Introduction 0020 1BF28/JC

This book is intended to give the student a deeper knowledge about the functions of a diesel engine. After going through this book, it will be possible to answer several questions, and perform some basic calculations. The aim of this book, Introduction to the Diesel Engine, is to cover the following main areas: • Understanding of the working principle of the diesel engine as a thermal power engine. • Calculations of various basic parameters of a piston engine using SI units. • Based on a general understanding of the diesel engine process, the ability to judge the efficiency of the process using measurable parameters and knowledge of typical disturbances. • Based on the item above, the ability to take appropriate actions in operation and maintenance. • Ability to explain the energy distribution in a running engine under different conditions. • Understanding of the behaviour of internal and external forces in an diesel engine. • Ability to identify main components of the diesel engine and to decide their purpose and design features. • Knowledge of the use of different materials in a diesel engine. • Understanding of the importance of lubrication and knowledge of the lubrication points of a diesel engine. • Knowledge of the purpose of the diesel engine auxiliary systems, flows and general construction. • Knowledge of the safe operating area of a diesel engine and methods to protect and control its functions.


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Fundamental Principle

1. Fundamental Principle
1.1. Thermal power engines
Energy in nature, in one form or another, originates from solar energy. Thermal power engines change natural energy to such a form that it can be used practically. In the internal combustion engine, the combustion takes place inside the engine, and the gas pressure created inside the cylinder performs the mechanical work by forcing the piston down. In a steam engine, combustion takes place outside the engine, in a boiler, and the steam generated is used to move the piston inside the steam engine. In the piston engine, the combustion gas pressure is acting on a back and forth going or rotating piston. The first mentioned is called a stroke piston engine and the latter a rotation piston engine .

Fig. 1. Piston diesel engine

Different from the piston engine, the kinetic energy in the gases is used in the gas turbine and jet engine. In the diesel engine, the fuel and air are mixed in the cylinder or in a space connected to the cylinder after which the mixture auto-ignites by the high compression temperature. The diesel engine is a thermal power engine and, in function, a piston engine.


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This air is compressed during the second stroke. Different strokes Exhaust stroke 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 4 . In the 4-stroke engine. During the third stroke. The fourth stroke requires two revolutions on the crankshaft to complete the working cycle.Fundamental Principle 0020 1. dependent on strokes needed to complete one working cycle. according to function and construction. Working principle. be divided into the following groups: A. the exhaust stroke. the expansion takes place due to the combustion. the compression stroke. the aspirating stroke.2. the air or air/fuel mixture is sucked in to the cylinder during the first stroke. the expansion stroke. At the fourth stroke. Grouping of diesel engines Diesel engines can. Aspirating stroke Compression stroke Expansion stroke Fig. 2. the combustion gases are discharged.

Engines may also be grouped according to the way the cylinders are arranged.. the combustion air is sucked in by under-pressure created when the piston moves down.0020 Fundamental Principle In the 2-stroke engine.) 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 5 .. In a 4-stroke engine. In the single acting engine. Due to high vibrations inherent in this design they are seldom seen today. C. for instance vertical engines or horizontal engines. V-angles can vary between 45. This is called a suction engine or a naturally aspirating engine. One side of the piston at a time. In-line engines will be longer than the V-engines. 2db3. and therefore the piston is not transferring any forces to the cylinder walls. Only small engines are one cylinder engines. where the connecting rod is connected to the piston rod. Construction. With several cylinders in an engine. the combustion takes place on both sides of the piston. the vibration level can be reduced and the running will be smoother. Engines may be constructed as one-cylinder engines or multi-cylinder engines. 3. E. where as in the double acting engine. Most common today is 60 or 90°. Another arrangement of cylinders is in-line engines versus V-engines. the combustion takes place on only one side of the piston. If the combustion air is compressed before entering the cylinder. discharge and flushing of the cylinder take place. Filling of the cylinder. (Single piston engines versus double piston engines. Different ways of construction D. B.Under the second stroke expansion. Cross head engines.120°. Function. F. this is called a supercharged engine. Single or double acting.cgm Fig.Only two strokes or one revolution on the crankshaft are required to complete the working cycle. the cylinder is filled with the air or air/fuel mixture which will be compressed during the first stroke.

The unit for this is cm3 for smaller engines and dm3 or litre for bigger engines. 1..5 and 18 MW.300 revolutions per minute... Basic principle of the piston engine The term stroke (S) is used to describe the distance the piston has to travel in the cylinder.. 4. Based on the revolutions..1200 revolutions per minute. Slow speed engines in a range of 85. Different ways of function G. High speed engines range between 1200 and 3000 revolutions per minute. Medium speed engines of the smaller size are in the range of 600. The term swept volume (Vs) represents the volume calculated from the cylinder diameter and the piston stroke.Fundamental Principle 0020 2db4. Medium speed engines of the bigger size are in the range of 300.3. dm or m). The output is normally between 0.4 and 7 MW. The formula is: VS = π ∗ D2 ∗S 4 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 6 .. The unit for stroke is (cm. The piston turning points are called Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC). Normally the output is below 500 kW. normally between 7 and 40 MW.cgm Fig.800 revolutions per minute with an output between 1. Output of these engines are high.

and can be used as a comparison value between different engine types. Power or the mechanical work is an important factor both for comparing different engine types as well as evaluating the efficiency of various installations. the higher the engine will be.and compression volumes The term compression ratio (ε) is the ratio between the volume above the piston before compression starts compared to the volume above the piston in the end of the compression. and the combustion will be poor due to a short piston stroke. Output compared to the construction volume will be small. Swept. The bigger this ratio is. The Greek letter ε is named epsilon. The indicated power (Pi) is a power where both the effective work as well as the mechanical 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 7 .0020 Fundamental Principle Stroke to bore ratio is of importance for the size of the engine. 5. We also differ between indicated power and effective power. and the units will be the same. The unit for power is kilowatt (kW). The longer the stroke is the higher the mean piston speed is. With small ratios the piston will be very large compared to the stroke. TDC Vcomp Vs BDC S Fig. The formula is: vp = S ∗ n 30 where: n is engine speed in revolutions per minute and S is stroke in meter. Compression volume (Vcomp)is the cylinder volume above the piston with the piston in TDC. The term cylinder volume (Vcyl) is the mathematical sum of swept volume and compression volume. Formula is: ε= VS + Vcomp Vcomp The term mean piston speed (vp) is a calculated value dependent on the stroke and the engine revolution.

The pressure in the cylinder varies with the position of the piston.Fundamental Principle 0020 losses are included. can be calculated using the following formula: P= 0. P (bar) Pi 0 s P Fig. The relation between these is: pmi = µ m ∗ pme where: µm is the mechanical efficiency. pme = calculated mean effective pressure (bar). Na = working cycles per minute (for a four stroke engine.31∗ D2 ∗ S ∗ Na ∗ Z ∗ pme where: D = piston diameter (m). For practical calculations and comparisons between different engine types. S = stroke (m). Vs = calculated as earlier described (dm3) n = the engine revolution (r/sec). the engine revolution divided by two). the term mean pressure. Mean effective pressure 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 8 . or output. We differ between indicated mean effective pressure (pmi) and effective mean pressure (pme). pme= calculated mean effective pressure (bar). An other way to calculate the output is: P = 1. is used. Effective power (P) is consequently the rest when taking away the mechanical losses from the indicated power. acting on the piston during the working stroke. Z = number of cylinders. 6. Effective power. Z = number of cylinders.2 ∗ Z ∗Vs ∗ n∗ pme T where: T = 2 for 2-stroke engines and 4 for 4-stroke engines.

Supercharged engine The power. or in a V-engine. or in a V-engine. On our left hand. = 101. The first thing to do is to give names to the various sides of an engine. horse power (1)HP = 76. the mean effective pressure will increase. The relation between kw and horse power is: 1kW = 1. Metric horse power (1)hp = 75 kpm/sec = 0. A higher output requires a stronger design. the engine cylinders are fed with compressed air (more air per volume unit). the revolutions as well as the ambient conditions under which the output is available should be mentioned. we place ourself in the flywheel end of the engine and look out over the engine. The underside is called the bottom and the opposite side is called the top of the engine.36 hp (= 1kJ/se. 1. Eng. As a result. and therefore we will go through these definitions.736 kW. or output. which will be more expensive. Fig.0020 Fundamental Principle By supercharging. To do this. is expressed in watt or kilowatt according to the SI-units. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 9 . Terminology A general terminology should be used. The end where we are standing and where the flywheel is is the driving end or the flywheel end. Opposite this end is the free end.4. when stating the engine output. we have a side which is called the operating side. the B-side. Furthermore. and thus can burn a greater amount of fuel. 7. The opposite side to this is called the back side. the A-side.746 kW. Earlier this was expressed-in either metric horse power (hp) or engine horse power (HP).97 kpm/sec).04 kpm/sec = 0.

in a right hand rotation engine the generator rotates counter clockwise. As said earlier. for instance.Fundamental Principle 0020 Fig. 9. the engine can rotate to the right or to the left. when looking toward the engine from the flywheel end. if we have to turn 180°. Direction of rotation 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 10 . Fig. i. A right hand rotation is called clockwise rotation and left hand rotation is called counter-clockwise rotation. Different sides of an engine The direction of rotation can be defined while still standing at the flywheel end. we can also decide the rotation of a generator.e. 8. when standing still at the same place. The generator has to rotate in the opposite direction of the engine. Furthermore.

