Iollower) shaIt. ears 2 and 3 rotate at the same speed as they are mounted on the same
intermediate shaIt.
Let =
1
T No. oI teeth on driver 1, =
2
T No. oI teeth on gear 2
=
3
T No. oI teeth on gear 3, =
4
T No. oI teeth on gear 4
=
1
N Speed oI driver 1
=
4 3 2
, N and N N Speed oI gears 2, 3 and 4 respectively in r.p.m. The gear 1 drives the gear 2,
thereIore,
2
1
1
2
T
T
N
N
= (i)
ear 3 drives the gear 4, thereIore
4
3
3
4
T
T
N
N
= (ii)
Multiplying equations (i) and (ii), we get
4
3
2
1
3
4
1
2
T
T
T
T
N
N
N
N
 = 
But
3 2
N N = as gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaIt. Hence the above equation
becomes are
4
3
2
1
1
4
T
T
T
T
N
N
 =
s gear 1 drives gear 2 whereas gear 3 drives gear 4 hence gears 1 and 3 becomes as drivers
whereas gears 2 and 4 becomes as Iollowers. Hence the above equation can be stated as
followers on teeth of oduct
drivers on teeth of oduct
driver of Speed
follower of Speed
Pr
Pr
= 5.48
Example: In a compound gear train shown in Iigure 5.35, the power is transmitted Irom a motor
shaIt to output shaIt. The motor shaIt is connected to gear 1 whereas the output shaIt is
connected to gear 4. The gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaIt. The motor is rotating at
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism ŶŴŵŵ
Auam 0niveisity¡SoE¡Agiicultuial eng uept¡ AgNe ŸŶŶ lectuie notes by SKB Page ŻŸ
1250 r.p.m. in the clockwise direction. Find the direction oI the output shaIt. The no. oI teeth on
each gear is given below:
ear 1 2 3 4
No. oI teeth 30 75 20 50
Fig 5.35
Solution:
iven N
1
÷ 1250 r.p.m; T
1
÷ 30; T
2
÷ 75; T
3
÷ 20; T
4
÷ 50
From Iigure 5.35 it is clear that gears 1 and 3 are driving gears (i.e. drivers) whereas gears 2 and
4 are driven gears or Iollowers. The gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaIt and hence they
will rotate in the same direction. The gear 1 is rotating in clockwise direction. The gear 2 is in
mesh with gear 1. Hence gear 2 will rotate in opposite direction i.e. in anticlockwise direction.
ear will rotate in the direction oI gear 2 i.e. in anticlockwise direction. The gear 4 is in mesh
with gear 3. Hence gear 4 will rotate in opposite direction i.e. clockwise direction. ear 4 is
connected output shaIt.
irection oI rotation oI output shaIt ÷ clockwise direction
Let =
4
N speed oI output shaIt (or speed oI gear 4)
Using the relation,
followers on teeth of oduct
drivers on teeth of oduct
driver of Speed
follower of Speed
Pr
Pr
=
r 25 . 6
20
50
30
75
4
3
2
1
1
4
=  =  =
T
T
T
T
N
N
. . . 200
25 . 6
1250
4
m p r N = =
,59071;0!40797,38288438890220.,382
5031,909 3 4503 09 /7;0 .438893 5:08 ,3/ ,70 843 3 1:70 %0 5:0 . 8 00/9490749,938,198343,890/7;075:0070,8905:0.800/9490 8,19.8940749,90/8343,8/7;035:047144075:00705:08/7;07 5:0,3/!:08/7;035:0
5031,909 03 90 8,198 ,70 ,77,30/ 3 5,7,0 ,3/ 749,93 3 90 8,20 /70.943 4503 09 /7;0 ,8 84331:708:80/%0/7;075:05:8900917424078/0,3//7;078994 90:55078/003.0909038433904078/0419009024709,390903843390 :55078/0%04078/0098343,8998/0070,890:55078/0098,88,.8/0 '04.97,9441450309/7;0 %07,944190;04.9419014407 47/7;03 9490;04.941/7;078343,8;04.9 7,94,902,9., 98;03,8 09
8500/4190/7;073752 / ,209074190/7;07 / $500/,3//,2090741901440770850.9;0
09:8.438/07900394190099,95,88084;0790/7;07,3/9014407343023:90 03941095,8834;0790/7;07343023:90 .7.:210703.04190/7;073:2074170;4:94350723:90
WU`a^WZ[`W_T
SYW
VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY
W
,59071;0!40797,38288438890220.,382
6/
$2,7 03941095,8834;07901443343023:90 03941095,8834;0790/7;07343023:90 .7.:210703.04190/7;073:2074170;4:94350723:90
6/
:99003941095,8834;0790/7;07343023:90806:,949003941095,883 4;0714407343023:90 7
6/ 6/
/ / / /
('04.97,94
110.941099.308843;04.97,94 1099.30888.438/070/ 9031470,.9,3,889020,3/,2090741749,9438:80/147 90.,.:,9434190;04.97,94%020,3/,2090741749,943006:,9490/,20907 4190/7;07 4714407 5:8909.3088410903.0907,/:841749,9430.420,8 907,/:84190/7;07 4714407 5:8,190099.308819070834850900390 09,3/905:08 90390507507,8500/4190945:0884:/0908,208498 006:,9490;04.94109 ' 72 72 6 6 9
070 3:,7 ;04.9 41 90 /7;07 3:,7 ;04.9 41 90 /7;03
72 0,3 7,/:8 41 749,943 41 /7;07 5:0 7 72 0,3 7,/:8 41 /7;03 5:0 7
9 %.3088 41 09
(6:,943 0.4208 ,8
VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY
W WU`a^WZ[`W_T
SYW
035:0 6 6 1907083485090039009.01'890..04.03 9 90 05 41 .59071.075:0 7 / .3/905:08.006:.7 9.0!40797. / / / / 390.4..0.20907 !7402 3/ 90 8500/ 41 90 8.941/7.38288438890220.3/.94109 03.97.006:.075:0 75241/7.94398.4.7.902094/ 09 75241/7. 8 /7.208498006:.849.943 8343.0780574547943.19 .2.3/9.9 752%0/.3088419009300 903 507507.9498/.20907419003305:08.8500/4190945:0884:/08.04.8.035:0 14407 / .04.035:0 7 3:.04.9 8500/ 41 90 5:083.9484174290.9490.382 7 7 7 9 7 9 7 9 7 9 9 9 9 / 9 / 9 9 7 / / 9073.2 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .941908.2090741/7.04.7.2090741/7.198 . 09  .075:0 3:.94109 903 ' 7 7 7 7 7 6 / 6 / 6 / 7 09.941/7.3 0330 7:333.
943 009 / / 9 9 7 52 / .038..7/249434190/7.0!40797.2 .07 7 52 .19 09 8500/41/7. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3/90 09 %0 172 75 09003 90 5:0 .2 7 52 $500/410330 /7.039%82.908 9..4.30/  17.2 .038.77089009 /:094.19 09 8500/41/7.990708.19 $4:943 .30884190098 22 90313/908500/41 908.07 5:0 / .03 %.07 .209074190/7.075:0749.943 %8 172 75 8 343.3/ 90 09 8 49.75:9842092089017.943.2 / 9/ / 9 $5419009 0390/7.038.07 5:0 / .19 &8306:.943.006:.2090741900330 /7.0.382 $4:943 .1727509003988:71.817.2 !74021390..773900999%820.03 $500/410330 /7..2090741900330 /7.59071.:808420 147.389..943 009 / / / / 7 52 / .943 909...075:094:9.038.7583498:11.3088 9 22 .209074190/7.19 &8306:.38288438890220.
7/24943419009824709.0!40797.38288438890220.773 90 /7.3/90093507.3/ 90 09 8 .943 94:9 .382 70.035:09903..89073 90 147..3/9009%0/110703.075:0.941/7.0790/7.7/ /70.07.075:0 75241/7. 507.8 .. '04.039.59071.0249430900390/7.78500/8 41 90 5:0 72 .035:0 09 .039..04.039..075:0 72 75241/7.08 1.9.0 8 $5090039014407.3 9.8:70 41 85 0307.94190/7.035:0 14407 8 $50900390/7.075:0 6 / 6 / 2.03.0090039030.3/90093507.808 90 09 24.94109 5.0 7 %0507507. 90 85 8 0570880/ .8834. 20.0 3 8420 .8041/7..035:0 90147.
9 41 09 6 / 6 / 6 / 8 8 '04.80 ( '04.075:0/0.07 5:0 .883 4.03 5:0 3/ ..94114407 '04.8 9070 8 .9 0 507507.04.3/ 90 /7.03 5:0 90 .883 4.9 41 09 4 98 09 8 5.04.9 41 90 14407 5:0/0.04. 85 09003 90 09 .70.80 ( !07507.04.70.3/ 90 09 90 .9 41 09 '04. . 8 4 /:0 94 85 09003 90 /7.07 90 /7.07 90 14407 5:0 0 /7.9 41 09 8 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .9 41 09 5.
:08.03306:.507.0418509003/7.03394.382 '04.59071.4:39 903 / / 9 9 8 SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T ..9438 .3/ 009 6 / 6 / 8 8 / / / / / / / / 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 3000..0!40797..039.04.38288438890220.3/14407 / 8 / ( 190099.9 41 09 :9507507.939094..9 41 09 8 6 / 8 8 ! '04..93 8 8 070 8 8 8 0949.07.941144075:0 7 6 6 / / ! 6 / 8 6 / 7 6:.3088 9 89..
..198 .3088 %.7005%0.09089709.3/.70349 06:.3/ 1 $970883900943908.08 90 /7. 88:23390.03 7 52 1 $97088390094390998/0 .382 7005419009 3.079.5574.39009/:094/11070399038438904390 948/0841905:00/1107039.0790/7.19 $4:943 .2 %49.39:/0 0 % % 03.438/070/8.20907.0.3/905:088:71.8/0:0949080.3/8:0...3/ 8 8:0.075:0.08%870.8229.0 900985.3 03 90 09 5.2/.38.08..8834..5574..20 547943 .890998/0419009.4397.38288438890220.024943090039009 .3/ 90 8..90/94903843%%0949038438.97.9403.4:39 ..0249438343.70058.0.04.907.3/ .382990/99005419809 900988:0.3083039 90700898.3//7.3099.07 .85 8 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW% VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W ..8/0 9499 8/0 0903/8 .90/949038438%05.03 / / 1 1 070 4:3 824/::8147902.5.2 9 22 .3547943419009035.419009 !74028.949.0!40797..8/0 00.089014407.078343.9 752894/7.700570/:.7.880817428.09/7.9.8808 1742 90 99 8/0948. 0.70.80.0890/7.2090741905:04390/7.98 .32.907.8/0419009.08 90 144078343.9 752%05:043 90/7.038.8541 7 52 / .197:333.19.59071.:..035:0 014407 03 905407897...88..035:0 %0.8..93099.9.9090/..088990 8500/419014407 0/7..7941 90 09 .90/ 94903843 % :9 90 5.3088394.7990 09.
.3088.85 &8306:.943 009 9 / 7 / / / .3/ 8.8.2 438/07390099.3099.0!40797.038.3841.5:0942/.382990/1742.9 75294.382 00.943 009 / / 9 9 8 / / / .3/949.93099.2 %.2 !7402%05407897. 5:02/.943 / F / / / .093/908500/48990/7.7005 1 90 897088 43 90 99 ..209077:333...4:3943 / / / 9 9 9 &8306:.708:941 90 .035:0..3088 09 / . 8/0 41 90 09 8 .2090720.3088394.59071.19 &8306:.38288438890220.2090741905:043/7.
3/ .22 .
9.0%04:3 824/::8147902.907.22 70850.4190098 .
22 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW% .
0!40797.075:0 $500/4190/7.209074190/7.8/0 4:3 824/::8 / 2 7 52 / 2 1 .59071..382 $4:943 .075:0 .209074190/7.035:0 $9708843998/0 $97088438..03 ..38288438890220.
22 1 .
22 .
77.198 .90 3 90 4554890 /70.943. 22 09 8500/4190/7.8390.7.7488 09 /7.903904554890/70.20/70.748809/7.049905:08749.884331:7090/7.943 009 / / ( / / 7 52 ($500/489/7.090903843390090 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .0 3.943 009 / / ( 1 1 7 52 190.075:0 5:8900917428/0.70 .0.035:0/:094.90/ 903174206:.943 070.0 90 749.943 03.3/749.7005 7 52 748809/7.3450309/7.903908.0 90 .07899403.3//0.0 8 :80/ 03 90 8.30/35.70058300.035:0 &8306:.
898/0.08 90 5:0 :9 5:08 ..382990/17424308.93905479433/8490098343.3/ .085:0.20907415:0 / $500/.3/70850.19 90701470 90 5:0.4254:3/ 09/7.3//.0 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .905:0 /7.0 4254:3/09/7.20907415:070850.884331:70 4254:3/09/7.20907415:08.38288438890220.085:0:95:0/7.3:207415:08 903 ..39.20 8.59071.88.9.0 03905407894097.84/7.0 09 $500/415:03752 / .1994.97.0 3.0 / / $500/..382 24709..9..70 00/ 47 10/ 94 90 8.4254:3/ 09/7.3//.8/0 748809/7.0 '04.4254:3/09/7.3/5479438 343.34907974:.0 8:80/:70848 .9441.0!40797.
248.2090741905:0439003308 .2090741905:04390308.208.006:.90. 30 8. 41 /7.0 .943.38288438890220.94415:08.943 .3/ 009 / / / / :9 .9 752 /7.209074190144075:0 / .2 .3/8.1903 $4:943 .04.90.2 $5.3/8.9 41 /...19 / .3 0330 7:333 .2090741905:043900330 / .03 3308500/ 752 . .209074190144075:04390/3.04.07 !7 4/:.08 .08 .193/908500/41908.19 %0 /.89 14407 $500/ 41 1789 /7.382 74206:.8541.2 .209074190/7.4.2 /. 41 144078 !7402 9 90 05 41 .078 !7 4/:.9 41 /. 09 ./7.19 / / / / %0./7.1930 / .8905:08.97.990.97.3079903.. /3.03 / / :95306:.248.2.20907 5:0 00/ 43 .94415:08.075:043908.2 ...2 .8 $500/ 41 .03 / / $2.7 90.198 .3/90/.2 /.20907 5:0 43 90 30 8.0!40797.943 0349.0 8 8 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW %07083485 %0708.19 /7.3/.59071.7000/94908.
.09006:.3450309/7.943 009 / / 7 / / / / / / 7 52 0390708.943 / / ( / / / 8 8 / / 8 8 / 0394109 7 52 %003941./7.3/ 03941.3890949..59071./7.19 03907083485 &8306:.90.07.039419009706:70/94.80 0.38288438890220.4330.438/070/%0..0!40797.3/14407 %070.382 09 8500/4190/3.7488 09/7.9.0 .0 398...0 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .7094.0920.70 03941.248.808940.8541..
