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An Introduction to computer modelling

Modal Analysis

Dynamics
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Contents
1) Objectives
2) Requirements
3) Procedure
4) Equations Of Motion
a) Formulate the mass and stiffness matrices
b) Select subset of the equation representing a 3 D.O.F system
c) Formulate mass and stiffness matrices for the 3 D.O.F system
5) Matrix iteration for 3 degree of freedom system
6) Matlab simulation
a) 3 Degree of Freedom system
b) 5 degree of freedom system
7) Discussions
8) Conclusion
9) Bibliography

Introduction to computer modelling

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1. Objectives
 Set up a mathematical model of a sport case
 Use this model to predict the dynamic behaviour of the car using two different
methods
a) Matrix Iteration
b) Computer Package

2. Requirements

3. Procedure
1. Formulate the stiffness and mass matrices of the modal
2. Select a subset of the equations of motion representing a 3 degree of freedom model
and formulate the mass and stiffness matrices for this case too.
3. Carry out matrix iteration to find mode frequencies and the mode shapes of the 3
degree of freedom system.
4. Use the computer package matlab to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of
i. The 3 degree of freedom system and
ii. The full 5 degree of freedom system

Parameters:

Mw=35 kg Ks=40kN/m

Mb=320kg Kt=400kN/m

Me=100kg Ke=300kN/m

Ib=250kgm2 Cs=1000Ns/m

a=1.3m b=0.4m

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4. Equations of motion

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a. Formulate the mass and stiffness matrix

 Mass matrix

Xw1 Xw2 Xe Xb θb
Xw1 Mw 0 0 0 0
Xw2 0 Mw 0 0 0
Xe 0 0 Me 0 0
Xb 0 0 0 Mb 0
θb 0 0 0 0 Ib

 Stiffness matrix

Xw1 Xw2 Xe Xb θb
Xw1 ks+kt 0 0 -ks -0.5aks
Xw2 0 ks+kt 0 -ks 0.5aks
Xe 0 0 ke+ke -ke-ke 0
Xb -ks -ks -ke-ke ks+ks+ke+ke 0
θb -0.5aks 0.5aks 0 0 (a2ks+b2ke)/2

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c. Formulate mass and stiffness matrices for the 3 D.O.F system

 Mass Matrix

Xe Xb θb
Xe Me 0 0
Xb 0 Mb 0
θb 0 0 Ib

 Stiffness Matrix

Xe Xb θb
Xe 2ke -2ke 0
Xb -2ke ks+ks+ke+ke 0
θb 0 0 (a2ks+b2ke)/2

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5. Matrix iteration for 3 degree of freedom system

Eigen value

Assuming no damping in the system and no forcing functions the equation of motion becomes:

1. ,known as dynamics flexibility matrix for lowest eigenvalues and

eigenvectors.
2. known as dynamics flexibility matrix for highest eigenvalues and
eigenvectors.
3. A sweeping matrix”[S]” , to find the intermediate eigen value and eigenvectors.

Matrix iteration

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The eigenvalue

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The obtained values in matrix form

1. Matrix of eigenvalues

Matrix of eigenvectors

Introduction to computer modelling

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6. Matlab Simulation
a. 3 degree of freedom system

K=
600000 -600000 0
-600000 680000 0
0 0 57800
M=
100 0 0
0 320 0
0 0 250
Minv
0.0100 0 0
0 0.0031
0 0 0.0040
A=Minv*K

A = 1.0e+003 *

6.0000 -6.0000 0
-1.8750 2.1250 0
0 0 0.2312

>> [V,D]=eig(A)

V=

0.9517 0.7183 0
-0.3071 0.6957 0
0 0 1.0000

D=

1.0e+003 *

7.9360 0 0
0 0.1890 0
0 0 0.2312

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K=

440000 0 0 -40000 -26000

0 440000 0 -40000 26000
0 0 600000 -600000 0
-40000 -40000 -600000 680000 0
-26000 26000 0 0 57800

M=

35 0 0 0 0
0 35 0 0 0
0 0 100 0 0
0 0 0 320 0
0 0 0 0 250

>> Minv=inv(M)

0.0286 0 0 0 0
0 0.0286 0 0 0
0 0 0.0100 0 0
0 0 0 0.0031 0
0 0 0 0 0.0040

>> A=Minv*K
A=
1.0e+004 *

1.2571 0 0 -0.1143 -0.0743

0 1.2571 0 -0.1143 0.0743
0 0 0.6000 -0.6000 0
-0.0125 -0.0125 -0.1875 0.2125 0
-0.0104 0.0104 0 0 0.0231

>> [V,D]=eig(A)
V=
0.7068 0.7071 0.0745 0.0599 -0.0640
0.7068 -0.7071 0.0745 -0.0599 -0.0640
0.0183 -0.0000 -0.9471 -0.0000 -0.7144
-0.0201 0.0000 0.3032 -0.0000 -0.6939
-0.0000 -0.0119 -0.0000 0.9964 -0.0000

D=
1.0e+004 *
1.2604 0 0 0 0
0 1.2584 0 0 0
0 0 0.7921 0 0
0 0 0 0.0219 0
0 0 0 0 0.0172

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7. Discussions

Natural frequencies and their mode shapes for a 3 degree of freedom system using matrix iteration

0.32

0.01

0.02

1

0.02

0.97

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Natural frequencies and their mode shapes For a 3 degree of freedom system using matlab solution

0.9517

0.3071

0.7183

0.6957

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The highest natural frequency and its mode shape for full 5 degree of freedom system
using matlab solution
The highest eigenvalue (natural frequency) for the 5 D.O.F,

0.0183

0.0201

0.7068
0.7068

Mass Stiffness Results %error for %error for

ω2=k/m Matlab iteration matlab iteration
Mb 2ks 220 231.2 231.2 7.5% 7.5%
Me 2ke 6000 7936 7920 32.3% 32.3

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Assumptions
No external force is applied i.e. F=0 and that the damping is neglected which leads a trivial
solution

Mass of spring are not taken into account which is a very small value and will not effect are
results.

The bodies are assumed to be rigid i.e. flexibility of bodies are not taken into account.

8. Conclusions
The results of matrix iteration and matlab solution are approximately the same for the Eigen
values i.e. the highest, intermediate and lowest natural frequencies, the difference in values is
no more than 0.5-1%.

The 3 D.O.F equation helped to solve it by matrix iteration as for a full system the method
would have been non applicable.

The matlab solution were very reliable and the process was very quick, and is very helpful for
high order multiple degree of freedom systems.

9. Bibliography
Modal testing, theory and Ewins D.J Research Studies Press
analysis