Furthermore. cylinder No 1 as well as main bearing No 1 are situated at the flywheel end. The most common today is to number the cylinders and main bearings from the flywheel end.0020 Fundamental Principle Numbering of cylinders and main bearings. It must be mentioned that there are still manufacturers numbering the cylinders and main bearings from the free end. it is normal to place the turbocharger either in the free end or in the driving end. Marking of main bearings and cylinders 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 11 . Fig. In other words. 10. For a power plant. the most common is to place the turbocharger in the free end.

Fundamental Principle 0020 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 12 .

A peak pressure of 5 bar was reached during combustion. After about half of the stroke this mixture was ignited. Mr Otto then started to develop an engine where the air /gas mixture was compressed before ignition. The first engine to burn poor quality fuel was design by an englishman named Herbert Akroyd Stuart in 1890. Mean piston speed was 1. Compression pressure was 2. These three german gentlemen and their inventions started the history of the vehicle and vehicle engines. Power was 0. The Otto engine was further developed by Daimler/Mayback and the engine was equipped with a carburettor. This was a big step ahead compared with other stationary engines. In the year of 1886 he presented his gasoline driven 4-stroke engine. stroke 150 mm. In the year of 1867. The efficiency was not higher than in the earlier gas engines. the air/fuel mixture was sucked into the cylinder. The engine was double acting and the cylinder was cooled by water. constructed a gas engine having an efficiency of 14%. At the same time. In the beginning of the stroke. gasoline was used instead of petroleum. Output from the engine was 2 kW at a speed of 180 r/ min. The piston diameter in this engine was 90 mm.8 m/s and the mean effective pressure 2. The compression pressure for this engine was around 3 bar and the peak pressure was just above 5 bar. The weight of the engine including cooler.4 bar.5 bar. In the year of 1876 the first 4-stroke engine developed by Otto was completed.0020 History 2. another person named Bentz (also from Germany) made tests on the gas engine. A German man named Nicolus August Otto bought a Lenoir engine and found out that he could get a higher output by igniting the gases earlier than at half the stroke as Lenoir did. Total efficiency was around 4 % which was higher than the steam engines at that time. carburettor and fuel tank was 108 kg which corresponds to a power/mass ratio of 150 kg/kW. These parameters were high at the time and the engine was called a high pressure engine. but not compared to the Otto and Lange engine due to a lower efficiency. Mr Otto.1. having the power/weight ratio of 800 kg/kW. The first to successfully develope a combustion engine in the USA was George Bailey Brayton. History 2. Production of this engine was started by an engine manufacturer called Deutz. Furthermore. Specific fuel consumption was 1170 g/kWh which corresponded to an effective efficiency of about 7 %. This was a success compared to the Lenoir engine. In the year of 1876 he demonstrated a 2-stroke engine. together with his partner Mr Eugene Langen.7 bar and the peak pressure was 10 bar. The development of the internal combustion engine before the diesel engine The first useful combustion engine was constructed in Paris 1860 by a man named Jean Lenoir. The engine was operating on air and petroleum ignited by a spark. His engine was equipped with a vaporisation 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 13 . The opposite side of the piston discharged exhaust gases from earlier combustion.7 kW at 400 revolutions/min. This gave a mean effective pressure of about 0.

was to vaporise the fuel injected there. The purpose of the chamber. which gave an efficiency of 14 %.2. the chamber had to be preheated before starting.History 0020 chamber in direct connection to the working cylinder. 11. Mr Rudolf Diesel 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 14 . This hot body chamber engine is considered the forerunner to the semi diesel engine.2. The increased pressure. as well as a higher thermal efficiency. The beginning A german. fuel was injected into this hot chamber where it vaporised and was mixed with the hot air after which auto ignition took place. Rudolf Diesel. stated that a process where the combustion took place under a constant pressure should give a lower specific consumption than in all other known combustion processes at that time. the specific fuel consumption was as low as 580 g/kWh. Since the compression pressure was only 3 bar. due to the combustion. Due to the compression pressure. 12. The diesel engine 2. which was uncooled. At preset time. During the suction stroke clean air entered the cylinder. and during the compression stroke air flowed into the chamber. The Akroyd engine 2.1. Fig. forced the gases from the chamber to the working cylinder where the actual working stroke took place. Fig.

The engine performance was: Output 13.. but would be easier to realize.. This was by far the most efficient engine at the time. the RPM has increased to correspond to a mean piston speed. Diesel engines are developed and manufactured in more than 100 factories around the world. with most being under 200kW. which should also give a much lower efficiency.2. Development of the diesel engine Up to 1920..25 bar at present. Due to the low RPM. mostly 4-stroke diesel engines where built. this figure adds up to more than 200. These medium speed engines are also used as main engines in smaller ships. Slow speed engines are mainly intended as main engines in large ships. During the last 10. The first engines were single acting. At the same time. they can be directly connected to the propeller shaft. Therefore. This engine is named the “first diesel engine”.. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 15 . Mr Diesel understood that such high pressures could not be controlled.. specific consumption was as low as 335 g/kWh which gave an efficiency of up to 25 %.5 kW at 158 revolution/sec.1950 up to 20.. This process should give much lower compression pressures.. Mr Diesel’s engine nr 3 was completed in 1897. Around 2000 medium speed engines are produced per year. the 2-stroke diesel engine was developed. If licenced manufacturers are included. More than 5 million high speed engines are produced yearly. In the end of the century.000 kW.0020 History According to his calculations. the 2-stroke engine came under development because in double acting 2-stroke engines it was possible to get a higher output than in the 4-stroke engines.2. The world wide production of diesel engines today is within the range of 1kW to 40. In 1920.. 2. but due to higher output the engines became double acting. Exhaust gas turbines were developed. Developments continued when supercharging was accepted in mid 1940 leading to an increase in the mean effective pressure as well as output. mostly as alternator sets in ships and as power plant engines. of about 10 m/s. he also studied another working principle. his engine should have peak pressures of up to 250 bar.8 bar during 1940.15 years the mean effective pressure has raised from 5. and cooling of the air after the turbocharger was taken into use. The diesel engine is the only engine working on the principle of self-igniting the fuel due to the compression temperature.

History 0020 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 16 .

13.6 Marine diesel oil 14. Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 3. The amount of air.6. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 17 . the released amount of energy in a perfect combustion is equivalent to the net calorific value of the fuel. Theoretically.1.1.3 is used. This is normally done by using a maximum pressure indicator.0 13. a minimum of about 14 kg of air must be available in the cylinder..0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 3.2. Combustion and combustion spaces 3. Air mixing with the fuel. The figure below shows the amount of air/kg fuel as a function of the net calorific value. To burn 1 kg of fuel. Need of air for combustion In the modern supercharged engines an air factor of 1. Figure 14 shows a cylinder pressure diagram where fuel injection time is also included.4 14. Supervising the combustion is important when evaluating the engine condition.6 kcal kg mJ kg 9800 41 9900 41.5 10000 42 10100 42. ignition and combustion in the cylinder is a chemical/ physical process. Combustion process The most important factor for optimum combustion is that the fuel is injected at absolutely the right moment..1.5 10200 10300 43 10400 43. kg air kg fuel 14.5 Fig.2 14. compression temperature and the compression pressure are all of equal importance. The time available for the fuel to mix with the air is very short in a diesel engine because the fuel is injected just before TDC and ends shortly after.8 Heavy fuel 13. fuel/air mixture.

Function Principles of the Diesel Engine


P bar 4 Pmax





Compression Nozzle needle movement 100ø 75ø







100ø CA

Fig. 14. Cylinder pressure diagram

This picture explains: 1. injection delay, is the time it will take for the injection pump to build up a pressure above the injector opening pressure. 2. ignition delay, is the time from when the fuel is injected until when it will self ignite. Ignition delay is dependent on the fuel quality, compression temperature, compression pressure and fuel droplet sizes. To achieve a controlled combustion the ignition delay has to be as short as possible. 3. Combustion under constant volume, is also called the fast pressure rise step. Due to the ignition delay, fuel will be collected in the cylinder. When this is fuel ignited, the combustion will proceed quickly and the pressure will increase rapidly. If the delay is too long, the pressure rise will also be too fast. This phenomena is called “knocking” and should be avoided. Furthermore, the peak pressure rises as well. 4. Combustion under constant pressure, during this period the final fuel will be burned. Temperatures and pressures are so high that the fuel droplets ignite at once. To achieve a good efficiency, the combustion should end at the fourth step. In high speed engines, it is difficult to avoid burning during expansion. To obtain a fast and complete combustion, both the compression temperature as well as the pressure should be the highest possible. On the other hand, a high inlet air temperature will lead to a lower air density, and therefore, a higher thermal load. To avoid this, the inlet air temperature to the cylinders should be kept low.


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Function Principles of the Diesel Engine By increasing the compression ratio, the pressure level in the process will rise, but will lower the mechanical efficiency due to increased friction. Criteria for certain compression ratios will be a safe start in cold condition.