:9 .7075:0 7 #.3/9 742 /7.0 %0949.382 03941.8.3450309806:.0890.3450309/7.30 .943 .59071.094 03.308439..9 9 82.439.9 03.7075:0...3/43.38 %03 .80 749./.3/9 8443.0394109 49 90 5:08 3 98 .90 3 90 8./:8419082./../:84190..707 5:0 039 41 09 3 . 4039 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W . 5.0 8 507503/.90/ 03941450309/7.3.:.3/90/.0.20.439.03941..3/.20 /70.0!40797.3039 .:.9.7 94 .075:0 %49.94900394190093493. 82.8 848 3 1:70 %0090.00.00900390.7 9.38 \ 47 6 6 885.9...7.3..0390784190948.30 03. 7.30 47 09 90 .7..0 94 :9 8 9.9909075:0 90 039 41 09 3 .00900390.0 190/89.075:0.07 5:0 09 89.38288438890220.30 .9 9 90 .198.70343 90 706:70/0394190092.38 6 6 .0390784190945:08 0039 7 #.3/82.0 \ 47 7.30 .20907415:08.9.439.
38288438890220.0. 7 7 7 7 $3..59071..382 84174297.30 83 .0!40797.
0782.55742. 83 . 03.0 83 .0304 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 . 7. 4949.03.8.30/.4. ..943.08900.90394190450309/7.84049. 7 6  ) 7 6 ! ) 7 7 6 7 7 .03 7.7 7 7 7 %0.8.039 4190098. 7.94314790 039419009. .9070. 7..006:.3.
05 .3843 7 7 00.:08306:.93 82.943 009 6 7 6 7 7 7 ..07 90728 $:899:939080. 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 742 342.7 7 7 6 7 7 7 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .
.382 6 7 7 ...59071.0!40797.0  7 7 $:899:9398.943 0.7 7 7 7 :9174206:.:041..38288438890220.
3.074290.4.3//110703.7488 09 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .0 %0.7488 09884331:70 09 89.7075:0 7 #.006:.09.943.075:0 %49.00900390.390.041907.0390784190945:08 039 7 #.9003941450309/7./:84190.7488 09/7.006:.7488 09 03941.0394190.4.006:./ 03941.943 04807.4.9900394190450309/0503/8:543908:2.0890./:8419082.55742.943 009 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 %0.
..382 49 90 5:08 .03 7.08900.. 903 9 .3 0 843 9.38288438890220.59071.9070.30 .. 7 7 6 6 ) 7 6 ! ! ) )  7 6 7 7 . 7 7 4949.7.3/82.943.07.039 4190098.8 843 3 1:70 %0090.94314790039419009.30 .55742.9 .3/.0304 8 7 7 7 7 7 .90394190.3/ 3 98 .0!40797.. 039 7 7 7 ! ! 7 397.9.30/.7 7 7 7 %0.30 3/ ( 7 83 .7075:0..30 .80 749.9438 . 7 7 7 83 . 7 6 7 7.8. .006:.3/742 /7.4.094 4 .9.7488 09/7. 7.5..0890. .30 \ 09 .0 3.90 3 90 4554890 /70. 83 . 7..3/.3049.84.
7 7 7 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .
943 0.:08306:....7 6 7 7 .0!40797.7 7 7 7 :9174206:.38288438890220..07 90728 $:899:9398.59071.:041.943 009 7 6 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 7 .3843 7 7 00.0  7 7 $:899:9398. 05 .93 82.382 7 7 7 7 7 7 742 342..
4330.47708543/389058 8.79 .4389.943 04807.390.00907230900.55147.006:.7.9900394190.900398419009 706:70/ VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % 7 8.006:.006:.09.943.0890.0987:0/408349..4.20907 ./4190 .198 2 .4330.39190 8:241907.07 5:08 41 /.9003941.9.3/.3903.7488 09/0503/843:543908:241907.270850.9.4389.4389.943 009 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 7 6 7 7 7 %0.3/ .4389. 09 7:333 4.9394890550/5:08 900394190.90/  .2.391 7 .3450309 !7402%4 5.55742.074290.74880/098.7488 09/7.55742./ 03.70 94 0 .4. .0 8.01479009.39 7 7 8 349.4.5.
74880/ $4:943 .03 89.2 ./:841.075:0 (#.2 7 ..2 (#.0306:.8 6 7 7 .03907418.59071.075:0 09 706:70/039419009 1900984503 .38288438890220.7 7 7 7 070.198 47415:08 2 .9039./:84182.2 7 .3.9039147904503098..0!40797.00900390.209074182.7075:0 .943 .2090741.2 ..7075:0 ..382 1900984503 190098.
/./.. %0. 83 7 7 83 83 6 7.147450309/7.38 ( .08. 83 .03 83 .:041.38 7. 7 7 .
0. 8 . 8.0782.03.
37,/,38 006:,9483
070 8 ,84
37,/,3 ,3/83
.
. $:899:9398.:041.
8 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .3/390.84..:08417 .3/.4.9 039.006:.3/7...943 0090.
8 070.0!40797.382 6 6 ) ) .2 55742.08.74880/ .90039 :8306:.2 6 1098..943 .38288438890220.59071.943 009 6 7 7 7 7 .90390..903941.0306:...7488 09/7.
/.. 7 7 83 83 6 7 7 .38 $:899:9398.38 7.8. 83 .03 .:041.7 7 7 7 6 7./.
2 .390.943 :70 8484390/7.03 5:0 749.07 5:0 .90039 :8306:.943 0090.9441099038438 :70 848 .943 009 #.035:0 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW 6 7 7 7 7 6 .93 3 90 . 80 /70.2 55742..4.3/ /7.006:.4. /7.035:0438/0790/7.9039.8 6 6 ) ) .
3 002039..438/073 .7.3/ 09 1 7.30.0394117.94 41 90 949038438 2.38288438890220.3/5:0 /7.035:0 % %03843390094390998/0 % %038433900943908.943090039009.382 !:0..039074190 3 4 011.3.8/0 7 3041 .59071..035:0 %0 7.0!40797.990.0 41 90 09 8:903/3.308:903/0/ 90 .9 090.439. 0 14:3/  . 50...
3.0 90 .0 3# .08.943.30894#.50...990.147. %038438 % 0% 39009..979.08 .3039.0306:7:2. %03843%39009.30 .943#.934:9.8843 3 1:70 %0.3039.00590002039.93..9! 070!8902//0543941 7.30 ! #084. 472..943 009 # % 83 % 0% 83 $3.9.9.939.0390741905:0..7.9343900939047439.70 .939.70.94341 9024943415:0 07 07 84.90147.3/3904554890/70..30 %! 07 07 4.74:8 147./70.7/.
4208.8 03.0 06:.3 0 79903 .4. 83 0..943 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .0 90 .7 8 .8 07 07 .07 82.
.3.382 # % # % 07 07 % % 0% 07 0% 07 0% 07 # %07 07 00.006:.0!40797. 6:.9430.48 07 70/:.090.399 0% 07 # %07 47084.93 90 82.4208 $3.079.38288438890220.48 07 07 % .59071. 009 % 0% ..0894:39003.0.90147..08.4.
03 3 7.48 .943 7 84:/ 0 9.74880/0990.30 41 .:0841#..3/% 009 /% 3 /7 3 /7 % % 4 0 3 7 % % % 7 7 % 03 7 % 3 06:.0 ...3/ 009 % 07 0% 3 3907.9430900390298%.939094..439. 03.8 .439.78.9390.9 47 .0782.4.9438 .8 7 7 % 0% % 0% 3# 0% # 0% 3 ! 3# 6:.006:.38 070 7 8 343 .3041.3 45030947.98/0907230/ VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .039006:./.
03394..5 8 82..941 .806:.94 .5 7 .03 .075:0 2:8909.30 7 84:/ 0 9.07 43 98 5:0 9.439.3041.439.075:0806:.439. (3041.70 5:0 %0 .99082.3041.59071.438/07.090 .943 9907010703..3041.943 90.38288438890220.:0.0!40797.8 90 232:2 .382 3041.0 306:.0 9009 039485439082.9 :990...0 94503 09/7..075:0 83.5439082.903.0941:70147450309 90.3 43 90 .439.3041 .9147450309/7.30.94 ..
/:841.7075:0 3041.3041.03  7 7 7 .7075:0806:.5439082..3041.075:047..8.209907010703.9147.439.74880/09 90.439.94 (3041.54349905:0888.74880/09/7.0941:70 147..74880/09 90.:0.. 070 7 #.9 :990.0 47.
3.03907841945:08 % %03843390998/0419009 % %038433908./:84182.7075:0 !40797. 7 #.00900390.382990/09 09 7 #./:841.3/ 89.075:0./:84182.00900390.075:0. .03  7 7 7 .3.03907841945:08 070 7 #..8.8/0419009 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .3/ 89.
'04..38288438890220.59071.0!40797.382 .941900932..
43/ % % 147.9.7.04190/7..035:0 890/110703.93.9.0 0900390949038438 0 % % (110.:210703.0 '04.9 % % % % .8 %00110. 2 .0 (47/43050780.0.090384347147.990.3147.0/7.
439.0394117.2 2 7 52 7 3 6 7.439.998 070.03 /. 8 .20907415:0 $500/41905:0 3041.9 / .2.8006:.943 .2:2903843 '04.9 752%0./.5:041/.94109 % . 6:.089054073.3 4 011.20907 ../.9 8 .035:0 % % % % 7 7 .943 909038438%. 6/ 6 2 .709.0330943 8 %476:000790/4390/7.943 .35:0 3/%476:000790/4390/7.382990/ ! % % .3/%.2500987:3334. ..089054073390 .806:.38 ! 6 7.3/905:08 1902.998 (!40797.4 011.3/.943 .3041.2:2903843 390098 13/90540797.07.943090039009..382990/9009 $4:943 .0394117.
8/0419009 &8306:.943 009 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .. 8 09 % %0384343908.
07 .39:/0806:.943 .59071.3 .:80/3907:3330990.08343.38288438890220. :31472 . . 2.9 7.7 5.0 41 288 2 8 749..8 03971:.9 .. !40797..03971:.9 ./:8 7 .0 %0 .:./.147..94 7 070282.03971:.3/982.90/  .93 43 .:.88 41905.08.4:9.903843 %0903843. 5. 903843 3 90 09 .08 .438/073 90 147.0306:. 039 41 90 09 0 039 8:903/3 .8.79.90/ 3 .79.937. 002039.382 % 07 3 % % 6 0 % ( 0 % % % % .. .04.7.7/.903843 030..3 0 . .147.03971:.30 .382990/8..03971:.0!40797..
04.990 .03907 .7 .8 843 3 1:70 09 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW ! ! .9410932..
097:38 .3/9.07.0394109 2.3039..903843.88410950720907039 %03971:. #03971:.7/ ./.9.937.0../:85:04.93.8841002039.8 7#.4:9.147.
0 # ./. 4:9.3.382 03971:...93 7.903843 %0 ..59071.03941097.425430398 41 % .0!40797.3.38288438890220.7/84002039..0/  90 .. 147.93 7.7/8 8 .03971:./.
2 7 07 7 7 (03971:.7 (.390147.8850720907039 03941 2 7 07 # .30.0847439.0 47084. 009 7 % 83 07 % 83 07 # .884109 2. 7 07 % 83 2 7 07 07 07 890. .147.
0 83 %0390. 07 2 7 07 7 % 2 .4.8 % .78.0782. 03.9430. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .006:.4208.
79..0.04..943 98.3 2.4.006:.941900947407098500/ 0098500/0889.382 490 74290.0!40797.990.03971:.3/ %9/0503/8:54390.38288438890220.90384383/0503/03941%.59071.
419009 070 .9 .2:2540797..03971:.438/070/ %2 % % 1.2:2903843 %2 39009806:.03971:.1089708839009 1 .903843843998/0 . '04.90384389409.438/07.8/0419009 .90/ 03.90/ .9038438.2:28.3088 41 90 09 %03 %2 % % 1.9038438940300.0782.943903949.03971:.7488 80.8 47998/0 47998/0 % % % % . /9 41 90 09 9 %.09 09 % %03843390998/0419009 % %038433908.03394..70.382990/.8 90.03971:.9038438940.2:28.3/8.942.943..0300.3/2.03.10897088390092:950/ ! %2 1 .941900932.8/04190098..
8 .0306:.943 009 ! % % 03 7 .:041%306:.. :9174206:.8 ! % % %0390540797.382990/8. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .943 0349.9 % 03 7 % % % 03 7 7 $:899:9390.943 .
38288438890220.0 /1107039.2:2 5407 8 97. %2.382990/02.93 94 074 147 2.59071.9 94 . /.382990/ 742 06:. . 47 %.. %2.9430.08 90 . 03. 2. .93 06:.4. 2 .943 . ! % 2.903843.04. % $:899:939841%306:.06:. .94 2. %2.2:2 1 /! /. %0540797. . % ! %2.0!40797. ! %2. 2. SYW % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T .2:2903843 . %2.943 . % ! % 2. % %2. . 09 %0. 2 6:. 2.9 . .006:. %2. % % ! % . . .3/ 06:.4208.8 09 %03 ( %2.382 0 3 7 ! % 0 3 7 .. . 2 .943 009 ! %2. 2.943 .3/ % 03971:.9 41 90 09 . 9 70850.2:2 4780 5407 009 7 7 7 /! %2.
250 09 027.03971:.59071.30/  8:899:93 90 . %2. 903843 4:/ 0 2.2:2 5407 97.3/ 7:38 .0!40797.2:25407 %2. % %2.2:25407. .:08 41 % 1742 . ! % %2. %0 2.3/ % %2..943 (. 3 7 0 %2. .0.9 %2..38288438890220.3/ .3 ..382 41 90 03.943 306:.08 90 847907 5:0  .43/94381479097. . 03. 8500/ 41 2.2:29038430. 174206:.0 03 90 5407 97.3828843412. .30 41 ..70 % %2.9 . % %2.84349. % %2.382990/ 8 49. % % %2.382990/ 8 2.2:2 .
30882298/038982.70/9 .3/9.2.232038438419009.
9 90 .382990/ ..2 0907230 90 2.3 0 97.00/ .4..2:2 5072880897088390098349940.2:2 5407 9.0 8500/ 1 90 2.9 .
30884109 03894109 7 6 7.3/3 $4:943.03 3041.9 $500/4109 /94109 %.2./ 2 ...439.
2 . 8 .
2 8 2 . .2 9 22 . 23 .
2 . .
.2 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .
.38288438890220.2:25072880897088 1 .0!40797..382 .59071.
03 ! VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . 41 09 039 28 2 .943 009 % :90349.03 %2 1 70.2 '.382990/8.88410950720907039 2 8 '4:20 41 09 41 2 039 28 . 070 2 2.903843 % 8.3/.943 % 2 .:0390..0306:.03971:. .8/0419009&8306:.70.. 4902.2 2 $:899:9398.903843839009&8306:.2:2903843.9 %2 03971:.4.:041 3 09:8178913/902.943 009 ( % 0 3 7 0 % % % % % . 41 09 1 .2:2540797.9 %2 % % % %2 % 09 % %0384343908.943 2.2:2903843 %2 8.006:.9 ! 039 41 2 .
