Global Services Field Engineer Training Project

Control Elementary Knowledge
Author: Marco Cannavò V. 1.0 – December 2008

GT Instrumentation
• Temperature Instrumentation (Thermocouple, RTD)
• Pressure Instrumentation • Vibration Instrumentation • LVDT • Level and Flow Instrumentation • Solenoid and Servo-valves • Speed Sensors

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emperature Instrumentation:
• Measurement Unit

Absolute Scales • Rankine (°R) • Kelvin (K)

Relative Scales • Fahrenheit (°F) • Celsius (°C)
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emperature Instrumentation:
• Level indicator
Temperature local indicators are situated next to the object whose temperature has to be monitored, e.g. tanks.

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emperature Instrumentation:
• Bi-metal type thermometer
The bi-metal thermometers are built from a stainless steel tube inside of which a bi-metal helicoidally spiral is placed. This spiral is welded to the tip of the tube and on the other side to a transmission shaft directly connected to the pointer. The temperature variations create a deformation of the bi-metal, which is transmitted to the pointer through a shaft rotation.



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At one end. or cold junction. forms at the other end of the conductor. This reference junction normally forms where the conductor connects to the measurement device. A reference. the two wires join: this is the measurement junction.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Termocouples fundamentals A thermocouple is composed of two wires made from dissimilar metals. 7/ GE / .

8/ GE / . if one junction is kept at a different temperature than the other junction. a small current exists in the loop.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • The Seebeck Effect Thermocouples work on the Seebeck effect (1821). J. Mr T. Seebeck found that if you take two dissimilar metals and form a closed loop.

As the temperature difference increases.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • The Seebeck Effect This current is related to the temperature difference between the two junctions. If one junction is kept at a known temperature. the temperature of the other junction can be determined from the amount of voltage produced. the current in the closed loop increases. The thermocouple voltage. The change in junction voltage as a function of junction temperature is: ∆ V = a * ∆T where “a” is the Seebeck coefficient. although very predictable for a given thermocouple type. is non-linear. 9/ GE / .

This is why the length and routing of the thermocouple wire (within reason and with some restrictions) can be set up not to effect the temperature measurement. 10 / GE / . not regular wire.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Law of Homogeneous Circuits The Law of Homogeneous Circuits says simply that if the thermocouple conductors are homogeneous. This is also why you must use thermocouple extension wire. for long thermocouple runs. they are unaffected by intermediate temperatures.

it will not adversely effect the reading if and only if the two junctions of the third metal are at the exact same temperature.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Law of Intermediate Metals The Law of Intermediate Metals says that if there is a third metal introduced into the thermocouple circuit. non-linear errors will occur from this second thermocouple. If the two connecting junctions of the third metal are not exactly at the same temperature. Remember that the Seebeck effect requires that the junctions have to be at different temperatures to induce a current. 11 / GE / .

emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation Cold Junction Compensation (CJC) is necessary when making temperature measurements using thermocouples. When using a thermocouple we measure the voltage potential across the thermocouple and can calculate the temperature causing this potential difference____ CJC becomes necessary because the junction between each end of the thermocouple and your measuring system (connector block. 12 / GE / . ____The thermocouple itself relies on the principle that an electrical potential exists at the junction of two different metals. The amount of this potential varies with temperature. terminal block) also adds a potential difference to the thermocouple voltage.

emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation To compensate for this added potential we must know the temperature at the junction between the thermocouple and your measuring system. To make our actual thermocouple temperature measurement we measure the voltage from the thermocouple and CJC sensor. This is a temperature sensor other than a thermocouple. commonly used sensors are IC (integrated circuit) sensors and thermistors. T 13 / GE / . This temperature is measured using a CJC sensor.

This is possible when T2 is equal to zero. the thermocouple signal should only be proportional to the highest temperature ( E = S*T1 ) therefore the part S*T2 should be zero.emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation Ideally.T2) + S* T2 = S* T1 14 / GE / . resulting in: E = S* (T1 . For industrial applications a technique called "Cold Junction Compensation" (CJC) is used. Electronic measuring equipment generates a signal proportional to S*T2. Under laboratory conditions this can be achieved by immersing the cold junction in an ice bath. which is added to the EMF value given by the equation above.