3.1.2. The shape of the combustion space
The shape of the combustion space is of importance for an effective mixing of air and fuel. Combustion spaces can be divided into two groups. A. Direct injected combustion spaces: • flat combustion spaces ( small air rotation) • chamber combustion space (high air rotation)

Direct injected comb. space


Whirl- and fore chamber

Air chamber

Fig. 15. Shape of combustion chamber

B. Split combustion spaces:
• pre chamber • whirl chamber • air chamber Deciding which type of combustion chamber to choose depends on the following: • mean effective. pressure • low specific fuel consumption • revolution wanted • clean combustion and clean exhaust gases • noise level
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Function Principles of the Diesel Engine


Direct injected combustion spaces Direct injected combustion spaces are the most common in todays medium speed engines. The most economical solution is the flat combustion space type. Specific fuel consumption is far below 200g/kWh. In this solution, the injection valve is placed in the center, above the space, and is always equipped with a multi orifice nozzle. Fuel injection pressures are high, even up to 1500 bars, and the air factor is up to 2.0 bar or above. The air rotation is relatively small. The chamber combustion space alternative is not as economical as the flat combustion space, and is normally used for high speed engines. Advantages with direct injection spaces: • Heat losses through combustion chamber walls are small with engine effiiency high and fuel consumption low. • Due to small heat losses the cold start performance is good. • Compression ratios are lower than in the indirect combustion chamber versions, and therefore, the mechanical efficiency is higher. • Shorter ignition delay which gives a smoother operation. Disadvantages if any: • Fuel injection equipment required is more sophisticated and therefore slightly more expensive. • Due to the small holes in the injector nozzles, maintenance is required more often. Indirect combustion spaces Indirect combustion spaces are mainly intended for small high speed engines. There are both advantages and disadvantages with this construction, but since direct injection spaces are mostly used today, we will concentrate on that.


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1 Vc Vs . 2 .1 Vc Vs V Fig.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 3. p bar 3 . The energy obtained is represented by the area between point l-2-3-4. . From point 3 to point 4 the expansion takes place. 16.3 ..4 .1 V Vc Vs V p b ar C o m b in e d c o n sta n t v o lu m e a n d p re s s u r e 3 4 . C o n s tan t v o lu m e p bar C o n s ta n t p re s s u r e 2 . Theoretical thermal efficiency of this process is: ηπ = 1 − 1 ε (κ −1) 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 21 . the air/fuel mixture has been compressed. . The real engine differs from the ideal process due to losses.4 . the compression takes place “adiabatically” according to thermodynamic laws from point 1 to point 2. Point 1 in the figure represents the gas volume in the cylinder at the point when the compression starts. we have to describe three ideal processes. which means constant volume. To clarify the diesel engine working process. 2 . These can be seen in the Seiliger diagram below. the combustion of the fuel takes place when the piston is at TDC. Before that time. Prom point 4 to point 1 the combustion gases are removed from the cylinder. Seiliger diagram The first process is called constant volume combustion or “Otto” process: In this process. In this process. Working process The best thermal efficiency is achieved by combustion at constant volume or when the piston is at the top dead center.2. From point 2 to point 3 the pressure will rise under constant volume.5 .

This theoretical process is the closest to the actual diesel process. During the first combustion phase. This factor is unknown and difficult to establish. The third process to be explained is the combined constant volume and constant pressure process. Theoretical thermal efficiency is the ratio between theoretic work and energy input. The second process to be explained is called constant pressure combustion. The pressure in the cylinder after the compression remains the same through the whole combustion period. Compression takes place between point 1 and point 2. In a real engine. Compression temperature at the same piston position is: T2 = ε (κ −1) ∗ T1 Where: T2 = the temperature after the compression. the pressure in the cylinder will rise to its maximum point which is identical to p5 max. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 22 . the mechanical efficiency will be reduced when the compression ratio rises due to the high peak pressures. As a result of this. The burning of the fuel is considered to start at point 2.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 The formula shows that the thermal efficiency increases with higher compression ratio. During this process the combustion of fuel takes place first under constant volume and then the rest of the fuel is burned under constant pressure. Theoretical thermal efficiency in this case is: ηπ = 1 − 1 ε (κ −1) ∗ 1 ε1 − 1 ∗ κ ε1 − 1 κ Where: ε1 is the expansion ratio between V3 and Vcomp. because it is dependent on the amount of fuel burned. The pressure when the piston is in TDC can be calculated from the following formula: p2 = p1 ∗ ε κ Where: p2 = the pressure at the end of the compression cycle. It can also be mentioned that in a piston engine. the temperature will rise to T3. the burning will start earlier. but the volume increases. The peak pressure under this process will be much higher than under constant pressure. p1= the pressure before the compression starts. This will increase the friction forces. and T1 = the temperature before the compression. The combustion starts after the compression and continues up to expansion.

no mechanical losses. • No flow losses. • The process is heat insulated. the pressure and temperature will be P5 = V4 ∗ p max V5 (κ −1) κ V T5 = 4 V5 ∗ T4 Discharge of the combustion gases takes place under a constant volume. This energy loss can be calculated by the formula: Q2 = m ∗ C hm ∗ (T5 − T1 ) Where: Chm is the specific heat value of the gases.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine At the end of the expansion when the piston is in BDC. The mechanical energy is the difference between energy obtained from the combustion and the energy lost in the exhaust gases. During this period a certain amount of energy will be lost. Losses in the real process So far the ideal processes have been described. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy  3 4 V 23 . The ideal process is identified from the following: • Clean filling of the air (no rests in the cylinder from earlier combustion). • The combustion is complete. • Air factor is the same as in the real engine. P bar 2 1 V i Fig. 17.

3. air/fuel mixing is not 100 %. the temperature will rise to such a value that the fuel will auto ignite. 5. • Heat is lost through the combustion chamber walls. Heat losses through the combustion chamber walls. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 24 . p C A B s V D Fig. 4-stroke diesel engines pV-diagram THE PRINCIPLE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE IS: By compressing the air. Thermal losses via the exhaust gases. Uncompleted expansion. 4. Losses in relation to the fuel energy in the diesel engine can be listed as below: 1. The above losses are in the range of 50. 2.. • Leakage through the piston rings. Friction losses.. The losses are considerably higher at low loads compared to full load operation.65 % depending on engine type. • Discharge of exhaust gases starts before the piston has reached the BDC.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 In reality there are more losses. 18. The following list shows the difference between the ideal process and the real process: • Combustion is not totally complete. Also to be included among the losses are the friction forces. and therefore some unburned fuel will disappear via the exhaust gases. Uncompleted combustion. The indicated work is not the same as the output available at the flywheel.

The energy changed to useful work is named as total efficiency (ηe). In a 2-stroke engine. In medium speed engines. the output could theoretically be double compared to a 4stroke engine with the same cylinder dimensions. this mechanical efficiency is around 84. The indicated output from the engine cannot be fully utilized. is different in the 4-stroke engine compared to the 2-stroke engine. peak pressures and engine driven pumps. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 25 . 3. The mechanical efficiency (ηm) can be calculated by the formula: ηm = Pe Pi where: Pe = the output at the shaft and Pi = the indicated output. The total efficiency is an important value when comparing different engine types having efficiencies close to 45 % today. The mechanical efficiency depends on several factors such as engine size. This can be calculated from the formula: ηe = P ∗Q be where: P = output. be = specific fuel consumption and Q = the net calorific value of the fuel. There are energy losses due to friction in pistons. valve mechanisms. injected fuel is not completely changed to mechanical energy. The formula for this is: ηe = ηi ∗η m where: ηi = the indicated efficiency and ηm = the mechanical efficiency of the engine.. as well as the method of gas exchange.4. number of cylinders. The total efficiency can also be expressed as part efficiencies.. RPM and mean effective pressure. compression ratio. Gas exchange When combustion remnants are replaced with clean air. as well as required power for engine driven pumps. Efficiencies In the diesel engine. and in high speed engines about 5 % lower. The time required for this gas exchange.94 %. it is called gas exchange (or flushing). engine revolutions. the exchange will take place during 360° whereas in the 2-stroke engine the exchange takes place during 1/3 of this time.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 3. as earlier described. bearings. In the 4-stroke engine.3.

When both the inlet valves and exhaust valves are open during the same time in TDC. 50° TDC 50 ° 40° TDC 40° HAUST VAL EX VE HAUST VALV E VE VAL EX INL ET 40 ° BDC 50° 10° BDC 55 Fig.5 kg/kWh. Valve overlapping 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy INL ET VE VAL ° 26 . the camshaft rotates with half the crankshaft speed.7. Since inlet valves and exhaust valves are open at the same time in TDC.1. it is called valve overlapping and has to be longer in an engine with higher RPM.140°. and for a 2-stroke engine 8... which preferably should be performed on a hot engine. 19. 3.5. Valve overlapping can be seen in figure below. the flushing of the cylinder is poor due to the shorter time available for the gas exchange and also the fact that some clean air is discharged with the exhaust gases. The exhaust valves open to start discharging before BDC while the exhaust gases are still under pressure. the valves have to open before the dead points in the cylinder..2 times more than needed for the 4-stroke engine. Gas exchange in a 4-stroke engine The gas exchange in the 4-stroke engine is regulated by mechanically operated valves. Also. The opening period of the valves are checked by measuring the valve clearances. Since the inlet valve is closing after BDC the real compression ratio will be less than the theoretical.11.4. These are factors which lower the mean effective pressure in the 2-stroke engine. Thus the kinetic energy of the air can be used... The valves are operated by the camshaft which is driven by the crankshaft via gear wheels or chains. The inlet valves open before TDC and close after BDC. High speed and medium speed diesel engines today are nearly all 4-stroke engines.2.0. Valve overlapping for 4-stroke diesel engines are around 60. the 2-stroke engine needs more air than the 4stroke engine.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 In practice this is not possible because the effective stroke in the 2-stroke engine is shorter.0 kg/kWh... Specific air consumption for a 4-stroke supercharged diesel engine is between 5. This is called pre-discharge.. Furthermore. Since the gas exchange takes place every second revolution. To give the gas exchange enough time to be completed. this will ensure effective discharge of exhaust gases and cooling of piston top and valves. Air required is 1.