2500941/03892..59071..38288438890220.382 .0!40797.
2:2 5072880 897088 41 . 2.8 ..2.
.9. .2..3097.2 8 2 .2 0907230902.21907.2:254079.382990/.0941 .03 /94109 %..8/09038438 $4:943.30884109 03894109 .2 9 .9441 90998/0948.
2 . .
2:25072880897088 1 .2 . .
382990/ 90. 943 41 09 %2 .70.84902.2 #. 897088 70.88412039419009.2:290384339009 09 2 .8 .0306:.2 2 &8306:. . %2 2 .943 %2 .9 41472. 41 .94190098.3/.8841430209070394109 2 8 '4:20 41 09 41 2 039 28 .9 ! 039 41 2 .943 .944190903843 % % 09:813/902.2:2 %03843 %2 . 41 09 039 28 2 .7488 80.04.2:2540797.
943 ! % % .2:2540797.382990/8.0306:. 8 2 42. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .
70:80/9497.9 7.94 %0 0.3..198.702489:80/0390948.0 8 .2:2540797.903843 .382990/ 9 098 74508 .943 %0 24943 1742 430 8..04.943 009 :9 ( %2 % %2 % %2 %2 % % % .0!40797..7 2494317424308.38 %0802094/8.78 3974/:.9 7.03 % $:899:9390.0 8 349 5489.7 /7.78.59071.00900390948.0 ..3/ .3/ % %98/0903843 :91472.19 94 .3/% 0349.3.9 %2 % % 070% 03971:.:0306:.943 009 0.3/ 82449 /7.34907 ! VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .0:9190 /89.94 :9 0. 70/:.3/.70.38292494317424308.. 97.80 41 098 ..306:. 9030. 8 :80/ 147 97.19 2.3828843 % %2 $:899:9398.7005 ..382993 749.08 .7 8 /0130/ .04.8 94490/ 002039 ..3/ 74508 90 /7.:0841%.3/ .0 %070 8 85 . 5489.34907 8.343.1994.1994 ..0 .38298 0.9 .34907 3 .38288438890220.382 09:813/90.03907/89.:0841% %.198882. 0 97.
.943008. 4907 7..3/ WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W ..3828843 9017.30:80/%080 008.30/ 04 4734854190948:71.20 0 7 7 ' ' 7 7 7 ! ' 7 ' 7 ! 6 6 6 7 7 7 / 47 7 / 070 $500/4117.884311:70%07003485090039094008 147 82.943008 %017...38288438890220.9.884331:70..382 74282.94300749..990..19070.938.94300 3904554890/70.3 0 97.0 249430900390948:71..89017.94300800/4390 8.943003752 7 #.908 9749.439.382990/ 0..909017..943 008 9079.19008940749.04.0!40797.540797.8 .3890.3039.59071.943003752 $500/4117..20 24943 . 5407 97.943.908.198 .3/570883.084190 17.3828843 03.7024:390/4390948.0884:/08.90/039017..0 90 8.08./:84100 .03974:8:71.94300800/9490749.98:71.38:11.08 03470.8 05.
9194008.78 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .4907.3:207415740...382884347..881./0/4390507507419000 .80.70/039.70540717.943008.088082:.9430088743070.90.9394:985.70749.709025479.943410.0780 574547943.9430.700470..8039 .9438 343.38288438890220.:7803.39.70574.943008. 7.4.0!40797.943 98..0.59071..4.01939490.039 90 85 90 94 8:71.3/8509003 9020570.78.0/0139024943.7%0249430900390 9417.903.943 008 854.:94398343.881.908 3. 94 907 7.79.9394:985903908500/890 94 008 0 3.39.08 ./:84100 74206:.9430099009.70:80/14782.47708543/370.0390/ %017.80/70./ 3 47/07 94 570.382 7 #.943 %017..78 %01443.3/94490.540797.8902494309003900.3349097.788/3 490 19000749.70749...382990/ .943 9000749.80 /70..
900.3897..3/.943.7.4330.7894435.3/09073.0841908.7.08.330.78.881. 5.084190 00.085:70.80/4390548943.08.94331:70 .382 .7014720/4.0!40797..78 90.78.990095.78:70 .08.78 82.0841948. 43 5.198 $5:70.3/90948.198.0.70343.09490.07904:90700.198 %0.20/70.3/343 390780.7.90 39073.7.08.70 .7..439.:78..9034554890/70..198 749.9009.884331:70.19809003.70902.07 0.78 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .382990/2.59071.198749.38288438890220.198 %01443. 0.78:80/94..3 09073.08.7 %00.7 8 343 .7. !.3003.3/ .903908..0.93 .9945.198 .9009.7488.94..8 5343 %0 94 8. 900943904:9078:71.78 0.0.9 $5:70.78 4:00.....390780.0 .0790330700 %0 3307 00 .39508410.009073.93 .439..7014720/4.885:70.78 $5:70.24943894097.943385:70..
198.9.198.0.3/9082.390093...70343.1907.0...0309003..43.38288438890220.:7.7880.02039.38.3/ .30.0.439.3/904907.3/.0.0/ 9490..78343.30 :9.78.543941.8/4:00.884331:70%85.7..50%0942.50.78..94.9930.9945.78 5..0.8843 390 1:70.019 ..7830.8843390 1:70 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW ./.0908.90098 0.0841 908.:70/940907 430.3/8 30.:78.3.43.3/9070834744.3/ 824:390/4349075..3/ 08343.7410..200.782009..78 90..090094554890....7190019.0.30/ 47..78:80/94.0!40797.7/80903/8.39009414554890.99003334103.0.3/0.79 ..0/9009.:7.19894 0.78 %00.382 0.3.59071.780.749075.0.3/90793.7...08.08.9.42243.0.7488909009 :700..78 4:00..0.80.7 .19 .4330.807734300.90/ %0/4:00.7824:390/434308.94384190 /4:00.4330.
97.198./.30/9030.19 %00.938..0 .9 0.938.70343.0.3/ 390780.0!40797.70343.78.7819090094390 0.70897..0.089030.943418.88433 1:70.80.9490543941390780.70343.0.78.7 .19.0 47857.8 0.938.8897.00.78.0:919009.38288438890220.59071..390780.4330.382 4:00.703.994390780..78:80/94.19 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .
78 190.70343.78 .90.32.04.04.943.941900.0.90.78..70.04..8800.9 900.59071.. 4.198 .382 0.3/ .784780857.78 .0.7. .38288438890220..938.3/343 390780.04.0!40797.941900..0/:2.00..881.78 .4330.47/39490507507..04.7880889.3/343 390780.994343 5.78 .8 .90.04.0 0.78:80/94.198 %00.7. 43 5.8810/.0.938.78 .80/4390507507.
8 90.78.90.78 90.784720/:2 .04.70343.04.70090032.941900.84.04.90.
8.3/2.
9410.04.7024709.32.8:9190.78 .
78.04. .30/.70343.30/ 9490 00728:71.0/ %0 85:7 0...0 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .0 897.80/4390548943419009439000 .0.881.8 900.78.0 . $97..0.0 3.:7..3/857. :7.70 3. 0..9 478500/ 0.9 .8810/..0/90094.8 .78 .3..78 .943.9 9009 0.3/ ..78 .78..70.47/3949054894341909009439000 900.0790728:71.8.30/ 9009 .
198749.0.7820839073..423.3/5343..3/90.943.8 90 . 9073.20 /70.7 .7.0 .078.3/ ./:88343 .884331:70 .741.884331:70 .78.897.8.890.3/5343 %0897.85343070.943 .73 .19208089900.. 7.70343 09073.78.700 1900.8 843 3 1:70 .72494339430.90.87.0!40797.. #..9034554890/70.943 %082.90.78 90940.8..0/5343%07.19820809073.198749...784190948.80/43950410.881.884331:70 :70#.0.0798749. 0.7008 ...4907 903900.783.3/5343 1900..07 00 8 343 5343 070.3/5343.39073..3/908.707008.78 90948.382 .33:.. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .9300.0.943. 4709073.7.38288438890220. .78343.707 008343.70343.930 . %0 82.0041313907...72494347.0/85:700 4739073.897.0.4907.07008343.:.8.43..59071.78.903908...930 903900.87.
78 :70 848905741041.0!40797..3990728 .78 905741041..59071. 013943419090728:80/30.382 .43925479.43925479..0.7.38288438890220.7..3990728 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .70:80/39089:/ 41900. #.0.
209074159. 7.7.759. .0 070 /.759./0/  90 3:207 41 9009 43 90 0098/03490/5.43024/:098/03490/ .7.70/0130/..5:70743..84343./.8 90 039 41 90 59..20907.7.930. .7..0 .:210703. 9 890/89..943 4:/574/:.0 2 % 2 8 0307.7.0 41 90 9449 . 6:. 59.47708543/354394390.0 /.0 59.0 /.. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . 7..382 %090728.2090741.4390. 6 2 6 % .20907.0/.7.38288438890220. /.7.0419059.:210703. .0 20.59.59071.8 .54399890543941.0/.3079903.543943430944994. .. 6 % %0/.4.01742.8:70/.70098.:0 8 0307. 5/ 6 4/:0 2 9 8 /0130/ .7.. 94 90 59. .. .20907 !9.94903:207419009507:390394159.439.0 98 .:.89094490/0. 6 % 47 5 .0908. %0 .. 5/ 9806:.943 .7.2024943.0841902.:.2090798/03490/5/ 5/ % 102:9506:.9419459.574. /89.//03/:2 9 8 90 7.859.0 % :207419009 5 .8 %059.:.3.0!40797.0. 5.3/ 009 5. . 0570880/ 3 220907 4/:0 8 90 70.03./.20907 507 9449 9 8 /03490/203.78 7.03994499 0 06:.7 59. 5.7.3.943 .7. 41 /.209079890/...
7. 0.0.7 #.//03/:2 .3/ /0/03/:2 8 343.9490949009.8.91742900333419003.:08 0307.939009 .7 00 41 90 31390 /.3/1./.77.8 843 3 1:70 .7.0 %0 7.7.5.020394190949009 !.2090741/0/03/:2.0203941942.439.80.7949./ 2 .30.95.72.9439053438343 .7.8808 974: 90 49942 41 90 9009 .. 5./89.7.90/0.941.3/:8:..7.20907 8 343 ..7.:7.9498/03490/03.24/:0847 6 24/:0 .94170../.0203994 9059.0 .098.439. %0/0/03/:298907.341909449989.0 .94413:20741900943900..382 ..794194498:71.3.78 .041909009989.90.77.0.09890.99059.94190942..0/90543941. 09 /110703.0 % 9 070 % :20741900943900.95.941.90/7.08990..303994909459. !343989082..09059.003.92.. !.0 !.94 907.0 2 2 2 .097. 0.79419094498:71.8808974:9094541909009.0 9 8 90 .941..0!40797.0 5.3.99890.741905..0..939009 1742900333949003/4103.7.422433472.0 .38343.0147231.0 5.38288438890220.8049059.917429003/419003.7 9 :20741900943905343.8 7.:7.08898905.0 09003 90 .0.0.7.439..422439..0..3/ 0. 0.0.309890.3.3.//03/:2.98905.7. !7088:70..857410 .30.20907 41.4.041909449049059.93 0.439.7.77.7. !7410%0.9905439 41. .941.8.7.59071..54394190942..5439 .94 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .5574.07.439.. //03/:2./ 2 0/03/:2 .
9 7.9 41 /7.04.08897..8490 30 1742 9059.941940.422433472.07 / / % % ' # 6 6 / / ' # ' # ! 6/ 6/ ! ' # ! 5.78 .7.7 $500/41/7.07190/7.9 752 %0 94 85:7 0.3/8500/4190/7.8 9009 41 22 24/:0 .97.7 8343.909059.78 8343.3:.04.439.030..943 %0.3:.030.944190.94 % 7 52 2 22 ' # 09 % 44190094390/7.7.97.94190144079490.394499490/7.03 :20741900943/7.90147.9 7.0 .30.04..030.990543941.8 .94190/7.78.:. 6/ 6/ / ! % % / !7088:7030 473041.039449.0 .908 .94190 2.0!40797.9 $4:943 .54399490543941.070.30.3/ 749.59071.04.04.94 '# %07..943 %8 8.94 41 84 .070...7 .38288438890220.97.857088:70 30 473041.9:.439.04.04.439830 ..7 ...7 $500/41/7..04.7 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . .7 .2500907230903:207419009.94 ' # 3:.7 4/:0 '04.9498/03490/'#03.382 '04.382990/ 174290/7.930.9 41 14407 3:.
.59071.382 &839006:.04.38288438890220.30.943 009 ' # % % 7 52 84 ' # % % ( % ' # % !9.0!40797.03 ' 5 7 47 7 '5 '5 '5 6 6 / 2% 6 ' 5 22 ..9 '5 8.
8 2 .
10/ 5439 ..88431:70 %0944/08..88:20/94043908:71.4:990.93.:7.3039 9490.439.908 099094.7347.94154390354398.0780. 41 0.9 .422439.809.041904/%8 ..039078.7.95439.3/.70.3:.4389.9490948:71.04..95439904/8749.94 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .9441. 8 .4.04.908 9.97.7.3:.73 89.943 41 90 94 8:71.9 90 .08..04.9.9 099 9890.08 .95439 09 ' 30.039078 41 749.422433472..7.3/.3/006:.3/904/8749.809.43/943147.439.3.04.39.98 90 30 433 90 .9 90 5439 41 .3:.7008 .0/4/08.42243 3472.8907.410.3/3 3890. 94 90 94 8:71.70749.9 .90*949030.08 .04. /.04.9 390780.03.03907/89.39.93.:7./0890.4.7.94410.08.93.
9 4308:71.439.422433472.90*949030.382 ' 30.422439.0 2..3/1742/7.0\' 4 \ \' 3 \ 7 3 \ ( \7 ( \ 190948:71. .0\ ' 4 \ \' 7 7 7 $2.43.42243 3472.0!40797.04.*433 3.08.039078.703.08 .3/006:.8/070..422433472.95439! 09 7 302../0 ' 9.3/.*433 3 8 ' 8507503/.9.794 03..3 3 302.94154390354398...88:20/94043908:71.8'8507503/./0 ' 93472.7.4390 .:.041904/%8 .094904907.:9890..3 3.04.30399 9:970.7.:.9..0 24943 09003908:71.59071.94 439094.. 3 3 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3 3 742/7.38288438890220.7094702.