T2) + S* T2 E = S* T1 15 / GE / .emperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation E2 = S* T2 E1 = S* T1 Etc Ecjc Etc = S* (T1 .T2) Ecjc = S* T2 E =Etc+Ecjc = S* (T1 .

Keeping the cold junction at a known temperature 2.Temperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation CJC can be obtained in three ways: 1. Introducing a balancing voltage because T is different from 0 Celsius (combination of R) 16 / GE / .

the software calculates the temperature at the measuring junction using tables that correlate specific temperatures for specific voltage values for different thermocouple types. Once you know the temperature of the reference junction.Temperature Instrumentation: TCs • Cold Junction Compensation CJC can be obtained in three ways: 3. 17 / GE / . By software Software compensation measures the temperature at the reference junction using a thermistor or an integrated circuit sensor.

Temperature Instrumentation: TCs To determine the output of a thermocouple using tables. The output at 20°C from the same tables is 1.268mV .019mV = 4. The output of the thermocouple measured at the instrument is: 5.249mV We have to care about the value of the cold junction!! 18 / GE / .268 mV. assume a type J thermocouple has its hot junction in boiling water at 100°C and the cold junction is at an instrument which is at a room temperature of 20°C.1.Vcold For example. use the formula: Vout = Vhot . The output at 100°C according to tables is 5.019mV.

Temperature Instrumentation: TCs Type J Thermocouple ( thermoelectric voltage as a function of temperature (°C). reference junctions at 0 °C) 19 / GE / .

Temperature Instrumentation: TCs Thermocouple Field JBs to UCP Connections (Compensate Cables) TCs TCs Thermocouple Field JBs to UCP Connections ( Copper Cables) TCs TCs RTD JB JB JB JB RTD Marshalling Marshalling UCP Internal CJCon TCs Terminal Board UCP Internal CJCon TCs Terminal Board UCP Disable CJC in the UCP internal terminal board UCP Disable CJCin the UCPinternal terminal board 20 / GE / .

Temperature Instrumentation: TCs 21 / GE / .

22 / GE / .Temperature Instrumentation: TCs Advantages: • Very wide Range of T (-270°C ÷ 2000°C) • Low time response • Small size • Low cost Disadvantages: • Non-linear characteristic for high ∆T • Need to know a reference T • Lower accuracy compared to the others instrument • Low sensitivity. It need amplifier circuit .

23 / GE / .Temperature Instrumentation: • Switches A temperature switch is a device for detecting the temperature of a system. it is generally used for protecting functions. It has no regulating functions.

Operation of an RTD is based on the principle that the electrical resistance of a metallic conductor varies linearly with its temperature.Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a resistance whose value increases with temperature. 24 / GE / .

divided by 100° C. called alpha (α). the output of an RTD is relatively linear with respect to temperature. and R0 is the resistance of the RTD at 0° C. where R100 is the resistance of the RTD at 100° C. alpha is most commonly defined as the change in RTD resistance from 0 to 100° C. The temperature coefficient.Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs Compared to other temperature devices. 25 / GE / . Although various manufacturers may specify alpha differently. differs between RTD curves. divided by the resistance at 0° C.

but the most popular RTD is platinum and has a nominal resistance of 100Ω at 0° C (α = 0. you may need to use special configurations that minimize errors from lead wire resistance.00392 => ∆T of 1°C will give a variation of 0. 26 / GE / . RTDs can be difficult to measure because they have relatively low resistance (100 Ω) that changes only slightly with temperature (less than 0.4 Ω/°C).392 Ω). To accurately measure these small changes in resistance.Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs RTDs can be made of different metals and have different resistances.

I = 0 • In order to do the measurement it is necessary to vary R2 till the equilibrium point • I control can be done by the Galvanometer and the value of emf of the generator is unimportant • At the equilibrium point : • In another way: if R1. R3 are fixed.R2 is variable • If [R2/(R2+R1)] = [Rx/(Rx+R3)] EMF = 0 . R2.Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs • R1 & R3 are fixed resistors . the I trough the G can be used to evaluate the value of R3 27 / GE / .

high precision.Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs • 2 wire: R of wires affects the measurement • 3 wire: R of wires doesn’t affect the measurement. T ambient affects the measurement • 4 wire: best measurement. R of wires and T ambient don’t affect the measurement 28 / GE / .

Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs 29 / GE / .

Temperature Instrumentation: RTDs Advantages: • Wide Range of T (-200°C ÷ 850°C) • Excellent linearity • Better sensitivity compared to thermocouples • High accuracy • Excellent stability and repeatability Disadvantages: • High cost • Self-heating • High time response • Low sensitivity to shocks and vibrations • Low R value => R wires cannot be neglected 30 / GE / .

but are not common. 31 / GE / . The resistance usually decrease increasing the T => NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient). Also PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) exists.Temperature Instrumentation: Thermistors A thermistor is a type of resistor with resistance varying according to its temperature.

Temperature Instrumentation: Thermistors Advantages: • High resistance (1 ÷ 1000 kΩ) • Low time response • High sensitivity (also 100 > compared to RTD sensitivity) • Low cost • Reasonably accuracy 32 / GE / Disadvantages: • High non-linear characteristic • Narrow T range (ex. 50÷250 °C) • Low stability compared to RTD • Higher self-heating than RTDs .

Temperature Instrumentation: Summary 33 / GE / .

Pressure 34 / GE / .

either liquids or gases.Static Pressure Pressure. 35 / GE / . is defined as force (F) per unit area (A): P = F/A The measurement of pressure is generally associated with fluids. P.

An example is atmospheric pressure. •Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points of measurement. •Gauge pressure is measured relative to ambient pressure.Types of Pressure Measurements •Absolute pressure is measured relative to a perfect vacuum. 36 / GE / .

Absolute Pressure The “absolute” pressure is to be measured with reference to full vacuum In SI units is Pa (Pascal) In English units is psia ("pounds per square inch absolute“) 37 / GE / .

is related to The pressure unit "pounds per square inch gauge" is abbreviated psig. In SI units.Gauge Pressure "Gauge" pressure definition atmospheric conditions. simply add "gauge" to the measuring units. such as "Pa gauge” In GE Oil&Gas plants it is used “Barg” (Bar Gauge) 38 / GE / .

an orifice or a pipe restriction. a filter.Differential Pressure “Differential" pressure is the difference in pressure between two points. ie before and after a valve . 39 / GE / .

Pressure Instrumentation: Pressure Units 40 / GE / .

Pressure Measurements Manometers or Transducers 41 / GE / .

Pressure Instrumentation: Manometers Differential Manometer A basic manometer can consist of a reservoir filled with a liquid and a vertical tube. 42 / GE / .

Pressure Instrumentation: Manometers Differential Manometer The difference in fluid height in a liquid column manometer is proportional to the pressure difference. H= (Pa-Po) ρg 43 / GE / .

44 / GE / .Pressure Instrumentation: Manometers Bourdon Manometer A Bourdon tube is C-shaped and has an oval cross-section with one end of the tube connected to the process pressure. The other end is sealed and connected to the pointer or transmitter mechanism. Bourdon tube elements can be extended into spirals or helical coils. To increase their sensitivity.

Pressure Instrumentation: Manometers Bourdon Manometer 45 / GE / .

Pressure Instrumentation: Manometers Diaphragm Manometer 46 / GE / .

Pressure Instrumentation: Transducers Strain Gauge Transducers The use of strain gauges is based on the fact that the resistance of a conductor changes when the conductor is subjected to strain. ρ = resistivity. A resistance wire in it's original state. The stretched wire has higher resistance as it is longer and thinner. and after subjected to a strain. The electrical resistance of a conductor is given by: R = ρ*l/A where: R = resistance. A = cross sectional area 47 / GE / . l = length.

48 / GE / .Pressure Instrumentation: Transducers Strain Gauge Transducers The strain gage is used to measure the displacement of an elastic diaphragm due to a difference in pressure across the diaphragm.

Pressure Instrumentation: Transducers Piezoelectric Transducers Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential in response to applied mechanical stress 49 / GE / .

The diaphragm is usually metal or metal-coated quartz and is exposed to the process pressure on one side and to the reference pressure on the other. 50 / GE / .Pressure Instrumentation: Transducers Capacitive Transducers The capacitance change results from the movement of a diaphragm element.