There are several different methods of supercharging an engine. Burning a large amount of fuel with a surplus of pressurized air will increase the combustion pressure. On the other hand. the advantages are that big that nearly all medium speed engines of today are supercharged. One type called mechanical supercharging takes the power needed directly from the crankshaft. which will increase the cost of the engine. When the exhaust gas flow increases. Supercharging The term supercharging means the method of feeding the engine with pressurized air. but instead is using the energy in the exhaust gases.5. the turbine on the same shaft as the compressor starts to rotate faster. We will concentrate on a method called turbocharging. Energy which otherwise would be totally wasted. Exhaust gas discharge ports are placed in the cylinder liner or in the cylinder head with valves as in the 4-stroke engine. With supercharged engines. the charge air pressure rises. This method is seldom used in modern engines. Supercharging a diesel engine leads to increased mechanical and thermal stresses.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 3. 3. Gas exchange in a 2-stroke engine Gas exchange in the 2-stroke engine takes place in l/3 of the time compared to the 4-stroke engine.4. Increasing the amount of fuel burned also increases the power output of the engine. and consequently a bigger quantity of fuel per working period can be burned. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 27 . Turbocharging is a self-regulating process.2. the amount of air entering the cylinder will be larger than in the suction engine. and consequently. Turbocharging is economical. The reason is that the total efficiency is high particularly because the turbocharger is not using any mechanical power from the engine. The power of the turbine depends of the engine output because the energy in the exhaust gases follows the injected fuel quantity. Air inlet ports are placed in the cylinder liner wall. This calls for a stronger and heavier design. The figure shows the energy in the exhaust gases.

a larger amount of the excess heat is removed from the engine with the exhaust gases. the valve over-lapping has to be bigger than in the suction engine. 20. The figure below shows the diesel engine process in a supercharged engine. However. The thermal loading increases in relation to the net mechanical output. The peak pressure can be lowered by decreasing the compression ratio. The peak pressure rises in relation to the charge air pressure. Another limitation to turbocharging is the peak pressure. Energy in exhaust gases The most important limitation in increasing the mechanical output is called thermal loading. This term describes the amount of heat energy which must be removed.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 Exhaust gases 360°C Exhaust gas turbine Exhaust gases 500°C 400°C Fig. In other words. To achieve this. as the turbocharger works with big air surpluses. the exhaust gas temperature will rise. but this will increase the specific fuel consumption and thus the thermal load. Another way of lowering the peak pressure is by changing the timing. but lowering this value too much will cause starting problems due to too low of a compression temperature. High peak pressures will also lower the mechanical efficiency. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 28 .

5. The efficiency is best on a high and steady load. 22. 21. Exhaust energy a. Puls charging energy 2 3 1 3b 3a V Fig. This common and rather big pipe is damping the pulses from the discharging strokes.1. Constant pressure charging 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 29 . Effective work 3. 3. a constant pressure system or a pulse charging system can be used. Advantages with constant pressure turbocharging are: • easy construction • high efficiency at the optimum load part • high mean effective pressures can be achieved Disadvantages are: • big energy losses in exhaust gases • poor part load performance • slow load response • kinetic energy is not used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fig. From this pipe the exhaust gases are flowing to the turbine. figure 22. With more cylinders the pressure will be more even.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine P 1. The process in a supercharged diesel engine Depending on the way of using the exhaust gas energy. Constant pressure energy b. the turbine works with an almost constant pressure and the exhaust gases from all the cylinders are lead into a common pipe. Constant pressure charging With the constant pressure principle. Filling 2.

Pulse charging Advantages with pulse charging system are: • good performance over all loads • fast load response • high engine efficiency Disadvantages are: • vibrations and pulsations in the charging system. the air is heated and normally the air is cooled in an air cooler directly following the compressor. and at the same time on the same shaft. the kinetic energy (velocity) is used. The energy arrives to the turbine with a minimum of losses. This compressor takes the air through a filter and further delivers it overpressured to the charge air receiver. Compressing the air leads to an increase in the temperature. When the exhaust gases flow to the turbine housing. Turbocharger revolutions for medium speed engines are in the range of 15. Small dimensions are used to avoid expansion of the gases. Pulse charging In the pulse charging system. When cooling the air the density will increase and thus the mass flow will increase.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 3. To achieve this small pipes have to be used. The figure below shows the result of air cooling. 23.000 . 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 30 . the compressor. Due to the losses in the compressor. they will start rotating the turbine wheel.000 revolutions per minute. More fuel can be burned which will increase the output.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig. The energy arriving to the turbine is larger than in the constant pressure system but the efficiency is lower.45.5.

24. It can also be mentioned that every manufacturer has the right to give out their own reference conditions which then.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine Exhaust gases 36O°C Exhaust gas turbine Exhaust gases 500°C Air inlet 25°C Charge air compressor Pressurized air 220°C 2. Reference conditions are mentioned in ISO3046/I where de-rating formulas for calculations are also found. When making calculations. It is also important to know under which ambient conditions the engines are to operate. HP).e.6 bar Air cooler Cooling water Pressurized air cooled to 50°C 400°C Fig. as earlier mentioned. the engine output has to be de-rated. hp.6. of course. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 31 . De-rating is done to ensure that the thermal loading on the engine under worse conditions will not rise above the level at reference conditions. When giving out the power it should also be stated under which ambient conditions the output is available. absolute temperatures are to be used i. If the operational conditions are different from the reference conditions. produced in kilowatts (kW). (sometimes in horsepower. Charge air cooling 3. should be stated. The IS0 reference conditions are 298 Kelvin (25°C) for both the ambient temperature and the coolant temperature to the charge air cooler. and thus lower the operation time of the engine. Operating properties Output is. Kelvin.

Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 The reference pressure is 100 kPa. In the IS0 calculations the relative humidity. This recalculated specific consumption will then serve as a reference value when calculating the engine efficiency and plant overall efficiency. The best way to explain a heat balance in an engine is by a Sankey diagram. If the specific heat value in the fuel used is different from the reference value. the total heat input has to be corrected. The energy is split up into the following external losses: • Exhaust gases • Cooling water • Mechanical losses • Radiation. The remaining energy is identical to the theoretical work of the engine. These internal losses are exhaust gas losses. has been split up into useful work as well as internal losses due to the combustion in the cylinder. The internal losses in an engine are thermal losses. This specific consumption should always be measured at the manufactures plant and then recalculated to the existing site conditions. However. The engine heat balance is expressing how the fuel. Formulas for this are as well included in the IS0 standard. is this energy reduced with the mechanical losses. When the fuel is burned. The first two mentioned are not measurable but of importance in understanding the diesel engine process. The specific consumption increases when the calorific value goes down and vice versa. thermodynamic losses and mechanical losses. see figure below. One way to measure the specific consumption in a power plant is to measure the difference in the day tank level. thermal losses arise. Formulas for output calculations have been mentioned earlier. cooling water losses. fed to the engine. The effective work. These internal losses will then be found as outer losses. radiation losses and energy to operate auxiliaries. the remaining energy is the indicated work. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 32 . or engine output. The engine torque (M) can be calculated by the following formula: P M= e ω where: ω = the angular velocity and should be calculated as: ω = 2 ∗π ∗ n The specific fuel consumption (be) is of importance when the efficiency of various engine types has to be compared. and has proven to be rather close to reality. This is the ambient pressure at sea level or approximately 1 bar. when talking about pressure charged engines. The amount of energy depends on the type of process and compression ratio. When taking away the thermodynamic losses. it has to be considered reality. is of no importance. Flow or mass-flow meters can also be used but will be somewhat more expensive. which are to be found mostly in the cooling water.

For this the following formulas are to be used: Fuel input = B ∗ Q where: B = Gross consumption in (kg/s) Q = Net calorific value in (kJ/ kg). the fuel input has to be calculated first. The difference is that work is energy used per time unit (kW=kJ/sec). For this study. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 33 . work or output is used instead of energy. 25.diagram 3. Determining a heat balance for a diesel engine To be able to make a heat balance for an diesel engine.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine Fig.7. Sankey. Formulas for net output have been determined earlier.

= m ∗ c ∗ ∆T 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy  34 .cgm FUEL OIL Fig. 26. Diesel process LOAD Power to be cooled away by the cooling water can be calculated by the following formula: Pcool.Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 EXHAUST TEX TC AIR TA T P T T P 4db29. The output in the exhaust gases are to be calculated by the following formula:   Pexh.18 kJ/kgK) ∆T = temperature rise (K). (4. = m ∗ c ∗ ∆T where: m = the massflow of water (kg/s) c = thermal conductivity for water.

5% 9. air to the eng. power 40.0020 Function Principles of the Diesel Engine where: m = massflow for exhaust gases in (kg/s) c = thermal conductivi ty for the gases (kJ/kgK) ∆T = temperature difference of gases (K). By adding the outputs for net power. % 5% Comb. The temperature difference is the exhaust gas temperature after the turbocharger minus the ambient temperature. The heat balance of a typical diesel engine is seen in the figure below. cooling and exhaust gases the sum will be around 96 %.5% Alt.5% 29. Energy balance 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 35 .5 % Fuel 100% Fig. Radiation losses 2 % El.  Charge Exhaust Jacket Lube oil air cooler gases cooler cooler 12.045 kJ/kgK. 27. Thermal conductivity for exhaust gases is 1. The mass flow in the exhaust gases is the sum of air consumption and specific fuel consumption. Losses 1. The rest up to 100 % is called radiation.