4907 4254303941'.07807.04.006:.9434190948:71.990543941.439.3 3 4254303941'.48 ! ! %0.39147.944190.48 ' .5439 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .024943.9490948:71.9 #0.48 ' .48 7 .943 8489.4.382 2:89007494.4/805.3 3 (#0.42243 3472.48 ' ..3 3 47574507..084790503097..9.03970841749.9..08394 0.487 ! 3 .48 7 ' ...433472.3:.7..9433903.9082:890.48 .433472.908:9 987.9434190948:71.4389.38288438890220.48 7 ! ' 3 .0!40797./08903043390.439.024943.7.3:.08.433472.48 ' .48 7 ' .9 /.48 7 ' ..5489438419000%80 190 5439!810/5439 059..990.59071.433472.9441.7.04.074 7 7 7 7 7 7 ' .
9418/3 1 90 94 8:71.. 8/0 70.439.422433472.0 94 4907 .9 41 430 8:71.30399 9 4254303941'.9 430 8:71.9..990543941.487 83 83 7 ! ' ' VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .0390741749.30399 9 ! ! ' 83 ' 83 7 ' 83 ' .59071.38288438890220.943 ('04.04.944190948:71.0 70.43 90 .0 .943%8 89.7082....04.4389.433472. 10/5439 43903043390..0.3:.04.943 009 ! ! ! 7 '04.08 90.9..0 2.30399 9411:70 %0 .3 3 .422439.39.439.3/!.439.7 ! ! ! ! $:899:93 90 .3039.487 ' 83 ' ..439.9.:0 ! 41306:....422439.0!40797.88974:9059...439.990543941 .08 .73 %08!.9 41 8/3 8 90 .7.97.902039890.382 %:8147.43 90 .0 94 90 4907 8:71.9418/3#0.3 3 .0838/:0944554890/70.0.909003948:71.9#010773941:70 4254303941'.410.04.70 94 702.92:895.
3039 0 5439 .943 41 90 .9418/3 806:.//03/:2 .80 /70.422439..4.7 008 3 .39.95439!%0 30 890.0 41 90 00 20098 90 .5574.7.38288438890220.80.3/ .3/03/807090..439.4.908 ..7.7.941.3/ 8 /7.0419053432009890.990.8 .07.088 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .439.943 059.3.070.3:.03907841749.0 41 90 00 %0 5439890390780.8 039!8343.422439.3 90 00 3 .9438489.0415343%0.9 9 .3039 .//03/:2 .3039 05439 %0 30.94341.9 :70 848 90 94 0.04.3/ 90 /89.3039.93 3 .42243 9.422433472.9 41 8/3 %0.382 3 83 7 ! 3 83 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 742 06:..3039949094..08%8308..7.4.941.85.42243 9.83041..039078 %0 5343 8 749.3/.941908:24190 .943 41 90 .94170.943 ! ! '04.943 %0 5439 8 90 390780.439.80 /70.84343.99490 5439 41 390780.5439 039415..04.//03/:2.006:.59071.439..0890 039415.03%0 9459.9%0 039! 8343.9 .422439.0!40797.943 03.943 .439.7.3/ .3/9000 8/7.7..//03/:2.0 1742 90 543941 .7 .85.0 90 5343 890/7.94194 9009 038 070 90 ..3/903343390.9490574/:.08 20093 .
382 039415.04100003941! 7.//03/:2.48 SYW % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T .94170..59071.04153430039! ##./:841000039 7421:70 0349..941.30 #.9 097#.941.439.48 379.5574..48 # ..:0841 ! .7.7.48 ! # .0!40797.9 039415.95.07../:84153430039 #.3/! 379./:84159.088 7 ! ! ! ! 09:83413/90.07. 5.7.439.941..//03/:2..38288438890220.30! ! ! 83 # 83 ! . # .30/97../:84159.7.30/97.
006:.7. .98905.9 %0.38288438890220..48 7 83 039415..4170.943. !.439.! !8 343.90/ $2. 5.3/...088.8 .9 90 03/ 41 03. .02039 41 .5439439059.0890039415.7 41 9009 3 1:70 90 /7..7.41.3/ 5439 ! 8 43 90 8.48 ! ! ! #.088 .0 .02039%8.30 7.5574. # .48 ! ! 7 39079.3049.48 # 83 7.9 #.7. 7 ..7.30059.41.7.30/97.9 41 .997.941. 7 .0300. ! ! ..3 00 5343 ..98! !! 070905439! 84390/7.0 . ! 7.! !.91/203843841/7.48 # 83 !.7980.03 903 5.9 90 0333 41 03.439.382 379.59071.!! %0. 7 .8 070.7.8%0.7.70343 5.3/.941.7.98/.02039 9 90 /7.9 90 03/ 03.7./0/394945.7.7.941.439.41.439.7 8 /2038438 41 90 /7.48 7 83 7.0!40797. 7 .439.5574.48 # 83 #.30! ! ! 83 7 83 ! .03 00 9449 8 843 .30/ 03941..01742900333949003/ 41 03.088 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . # .48 7 .94170...4..:.!! 8343..7.0/.41.8.02039 9 8 843....94170. # .02039 .439.30/97.9 90 0333 41 03.70..3 00 49 ..20 59.5574.7.3 0 .41..48 7 83 %0.
439.41.!! ! ! ! .9 41 ..!! ! .5574.088 403941.! ! 7.41.439.48 ..7.7.9 7. 039 41 .9 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW ...! ! ! ..0!40797.439. 7.48 7.4170...9 .59071.41.48 7.48 .382 7421:70 0349.439.9 03941.38288438890220.9 7.48 .48 ! 039 41 5.48 ! .
439.70 .39009%05741041 90 0... ..7.759.9 47.7419009 83.3/ 90 3:2074190093.7 59. :917429006:.439.83.784507.30 24/:0 22 .7.41.9 7.948 9820.99490 .9403.94 2:89 0 70.9024706:091..439.9 4190920%00..48 .89430944941430002:8903.439. 94 43024/:0 $4:943 .4393:4:897.439.38288438890220.9 7.439.9.0!40797.43/5.:.439.250.9 9.:.759.39009/7. 8 070224/:0 (:207415.439.38288434124943 .41..9.784190093..439.3/ ..//03/:2 06:..74190093.9 .3920024709.382 :207415.439.439.784190093..9 .9 47.03 441900943905343 4419009430.439.9..439.9806:.94 3/..389..174206:.84 343 ..59071.78 8 3.90.349079449419080..784190093.8.97.439.97.439.907 9.944103941.9.948..784190093.97..43/0003.7.94 %03:207415.08.439...439.439.439.4:90 9 57088:70 . 6 2 74290.97.94 08 09003 .943 ..439.97.94 039 41 .3941 .9 7.94305.0 :207415.7.3430:930.3/ %0..03:207415.5343.03..439.41.3/80.8 .3 430 1 ..48 62 5..:.74190098.943 .9 7.8907..7 9 % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . .. 03941.7.98/0130/.07024709.:..90 039415.9.
..9 41 .9 03941.943 ./:841..439.//03/:2 .30 4/:0 //03/:2 2 22 24/ :0 22 0349..439.0 41 0.90/ 039415..0!40797.41.48 22 ..94 039 41 .48 7.07.9 7..7.07.7.439.9 7.9 009 039415..439.78. #. # ./:8410.7 #.7...941.382 !7088:70.03 7 2 9 22 3/59.439.7.48 83 . 41 .. 009 439.48 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .9 7. WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW 039 41 5./:8 41 .439. 03. ..9849.9 .0:8306:.70..7.99059.943 .3/0. 7 .7.9 %0./:8 41 .8 039 41 .//03/:2. 7 .0 41 5343 7.:.7.9 #.7.943 .7..0415343.//03/:2 22 #.97.30/174206:.03 # 2 % 22 4907.97..94 %0.48 # 7 83 .//03/:2 .941.59071.943 14790039415.. # .439.439..41. #.38288438890220./:84153438.948.//03/:2 22 4:8306:.48 22 7.:.7 59.0306:.439.941.439.
7.78 5 .30..439.70.4330.0 9490 .007 03 98 0.79. .9 ! 439.7/890 019 41 . 0...00/ 5.8 90 0 84508 94.7.19$2.9 7.78%00..:..3/0/0.7 59.7/80903/8.38288438890220..198 ..70 .7..79 . 3/03941./ 2039430/ 9. 8..759...41.3/ .70..02039..7.0. 22 8.0.0. 6 2 6 22 22 22 039 41 .0 9 8 .:78.78 .:7.990 0333419003.7 8 .78 :80/ 94 .0.543941.78 0.9 94 5. 22 3 ./ 8433901:703900.731:70 .198 .:.8 41 90 8.94 0.0 8.0/9009.78 90.0.0!40797..3 9009 3..9 90 0.70.0..1907.3/0/0.731:70 .8.43.08 41 8.59071.78 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . 0.94.019 .9 7.439.382 070.70 343 0.7.7488909009 :70848940.7 ..7 0.9.439.3/.30/ 94 90 .
71.198.8.3/%0708.78 %00.3.59.30 94.543941..7.03990098343.98.041908. %0 /89.8857.703.5407894097.439.3/343 390780.:.0 5 3 5 .930.3098/03490/ .59.782.0.0.938.8:70/ 5.. 53 %08479089/89.930.48 25479.7..78:80/94.0 20.78 %0.7 59./.38.39907281470...59.0.0.382 25479.39907281470.30%0.70:80/07082.308.98/03490/53%03472.3.7841857.8 09003 82.38288438890220...7421:70 0.909009.84343..80 .20. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3/ 474554890..70343.078059.0 94 90 .0.7 1.78%059. 5.084190.03990098343 .884331:700.78 $57.0.4330.08 41 .994343 5.0!40797.909003942.8.7./.41942.83472..59071.30/9490.59. 4797.00900382.:.8857.84343.382990/%0857.7 8343.304190 9009 472..841.98/03490/5475.0. .759.0.78 0.782:8908.20 7..
:.30 47857..20 .78 00.439.0 90 .7.9 3472..0 09003 90 94 8..0. %0857.1988343..7 7..382 8:71.209071470.30 84 9.90/347/0794 7395.439.:.93857.59..70 .3/.334554890/70.2014749008 :990.198 09 53 3472.3.8.0  .3/90948.59.03907/89.:.0/.4.0%08479089/89.7 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3.7.0/.90.192:890749.0..419090092:8908.:. 30.30 .19..7 4419009430. 5 5 % % 7 % % 0349.48 .390728410.08 .09490..48 .19.03 0.1470.7 7.7 7.94  5 3 5 . .! 5 53 .3.3/07 8 749.705.8414308. 5 3 5 .198 .943 :70848945.48 .3.3/ $500/410.3/078 0390.7.3/ $.19870.0.0.9438%0 3472.759.30890.0 147.30419090091470.759.1470.9:91 430 .08 .78%42. %0 8479089 /89.19 .9%88574..0.03907 /89..30974:.19.7 09:81789/0130908..90/974: 8.78.7.7.3.84149078.759.38288438890220.3/0.30%08.0/1107039 5708843147.439.0.3/078.7841857.30 03907/89. (470.7 %0857.03907 /89..00900390948.3/ !9.3/7.5439.0!40797.30419090091470.7.9907 .70 34 4307 5.59071.0 903 90 .5439.7..5.759.3.08419094.08 90 .3 94..8.7.00900390948.59.7.7.741857.
03907/89.0 05708843147.:. .. ! 5 53 .59071.7 5 3 5 .0 3/1470.20907 . 8. 6 % 6 5 % 47 % 6 (470..0!40797.3/ 3:207 41 9009 43 90 008 8.9 .0 .. 3 90728 41 59.0 5 6 5 % 47 % 6 %0.03907/89..7 59. SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T .48 . 0 .48 .3.382 3/1470.84 34 9.3.7.03 5 5.03 5 % 6 5 % 6 .38288438890220.7 0.7.0 /.7 0.
/090708:9.030.95439!%00. 5 3 % 6 .0. WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W . 5 53 53 5 .48 .943.78 :7084894857.78.30.9 304117.48  % % ! % % ..9.70.0430.3970.3/3208.783208 09 . .78..48 .48 .48 .48 ! .48 .7 #472.439.9430.78/7.48 5 3 % 6 .0.302.30/8:71..78/7.990543941.7. % 6 53 .7 03.0430.7 ...703.7890/7.03.48 5 3 % 6 . % 6 .147..7%080940.00.43900930 %4857.0!40797.43 903.48 .0 47.9439903472. 5 % 6 5 % 53 6 . .3/0.0.382 .59071..3900.4190857.38288438890220.. %0011. .439.147.
..382 ##08:9.0!40797.19.38288438890220.3970.9 .943. 070.59071..30 7 .439..3/ 7$.990543941.
94309003902.94341.48 .94 /0.83472.0 0.0.943#..3/3.7390/70.8418.70. %03472...78%03147.439.147. 1 .9.19 94. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % ..080.9 543941..948:71.0..7810/ .7/8908:71.9 ...9.7 .0 303472.930.19 94.9 90 543941.0.439. .93430.439..0 ..9 901443147.8418.884331:70 . 4 .3009003.7. # .9907083417.3009003..0 7 .8003417.8 84331:70 .7 %0 1443 147..30/8:71.147.08 0 .93 43 0. %0.04117.30/8:71. .943 09:81789.438/079. 479006:7:2410.0...943 0 3 # 0074990543941.438/07 90 06:7:2 41 0.7810/ .48 .3/94.3/3.0.
.9..78 03. .83472.08 41 90 2.9:..80 9070 8 .04117.9.70.941 70..147.041 17. 490%070..3/03.943 3 .943 3 0.439.9434124943 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .48 ..04117.98:71.7.3/94.9470.08/3 %0708:9.9845548909490/70..0901443147. .0803.70.94341.. %03472.080.0:93. 74206:.439..0410.. 438/07317.94341. # .9 8:71.382 472.93430..0 .30/..934390.370.884331:70 .0147...0 479006:7:2410.943 3 %08/38:71..943#.48 ..78.7/.48 .943 47.7/8908:71. .9438 .943 9903472...0.0.948:71.943 # 349024:3994908:71.0 90 147..0 .08390/70...3/ 0.9.0 7 ..94341.59071.147. 17.3/ ( .439. .990 543941.48 .3970..990 5439.304117..024943/43.0!40797..9434554890949...0.7390/70.943.943 09003 90 .9.9 %0..94908:71.439.93 0..48 .3/806:.38288438890220.48 .
48 . 0.943147.83.943 # .48 .479006:7:2410.94341 .. .3.0890147...943038.0706:70/917.147.38288438890220.3/ 147.439.9.39 147.4389.147.382 .0 7 .30/.30 9903472.0 .08 0 ..147.884331:70 / / VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW . 4..0!40797.7390/70.7%0 1443 147.9.39 %0 3472.7.990 543941.0 .0 41 17... # .4230 394 . # .943 3 .0. .59071. 70.. 830 708:9.0 # . %0.93430.438/079006:7:2410. 7.