Pressure Transmitter
Primary Transducer

Secondary Transducer

Primary Transducer: Sensor and interface to the process Secondary Transducer: Electronics, case and terminal board
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Pressure Instrumentation: Definitions
Instrument Range -The region in which the instrument is designated to operate. It is a physical capability of the device. (LRL to URL) Span-The algebraic difference between the upper and the lower limit values of a given range. Instrument minimum Span . The minimum distance between the URV and LRV for which the instrument is designed. It is a physical limitation of the device. Instrument maximum Span . The maximum distance between the URV and LRV for which the instrument is designed. It is a physical limitation of the device.
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Level Instrumentation: Level Gauges Consists of a metal body with an internal transparent glass tube as to view the liquid presence inside. These gauges are usually side-side mounted. 54 / GE / .

These gauges are usually sideside or top mounted. As the float moves. 55 / GE / .Level Instrumentation: Level Gauges Magnetic Gauges They have a float containing a magnet that rises and falls with the liquid. The white and red (or similar) indication flaps represent air and liquid level respectively. this information is transferred to the indication rail mounted on the outside of the tube.

side-side. top mounted.Level Instrumentation: Level Gauges Level Switch-Displacer Inside the tank is present a displacer that moves with the fluid level. These switches can be side. 56 / GE / . side/bottom. the displacer is connected with instrument body with a bar or a chain. the bar or chain movement generate the contact switching action.

Level Instrumentation: Level Gauges Hydrostatic Hydrostatic level measurement is method used for measuring liquid levels in open or closed vessels. The underlying physics principle is that the height of the liquid multiplied by the specific gravity of the liquid is proportionate to the vessel fluid level. 57 / GE / .

The higher pressure (on the bottom). is compared to a higher reference pressure 58 / GE / .Level Instrumentation: Level Transmitter . with the pressure measure and the fluid specific gravity is possible to calculate the fluid column height.Differential Pressure The level measure is detected measuring the liquid column pressure. caused by fluid level in the tank.

5)= 86 mH2O (URV) (LRV) The panel indicator shall be configured to show hL =0% when the input is 20mA and hL = 100% (50cm) when the input is 4mA.1 m: hr= 0. hi= 0.7-0. 59 / GE / .5 m .evel Instrumentation: Level Transmitter LUBE OIL LEVEL MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLE Assumption: ρ = 860 (Kg/m3).1)= 516 mH2O ΔΡ = 860 * (0. hLFS = 0.7m ΔΡ = 860 * (0.7-0.1-0.

60 / GE / . and the returned echo from the surface is detected by the sensor and routed to the microprocessor.Level Instrumentation: Level Gauges Ultrasonic Sensor The sensor transmits an ultrasonic beam to the surface level. which processes the signal into a digital representation of the distance between the sensor and the surface level.

Fluid flow measurement 61 / GE / .

Flow Meter Heads The continuity relationship between velocity and pressure provides the basis for the operation of all headtype flow meters: Orifice Venturi tube Pitot Tube Fuel nozzle 62 / GE / .

63 / GE / . flow is laminar (parallel arrows) and velocity V1 is normal. Proximal to the obstruction. and just beyond.Flow Meter Heads Schematic illustrating the relation between flow velocity and pressure drop across a discrete obstruction. flow remains laminar and velocity V2 is increased. At the level of the obstruction. The pressure drop P1-P2 can be calculated from the velocities by the modified Bernoulli equation.

64 / GE / . They are effectively utilized for “clean” fluid flow measurement and where line pressure losses or pumping costs are not critical.Flow Instrumentation: Orifice Flow orifices and flow restrictors contain precision machined holes to restrict flow and reduce pressure. Orifice plates are widely used in industrial applications.