Function Principles of the Diesel Engine 0020 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 36 .

are acting. from the moving parts in the crank mechanism can be calculated by the following formula: Fp = m p ∗ r ∗ ω 2 where: Fp = the centrifugal force mp = the rotating masses ω (omega) = the angular velocity (2 * π * n) n = the engine revolutions r = the crank radius (S/2) The piston. The gas forces are the dominating forces at lower revolutions while the mass forces are the dominating forces at higher revolutions. the piston rings. the piston gudgeon pin and the upper part of the connecting rod are the up and down moving masses. Mass forces On the main moving components in a piston engine (crank mechanism). TDD υ BDC ω α mp 5db31. Centrifugal force 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 37 .1. Mechanics of the Piston Engine 4.cgm Fig. forces of the up and down moving parts and the centrifugal forces from the rotation. the gas forces.0020 Mechanics of the Piston Engine 4. The centrifugal force. 28. which is acting on the main bearings.

cgm Fr Fr mr b Fig. Moving mass forces In the above formula. as seen in figure. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 38 . Fp Fn s ω l r Fn 5db32. the first part is called the mass forces of the first order and the formula is: F| = me ∗ r ∗ ω 2 ∗ cosα The second part in the formula is called the mass forces of the second order and the formula is: F|| = me ∗ r ∗ ω 2 ∗ λ ∗ cos 2α Up and down going mass forces are vibrating in the direction of the cylinder liner centre line.Mechanics of the Piston Engine 0020 Up and down moving mass forces (acceleration forces) can be calculated from the following formula: Fe = me ∗ r ∗ ω 2 ∗ (cosα + λ cos 2α ) where: Fe = the up and down moving mass forces me = the up and down moving masses λ = the connecting rod ratio r/l α = the phase angle. The frequency of the first order forces are the same as the engine revolutions while the frequency of the second order forces are double the engine revolutions. 29.

25 Fig. The tangential force is both positive and negative. Formula for tilting moment: M r = Fn ∗ S or Fr ∗ b where: Fn = the side force acting on the piston. and Fr = the tilting force. Figure 31 shows the forces acting on the engine due to the piston force. The crank mechanism caused torque is as big as the external coupling (tilting moment) of the engine. where the positive forces are rotating the shaft and the negative forces are acting against the rotary motion. 30. Second order forces 4. Formula for the torque: M v = Ft ∗ r where: Ft = the tangential force.1.0020 Mechanics of the Piston Engine At the piston TDC. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 39 . Firing order should be kept as equal as possible to minimise the variation in the torque. In a 4-stroke engine the torque is changing a lot during one working period (two crank shaft revolutions). F N F =F + F e I 2 2 II me r me r FI F II 0 180 360 = 0. the crank mechanism is giving a side force acting on the piston. In multi cylinder engines the torque is the sum of the various cylinder torques. the up and down moving forces are acting against the gas forces. Due to combustion gases.1. Gas forces and irregularity When the combustion gases expand it causes a rotating movement on the crank mechanism. This force is moving via the cylinder liner and engine block down to the fastening points of the engine.

This is called a flywheel. rotating masses are added to the crank shaft. 31. A bigger flywheel will give a more even running. Degree of regularity shall be around 300 for generator sets when 50 is acceptable for a mill. Inertia is calculated by the following formula: J = W ω 2 ∗λ where: ω = angular velocity. 4. Balancing of shafts Rotating masses in a diesel engine have to be both statically and dynamically in balance. Statically in balance means that the shaft is still in any position. A shaft is not dynamically in balance due to the rotary motion of centrifugal forces that arise causing variable torque.2. Engines with less cylinders need bigger flywheels than several cylinder engines to achieve the same running regularity.Mechanics of the Piston Engine 0020 Fn β Fp Fcs α Fl Fn Fcs Fp Fig. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 40 . Gas forces Ft Fcs To equalise the torque in an engine. W = the irregularity energy λ = the degree of regularity.

0020 Mechanics of the Piston Engine Forces of the first order can be balanced with counterweights on the shaft as seen in figure below. Counter weight Counter weight Fig. 33. 3 2 2 3 1 4 4 1 1 4 Gear wheel 2 3 5db36. 32. Counterweights on a crankshaft Forces of the second order cannot be balanced with counterweights on the shaft but have to be balanced by eccentric balancing shafts rotating double the shaft speed and in the opposite direction of each other. Normally 4-cylinder engines need these type of eccentric balancing shafts which are placed in the engine oil sump and driven by a gear from the shaft. Balancing shaft 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 41 .cgm Eccentric shaft Gear wheel Eccentric shaft Fig.

compromises have to be made. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 42 . This will increase the bending moment and.Mechanics of the Piston Engine 0020 4.4. the best firing order from a torsional vibration point of view might cause increasing bearing loads. and therefore. Torsional vibrations will cause vibrations in the engine block and the bearings are loaded with high frequency vibrations. If the firing order is chosen well.3. 4. In a piston engine this includes. Torsional vibrations Torsional vibrations are defined as a sequence of periodical variations due to torque in a shaft system. the torsional vibration level and the bearing load will be low. in the worst case. If the frequency of these torsional vibrations are the same as the shaft frequency or any order of resonance. Firing order When choosing firing order the aim is to get the gas forces to act on the shaft as equal as possible. other rotating and up and down moving parts. besides the shaft. the critical revolution is reached. On the other hand. to such a level that the shaft will break. Torsional vibrations have a negative affect on the transmission.

In such a case the liner is metal to metal sealed in the upper part.0020 Main components 5. In more modern engines the main bearing caps are tightened in the engine block. The specific with the engine block is that several types of forces are affecting at the same time. In medium speed and bigger engines the cylinder liner is assembled in such a way that the cooling water is touching the backside of the liner. The most common is to make them separate. way of cooling and the material. torque and inertia forces. Main components 5. such as bending moment.1. Slow speed engines are made of several pieces due to the size. Engine block The design of the engine block depends on the size. Fig. In some engines the crankshaft is placed in the bed plate. Today it is common that the whole engine block is made in one piece. 34.2. The main requirement for an engine block is rigidity. The material in the engine block is cast iron. lubrication pumps and water pumps. The engine block also serves as a frame for necessary auxiliary equipment such as injection pumps. In medium speed engines and bigger engines. Side screws are used for avoiding movement between machined surfaces. It is kept in place by the cylinder head holding down screws. Advantages of this method are: • easy to change when worn out • can be made of more suitable material. which at the same time serves as an oil sump. Cylinder liner The cylinder liners are casted directly in the engine block in small engines only. and sealed by O-rings in the lower part to avoid 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 43 . Engine block 5. there are crankcase doors for each cylinder which intended for inspection and maintenance.

Gas pressure forces the top piston ring against the liner wall and at the same time the high temperature lowers the oil viscosity. the oil film cannot keep the ring from touching the wall. preferably every time the piston rings are changed. Maximum profile depth should be around 4. B. C. When the piston is close to TDC in the beginning of the working stroke. indicating that the air filtration is insufficient. If the thermal loads are high. Chemical wearing. overheating of an engine will affect the oil film in the cylinder liner. which are in contact with the wall. To achieve this roughness the liner should be honed. the pressure and temperature from the combustion reaches maximum values. which enters the liner have a grinding effect. takes place mainly in the upper part of the liner. The cylinder liner is normally made of special cast iron. Honing marks Wearing of cylinder liner walls and piston rings.. Wear due to particles is biggest half way down on the liner and can be seen over the whole stroke. an alternative is viton rubber. In the same way. originates from the water that comes when burning fuel containing hydrogen. The roughness of the liner surface is of great importance. and otherwise during inspections if the surface seems to be shiny.cgm Fig. This type of material is best in case of a piston seizure. takes place due to the following reasons: A. 35. This slight roughness of the surface lowering the mechanical wear of the liner wall as well as lowers the lubrication oil consumption. These O-rings must be made of special material. If it is too smooth the oil film will disappear. Mechanical wearing. These particles can be dust entering via the inlet air. At this point the piston speed is very low. As a result of these events. A good material is nitrile rubber. Particles.Main components 0020 water from entering the crank case. Angles of honing marks can be seen in the figure below. 30- 6db38.. and also comes from impurities in the fuel such as sul1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 44 .8µm. because on one side they are in contact with water and on the other side in contact with oil. or they can originate from the fuel.

36. If the wear appears only in a short area around the TDC. it can be chemical wearing. The cylinder head is fastened to the engine block by screws. The later can be avoided by keeping the right temperature in the cooling circuit. In todays highly supercharged diesel engines. With a thick lower part. If the screws are tightened 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 45 . An effective and equal cooling of the lower part is needed to avoid uneven thermal expansion. A great amount of heat is passing through the cylinder head in the cooling water. the injection valve is placed in the cylinder head.3. Peak pressures and temperatures are affecting the head which has to stand high thermal and mechanical stresses. the thermal stresses will be biggest in this area. thin and well cooled lower part. a cooled upper part also. where the cooling is also effective. the cylinder head is built with an intermediate bottom. a safety valve (piston diameter 240 mm) and an indicator valve. Cylinder head The cylinder head closes the upper part of the cylinder liner forming the combustion chamber. as well as inlet and exhaust valve(s) and rocker arms. The cylinder head has to be strong and rigid in order to avoid deformations.0020 Main components phur. In a 4-stroke engine. Normally the wear is larger at the top of the liner and becomes less downwards. Cylinder head Cylinder heads are normally casted from cast iron of various qualities. and due to the exhaust channels. a relatively low. Fig. Furthermore in medium speed engines there is a starting valve. 5. Figure 36 shows a typical cylinder head in a turbocharged 4-stroke diesel engine.