48 ..944190147..03.479006:7:2410.943 .03907. .83.0.41857..48 .943 47. .943 # .0. 70.0!40797.0 .48 .04117. .943 .48 .0 .03.4389.48 .9438 .943949.7390/70.48 .3/ .78 . %0011. . .48 # .943 3 .. ..38288438890220.3903..3/ 147.147.. .0.7 .943038.59071.3/ 0.706:70/94:917. . :9.94341 .0174206:.3. .78.0  %0 3472.0 94:9 17.39 147. 830 708:9. 74206:.9 706:70/917.9438 ..0 9 17.48 .48 .30 9903472.4230 394 ..0 41 17.48 .0 47.9. 0.41857..0.48 .0 7 .70. # .382 %03472.0 # . .30/.48 .943 3 %0.48 .48 . .147.. 47. 7 11.
48 .0.4208 ..48 7 .006:. 03. .48 .48 7 . VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .4.9430..
.48 . 47 .48 .3//03423.48 7 .48 ) .48 .59071.48 .38288438890220..48 ) 8 .48 7 .48 .382 . 7 . 0 2.03.48 7 ..48 7 ! .48 .7 .0 .2:2 03 .:0 41 7 . .48 7 .48 . :953903:207. ) . 7 .48 . .48 7 .48 .487 . .487 . ) .947 .48 7 .0!40797.. 7 8 ! .48 ..48 7 .48 ..947.3/ 90 011. ) ) . .
48 .2:2:92.:041.2:2.. 7 2.
7 ( ( 7 7 .. 7  7 ! .48 .:041. 7 .48 ) $:899:9390.48 . 7 .
03008.03907/89.48 7 7 .48 7 .250%0.70.3/ /7.3.48 7 .94 8%0.:.03907/89..90.9.306:..48 7 .48 ! .557457.00 %00..0090039420830.48 7 7 . ( 2.77.48 7 .48 . 2. .38.3/17.3/ 3472.308.30 09003908.48 7 .03.48 ) .943 009902.3/ WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .3.943. 8 22 190/7.48 7 .0.78822.. 2.3.19 8 .30 903/0907230 :207419009430.7.759..20857.3/0.2:2011.
382 $4:943 .4190/7.0!40797.03.3041/7.38288438890220.94 8. 532217.3.59071.300857.0300 09 ( ..0 55742..03907/89.59..30/7.30 $57.30 7 472.90..19.943.0 220.03 11.77.
. .$57.0 09003948.300 09 %:2074190094390/7.48 6 .3041/7.19.0300 . :20741900943/7..3041/7.943 .$57.48 .3.48 % 8..300 %:2074190094390/7.0306:.03907/89.48 .48 . .48 ! 22 .48 7 % 6 . . . .0300 %0.198. VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .30 7 ( 7 .300 . 5 3 ) % % 6 6 .8 5 3 % 6 .03 :98.
.797.797.48 . 0. 9.59071.382990/1742. .0!40797.3/ 4254:3/0. .32.038.03907/89.3 2470 9.4190/7.943 41 94 47 2470 0.19 .48 22 6 .03 8.3. .48 .788.48 .19 8343.38288438890220.19 %0 0.797./7.0306:..48 ! .48 11.48 .77.48 .48 .550/ 94 20.9. . .797.48 .1994/7.30/ 3 8:.3 94 0.9 90 5407 8 97.48 .70 .48 .797.3/ /7.48 ..03. .0 &8306:.3 8..03.3%8907280307.438894185:7 0.943 009 5 3 % 6 .48 .0..3 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW $2500.0.38.943 . . .797.4190857.38 .0 %0011..78 3 208 09003 90 /7.382 3/ % % .423.8.3.78 %508410.0.78 .48 6 .3 .047857.
.19 0307.19 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3 0390.7.797.03 8.19 8 .4907 900.78/7. 3 1:70 .797.78%08.19 9 2.19 47 14407 %0 8. /7.797.198 .943 41 90 /7.34300.7.78..80.19 %0 8.908.208.8 43 430 0.84.310/70.943 82500..19 9700 .7 .788343.382990/1742.7940.78 4790./7.7708434300..0841908.943419080 940.8.7824:390/4390805.19849.78 8 343 .19 94 /7..382990/17420...797.797.78/7.9.3 8.38288438890220.7097000.3 31:70 .908.38343.797.805.07 4254:3/0.03 90 24943 41 14407 0 3 90 4554890 /70.208500/..7024:390/ 702.7043940.3 0. 9070.3 3.0!40797..70 0.30/38:.797.0 940.9 03 90 3:207 41 390720/.0.99080940.8 /7.78749.423.78.03 8.19.90 8.797.7 903 0.9034554890/70.19 8 343 .7 %0 .8843 1:70 .743.70 24709.0908..8041.0.31905407897.3/ 8.7 8.19843900.19%0.77.034714407%080940.59071.95407897.70.198.0841.19 .198.0.70 24:390/438. 82500.787/10/94908.90 8.0/ 390720/.9.0940.882500.39070 .78.07 070.8 90 8. 390720/.19 8 .70.382 $2500.9070..8 82500.7708 43 430 0.3390.943 41 9080 0..4254:3/0.797.34747/3..3 190.7 843.07070.890 . 0 3490/ 9.423.908.797.882500..
.:0410.7 4700 /7.382 :70848.7043908.897.4254:3/0.900.94 47 8500/7.797.038.3.07 94 90 8500/ 41 90 14407 8 343 .08900.90.797.38.04.94 41 90 8500/ 41 90 /7.9 7. 2080890.724:390/4390/7. 9879903..03 %070.349070.797.33.94 ' # $500/ 41 /7.797.38 %0 7.04.19824:390/.07 $500/ 41 /7.3/749.724:390/ 4390390720/.38288438890220.0!40797.94410.902..3.890 .97.19 4254:3/0.9441900.94 8343.797.59071.574..190.208.41908500/7.78.9 7.3 '04.8 '04..97..19 390390720/.94 47.797.3 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .9.0.8 .908.9908.208500/.7.
39.82500..00.30.59071.07 $500/ 41 14407 $500/7.3/0.7 .703.38288438890220.7410.78.7708434300.7 824.7832088903.8/7.3/ % 4419009430.03.03 00.7 $500/41/7.7940.80 :70 848.7 00.382 '04.7 00.82500.97..3..0!40797. 0.8003.7 824.3..80070.07 00.4.834554890 /70.94 .04.382990/17420.19.797.3 09 $500/41/7.8.797.07.797.03 4714407%0/7..35.94 :9907.8/7..78343.78343.944182500.97.3 3.97.7%05407 8 97.797.3 9020830.0780419073:207419009 % % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .030.943 '04.7 % 4419009430.94418500/841.4.890/7.3 789.944182500.7 $500/ 41 /7.
797.78.07.3/ $500/41/7.94 % % %070.03752 0390/7.:041900.90..7 .3.19 09 % 441900943/7.948343.0700 % 441900943390720/.7 0390390720/.07 390720/.3/14407.82500.3.078041908500/7.900.9.3/390720/.382 ($500/7.38288438890220.39430390720/.39430390720/.19 % % $2500.3 (%7.900.703208 009 % % $2.0!40797.43/..7 % 441900943144070.703208 009 % % VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW % .:0 $0..900.908.7.89097.59071...908.797.80 :70848.797.3/1440770850.
3090/70.9.00900390/7.3/ 70850.903908.3/144078.0!40797.8 /07%080/078.7843 0.3.9 7.70 343 .78 9 /0503/8 43 :543 90 3:207 41 9009 43 90 /7.94341749.07 .9 7.94 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW $500/7..0319070.9034554890/70.50390/89.4.25082500.797.0 90 .00907230 ..70:80/43 %4.07 $500/ 41 14407 4 41 9009 43 14407 4 41 9009 43 /7.943 0 800 9.198894470.0%00.20/70.59071.705.:041900.382 :95306:.80 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .33:207841390720/.9431903:207841390720/.9431903:207841390720/.90 008 /4 349 .9438 .9434180.943 4/800.908.7 70.43/0.03 752%% $500/7.700.70.797.3.908.43/0.198.07 4 41 9009 43 14407 7 $500/ 41 /7.07 742 06:.9 147:89940.7.04.198.07..3/14407749.724:390/43805.908.78 %0 /7.704// 070.94 8 3/0503/039 41 90 34 41 9009 43 390720/.3900.9441900.3/..943.78 752%0 3:207419009410.3/ %47/0.0.3/ 14407 8 90 390720/.78/7.3 %7...93.94 03.3/ 009 7 ( % % % % % % $500/ 41 14407 $500/ 41 /7.3.110.7.03 .198.90008 470.38288438890220.43889841940.797.94 4 41 9009 43 /7.78.94341749.890749.70.90 008 47 0.9 90 .78749.3 $500/419080.07.719017890. $4:943 .07 $500/ 7.7%08500/4117890.04.198 %08.990 .78 6:.
:0 $500/4180.944182500.94 %7.7 8749...70 .3.80.24:390/43805.07.70.797.94 % % 07090.03 $500/7.03/ $500/7.908.25082500.94 % % %7.7.9.3/.3.4388984197000.3 70.4.38..93.797.3/%.94341749.0!40797.03 ( $500/7.9434114407 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .:0841%.9441900.78 0.:0 $500/ 7.797.78 .0%00..8500/41 752%034419009430...3.7814407%00.59071.705.19.943.7890/7.8843 31:70%08.382 $500/7.3/8500/41749.3/ 70850.43/0.9.3/0.38288438890220.198.94 7 ( .7.7 7 52 $500/7.
90 3 90 8.198 0.94 70.20 /70.94 3 ...78 7/ 10/ 94 9 84 9.97.4254:3/0.94 $500/ 41 14407 70.59071.014407749..07 $500/ 41 14407 % % 4 41 9009 43 14407 4 41 9009 43 /7.38288438890220.908.78 20808990/7.94 &8306:.7 97.78 .07 $500/ 7. 8250 0.9441.9434114407 $500/ 41 /7.797.198 .78 90 /7.90 0.90 8.3/ % $500/7.797.0 90 8.90.3 9 390720/.94 $500/ 41 /7.943 $500/ 41 /7.943 009 $500/ 7.4.94341749.382 $4:943 752 % %.9431903:207841390720/.3 3.943.78 .0!40797.07 $500/ 41 14407 7 52 $500/ 7.784// 03.07 $500/ 7.19843430 03:2070.3..99080 94 0..4254:3/0.8 843 3 1:70 90 390720/.80 '04.07 .20 8500/ 30 41 9080 94 0.07.704//03.0903:20741390720/.3/8500/41749.3/904907914407 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .3/ 14407 749.094008 47 0.908.
8 /7.8 $500/ 41 14407 $500/ 41 /7.7 070.8 90 4:95:9 8.7.19 8 .19 8 24:390/.4208.07 .4254:3/0.208.78.4.19 390 390720/.078 !7 4/:.8 0.03752%00.0 0.3089.4330.3/ 009 % % % % :9 .59071.3/70850.78 .70 24:390/ 43 90 8.7024:390/43908.006:.2503.90/940.9 90 8.090.19 94 4:95:9 8.70 24:390/ 43 90 8.78 .7 % 4419009430.24947 8. 2080890.908.3/ .90/ 94 0.4208.19 8 ..384331:70 905407897.7%00.19 03.080..7/7.797.19%0249478749.0 90 .90 .3/ 0.7 % 4419009430.908.20 8500/ .7 $500/41/7.08900..20 8.9438 .7 03.7/7.07 !7 4/:.9 41 9009 43 144078 .7 4700 /7.78.08900.0!40797.08 0.7 90701470 % % :95306:..7 070.19 %0 24947 8.724:390/4390390720/.38288438890220.908.20 390720/.382 31:70 900.78 .90/.9 VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW .943.3/ $500/410.3/0.078 070.03 47 14407 8.3/.9.80.9 41 9009 43 /7.4208 .19 0.08 0.8 90 .8 0.78 .349070.70 % % % % 8 0.4.0 06:.7 /7.943 0.4330.19 09 % 441900943/7.7 90701470 % % 0.382990/1742.7 /7.93.7 24:390/43/7.3/ 749.07 % 4419009430.814407803.
3/.943 09 8500/414:95:98.9433/90/70.80/70.4.94341749.80/70.7847144078%00.943%00.19.4.20/70.943 0 3.38288438890220.94341904:95:98.78.903908.4.030.3/ .90/4:95:98.7 &839070.03 752 % % % % 7421:7098.00.78 0/7.0 0.3/.943%00.703.80 /70.943410.19.943 0.19 (70.9 41 9009 43 /7.78.7 8 .4.078 070.80/70.78.4.0!40797.943 0.0..7749.0304 0.07 % % !7 4/:.90390/70.943414:95:98.7 03.090 749.208.78749.943 $500/ 41 14407 $500/ 41 /7.0..382 752390.7749.39.7 8 3 208 9 0.9 41 9009 43 144078 7 ( % % 7 52 WU`a^WZ[`W_T SYW VSZbW^_` È[ÈY^Ua`a^SWZYVW\`ÈY W .78.90.80/70.79.80.7 4419009 $4:943 .30.19%03441900943 0.59071.7024:390/43908.4.70 3 .70/7.3/03.9034554890/70.90 3 4554890 /70.943%00.70/7.783 20890.4330.80/70.39.078 !7 4/:.943 0 .933..19 478500/410.7 749.
f ! 250 N / cm 2 Value of Q ! 0.25 Let us first find the maximum tension and centrifugal tensions in the belt.22). Using equation (5. maximum tension (Tm) is given by: Tm ! f .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Maximum permissible stress.
TC ! m v 2 Where m ! mass of belt per meter length m ! V Volume of belt of 1m length m ! V ( area of belt length ) m ! V . Centrifugal tension (TC) is given by equation (5.Area of belt ! f b t Tm ! 250 20 0.19).8 ! 4000 N .
b t L m! 1 .
20 0.8 100 kg 1000 .
6 kg Substituting this value in the above equation (i).33 2 ! 1284 N But we know that. we get T1 ! e Q U ! e 0. Tm ! T1 TC T1 ! Tm TC ! 4000 1284 ! 2716 N Let T2 ! Tension on the slack side of the belt. Using equation (5.88 ! 2.056 2.056 T2 @ T2 ! T1 2716 ! ! 1321N 2.6 28. P! . 3 Length of 1m ! 100 cm m ! 1.252. we get TC ! 1.10).056 Now the maximum power transmitted is given by.
T1 T2 v ! .
2716 1321 28.33 ! 39. 1000 1000 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 30 .52kW .
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Example: A belt of density 1 gm/cm3has a maximum permissible stress of 250 N/cm2. Density of belt. T1 ! 2.2 cm if the ratio of the tight side to slack side tension is 2.0 T2 Let us find the mass of 1m length of the belt and also the maximum tension in the belt. b ! 20cm t ! 1. f ! 250 N / cm 2 Ratio of the tension. Let m ! Mass of one meter length of belt m ! V Volume of belt of 1m length m ! V ( area of belt length ) m ! V . Thickness of belt. Determine the maximum power that can be transmitted by a belt of 20 cm x 1. Solution: given Width of belt.2cm V ! 1gm / cm ! 1 kg / cm 3 1000 Maximum permissible stress.
b t 100 m! 1 .
