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An Introduction to computer modelling

Modal Analysis

Dynamics
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Contents
1) Objectives
2) Requirements
3) Procedure
4) Equations Of Motion
a) Formulate the mass and stiffness matrices
b) Select subset of the equation representing a 3 D.O.F system
c) Formulate mass and stiffness matrices for the 3 D.O.F system
5) Matrix iteration for 3 degree of freedom system
6) Matlab simulation
a) 3 Degree of Freedom system
b) 5 degree of freedom system
7) Discussions
8) Conclusion
9) Bibliography

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1. Objectives
 Set up a mathematical model of a sport case
 Use this model to predict the dynamic behaviour of the car using two different
methods
a) Matrix Iteration
b) Computer Package

2. Requirements

Access to the computer package Matlab

3. Procedure
1. Formulate the stiffness and mass matrices of the modal
2. Select a subset of the equations of motion representing a 3 degree of freedom model
and formulate the mass and stiffness matrices for this case too.
3. Carry out matrix iteration to find mode frequencies and the mode shapes of the 3
degree of freedom system.
4. Use the computer package matlab to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of
i. The 3 degree of freedom system and
ii. The full 5 degree of freedom system

Parameters:

Mw=35 kg Ks=40kN/m

Mb=320kg Kt=400kN/m

Me=100kg Ke=300kN/m

Ib=250kgm2 Cs=1000Ns/m

a=1.3m b=0.4m

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4. Equations of motion

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a. Formulate the mass and stiffness matrix


 Mass matrix

Xw1 Xw2 Xe Xb θb
Xw1 Mw 0 0 0 0
Xw2 0 Mw 0 0 0
Xe 0 0 Me 0 0
Xb 0 0 0 Mb 0
θb 0 0 0 0 Ib

 Stiffness matrix

Xw1 Xw2 Xe Xb θb
Xw1 ks+kt 0 0 -ks -0.5aks
Xw2 0 ks+kt 0 -ks 0.5aks
Xe 0 0 ke+ke -ke-ke 0
Xb -ks -ks -ke-ke ks+ks+ke+ke 0
θb -0.5aks 0.5aks 0 0 (a2ks+b2ke)/2

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b. Select subset of the equation representing a 3 D.O.F system

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c. Formulate mass and stiffness matrices for the 3 D.O.F system

 Mass Matrix

Xe Xb θb
Xe Me 0 0
Xb 0 Mb 0
θb 0 0 Ib

 Stiffness Matrix

Xe Xb θb
Xe 2ke -2ke 0
Xb -2ke ks+ks+ke+ke 0
θb 0 0 (a2ks+b2ke)/2

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5. Matrix iteration for 3 degree of freedom system

Eigen value

Assuming no damping in the system and no forcing functions the equation of motion becomes:

We will perform matrix iteration for the following cases:

1. ,known as dynamics flexibility matrix for lowest eigenvalues and


eigenvectors.
2. known as dynamics flexibility matrix for highest eigenvalues and
eigenvectors.
3. A sweeping matrix”[S]” , to find the intermediate eigen value and eigenvectors.

Eigen values give the natural frerquency

Eigen Vectors give the mode shape

Matrix iteration

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The lowest eigen values and eigenvector

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Because , therefore the eigenvalue ω12= = 188.306 (rad/s)2

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The highest eigenvalue and Eigenvector

The eigenvalue

The intermediate eigenvalue and eigenvector

To find the values the sweeping matrix was needed.

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, therefore the eigenvalue ω32= = 231.20 (rad/s)2

The obtained values in matrix form

1. Matrix of eigenvalues

Matrix of eigenvectors

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6. Matlab Simulation
a. 3 degree of freedom system

K=
600000 -600000 0
-600000 680000 0
0 0 57800
M=
100 0 0
0 320 0
0 0 250
Minv
0.0100 0 0
0 0.0031
0 0 0.0040
A=Minv*K

A = 1.0e+003 *

6.0000 -6.0000 0
-1.8750 2.1250 0
0 0 0.2312

>> [V,D]=eig(A)

V=

0.9517 0.7183 0
-0.3071 0.6957 0
0 0 1.0000

D=

1.0e+003 *

7.9360 0 0
0 0.1890 0
0 0 0.2312

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b. Full 5 degree of freedom system

K=

440000 0 0 -40000 -26000


0 440000 0 -40000 26000
0 0 600000 -600000 0
-40000 -40000 -600000 680000 0
-26000 26000 0 0 57800

M=

35 0 0 0 0
0 35 0 0 0
0 0 100 0 0
0 0 0 320 0
0 0 0 0 250

>> Minv=inv(M)

0.0286 0 0 0 0
0 0.0286 0 0 0
0 0 0.0100 0 0
0 0 0 0.0031 0
0 0 0 0 0.0040

>> A=Minv*K
A=
1.0e+004 *

1.2571 0 0 -0.1143 -0.0743


0 1.2571 0 -0.1143 0.0743
0 0 0.6000 -0.6000 0
-0.0125 -0.0125 -0.1875 0.2125 0
-0.0104 0.0104 0 0 0.0231

>> [V,D]=eig(A)
V=
0.7068 0.7071 0.0745 0.0599 -0.0640
0.7068 -0.7071 0.0745 -0.0599 -0.0640
0.0183 -0.0000 -0.9471 -0.0000 -0.7144
-0.0201 0.0000 0.3032 -0.0000 -0.6939
-0.0000 -0.0119 -0.0000 0.9964 -0.0000

D=
1.0e+004 *
1.2604 0 0 0 0
0 1.2584 0 0 0
0 0 0.7921 0 0
0 0 0 0.0219 0
0 0 0 0 0.0172

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7. Discussions

Natural frequencies and their mode shapes for a 3 degree of freedom system using matrix iteration

The highest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F,

Corresponding mode shape

0.32

The intermediate eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F ω3=15.2(rad/s)=2.42Hz

Corresponding mode shape


0.01

0.02

The lowest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F, ω3=13.72rads-1=2.18Hz

Corresponding mode shape


1

0.02

0.97

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Natural frequencies and their mode shapes For a 3 degree of freedom system using matlab solution

The highest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F,

Corresponding mode shape

0.9517

0.3071

The intermediate eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F ω3=15.2(rad/s)=2.42Hz

Corresponding mode shape

The lowest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 3 D.O.F, ω3=13.74rads-1=2.18Hz

Corresponding mode shape


0.7183

0.6957

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The highest natural frequency and its mode shape for full 5 degree of freedom system
using matlab solution
The highest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 5 D.O.F,

Corresponding mode shape

0.0183

0.0201

0.7068
0.7068

Checking accuracy by performing hand calculations

Mass Stiffness Results %error for %error for


ω2=k/m Matlab iteration matlab iteration
Mb 2ks 220 231.2 231.2 7.5% 7.5%
Me 2ke 6000 7936 7920 32.3% 32.3

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Assumptions
No external force is applied i.e. F=0 and that the damping is neglected which leads a trivial
solution

Mass of spring are not taken into account which is a very small value and will not effect are
results.

The bodies are assumed to be rigid i.e. flexibility of bodies are not taken into account.

8. Conclusions
The results of matrix iteration and matlab solution are approximately the same for the Eigen
values i.e. the highest, intermediate and lowest natural frequencies, the difference in values is
no more than 0.5-1%.

The 3 D.O.F equation helped to solve it by matrix iteration as for a full system the method
would have been non applicable.

The matlab solution were very reliable and the process was very quick, and is very helpful for
high order multiple degree of freedom systems.

9. Bibliography
Modal testing, theory and Ewins D.J Research Studies Press
analysis

Introduction to computer modelling