In the long run the problem will be to seal against the gases. In such a case all screws are tightened at the same time and in one step. they must be of the correct material. A general requirement for the sealing is that they should withstand deformations. otherwise the friction coefficient changes. If cylinder head screws are to be changed. It is therefore advisable to change this sealing every time a cylinder head is removed for inspection.Main components 0020 by torque they should be tightened in at least two steps and in a special order given by the manufacturers. If cylinder head screws are over-tightened they should be changed. Screws used in this case are tension screws. In some engines the screws are tightened hydraulically. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 46 . The purpose of the cylinder head sealing is to seal between cylinder head and cylinder liner.

muimorhC elbamrofnoC gniR reparcS liO . the upper part of the piston is forming a part of the combustion chamber. The consumption in a 4stroke diesel engine is around 1 g/kWh. Furthermore. The piston is often named as the most important part in an engine. 37.2. The piston ring area and ring set as in Fig 37. Therefore smaller clearances can be used which makes it possible to use poorer quality fuels.8 % of the air supply. have to be such that the sealing is good and the lubrication oil consumption is low.muimorhC depahs lerrab-lacirtemyssA derefmahC gnir noisserpmoC gnitaoc cimareC. stresses from gas and mass forces have to be considered.. and often has a steel top. In newer engines this is made of steel. Main components (Moving) 6.0020 Main components (Moving) 6. The advantages with cast iron pistons are better wear and heat resistance. but also the clearance between piston and liner. Piston ring set Blow through in a supercharged engine is in the range of 0. When designing a piston. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy gnitaoc a msalP denworc lanoitceriD gnir noisserp moC dedaol gnirpS gnitaoc muimorhC elbamrofnoC gniR reparcS liO 47 gnitaoc muimorhC depahs lanoitceriD derefmahC gnir noisserp moC gnitaoc cimareC. Main requirements for a piston is high wear resistance and seizure prevention. Piston The main purposes of the piston are to transfer the gas energy to the crankshaft. The piston stands against side forces caused from the crankshaft.muimorhC depahs lerrab-lacirtemyssA derefmahC gnir noisserpmoC dedaol gnirpS gnitaoc cimareC. The piston rings prevent lubrication oil to enter the combustion space. In supercharged diesel engines the piston bottom is cooled by lubrication oil. A normal material in a piston is light metal or cast iron. to transfer heat and to seal against combustion gases. Lubrication oil consumption is not only dependent on the oil scraper ring.. with a minimum of deformations in the material. With the shape of the upper part of the piston the air/fuel mixing can be improved.0. The flame step is from the first ring and up to the piston top.1. Standard Previous Fig.

is an oil collecting grove. Slide surfaces are. Materials in piston rings are cast iron of various qualities. Due to the massand gas forces and friction forces the rings are moving in their groves axially. This is to ensure an equal shirt lubrication when the piston moves upwards. and due to side movement even radially. They have a rigid and strong design to withstand variable loads. The aim is to minimise the oil consumption and blow-by. various types of spring constructions are used in the back side of the ring. to take up side forces from the piston. To increase the compression in the scraper ring. Both types have their own basic purpose. in modern engines. 0020 Fig. In the upper part of the piston skirt. Piston The aims of the piston skirt are to guide the piston in the liner. Figure 38 shows a typical piston. divided into two groups. The compression rings have to prevent gases from passing through to the crankcase and the scraper rings transport the oil surplus from the cylinder liner walls back to the oil sump. The piston rings are. 38. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 48 . The piston rings have to work in unfavourable circumstances. chromed to increase life time. The piston forces are transferred to the crankshaft through the piston pin boss.Main components (Moving) Possible reasons for piston ring grove wear: • high temperature in the ring grove (over heating) • poor fuel quality and corrosion due to combustion gases • big piston clearance • bad inlet air cleaning To lower the wear the groves can be hardened. and to regulate the thickness of the oil film in the cylinder. compression rings and scraper rings. to transport heat to the cylinder liner wall and lubrication oil. Holes in the piston shirt on the back side of the oil scraper ring are there to evacuate the oil surplus back to the crankcase space. due to their function. Wrong position of the rings against the liner wall and vibrations will make it possible for the gases to blow by and for the oil consumption to increase. under the oil scraper ring.

the parting face is milled and the serrating is polished. The lower part is split either horizontally or inclined.3. Fig.0020 Main components (Moving) Normally the diameter of the gudgeon pin is around 40 % of the piston diameter. The material used in crankshafts today has special steel qualities. 6. Crankshaft Due to gas and mass forces the crankshaft is exposed to torque and bending movement. In medium speed engines the counter weights are manufactured separately and connected to the shaft by screws. In the upper part the bearing is pressed in. Connecting rod The purpose of the connecting rod is to transfer gas forces from the piston to the crankshaft. the lubrication oil is led through the gudgeon pin up to the top of the piston.2. Connection rod 6. The lower part is tightened to the connecting rod with two or four screws. The connecting rod is one of the most important parts in a diesel engine. In the design both the gas and mass forces have to be considered. Fig. In medium speed engines. 40. 39. This size of gudgeon pin is needed to ensure enough bearing areas. Crankshaft 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 49 . The upper part of a connecting rod is fixed and the lower part is always split up. Normally the crankshafts are forged in one piece except for very big engines where the shaft is built up of pieces. Inclined parting face is used when the stresses on the screws would otherwise be too big. In bigger and supercharged engines. Figure 39 shows a typical connecting rod. Bearing surfaces are either hardened or unhardened. Drillings in the shaft is there for feeding lubrication oil from main bearings to connecting rod bearings and further up to the piston through the connecting rod. where the pistons are cooled.

In real heavy fuel engines. In the diesel engines poppet valves are mainly used. The flywheel is connected to the shalt by a flange connection.4.. Normal values are 20. If torsional vibration calculations shows the need. Valve mechanism In todays 4-stroke diesel engines the gas exchange is performed by valves placed in the cylinder head. Camshaft 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 50 . The valve stem diameter is around 20. The valves are driven by the camshaft. The valve clearance is adjusted from the adjustment screw in the rocker arm. The valve tappets in bigger engines are normally roller tappets. The shape of the cams is dependent on the opening velocity of the valves. two for the inlet and exhaust vales and one for the fuel injection pump. Sealing surface is tapered.. The camshaft should be placed as high up as possible compared to the cylinder head to lower the masses of the valve mechanism. The size of a flywheel depends on the degree of smoothness and the driven machine. The camshaft drive is normally gear wheels.25 % of the valve disc diameter. Camshafts in todays medium speed engines are made in sections with separate bearing journals. and furthermore the gear tooths are hardened. these are fitted. 41.45°. the valve guide is equipped with an O-ring which acts as a pump and feeds oil on the valve stem thus preventing the valve from sticking. In supercharged and poor quality fuel operating engines. To avoid gas exchange and expansion losses the valve opening and closing speed should be high. Fig. 6. When deciding the type of cast iron. This damper is fitted in the free end of the crankshaft. The material in a flywheel is cast iron or steel. The rocker arm has to transfer the camshaft movement to the valves. There are three cams in one camshaft piece. In bigger engines it is advisable to use tight fitting screws.. The gear drive can be on either side of the engine. The push rod between the valve tappet and rocker arm is often made out of steel pipes with hardened pieces in both ends. the stem is chromed to lower the wear. The cam surface is hardened. The camshaft revolution is half of the engine revolution. Most common today is the friction damper.Main components (Moving) 0020 The aim of the flywheel is to increase the running smoothness. With torsional vibration dampers the vibration level will be lowered. The material in these gear wheels is high quality cast iron. even the peripheral velocity has to be considered. Figure 41 shows a typical camshaft section..

roller bearings and slide bearings. Fig. the thickness of the oil film also changes. Oil film 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 51 . the connecting rod bearings and the main bearings are heavily loaded. In a roller bearing the friction is lower than in a slide bearing. the result is over heating of the bearing.2. bearing housing. • a slide bearing stands better against shock and shaking forces which occurs in piston combustion engines. We will concentrate on slide bearings. In slide bearings lubrication oil is used to lower the friction and heat between the two slide surfaces. there is a dry friction between the bearing and the shaft. Bearings 7. 7.1. Types The bearings are one of the most important parts in an engine. the shaft and the lubricant. 42. Two types of bearings exist in diesel engines. • a slide bearing is easy to change since the bearing consists of two pieces. When the temperature of the shaft and the lubrication oil increases. The roller bearings are used for smaller engines and the slide bearings for bigger engines. The aim of the bearing is to transport loads from a moving part to a fixed part or from one moving part to another moving part. In diesel engines with high peak pressures. When the engine reaches a certain revolution the oil film increases and the dry friction changes to liquid friction. Advantages with slide bearings compared to roller bearings are: • a slide bearing stands high revolutions and high loads.0020 Bearings 7. When starting an engine. Of these the lubricant is the most important since it transports the load from one component to another. • a slide bearing requires less space than a roller bearing. the oil viscosity friction forces decrease at the same time. Function of slide bearings The function of a slide bearing depends on the bearing. Since the bearing load changes. If the lubricant cannot carry the load or keep the two surfaces away from each other.