2 100 kg 1000 .20 1.
3 Length of 1m ! 100 cm m ! 2.22). Tm ! Maximum Tension Tm ! .40 kg Using equation (5.
Now for maximum power transmitted.4 Now maximum power transmitted is given by equation.2 ! 6000 N . the velocity of the belt is given by equation (5.86m / s 3m 3 2.23) as v! Tm 6000 ! ! 28. P! . Max. stress Area of cross sec tion of belt Tm ! 250 b t ! 250 20 1.
T1 T2 v 1000 (i) Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 31 .
T2 and v in equation (i). we get P! . 1 TC ! Tm 3 Substituting this value in equation (ii). we get 1 Tm ! T1 Tm 3 1 2 T1 ! Tm Tm ! 6000 ! 4000 N 3 3 But @ T1 !2 T2 T2 ! (Given) T1 4000 ! ! 2000 N 2 2 Substituting the values of T1.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Let us find the values of T1 and T2 We know that Where TC ! T1 ! Tm ! T1 TC Centrifugal tension. and Tight side tension But for maximum power transmission.
In case of belts and ropes. These methods are mostly used when the two shafts are having long center distance.2. Introduction The motion from one shaft to another shaft may be transmitted with belts. ropes and chains. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 32 .18kW . But if the distance between the two shafts is small. But gear drive is a positive and smooth drive.4000 2000 28. 1000 5. the drive is not positive. then gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to another. which transmits exact velocity ratio. The gear is defined as toothed element which is used for transmitting rotary motion from one shaft to another. There is slip and creep which reduces velocity ratio.1.2. Gears 5.86 ! 57.
e. their tangential velocities at the contact surfaces should be same. Friction wheels The friction wheel 1 is keyed to the rotating shaft whereas the friction wheel 2 is keyed on the shaft wheel is to be rotated. When the friction wheel 1 rotates.12 can be used. no relative motion between the two surfaces of the friction wheels). the friction wheels as shown in figure 5. Hence the same motion can be transmitted easily as explained below: For no slip of the two surfaces (i. having sufficient rough surfaces and pressing against each other. There will be no slip between the two wheels for small power transmission. it will rotate the friction wheel 2 in the opposite direction as shown if figure 5.12.e. Or Or V1 ! V2 [1 r1 ! [ 2 r2 2TN 1 2TN 2 r1 ! r2 60 60 N 1 r2 ¨ d ¸ ! © or ! 2 ¹ © N 2 r1 ª d1 ¹ º . These wheels are mounted on the two shafts.12. Fig 5. i.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 From small power transmission.
r1 ! Radius of wheel 1.p.p.25 Where N 1 ! Speed of friction wheel 1 in r. and Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 33 . 3 V1 ! [1 r1 V2 ! [ 2 r2 2TN ¸ ¨ ¹ ©3 [ ! 60 º ª Or 5.m. N 2 ! Speed of friction wheel 2 in r.m.
slip occurs. Friction wheels are used for small power transmission. Fig 5. The motion between the two friction wheels is rolling whereas the motion between the gear is sliding. (iii).25). it is clear that if two wheels are rotating without slip then the speeds the two wheels will be inversely proportional to their radii. For large power by friction wheels. which will be fit in to the corresponding recesses will much with each other and slip between them will be prevented.13 The friction wheel with teeth cut on it is known as gear wheel or gear. From equation (5. 5. In order to prevent the slip the two surfaces. a number of projections (known as length) are provided on the periphery of the wheel 1. the wheel 2 will rotate in anti clockwise direction. Classification gears The following are the important classification of gears: Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 34 . Hence definite motion can not be transmitted. (ii).2. The friction wheels are rotating without slip and tooth gears are identical.2. If the wheel 1 rotates in clockwise direction.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 r2 ! Radius of wheel 2. Note (i).
Hence spur gears are having line contact.14 are known as spur gears. In spur gears.14 (b). Classification based on the position axes of the shafts The axes of two shafts between which motion is to be transmitted may be (a) Parallel shafts (b) Intersecting. and (c) Nonparallel and nonintersecting (a). parallel shafts The following are the main types of gears to join parallel shafts (i) (ii) (iii) (i) Spur gears Helical gears Double helical gears Spur gear The gears used to connect two parallel shafts and having straight teeth parallel to the axes of the wheel as shown in figure 5.14 Spur gears Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 35 . Figure 5. The inner wheel having external gears (smaller gear) is known as pinion. the internal teeth are formed over the outer wheel and external teeth are formed over the inner wheel.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 1. the contact occurs across a line.14 (a) the gears have external teeth on the outer surfaces and the two shafts rotate in opposite direction. Fig 5. The two shafts will rotate in the same direction. In figure 5.
one having a righthand helix and the other a lefthand helix is known as double helical gears as shown in figure 5. In helical gears.15 Helical gears (iii) Double helical gears A pair of helical gears secured together. The two matting gears have the same helix angle.15 are known as helical gears. In helical gears each teeth is helical in shape.16.16. but have teeth opposite hands. The double helical gear is known as herringbone gear if the left and the right inclinations of the double helical gears meet at a common apex and there is no groove in between as shown in the figure 5. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 36 . Figure 5. This pair is mounted on one shaft and the similar other pair (having teeth of opposite hand) is mounted on other parallel shaft is to be connected.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (ii) Helical gears The gears used to connect two parallel shafts and having teeth inclined (or curved) to the axes of the shafts as shown in the figure 5. the contact occurs at a point of curved teeth at the beginning of engagement and afterwards extends along a diagonal line across the teeth.
18.17 and 5.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5. If the teeth on the gears are straight radial to the point of intersection of shaft axes then gears are known as straight bevel.17 intersecting shaft Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 37 .16 Double helical gear (b) Intersecting shaft The gears used to connect two intersecting shafts are known as bevel gears. Fig 5. But if teeth are inclined then gears are known as helical bevel (or spiral bevel) as shown in figure 5.
For medium velocity gears. and (c) High velocity gears. 3. the gears are classified as: (a) Straight (b) Inclined and (c) Curved The spur gears have straight teeth. are known as skew bevel gears or skew spiral gears. If the velocity of the gears is less than 2 m/s. they are known as low velocity gears. Classification based on the position of teeth on the wheel According to the position of the teeth on the wheel. the gears are classified as: (a) Low velocity gears (b) Medium velocity gears.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 38 . the velocity of the gears are between 3 m/s and 15 m/s. Classification based on the peripheral velocity of the gears According to the peripheral velocity. the gears are known as high velocity (or high speed) gears. Nonparallel and nonintersecting shafts The gears used to connect two nonparallel and nonintersecting shafts. 2.18 Bevel gears (c). helical gears have inclined teeth (which are inclined to the wheel rim surface) and spiral gears have curved teeth over the rim surface. but if the velocity of gears are more than 15 m/s.
The smaller wheel is known as pinion whereas the larger wheel is called spur wheel. then the gears are known. external gears as shown in figure 5.19 Rack and pinion The straight line gear is known as rack (rack is shown in figure 5. Classification based on type of gearing (a) External gear (b) Internal gear and (c) Rack and pinion If the gears of the two shafts mesh externally with each other.19. The rack and pinion combination converts rotary motion in to linear motion or vice ±versa.14(a). the two gears mesh internally with each other and the shafts rotate in the same direction as shown in figure 5. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 39 .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 4.14 (b). For external gears.19 (a)) and the circular wheel is called pinion. The smaller wheel is known pinion whereas the larger wheel is known as annular wheel. Figure 5. then the gears are known as rack and pinion as shown in figure 5. For internal gears. If the gear of a shaft meshes with the gears in a straight line (a wheel of infinite radius is known as a straight line). the two shafts rotate in opposite direction.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5. Definition of the terms used in gears Figure 5.3.19 (a) Rack 5. Fig 5.20 the profile of a gear along with important terms Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 40 .2.20 shows the profile of a gear along with important terms. which are used in the study of the gears.
Circular pitch (pc): it is the distance measured along the circumference of the pitch circle from a point on one tooth to a corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.29(a) (vi) The addendum. (ii) (iii) Pitch point: it is the point of contact of two pitch circles of the mating gears. It is denoted by m. we get pc p d ! T 5. It is denoted by pd pd ! T D 5. It is also known as pitch diameter. Module is the reciprocal of diameteral pitch.29 m is generally expressed in millimeter. Its value is generally one module.27).27 If we multiply equation (5. It is denoted by µa¶. It is denoted by pc. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 41 .26 Where D ! diameter of pitch circle T ! Number of teeth p c ! Circular pitch (iv) The diameteral pitch (pd): it is equal to the number of teeth per unit length of pitch circle diameter.26) and (5. It is the radial distance of the tooth above pitch circle. hence m! D T 5. Equation (5.26) can be written as: pc ! T D ! m T T 5. hence Circular pitch ! TD T or p c ! TD T 5.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 The terms are defined as: (i) The pitch circle diameter: it is the diameter of a circle which by pure rolling action would produce the same motion as the toothed gear wheel. It will be equal to the pitch circle circumference divided by the number of teeth on the wheel.28 (v) Module (m): it is defined as the length of the pitch circle diameter per tooth.
(x) (xi) (xii) Face of the teeth: it is that part of tooth surface which is above the pitch circle. (xvi) Clearance: The radial height difference between the addendum and dedendum is known as clearance. (xix) Rack: A gear wheel of the infinite diameter is known as rack as shown in figure 5. 20 º ª (viii) Addendum circle: it is the circle which passes through the top of the teeth. (ix) Dedendum circle: it is the circle which passes through the bottom of the teeth. Diameter of addendum circle ! p.157 modules or ©1 ¹ module. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 42 .c. (xiii) Path of approach: It is the path of contact from the beginning of the engagement to the pitch point of the two mating teeth. Diameter of dedendum circle ! p. (xv) Pressure angle: It is the angle which the common normal to the two teeth at the point of contact makes with the common tangent to the two pitch circle at the pitch point. hence G! T t 5. (xvii) Profile: The curve forming face and flank is known as profile. Its value is T ¸ ¨ generally 1.30 Where T ! Number of teeth on the gear t ! Number of teeth on the pinion and G ! Gear ratio. Flank of the tooth: it is that part of the tooth surface which is below the pitch circle. Hence. It is denoted by G.157m m ! 0.d 2 1.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (vii) The dedendum: it is the radial distance of the tooth below the pitch circle.157 m . clearance 1. (xiv) Path of recess: It is the path of contact from the end of the engagement of two mating gears. (xx) Gear ratio (G): the ratio of number of teeth on the gear to that on the pinion is known as gear ratio.19(a). (xviii) Pinion: It is the smaller and usually the driving gear of the pair mated gear. Path of contact: It is the curve traced by the point of contact of the two mating teeth from the beginning to the end of engagement of the two teeth.d 2 m .157 m .c.
! 1 4 Let T1 ! No. T2 ! 60 N 2 ! 240r. Speed of driven gear. m ! 8mm V .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (xxi) Velocity ratio (V.R. Module. ! [2 [1 N2 N1 d2 d1 T1 T2 V .R.R.m. Also 4 calculate the pitch line velocity.R): The ratio of the angular velocity of the follower to the angular velocity of the driving gear is known as velocity ratio. ! V . of teeth on the driver gear. p.R. The two spur gears have a velocity ratio of . ! (xxii) Pressure line (or line of action): The common normal at the point of contact of the mating gears is known as pressure line (or line of action). Solution: Given Number of teeth on driven gear.m.R. Hence velocity ratio. Example: Determine the number of teeth and speed of the driver if the driven gear has 60 teeth 1 of 8mm module and rotates at 240 r. It is denoted by V. ! V . Velocity ratio. N 1 ! Speed of driver gear Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 43 . Actually the forces is transmitted from the driving tooth to the driven tooth along this line. ! Angular velocity of follo er Angular velocity of driver V .p. This is also the line from the pitch point to the point of contact of two gears.R. V .R.
31 . [ 2 ! 2TN 2 [1 ! 2TN 1 ¨ d N ¸ ©3 Td1 N 1 ! Td 2 N 2 3 1 ! 2 ¹ © d 2 N1 ¹ ª º ¨ ¸ ©3 p c ! Td 1 ! Td 2 3 d 1 ! N 2 ¹ © T1 T2 d2 N1 ¹ ª º 5.
which divides the center distance inversely as the ratio of angular velocities.4.m.0318 m / s 5.R.31).R. T2 ! 4 60 ! 15.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Using the equation (5. Also V .2. the body 1 is rotating clockwise with angular velocity [1 and the body 2 is rotating anticlockwise with angular velocity [ 2 . p. Let tt is the common tangent to the curves at point C and nn is the common normal to the two surfaces at point C. ! T1 T2 @ T1 ! V .R. ! N 2 T1 ! N 1 T2 1 N2 ! 4 N1 N 1 ! 4 N 2 ! 4 240 ! 960 r. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 44 . This velocity will be B to the line AC and will be equal to [1 AC .21. Let V1 ! linear velocity of point C when point is assumed to be on the surface of the body 1. Pitch line velocity (Vp) is given by V p ! [1 r1 or [ 2 r2 Vp ! Vp ! Vp ! 2TN 1 d1 60 2 2TN 1 mT1 60 2 2T 960 8 15 60 2 V p ! 6031 .8mm / s ! 6. Let the two curved bodies 1 and 2 are rotating about the centers A and B as shown figure 5. The two bodies are contact at point C. we get V . Law of gearing or condition for constant velocity ratio of gear wheels Law of gearing states that the common normal to the two surfaces at the point of contact intersects the line joining the centers of rotation of the two surfaces at a fixed point.
As V2 is perpendicular BC hence BC V2 =900. J ! Angle made by V1 with normal nn. This velocity will be B to the line BC and will be equal to [ 2 BC . But relative motion between the surfaces along the common normal nn Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 45 .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 V2 ! Linear velocity of point C when point C is assumed to be on the surface of the body 2. one surface may slide relative to the other along a common tangent tt. Now DCB ! 180 BCV2 U ! 180 90 U ! 90 U Similarly as V1is perpendicular to AC. Join the two centers A and B which cuts the common normal at point P. From B draw BD B on nn and from A draw AE B on nn. hence ACV1=900. Fig 5.21 Let U ! Angle made by V2 with common normal nn. Now ACE ! 180 ACV1 J ! 180 90 J ! 90 J In (BDC. DCB = 900 . ACE = 900 @ @ DBC = U CAE = If the two surfaces are to remain in contact.U In (AEC.
Component of V1 along normal nn ! V1 cos J Component of V2 along normal nn ! V2 cos U @ Relative motion along normal nn ! V1 cos J V2 cos U For proper contact.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 must be zero to avoid separation of the two surfaces or the penetration of the two surfaces in to each other. Relative motion along normal = zero Or Or Or V1 cos J V2 cos U ! 0 V1 cos J ! V2 cos U .
[1 AC cos J ! .
[ 2 BC cos U .