Flow Instrumentation: Venturi Tube The Venturi tube produces a relatively large differential with a relatively small head loss. This element is often used where the process contains large amounts of suspended solids or if large head losses are unacceptable. 65 / GE / .

discharging directly into the air. etc. 66 / GE / . Line pressure loss is between that of an orifice and a Venturi. Often flow nozzles are used at the end of a pipe. as is generally the cost.Flow Instrumentation: Nozzle A flow nozzle is in a sense an orifice with a flared approach section. a tank.

which is placed vertically in a moving fluid with the mouth of the bent part directed upstream.Flow Instrumentation: Pitot Tube Is a pressure measurement instrument used to measure fluid flow velocity. depends on the fluid flow and can be used to calculate the velocity. Instrument for measuring the velocity (speed) of a flowing fluid. 67 / GE / . the pressure. The basic Pitot tube simply consists of a tube pointing directly into the fluid flow. measured with an attached device. a pressure can be measured as the moving air is brought to rest. or sometimes (particularly in aviation circles) the pitot pressure. also known as the total pressure. rightangled bend. it consists of a tube with a short. This pressure is the stagnation pressure of the air. As this tube contains air.

LVDT 68 / GE / .

69 / GE / . The LVDT is composed of these basic components: • A COIL WINDING ASSEMBLY consisting of a Primary Coil and two Secondary Coils symmetrically spaced on a • tubular center.LVDT The LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is an device that produces an electrical voltage proportional to the displacement of a movable Magnetic Core. • A CYLINDRICAL CASE which encloses and protects the Coil Winding Assembly. • A rod shaped MAGNETIC CORE which is free to move axially within the Coil Winding Assembly. • A separate shield is used for ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING.

LVDT 70 / GE / .

LVDT When an AC excitation signal is applied to the Primary Coil (P). voltages are induced in the two Secondary Coils (S). the output voltage is zero. The MAGNETIC CORE inside the COIL WINDING ASSEMBLY provides the magnetic flux path linking the Primary and secondary Coils. therefore. the Secondary Coils are connected series opposing in the center. The output voltages are equal and opposite in polarity and. 71 / GE / . or Null Position. The Null Position of an LVDT is extremely stable and repeatable. Since the two voltages are of opposite polarity.

As shown in the figure. the induced voltage in the Secondary Coil. they are the ideal choice for linear motion control. increases while the induced voltage in the opposite Secondary Coil decreases. when the MAGNETIC CORE is moved from the Null Position. 72 / GE / .LVDT When the MAGNETIC CORE is displaced on the Null Position. This imbalance generates a differential AC output voltage across the Secondary Coils which is linearly proportional to the direction and magnitude of the displacement. LVDTs possess the inherent ruggedness and durability of a transformer and truly provide infinite resolution in all types of environments. an electromagnetic imbalance occurs. toward which the Core is moved. As a result of the superior reliability and accuracy of LVDTs.

LVDT There are many criteria which influence the proper choice of an LVDT transducer. The basic considerations are: • • • • • Linear Stroke Requirements Temperature Range Mounting Configuration Captive or Free Core AC or DC Excitation 73 / GE / .

GE LVDT configuration 74 / GE / .

Electrical Stroke (Linear Range) The distance over which the electrical output is linear within the limits defined by the non-linearity.75 in. X .4 VDC/in. Non-Linearity Non-linearity gives a figure for maximum deviation of measured values from the best fit straight line.75 in.e. or a full range of .e.30 VDC (8. 75 / GE / . The non-linearity is given as a percentage of full range. a stroke of +.). for AC-AC in mV/.001". For DC-DC units expressed as VDC/in. Full Range Full range is the total end-to-end electrical stroke. Full Scale The maximum output voltage deviation from zero.Definition of LVDT Terms Scale Factor The ratio of change in output voltage to change in mechanical movement of the core.15 VDC which is half the full range value of 6. I. I.375 in. a nominal full scale value of 3.

001 in. Null Voltage The lowest output voltage in the electrical stroke. over which the electrical performance is met. The LVDT has infinite resolution usually only restricted by the resolution of the instruments to which it is connected. For DC-DC units. 76 / GE / . Usually expressed for AC units as mV/V/.Sensitivity Sensitivity is the scale factor divided by the energizing voltage. this is the sine wave voltage that energizes the primary winding stated in rms (root mean square) units. Energizing (Input) Voltage For AC-AC units. it is a regulated DC voltage Frequency Range Range of frequencies of the AC energizing voltage. Resolution The smallest movement of the core which gives a detectable change in output voltage.