• big fatigue strength to withstand the variable loads occurring in a piston combustion engine. Bearing 7. Connecting rod bearings and the normal main bearings are without collars. Disadvantage is that this material stands less impurities. good for poor quality fuels. Most of the heat is transported away by the oil. • AlSn layer. The thinner the layer is the higher the fatigue strength is. Bearing design In todays diesel engines the main bearings and the connecting rod bearings consist of bearing shells of steel on which the bearing material is fastened. • stand against corrosion. • high thermal conductivity. • soft enough to absorb small particles of impurities. has a better resistance against corrosion since no lead is in the material and also has better wear resistance and fatigue strength since the hardness is higher. Fig. In loaded bearings. Fatigue strength is a function of the thickness of the layer. Bearing materials Requirements on bearing materials: • enough hardness to carry the shaft load without deformations. Todays bearing can be replaced without any fittings. The most common main and connecting rod bearings are tri-metal or bi-metal bearings. without scratching the shaft. hardness bigger than tri-metal bearings. Only one bearing in either side of the crankshaft is equipped with a flange to take up axial forces.4. 43. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 52 . heat is created. • SnSb layer. not good enough for engines operating on poor quality fuels due to sensitivity to corrosion. Most common materials used in slide bearings are: • PbSnCu layer.3. The rest of the bearings in an engine are bearing bushes. A good resistance against corrosion and high fatigue strength.Bearings 0020 7.

6. Parting face of the bearing is always placed where there is no bearing load. Furthermore an oil grove in the shell will split up the bearing load as seen in figure 44. the temperature of the oil leaving the main bearings is around 90°C. When replacing bearing shells it is important to change to the right one in regards to both design and material. To ensure an equal lubrication of the surface the bearing shells are equipped with oil pockets or grooves. To ensure good guidance of the shaft in the bearing.. the bearing load varies in both size and direction. This applies for an inlet temperature on the oil at around 75.5.. 44. and around 110°C when leaving the connecting rod bearings. Fig. If the bearing surface is only partly loaded the lifetime will be shorter. To achieve this the oil flow has to be relatively big which requires a certain clearance. Clearance and lubrication When the engine is running. This is made so that the end part of the shells have been made thinner than the rest of the bearing shell. as seen in the figure 45. As a general rule. Bearing load 7. the clearance between the bearing shell and the shaft should be minimised. If bearing clearances are correct. As earlier mentioned the aim of the lubrication oil is not only to lubricate but also to transport heat.0020 Bearings 7. As a 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 53 . Bearing load The bearings are designed to stand the combustion pressures as well as the mass forces occurring on maximum allowable output when the whole bearing surface is equally loaded. but not too much since the pressure will then be too low. it can be said that the slide surfaces on both bearing and shaft shall be as smooth as possible since a thinner oil film is required on a smooth surface.8O°C.

Bearing shell 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 54 .cgm Fig.Bearings 0020 guidance for bearing clearances.08 % of the shaft diameter. 45. it can be said that they should be around 0. 8db48.

the pressure will rise. Fig. the pump piston will return to the start position forced by a spring. injection pump pressures are up to 1500 bar. This requires high quality components. When operating the engines on poor quality fuel oils. Main components are transfer pump and filters. when this is in its lowest position. The aim of the transfer system is to transfer clean fuel oil from the tank to the injection pump and transport the leak oil back to a tank for reuse.0020 Fuel System 8. After the injection. From the suction side of the injection pump the fuel flows via inlet holes to the top of the pump piston. The injection system consists of injection pump and injection valve. via cleaning devices and filters. Fuel System 8. The fuel cam on the camshaft will force the injection pump piston upwards. a cleaning system and a temperature control system are also required. Description of function The fuel oil system consists of the fuel supply system and the injection System. Fuel system The injection system ensures that the right amount of fuel is fed to the various cylinders at the right time. At the same time the spring loaded pressure valve on 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 55 .1. Today. and the fuel will discharge via the pressure valve in the top of the injection pump via the injection pipe to the injection valve. The supply pump transports the fuel to the suction side of the injection pump. 46.

3. Most common pumps today are screw pumps.20 microns (µm)... Leak fuel oil from the pump and the injection valve are connected to the leak fuel oil piping system. In engines burning poor quality fuels the supply system is round circulated and the quantity is between 1. Filter A good filtered fuel will give harmless operation. The pressure is also kept higher to avoid possible boiling due to water in the fuel oil... The other filter is a wire gauze insert filtering particles bigger than 4. Supply pump The fuel supply pump shall feed the injection pump with such a pressure that the injection pump cylinder will be filled up with fuel between the injection periods. Fuel oil filter 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 56 . 8. Fig.. 47. A good filter is also equipped with an alarm indicating when the filter inserts have to be changed. In medium speed engines the most common filter type is a duplex filter. The first one to flow through is called a fine filter.2 times the consumption on overload.. This fine filter is normally made out of paper and has to be changed regularly. 8. This means that the filter consists of two type of filters.Fuel System 0020 the top of the pump will close the outlet to the injection pipe. The capacity of the supply pump shall be big enough to avoid insufficient supply on overload of the diesel engine. The fine filter filter particles bigger than 10.2.50 microns.5.

Fig. By rotation movement the plunger stroke will be longer or shorter. The piston and the cylinder is called the pump element.4. 48. If parts are to be changed in a pump. Clearance between the cylinder and the piston is very small. As seen in the figure below the plunger has a longitudinal grove and a helix slot which is called the control helix..0020 Fuel System 8. Plunger rotation movement is transferred to a rack where an indication of the quantity is given. Fuel enters when the plunger is in the lower position. It is important that the injection stops as quickly as possible to avoid after-combustion. In the cylinder is one or two drillings through which the fuel enters from the suction side to the pressure side. as earlier mentioned. By this control helix the fuel quantity is regulated.10/ 1000 of a mm. When the plunger moves up and reaches the point where the drillings will be closed. the higher pressure in the injection pipe and the injection valve spring will force the pressure valve to close until the pressure starts rising again. to feed the cylinder with the right quantity of fuel at the right time.. The camshaft is forcing the piston upwards and the spring is again forcing the piston down. it is advisable to change both piston and cylinder or the complete pump element at one time. When the pressure drops in the injection pump cylinder. Another name for the piston is plunger. the pressure rises and the fuel passes to the injection valve passing the pressure valve in the top of the injection pump. The fuel quantity is thus regulated by rotation of the plunger. Injection ends when the helix comes in contact with the inlet drillings. We will concentrate on pumps used in medium speed engines The purpose of this pump is. Injection pump The injection pump in a diesel engine is a single piston pump. A normal value is 6. Injection pump 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 57 .

Fuel System 0020 8. Advantages of injection valves with a spring loaded needle are the short injection time and high pressures. The fuel will not ignite before it is gasified.5. 49. and the combustion is complete. Injection valve 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 58 . Fig. Injection valve The injection valve injects the fuel atomised to the combustion chamber in such a way that mixing of the fuel to the air in the cylinder is effective.

If a lubricant is placed between these surfaces it will fill up the roughness and form a film which then prevents metal contact. A lubricant is supplied to various places in big quantities and under pressure. Splash lubrication is used in older 4-stroke engines. The volume of such a system is far bigger than in other systems. The pump can be both engine driven as well as electrically driven. The oil is in the oil sump where it is splashed around by a ladle on the crankshaft. and then drips down into the sump. General Independent of how precise a metal surface is machined there are always irregularities which can be seen with enough magnification. This is used in some small diesel and semi-diesel engines. The lubrication oil is collected in a lubrication oil sump under the engine or in a separate tank. Direct lubrication means that various places are lubricated by a separate small pump. Description of systems Most medium speed diesel engine manufactures today are using pressure lubrication. From this place it will be sucked through a strainer to the lubrication oil pump where it will be forced through a filter and a cooler to various places to be lubricated. When two metal surfaces are gliding against each other. By doing this.1. thus lubricating cylinders and bearings. and as a result.0020 Lubrication system 9. Cooling of the lubrication oil in these engines is arranged by radiation to the surroundings. Instead of dry friction we will get liquid friction. their roughnesses are touching and causing a resistance against gliding. heating. seizure. heat is transported away and the bearings are flushed of possible impurities. Lubrication system 9.2. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 59 . The aim of lubrication flow is to: • reduce the friction to a minimum • seal against the gas pressure above the piston rings • transport heat away • protect against corrosion • flush away deposits 9. This resistance is called dry friction and results in wearing of surfaces.

Furthermore.3.5. Normally bigger engines are equipped with filters of the same type as described in the fuel system chapter.4. metal particles and combustion rests are acting like grinding materials which quickly wear out the moving parts. Lubrication oil cleaning Cleaning the lubrication oil is important since dust. The main lubrication pump shall be oversized. Normally the coolers are tube or plate coolers. Lubricating oil system. In this filter. Oil is en- 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 60 . pressure lubrication 9. the lubrication oil also takes part in cooling the bearings and other thermally highly loaded parts such as the pistons. the impurities are separated by the centrifugal force. 50.Lubrication system 0020 Fig. 9. some engine manufacturers have equipped their engines with a centrifugal filter. Lubrication oil flows For effective heat transport. difference in density. the lubrication flow has to be large. Nearly 50% of the flow is by-passed through a regulating valve. The function can be seen in the figure 51. Water is used as a cooling media on the secondary side. Lubrication oil cooling Besides lubricating. 9.

In the figure below. 51. The reaction force of the flowing oil is rotating the filter.cgm Fig.0020 Lubrication system tering in the centre and is flowing down to the lower part of the rotor where the nozzles are. Lubrication oil consumption Due to the function of the piston.6. 52.. Centrifugal filter 9.000..10. ID10-20. small lubrication oil consumption cannot be avoided. the lubrication oil temperature in various places can be seen. Lubricating oil temperatures 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 61 . Fig. Revolutions on such a filter depends on the oil pressure between and is in the range of 5.000 RPM.