3 V1 ! [1 AC & [ 2 BC Or .
[1 AC AE ! .
if the point P is fixed point (i. But this ratio of angular velocities must be constant for all positions of the wheel.32 The above equation shows that the common normal to the two surfaces at the point of contact divides the line joining the centres of rotation in the inverse ratio of the angular velocities. cos J ! AC BC º ª Or Or [1 AE ! [ 2 BD [1 BD ! [ 2 AE [1 BP ! [ 2 AP 5.[ 2 BC BD AC BC AE BD ¸ ¨ & in (BDC . Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 46 . cos U ! ¹ ©3 In (ACE . pitch point).e. This will be.
33 5. we get AP [1 DP ! [ 2 PE Or [1 PE ! [1 DP 5. Velocity of sliding If the two surfaces are to remain in contact.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Thus for constant angular velocity ratio of the two surfaces. Referring to figure 5.21.32).21. the common normal at the point of contact must pass through the pitch (fixed point) on the line joining the center of rotation.2. The velocity of sliding is the velocity of one surface relative to the other surface along the common tangent at the point of contact. one surface may slide relative to other along the common tangent tt of figure 5. The (s BDP and AEP are similar BP DP ! AP PE Substituting the value BP of in equation (5.5. Component of V1 along tangent tt ! V1 sin J Component of V2 along normal nn ! V2 sin U (ve sign is due to opposite direction) @ Velocity of sliding = Relative velocity between two surface along tangent tt ! V1 sin J (V2 cosU ) ! V1 sin J V2 cosU ! . This statement is the law of gearing.
[1 AC sin J .
[ 2 BC sin U .
V 3 1 ! [1 AC & V2 ! [ 2 BC Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 47 .
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 ! .
[1 AC EC DC ! .
sin J ! AC BC º ª ! [1 EC ! [ 2 DC ! [1 . sin U ! ¹ ©3 In (ACE .[ 2 BC AC BC EC DC ¸ ¨ & in (BDC .
PC PE ! [ 2 .
DP PC .
3 ! [1 PC [ 2 PC EC ! PC PE & DC ! DP PC ! [1 PC [1 PE [ 2 DP [ 2 PC .
3 Velocity of sliding ! .
5. The contact of two teeth begins where the addendum circle of the wheel meets the common tangent (i.2.e. The pinion is rotating in clockwise direction and is driving the wheel in anticlockwise direction.6. Length of path of contact Figure 5.e. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 48 . The two pitch circles meeting at point P. The line EF gives the length of path contact.33 [1 PE ! [ 2 DP 5. This line is also known as line of action. pitch point). Hence the pinion is the driver and the wheel is driven. point E) and ends where the addendum circle of the pinion meets the common tangent (i. The length EP is known as path of approach whereas length PF is known as path of recess. point F). The point E is the intersection of the common tangent and addendum circle of the wheel.22 shows the two gear wheels in contact. The line CD is the common tangent to the two base circles.34 The above equation shows that the velocity of sliding is equal to the product of the sum of the angular velocities and the distance from the point of contact to the point of intersection of the common normal and the lining joining the centers of rotation (i. with A and B as centers. The point F is the intersection of common tangent and addendum circle of pinion.[1 [ 2 PC From equation (5.e.
length BE From figure 5.22.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5.e.e.22 Length of path of contact Let r = Radius of pitch circle of pinion i.e. we know that Length of path of contact = path of approach + path of recess Or EF ! EP PF EF ! . length PA R = Radius of pitch circle of wheel i. length of BP ra = Addendum circle radius of pinion i. length AF Ra = Addendum circle radius of wheel i.e.
ED PD .
ED ! .CF CP Let us now find the values of ED. PD. PD ! BP sin J ! R sin J BD ! BP cos J ! R cos J (i) In right angled triangle BED. CF and CP. In right angled triangle BPD.
BE 2 .
BD 2 ! Ra2 R 2 cos 2 J .
3 BD ! R cos J Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 49 .
CP ! PA sin J ! r sin J CA ! PA cos J ! r cos J .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 In right angled triangle ACP.
CF ! . 3 PA ! r In the right angled triangle FCA.
AF 2 .
CA 2 CF ! ra2 r 2 cos 2 J Path of approach EP ! ED PD 2 EP ! Ra R 2 cos 2 J R sin J 5. 5.34 (c) .34 (b) Path of recess PF ! CF CP PF ! ra2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J Length of path of contact.
R EF ! .
2. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 50 . Similarly is dimensions of the driving wheel (pinion) are known. The arc P¶P is known as arc of approach and arc PP´ is known arc of recess. the driving wheel both at the beginning of engagement with the driven wheel tooth is shown as GH whereas at the end engagement it is shown as FL.35 The above equation gives the length of path of contact. 5. path of recess can be obtained. Length of arc of contact The arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a pair of teeth. If dimensions of driven wheel are given then path of approach can be calculated.7. The arc of contact is P¶PP´ where the point P¶ is on the driving wheel pitch circle at the beginning of engagement and point P´ is on the same pitch circle at the end of engagement. arc P¶P and arc PP´.e. This arc of contact is divided into two parts i.23. R EF ! 2 a 2 a R 2 cos 2 J R sin J ra2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J R2 2 cos J R sin J ra2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J 5. In figure 5.
we know that. Arc of approach Arc of recess Now length of arc of contact ! ArcP' P ! ! ArcPP" ! EP cos J FP cos J ! ArcP' P ArcPP" ! ! EP FP EP FP ! cos J cos J cos J EF cos J Length of contact cos J 5.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 From figure 5.35(a) ! .36 5.23.
3 EF ! length of path of contact Fig 5.23 length of arc of contact Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 51 .
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 5. Solution: Given No. t ! 23 T ! 57 Page 52 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB .36(a) ! EF cos J But from the equation (5.8. The gears will operate more quietly if contact ratio is large. Number of pair of teeth in contact (or contact ratio) The number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of length of arc of contact to the circular pitch. at least one tooth of one wheel must be in contact with another tooth of the second wheel. The profile of the gears is involute with pressure angle 200. Arc of contact and The contact ratio when a pinion having 23 teeth drives having teeth 57. Hence. the number of teeth in contact at any time will be more than one but will never be more than two. No. If contact ratio lies between 1 and 2. Calculate: (i) (ii) (iii) Length of path contact. If contact ratio is 1. Number of pairs of teeth in contact (or contact ratio) ! Lenght of arc contact Circular pitch 5.2.37 From the continuous transmission of motion. of teeth on gear.6. this means that one pair of teeth is always in contact and second pair of teeth is in contact 60% of the time.35(a)) length of arc of contact is equal to And circular pitch from equation (5. module 8mm and addendum equal to one module. of teeth on the pinion. Example .29 (a)) is Where m = module @ Number of pairs of teeth in contact ! EF 1 cos J Tm pc ! T m 5. Hence number of pairs of teeth in contact (which is also known as contact ratio) must be greater than one.
we get Length of path of contact 2 ! Ra R 2 cos 2 J ra2 r 2 cos 2 J .35) for the length of path of contact.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Pressure angle Module. r! m t 8 23 ! ! 92 mm 2 2 And pitch circle radius of gear is given by. Addendum J ! 20 0 m ! 8mm ! 1 mod ule ! 8mm We know that the pitch circle radius of pinion is given by. R! m T 8 57 ! ! 228mm 2 2 Now the radius of addendum circle of pinion and gear are calculated ra ! Radius of addendum circle of pinion ra ! r addendum ! 92 8 ! 100 mm Ra ! Radius of addendum circle of gear Ra ! R addendum ! 228 8 ! 236 mm (i) Length of path of contact Now using equation (5.
R r sin J ! 236 2 228 2 cos 2 20 0 100 2 92 2 cos 2 20 0 .
33mm cos 20 0 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB .96 50.44 ! 39. as Length of arc of contact ! (iii)The contact ratio The contact ratio is given by equation (5. we get Contact ratio ! Length of arc contact Circular pitch Page 53 Length of path of contact cos J ! 39.36 a).36 a).78mm (ii) Arc of contact Length of arc of contact is obtained from equation (5.228 92 sin 20 0 ! 98.36).26 109. hence using equation (5.78 ! 42.
Helical gears are already shown in the figure 5. as the helix slopes towards the left of viewer when this gear is viewed parallel to the axis of the shaft.33mm ! 1. In the helical gears. Helical gears In article 5. The gear 1 in figure 5. Similarly gear 2 in figure 5.68 say 2.2. the contact occurs at a point of curved teeth at the beginning of the engagement and afterwards extends along a line across the teeth.24 shows two helical gears. it is already mentioned that the gears used to connect two parallel shafts and having teeth inclined to the axes of shafts are known helical gears.13mm = 42.13mm 5.2. Fig 5.15.24 (b) is a righthanded helical gear.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Where circular pitch And length of arc of contact p c ! T m ! T 8mm ! 25.2.33 mm 3 Contact ratio ! Length of arc contact Circular pitch ! 42.24 (a) is a lefthanded helical gear.9.24 Helical gears Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 54 . 25. Figure 5.
Circular pitch (pc).Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 5.25. Spiral gears The gears used to connect two nonparallel and nonintersecting shafts are known as spiral gears. Helix angle. The normal pitch of two mating gears must be same. is known as helix angle. Important terms for helical gears 1. The angle.38 Fig 5. to which the teeth are inclined to the axis of a gear. it is also known as axial pitch or transverse pitch. The pitch Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 55 . The distance measured parallel to the axis between similar faces of adjacent teeth is known as circular pitch.2. The spiral gears may be of the same hand or opposite hand.10. we have p n ! p c cos J as shown in figure 5. It is denoted by p or pc. The shortest distance between similar faces of the adjacent teeth is known as normal pitch.2. 3. 2. There is a point of contact between two mating gears of spiral gears.23. From figure 5. Important terms for helical gears 5. It is denoted by pn. They are used where small power is to be transmitted. It is denoted by teeth. Helix angle is also known as spiral angle of the 5.25.11. Normal pitch (pn).
normal pitch in terms of helix angle (or spiral angle) and circular pitch is given by. then they have a point contact only. But if one cylinder is rotated through same angle. Figure 5. Speed of gear 1 and 2. The spiral angle of the teeth for gear 1. but the circular pitch will be different. Shaft angle. Let us first define the shaft angle. of teeth on gear 1 and 2. they have a line contact.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 surfaces are cylindrical. The shortest distance between the two shafts gives the center distance for a pair of spiral gears. Expression for center distance. Circular pitch for gear 1. Pitch circle diameter for gear 1 and 2.e. The normal pitch of the teeth must be same for both wheels. Two mating spiral gears have a point contact. Let pn ! normal pitch The spiral angle of the teeth for gear 1. No. When the axes of the two cylinders are parallel. The shaft angle is the angle through which the axis of one shaft must be rotated in order to bring it parallel to the axis of other shaft and the two shafts revolving in opposite directions. This is proved by having two cylinders.26 shows two pairs of spiral gears (i. Circular pitch for gear 2. p n ! p c cos E @ For gear 1. The shortest distance between the two shafts is known as center distance between the two shafts. p n ! p1 cos E 3 p1 ! pn cos E Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 56 . so that their axes are no longer parallel. Center distance ! T1 N 1 ! T2 N 2 E! F! p1 ! p2 ! T1 & T2 ! D1 & D2 ! N1 & N 2 ! C! U! G ! Gear ratio We know that. gear 1 and gear 2).
p n ! p 2 cos F 3 p2 ! We also know that circular pitch in terms of pitch circle diameter and number of teeth on the wheels. we have Fig 5. we have p1 ! TD1 p T or D1 ! 1 1 T T And for gear 2.39 @For gear 1.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 pn cos F And for gear 2.26 expression for center distance TD 2 p T or D 2 ! 2 2 T T p2 ! The center distance (c) is given by D D2 c! 1 ! 2 p1 T1 p 2 T2 T T 2 Page 57 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB . is given by pc ! TD T 5.
2. angle made by the resultant reaction with the normal Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 58 .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 p1 T1 p 2 T2 pn T pn T ! 1 2 2T 2T cos E 2T cos F 2T ¨ ©3 © ª p1 ! pn pn . Fig 5. p2 ! cos E cos F ¸ ¹ ¹ º c! c! p n T1 « 1 T » 1 2¼ ¬ 2T cos E cos F T1 ½ p n T1 2T « 1 » 1 ¬ cos E cos F G ¼ ½ c! ¨ ©3 © ª ¸ T2 ! G¹ ¹ T1 º 5.27 Two spiral gears in mesh Let Fa = Axial force on gear A Fb = Axial force on gear B RN = Normal reaction at the point of contact = Angle of friction i. The efficiency of the spiral gears Figure 5. Hence gear A is the driving gear and gear B is driven gear. The gear A is driving the gear B.18. These two gears are in contact along the inclined surface CC (or along teeth line).e.27 shows two spiral gears A and B in mesh at point P.40 c! p n T1 « 1 G » ¬ cos E cos F ¼ 2T ½ 5.
Then force of friction (i. NN = Line normal to CC. The following forces will be acting on gear B at the point of contact as shown in figure 5. no friction Let us first consider that there is no friction between the mating gears. Fig 5.27 (b): Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 59 .e.e.27 (a): (i) The normal reaction RN which is normal to surface CC and towards the surface CC at point of contact.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 R = Resultant reaction at the point of contact. (A) Idle case i.27 (a) (ii) The axial force Fa fig 5. the following forces will be acting on gear at A as shown in figure 5. Q * RN) will be zero. At the point of contact . we have Fa ! R N cos E Or FN ! Fa cos E (i) Now consider the equilibrium of gear B. and U = Shaft angle U !E F Where = Angle between axis of shaft (to which gear A is fixed) and inclined surface CC. F = Angle between axis of shaft (to which gear B is fixed) and inclined surface CC.27 (b) For the equilibrium of gear A in the direction of axial force.
27 (c): (i) (ii) (iii) The normal reaction FN Force of friction. The reaction of B and A is equal to reaction of A and B) @ Fa ! Fb cos E cos F 5. we have Or FN ! Fb cos F (ii) From equations (i) and (ii). we have Fa Fb ! cos E cos F (Note.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (i) Normal reaction RN which is normal to surface CC and towards the surface CC at the point contact. The resultant reaction (R) will not be mount to the surface but will inclined at angle of friction ( ) with the normal to the surfaces. there is a friction between the contact surfaces of the mating gears.41 (B) Considering friction In actual case. Q *FN (The sliding surface of gear A is having relative motion downward and hence force of friction acts opposite to the direction of motion). (ii) The axial force Fb Fb ! R N cos F For the equilibrium of gear B in the direction of axial force (Fb). Hence the force of friction (Q *FN) will be acting on the contact surfaces in the direction opposite to that of relative sliding. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 60 . Hence the following forces will be acting on gear A at the point of contact as shown in figure 5.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5. which is inclined at an angle axial force (Fa ). (Axial force is the force required with friction when Fb is constant) The normal reaction RN and force of friction Q *FN combine into a single resultant force R. we have Fa* ! R cos .27 (c) Friction force (iv) The axial force Fa*.