Use of LVDT: fuel system 77 / GE / .

Use of LVDT: IGV The IGV actuation system is composed by a servovalve (90TV) that acts on a hydraulic positioner. 78 / GE / . The positioner moves the IGV. and their position is detected by two LVDTs (96TV-1 e -2).

Fire & Gas Sensors 79 / GE / .

Fire & Gas System Fire & Gas Sensors Fire & Gas Detection Control Panel Alarm Signals Control Units Detects fires or un-ignited escapes of flammable or toxic fluids Initiates an appropriate automatic protective response 80 / GE / .

Fire & Gas System Fire & Gas Control Unit Fire & Gas Detection Control Panel Fire & Gas Sensors Alarms 81 / GE / .

Fire & Gas Sensors  Point Gas Detector UV Flame Detectors  IR Flame Detectors  Optical Smoke Detectors  Heat Detectors 82 / GE / .

This heated wire is contained within an certified enclosure with a porous sintered metal insert which allows gas to enter.Fire & Gas Sensors Point Gas Detectors : detect gas at a single location and are calibrated in terms of the lower explosive limit (LEL) of the flammable gas at that point. Traditional detectors use a heated wire coated with catalyst to detect the heat of combustion of a flammable mix.  advantage of directly detecting combustion • the catalyst is prone to poisoning by contaminants in the environment • the sintered metal screen is prone to blockage 83 / GE / .

Hydrocarbons are a very efficient absorber of UV light. so UV flame detectors are prone to blinding by the hydrocarbon content of any smoke between the detector and the source. so UV detectors have to be inhibited if there is any welding in the vicinity. but they can be checked by means of a torch that generates UV light at a quantified intensity. this reduces their availability and the level of protection they provide. They can be blinded by obstructions. Welding is an efficient generator of UV light.Fire & Gas Sensors UV flame detectors detect radiation from the fire. there is no calibration facility. or by hydrocarbon contamination of the optical system (though this problem should be detected by the optical integrity check). The sensitivity is given by the manufacturer. 84 / GE / .

85 / GE / . but are checked with artificial smoke. Optical Smoke Detectors measure the absorption by the smoke of light from a small photodiode. This can be linked to the capabilities of people to escape through the smoke. However. Ice is a very efficient absorber of IR light. these detectors have unrevealed failure modes. This is rare in a marine environment. They cannot be calibrated by the user in any meaningful way. and may be detected by an optical integrity self check.Fire & Gas Sensors IR Detectors . They have a defined sensitivity in terms of obscuration % per metre. so IR detectors are prone to blinding if the optical system ices up.

They are often based on a bi-metallic strip that actuates a micro-switch at a set temperature.Fire & Gas Sensors Heat Detectors sense elevated temperatures such as might be caused by a fire. Heat detectors are usually checked with hot water or a local heat source at the relevant set temperature. These detectors are used in areas where a rapid rise in temperature is an early indication of danger (perhaps for example in equipment cabinets). they are of an ON/OFF nature. 86 / GE / . they have unrevealed failure modes and therefore are suitable mainly for areas where the fire risk is low or where smoke detectors cannot be used for environmental reasons. Some types of heat detector are designed so as to respond to rises in temperature in addition to the fixed temperature setting. and are called ‘rate-of-rise heat detectors’. Another type of heat detector is designed so that the set temperature at which it triggers is sensitive to changes in temperature. Typically. These devices are called ‘rate compensated heat detectors’. ie the set temperature drops when a rapid rise in temperature occurs. therefore. having a temperature setting related to the application.

Vibration 87 / GE / .

ibration Vibration Instrumentation 88 / GE / .

. These circulating eddies of current create electromagnets with magnetic fields that opposes the change of the magnetic field 89 / GE / .Non contacting Eddy-current probe ibration Vibration Instrumentation: An eddy current (also known as Foucault current) is an electrical phenomenon caused when a conductor is exposed to a changing magnetic field due to relative motion of the field source and conductor (or due to variations of the field with time). within the conductor. This can cause a circulating flow of electrons. or a current.

Non contacting Eddy-current probe 90 / GE / .ibration Vibration Instrumentation: .