• since the piston rings are moving freely in the groves they create a pumping effect. Lubrication oil consumption is. These leaks are called internal leaks. forces are moving the lubrication oil between the piston and the liner. If the lubrication oil consumption rises to 2 % of the fuel oil consumption it is indicating that something has to be done. When increasing the output the peak pressures will also increase as well as the blow-by. oil is entering due to following reasons: • the up and down going piston and the variable acceleration lubrication oil is moving closer to the TDC. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 62 . Increased blow-by will vaporise more lubrication oil. From these two places the oil tries to enter the combustion space. the higher the engine revolutions are the bigger the consumption will be due to the pumping effect from the piston • mean effective pressure.. • roughness of the liner. too low a pressure will increase the consumption and too high a pressure will increase the wear. too rough of a surface will increase the consumption.3.Lubrication system 0020 Main consumption takes place in the middle section or the engine cylinder. around 0. as earlier mentioned. especially if there are scratches in the liner wall. • during the working stroke acting side. Via the cylinder liner.0. • piston ring pressure against the liner wall. the higher the viscosity is the lower the consumption will be. piston and piston ring set to the combustion chamber. Lubrication oil consumption is dependent on the following: • engine revolution.7 % of the fuel oil consumption.. the higher the output is the higher the oil temperature will be. and some parts in the upper section or the valve guidances. • viscosity of the lubrication oil.

0020 Cooling system 10.8 °C. Advantages with the liquid cooling systems are: • the temperature is equal in the whole engine • cooling spaces are lowering the noise level The flow of a cooling water pump is dependent on the heat to be transported.. Furthermore. as mentioned earlier. Advantages with air cooling are: • simple and cheap construction • can operate during all ambient conditions since air temperature changes have only a small influence on the cylinder temperature • the operation temperature can be reached quickly Disadvantages are that lower compression ratios have to be used. a forced cooling system. The cooling is also needed for cooling the charge air after the compressor when the engine is equipped with a turbocharger.. Air cooling Air cooling is used in very small engines. Cooling system 10. mainly used in smaller engines.. Liquid cooling Liquid cooled engines are the most common today.. To prevent the lubrication oil from burning on the cylinder walls.. the noise level is higher than in a liquid cooled engine.2.30% of the fuel energy will be transported away by cooling. The cooling jacket surrounds the cylinder down to the crank case. Also. One type of liquid cooling.. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 63 . Circulation in relatively slow. Need of cooling During the compression and the work stroke. To achieve an equal cooling the temperature rise should be kept within 5. In larger engines where higher energy quantities are to be cooled away. is called thermosiphon circulation. 10. Circulation is obtained since the water rises when heated up. gas temperature in the engine cylinders will rise to very high values. The pump is normally a centrifugal pump and is placed at the cooling water inlet. an effective and even cooling is needed. lower output can be reached. calculated from the engine net output. This cooling system is based on the fact that the water density drops when the temperature goes up.1.120 l/kWh. or pump cooling.3. This will give a flow of around 60. the lubrication oil is cooled. Water is led into the jacket in the lower part and is discharged in the upper part from where it is transported to a cooler. and as a consequence. 10. is to be used. Around 25.

90 °C. 53. overheating of the engine can be avoided. Furthermore. For a typical regulated cooling system. Radiators and cooling towers are also often used where the water is cooled by the ambient air temperature. temperature regulation prevents against too effective cooling while still maintaining an equal temperature throughout the whole engine.. To regulate the temperature a thermostat is used. A typical regulated cooling system 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 64 . By temperature regulation. Outlet temperature of the cooling water is normally between 80. This thermostat is placed in the outlet line.. Fig.Cooling system 0020 Coolers are used to cool down the water. One common way is by water to water. see figure below.

Starting of an engine Piston engines have to be started by an external power source. Bigger engines are started with compressed air in a pressure range of 15. When the air distributor is in position the air passes up to the starting valve and forces the valve to open. Preheating will also allow fast loading of the engine. When opening the main starting valve air passes through. If turning devices are engaged. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 65 . is in contact with a gear ring on the engine flywheel. 11. See figure 54 for a typical starting system. Either the combustion air or the entire engine should be preheated. Electrical or diesel driven compressors are used to fill up the air bottles.. under starting sequence. Preheating before start By preheating an engine the friction forces can be lowered. Among other safety devices slow-turning can be mentioned. Starting air system 11. the main part goes to the starting valve which is placed in the cylinder head. turning bar in flywheel) the starting system can be equipped with an interlocking device. In a steam engine. Air is fed to the cylinder just after the piston has passed TDC during the expansion stroke. Starting systems For smaller engines (up to 200 hp) the most commonly used is an electric starting motor equipped with a pinion which. Air to the distributor has to pass a valve. Remote start To avoid damages (turning gear engaged.0020 Starting air system 11. and will close before the exhaust valve opens. and a small quantity goes to the starting air distributor. By such a device. air cannot pass up to the distributor and the engine cannot be started. possible water in the combustion spaces can be recognised and the engine fails to start. 11.. only the steam valve has to be opened.30 bar. 11. From the air bottle the compressed air is led to the engine’s main starting valve. However.

A typical starting system 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 66 .Starting air system 0020 Fig. 54.

The air consumption can also be calculated based on the cylinder volume. Crankcase ventilation The crankcase ventilation system evacuates the blow-by gases from the combustion. 12. 12. if not already installed.0020 Charge air and exhaust system 12. Furthermore.. These filters have to protect the engine from dust in the ambient air. The most common type of air filter is the dry type. For every 500 mm vp increase in the exhaust gas pressure. 12. Quantities of suction air Air consumption can be calculated based on the specific fuel consumption. In some installations it might be necessary to use an oil bath filter. 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 67 ..1. Air filters The values for the air consumption can be used when choosing a type of air filter. Air silencers Any air silencers beside the air filter on the engines are normally not needed. the exhaust gas pipes must be flexibly connected to the engine. These values are for maximum output. When the silencer is choosen. In the exhaust gas system a general rule is to use as few pipe bends as possible. the output decreases by 1%. but they are easy to make and install. Exhaust gas silencers In exhaust gas systems the gas back pressure has to be considered. engine revolution.3. By measuring the crank case pressure the condition of the piston rings can be checked. Dust is considered particles within the range of 1. Disadvantages are the higher price and the higher maintenance costs. In suction engines the exhaust gas back pressure should not be higher than 1000 mm vp.4.500 microns. The same value for the supercharged engine is 80 dm3/min. Experience shows that for a 4-stroke suction engine the needed amount of air is 75 dm3/min for each kW. Normally this filter is placed on the engine. Charge air and exhaust system 12. both the back pressure and the noise absorbtion has to be considered. 12. and in a supercharged engine only half of this value is acceptable.5.2. volumetric efficiency and the air constant. These are normally placed away from the engine. Normally engines are not equipped with crank case pressure indicators.

Charge air and exhaust system 0020 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 68 .

and instead we will concentrate on governors used in medium speed engines.2. 13. Parameters to be plotted are: • injection pump rack value • turbocharger revolutions • exhaust gas temperature after the cylinders (as a mean value) • peak pressures as a mean value of all cylinders • charge air pressure • charge air temperature 1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 69 . This cannot be achieved without a speed regulator. on variable speeds. In the case when the revolutions go up. Every engine manufacturer has their own measuring sheets. and this change in revolution will be picked up by the governor. either has to run on constant speed or as sometimes on ships. 13. which is an indication that the load has decreased. the load will increase and the governor will increase the fuel via the fuel rack on the engine until the revolutions come up to the pre-set value.0020 Control and monitoring system 13. Type of governors Different types of governors are available today. Since mechanical governors are mostly used in small engines they will be neglected in this chapter.3. If the revolutions go down. When measurements are taken. When the load changes the revolution also changes.5 %. independent of the load. all values are of equal importance and should be taken at the same time under the same running conditions. Making a trend analyse means that various parameters are plotted into a diagram. Such a sheet should be used.1. In generator sets these governors are equipped with a speed drop which will divide and balance loads between units paralleled in an electrical system. The basic function for the governor is to keep the revolution at the pre-set value. Such a trend analyse should preferably be made every four weeks. Every set of measurement should be saved and used for trend analyses. Mechanical means that the governor is mechanically linked to the fuel rack. depending on the function. Monitoring points Under normal operation the engine parameters should be recorded regularly. Speed regulation principles The diesel engine. The accuracy is far above the mechanical governor. the governor will decrease the fuel via the engine fuel rack until the revolutions are once again at the pre-set value. Depending on the way of operation these parameters should be recorded from once a day to once a month. The medium speed engine governors are mainly mechanical hydraulic governors. Control and monitoring system 13. The steady load band is below 0.

1BF28/JC Wärtsilä NSD Finland Oy 70 . called local meters and gauges: • engine revolution counter • turbocharger revolution counter • exhaust gas thermometer after each cylinder • pressure in the charge air receiver • temperature in the charge air receiver • HT-water temperature in and out • LT-water temperature in and out • HT-water pressure before the engine • LT-water pressure before the engine • lubricating oil temperature before and after the lubrication oil cooler • lubricating pressure • fuel supply pressure • fuel supply temperature (when running on poor quality fuel. a pressure gauge for the barometric pressure and a measuring device for the relative humidity.Control and monitoring system 0020 A medium speed engine should be equipped with the following thermometers and pressure gauges. needs to be heated) Besides these local meters and gauges the engine room should be equipped with an ambient temperature meter. placed on the engine.

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