E J * with the normal. For the equilibrium of gear A in the direction of Or R! Fa* cos.
27 (d): Fig 5.27(d) Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 61 . The following forces will be acting on gear B at the point of contact as shown in figure 5.E J (iii) Now consider the equilibrium of gear B.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (i) (ii) (iii) The normal reaction. which is inclined at an angle axial force (Fb). FN Force of friction. Q *FN The axial force. Fb. we have Fb ! R cos . The normal reaction RN and force of friction Q *FN combine into a single resultant force R.
For the equilibrium of gear B in the direction of Or R! Fb cos. J E with the normal.
J E (iv) From equations (iii) and (iv). we have Fa* Fb ! cos.
E J cos.
42).F J Fa ! Or Efficiency of spiral gears The efficiency of spiral gear is given by the ratio of the force Fa required without friction to that required with friction when Fb is constant.41) and (5. we have Fb cos. Hence from equations (5.
J E cos.
F J 5.42 ¨ Fb cos E ¸ © ¹ © cos F ¹ º ª L! cos .
E J Fb cos .
F J L! cos E cos .
F J cos F cos .
J E But F = U .. hence above equation becomes L! cos E cos .
E J U cos .
U E cos .
43 Page 62 .E J Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB L! Force ithout friction Fa ! * Force ith friction Fa 5.
Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 L! 2 cos E cos .
E J U 2 cos .
E cos .
E J U (Multiplying the numerator and denominator by 2) L! cos ? .
E J A cos ? .
U E J A E U E cos ?.
E .
E J A cos ?.
E .
E J A U U ? 3 L! L! 2 cos A cos B ! cos.
A B cos.
A B A cos .
J cos .
2E U J U cos .
J cos .
2E J U U cos .
J cos .
2E U J U cos .
J cos .
U @ @ Or Or ) is 1 cos.2E U J U 5. But maximum value of cos (2 .44 ? 3 For a give value of U and maximum.
A ! cos AA ) is a . when cos (2 . the efficiency will be maximum.U  cos .
2E U J ! 1 ! cos 0 0 2E U J 2E ! U J E! U J 2 ? 3 cos 0 0 ! 1 A 5. U U cos. we get the maximum efficiency.44).45 Substituting the value of @ in equation (5.
J cos.
J U J U U cos.
J cos.
J U J cos.
J cos 0 U cos.
J cos 0 U cos.
J 1 U cos.
The angle between the shaft is 500 and normal circular pitch is 19 mm. J 1 U L max ! L max ! L max ! ? 3 cos 0 0 ! 1 A 5. if the driving and driven wheels are having same spiral angles and friction angle = 60. then determine: (i) (ii) Number of teeth on each wheel. The exact center distance and Page 63 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB .57 Example: The appropriate center distance between two meshing gears is 375 mm and gear ratio is 2.
friction angle. C! p n T1 « 1 G » ¬ cos E cos F ¼ 2T ½ 19 T1 2T 2 » « 1 ¬ cos 25 0 cos 25 0 ¼ ½ Or 375 ! ? C ! 375 mm. pn = 19 mm. Gear ratio. shaft angle.51) as.46 say 38 19 3 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 64 . G = 2. C = 375 mm. 3 375 ! E ! F ! 25 0 . U = 500. Normal pitch.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 (iii) Solution: Given Approximate center distance. Let = 60. Spiral angle of driving wheel = spiral angle driven wheel = Spiral angle of driving wheel F = Spiral angle of driven wheel @ But shaft angle. U !E F 50 ! E F E!F! 50 ! 25 0 2 E !F (given) Or @ (i) Number of teeth on driving wheel Let T1 = Number of teeth on the driving wheel T2 = Number of teeth on the driven wheel The center distance (C) between two shaft is given by equation (5. Efficiency of the drive. p n ! 19 A 19 T1 « 1 2 » 19 T1 3 ¬ cos 25 0 ¼ ! 2T cos 25 0 2T ½ 375 2T cos 25 0 T1 !! ! 37.
54) L! L! cos E cos .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 And T2 ! G T1 ! 2 38 ! 76 (ii) Exact center distance Using equation (5. we get C! p n T1 2T « 1 G » ¬ cos E cos F ¼ ½ C! C! 19 38 « 1 2 » ¬ cos 25 0 cos 25 0 ¼ 2T ½ 19 38 3 ! 380 . 2T cos 25 0 (iii)Efficiency of the drive The efficiency of the spiral gears is given by equation (5.4 mm.51).
F J cos F cos .
J E cos 25 0 cos 25 0 6 0 cos 25 0 cos 25 0 6 0 .
.
.
3 0 J ! 60 L! cos 31 0 0. is known as a gear train.9455 5.2.9065 ! 90 .8571 ! ! 0 . Types of gear train (i) (ii) Simple gear train and Compound gear train Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 65 . Gear trains A combination of two or more gears. bevel or spiral gears. This term is generally applied to mean more than two gears in mesh between the driving shaft and driven shaft.12.65 cos 19 0 0. which are arranged in such a way that the power is transmitted from a driving shaft to driven shaft. The gear train may consist of spur. E ! F ! 25 .
The shaft 2 is called intermediate shaft. The combination of these two gears is known as simple gear train. 5. the motion of follower will be in the opposite direction of the driver.28 (a). is known as simple gear train.12.1. in figure 5. The shaft 1 is a driver whereas the shaft 3 is known as driven shaft or follower. the gear train is known as simple gear train or ordinary gear train. then gear 1 is driver whereas gear 2 is driven or follower.28 (b).28 (a).12. are mounted on same shaft.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 5. there are three gears. Each gear is mounted on the separate shaft. shafts 2 also carries only one gear and shaft three has only one gear. Simple gear train If the axes of all gears (or the axes of the shafts on the gears are mounted) remain fixed relative to each other. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 66 . The combination of these gears. In the case of a simple gear train.2. Fig 5. each gear is on a separate shaft as shown figure 5.2. These two gears rotate in opposite direction. there are only two gears. It may be noted that when the number of intermediate shafts are even. The shafts 1 carries only one gear.2. generally intermediate shaft have two gears rigidly fixed to the shaft so that these two gears have the same speed as they. when they are arranged in such a way that power is transmitted from a driving shaft to driven shaft. If the power is transmitted from gear 1 to gear 2. Compound gear train In a compound gear train there are more than one gear on a shaft.28 simple gear train In figure 5.
Mathematically.3. On the intermediate gear train shaft is mounted another gear 3 which meshes with gear 4 mounted on the driven shaft.12. Fig 5. Velocity ratio of gear trains The ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of the follower is known as velocity ratio or speed ratio of the gear train.2. it is written as Velocity ratio .Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Figure 5.29 shows a compound gear train in which gear 1 (or wheel 1) drives the gear 2 mounted on the intermediate shaft.29 Compound gear train 5. Gears 2 and 3 rotate at the same speed as they are on the same shaft.
Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Page 67 .R. ! V Speed of driver Speed of driven The reciprocal of the speed ratio (or velocity ratio) is known as train value of gear train. .
the meshing gears always in opposite direction. gear 1) N 2 ! Speed of driven (i. gear 2) is moving anticlockwise.e. Speed of follo er But the ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth.1. Hence in a simple gear train.30 Velocity ratio of simple gear train Let N 1 ! Speed of driver (i.e. The driving gear (i.30 shows a simple gear train in which each shaft carries only one gear.3. of teeth on gear 1. Velocity ratio of simple gear train First case Figure 5. and T2 ! No. gear 1) is moving clockwise whereas the driven gear (i.e. The power is transmitted from gear 1 to gear 2. of teeth on gear 2. Hence gear 1 is known as driver and gear 2 is known as driven or follower. Fig 5. gear 2) T1 ! No.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 5.e.2. N 1 T2 ! N 2 T1 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Speed ratio (velocity ratio) ! Speed of driver ! N1 N2 Page 68 .12.
N 1 .31 shows a simple gear train with one intermediate shaft ! N 2 T1 ! N 1 T2 Fig 5. we get N 2 T1 ! N 1 T2 Similarly. of teeth on follower gear.p. N 2 and N 3 ! Speed of driver.31 Simple gear train with one intermediate shaft Let T1 ! No. intermediate and follower respectively in r.m.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 @ Speed ratio ! N 1 T2 ! N 2 T1 The reverse of the speed ratio is known as the train value of the gear train. @ Train value Second case Figure 5. of teeth on driver wheel T2 ! No. of teeth on intermediate gear T3 ! No. we get N 3 T2 ! N 2 T3 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB (i) (ii) Page 69 . when the intermediate gear and follower are in mesh. When the driver and intermediate gears are in mesh.
each gear mounted on separate shafts. Example: A simple gear train consists of two gears only. It depends only upon the number of teeth on the driver and follower. The number of teeth of gears 1 and 2 are 24 and 60 respectively. These idlers are used only: (i) (ii) To change the direction of rotation and To bridge a gap when the distance between the driver and follower shafts is too great for just two gears.47 From equation (5. of teeth on follower No.58). we get N 2 N 3 T1 T2 ! N 1 N 2 T2 T3 Or N 3 T1 ! N 1 T3 Speed of follower Speed of driver Speed ratio ! ! No. The shafts are parallel.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Multiplying equations (i) and (ii). of teeth on driver @ Or Speed of driver Speed of follower 5.p. As the intermediate wheels do not affect the velocity ratio. Speed of the second gear Direction of rotation of second gear if the first gear is rotating clockwise Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB . Determine: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Solution: Given N1 = 1000 r. Equation (5.m. T2 = 60 (i) Speed ratio Page 70 Speed ratio of the gear train.p. . The speed of first gear is 1000 r. of teeth on driver No. of teeth on follower ! No.47) holds well even if there are any numbers of intermediate wheels (or gears). Train value of the gear train. The gear 1 is driving the gear 2. we see that the velocity ratio is independent of the no.m. T1 = 24. The driver and follower will rotate in the same direction if the numbers of intermediate shafts are odd whereas they will rotate in opposite direction if the numbers of intermediate shafts are even. hence they are known as idler. of teeth on intermediate wheels (or gears).
5 T1 24 Fig 5. The no.5 ! N2 ! Example: A simple gear train consists of three gears.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Speed ratio of simple gear train is given by. p.p. The gear 1 is the driver and gear 3 is follower. The gear 1 is rotating clockwise at a speed of 750 r. 2.33.4 Speed ratio 2. Direction of rotation and speed of rotation of follower. each mounted on separate shaft as shown in figure 5. Find: (i) (ii) Speed ratio of the gear train. The shafts are parallel. 45 and 75 respectively. Page 71 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB .5 Train value (iii) Speed ratio Or @ Speed of second gear ! N1 N2 1000 N2 1000 ! 400 r. of teeth on gears 1. 5 2.32 (ii) Train value ! 1 1 ! ! 0. 2 and 3 are 30. Speed ratio ! N 1 T2 ! N 2 T1 Here the values of T2 and T1 are given @ Speed ratio ! T2 60 ! ! 2.m.m.
the driver and follower will rotate in the same direction if the numbers of intermediate shafts (gears) are odd.2.3. (i) T1 = 30.2.33 Solution: N1 = 750 r.5 Speed ratio ! Speed of follower ! Direction of rotation In a simple gear train with intermediate gears. of teeth on follo er No.12.5 T1 30 Direction and speed of rotation of follower Speed of driver Speed of follower Speed of driver Speed ratio ! N 1 750 ! ! 300 r.47). Velocity ratio of compound gear train In a compound gear train as shown in figure 5. 2.e.m.5 2.. Hence the number of intermediate shaft is only one (i. One of these two gears meshes with the driver and the other with follower.34.p. Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB Speed ratio ! Speed of driver ! No. number gear is odd). p. hence follower will rotate clockwise.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 Fig 5.m. T2 = 45 and T3 = 75 Speed ratio Using equation (5. we get Speed of follo er Speed ratio ! (ii) T3 75 ! ! 2. the intermediate shafts have two wheels (or gears) rigidly fixed to it so that these two gears have the same speed. of teeth on driver Page 72 . 5.
therefore. The gear 1 drives the gear 2. Gears 2 and 3 rotate at the same speed as they are mounted on the same intermediate shaft.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 In figure 5. of teeth on gear 4 N 1 ! Speed of driver 1 N 2 . 3 and 4 respectively in r. The gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft.p. On the intermediate shaft is mounted another gear 3 which meshes with gear 4 mounted on driven (or follower) shaft. of teeth on gear 2 T4 ! No.48 Page 73 . therefore N 4 T3 ! N 3 T4 Multiplying equations (i) and (ii). we get N 2 N 4 T1 T3 ! N 1 N 3 T2 T4 But N 2 ! N 3 as gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft. N 2 T1 ! N 1 T2 Gear 3 drives the gear 4.35. The motor is rotating at Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB ! Pr oduct of teeth on drivers 5. T3 ! No.m. Let T1 ! No. The motor shaft is connected to gear 1 whereas the output shaft is connected to gear 4.34. of teeth on gear 3. the power is transmitted from a motor shaft to output shaft. Hence the above equation can be stated as Speed of follo er Speed of driver Pr oduct of teeth on follo ers (i) (ii) Example: In a compound gear train shown in figure 5. N 3 and N 4 ! Speed of gears 2. Hence the above equation becomes are N 4 T1 T3 ! N 1 T2 T4 As gear 1 drives gear 2 whereas gear 3 drives gear 4 hence gears 1 and 3 becomes as drivers whereas gears 2 and 4 becomes as followers. T2 ! No. the gear 1 (or wheel 1) drives gear 2 mounted on the intermediate shaft. of teeth on driver 1.
The gear 4 is in mesh with gear 3.e. 6.Chapter five: Power transmission system mechanism 2011 1250 r. Hence gear 2 will rotate in opposite direction i.p. in anticlockwise direction. @Direction of rotation of output shaft = clockwise direction Let N 4 ! speed of output shaft (or speed of gear 4) Using the relation.35 it is clear that gears 1 and 3 are driving gears (i.e. p. Gear 4 is connected output shaft. The gears 2 and 3 are mounted on the same shaft and hence they will rotate in the same direction. of teeth 1 30 2 75 3 20 4 50 Fig 5.m. in anticlockwise direction. in the clockwise direction.e. T1 = 30. Gear will rotate in the direction of gear 2 i. T3 = 20.m.e. drivers) whereas gears 2 and 4 are driven gears or followers. of teeth on each gear is given below: Gear No.25 Page 74 Adam University/SoE/Agricultural eng dept/ AgMe 422 lecture notes by SKB . Hence gear 4 will rotate in opposite direction i. T2 = 75. The no.m.25 N 1 T2 T4 30 20 N4 ! 1250 ! 200 r. clockwise direction. The gear 2 is in mesh with gear 1. Find the direction of the output shaft. T4 = 50 From figure 5. The gear 1 is rotating in clockwise direction.35 Solution: Given N1 = 1250 r.p. Speed of follower Speed of driver ! Pr oduct of teeth on drivers Pr oduct of teeth on followers Or @ N 4 T1 T3 75 50 ! ! ! 6.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.