Velocimeter or seismic 91 / GE / .ibration Vibration Instrumentation: .

Piezoelectric Accelerometer The sensing element is a crystal which has the property of emitting a charge when subjected to a compressive force.ibration Vibration Instrumentation: . F=m*a a = d2x/dt2 92 / GE / .

Piezoelectric Accelerometer 93 / GE / .ibration Vibration Instrumentation: .

Piezoelectric Accelerometer Accelerometer Amplifier ∆V 94 / GE / .ibration Vibration Instrumentation: .

Solenoid Valve 95 / GE / .

They are being used to an increasing degree in the most varied types of plants and equipment.Solenoid Valves Solenoid valves are used wherever fluid flow has to be controlled automatically. 96 / GE / .

when electrically energized or de-energized.Solenoid Valves: Construction Solenoid valves are control units which. When de-energized. 97 / GE / . The actuator takes the form of an electromagnet. When energized. the plunger or pivoted armature is returned to its original position by the spring action. a magnetic field builds up which pulls a plunger or pivoted armature against the action of a spring. either shut off or allow fluid flow.

Solenoid Valves: Operation According to the actuation mode. a distinction is made between: • direct-acting valves • internally piloted valves • externally piloted valves Further distinguishing features are: • number of port connections • number of flow paths ("ways") 98 / GE / .

Solenoid Valves: .Direct-acting valves With a direct-acting solenoid valve. the seat seal is attached to the solenoid core. De-energized condition Energized condition  seat orifice closed  seat orifice open 99 / GE / .

the core spring. assisted by the fluid pressure. In the de-energized condition. the core and seal are pulled into the solenoid coil and the valve opens.Direct-acting 2-way valves Two-way valves are shut-off valves with one inlet port and one outlet port. When energized.Solenoid Valves: . holds the valve seal on the valve seat to shut off the flow. 100 / GE / .

Direct-acting 3-way valves Three-way valves have three port connections and two valve seats. 101 / GE / . the mode reverses.Solenoid Valves: . When the coil is energized. One valve seal always remains open and the other closed in the de-energized mode.

In this case. the differential fluid pressure performs the main work in opening and closing the valve.Solenoid Valves: . 102 / GE / .Internally piloted Internally piloted solenoid valves are employed for switching higher pressures in conjunction with larger orifice sizes.

These valves have four port connections: a pressure inlet P. two cylinder port connections A and B. 103 / GE / .Solenoid Valves: . and one exhaust port connection R.Multi-way internally piloted Internally piloted 4-way solenoid valves are used mainly in hydraulic and pneumatic applications to actuate double-acting cylinders.

which can be mounted on the actuator. A 3-way solenoid valve. the piston is raised against the action of the spring and the valve opens. the valve seat is closed.Solenoid Valves: .Externally piloted With these types an independent pilot medium is used to actuate the valve. controls the independent pilot medium. 104 / GE / . When the solenoid valve is energized. In the unpressurized condition.

105 / GE / . The small volumes and relatively high magnetic forces involved with solenoid valves enable rapid response times to be obtained.Response times The response time is defined as the time between application of the switching signal and completion of mechanical opening or closing. Valves with various response times are available for special applications.

Servo-Valves 106 / GE / .

Servo-Valves: Gas control system 107 / GE / .

Moog Servo-Valve (Flapper Type) 108 / GE / .

Moog Servo-Valve – inside view 109 / GE / .

Servo-actuator Simplify Diagram 110 / GE / .

Moog Servo-Valve applied to a Gas Valve 111 / GE / .

Conversion Torque .Position 112 / GE / .

Abex Servo-Valve (Jet Pipe Type) In 1957 R. thus providing a measure of reliability for a particular failure mode. This valve provided a single oil inlet path instead of the dual path in flapper-nozzle valves. 113 / GE / . Atchley devised a two stage servo-valve with a first stage based on a jet pipe valve.

Abex Servo-Valve (Jet Pipe Type) 114 / GE / .

Servo-Valve: Ports Position 115 / GE / .

Speed Sensors 116 / GE / .

Speed sensors •Normally 6 sensors (3 for protection and 3 for control) 117 / GE / .

Speed sensors and toothed wheel 118 / GE / .

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