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QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science

Teach this second Name Learning Journey QK, UK, The World! Reproduction and Sexual Health Key Vocabul ary Opportun ities for ICT and Literacy? Cross Curricula r Links? Activity Outcomes/ Assessment for Learning Resources-please highlight those you feel we will have to order

Red=display opportunities A Activity (PLTs Activity Overview ct and Subject iv Specific)Learning it Objectives y N o Same but different Show student pictures of African elephant and Asian elephant without 1 labels (see resources). What are these? Both elephants. Ask whether or To appreciate that not they are the same. Asian (or Indian) elephant - smaller size, smaller there are physical & different shaped ears, smaller tusks, more rounded back & a fourth differences toenail on each of their hind feet, than African elephants. African between members elephants have grey skin & Asian elephants have grey to brown skin of the same (often look different colours if dust covered). Explain that we can species. classify all living things by their different characteristics; the variety of living things makes it important to identify them and assign them to Know that the life groups. One major division is between animals and plants. processes common Now show students a selection of flowers (or pictures of flowers ± see to humans, other resources). Ask what these are. Discuss the fact that they are all flowers animals & plants and yet they look very different. What are the similarities? They all include nutrition, have the same flower parts ± petals, stamens, stigma and sepals, etc. movement, growth The function of this part of the plant is the production of seeds ± & reproduction. reproduction of the plant. What are the differences? The colour, shape & size of the petals, the way the seeds are dispersed, etc. These are all Learn about the physical differences. Which flower do students like the best? Take a parts of the flower. vote. Ask individual students to explain why they chose that particular flower ± what makes it better? Understand that What characteristics might we look for in a flower to make it the best ± pleasant smell, bright colours, petals that last a long time, size of the variety of flower, flower at a particular time of the year, etc. plants & animals makes it important Are the student¶sfavourites actually better flowers? Not all students had to identify them & the same favourite and that would be true of any group of people. We do however, allow these physical differences to create a hierarchy of the assign them to good and the not so good and yet all the flowers are capable of groups. producing seeds. Discuss local flower shows where particular physical characteristics score points or where displays can earn medals; look at Research, discuss http://www.rhs.org.uk/chelsea/ - the Chelsea Flower Show. Other plants & debate topical issues, problems & may be considered good because they provide food, dyes, medicine,

I can: 1. Understand that there are physical differences between members of the same groups of animals or plants. 2. Understand that physical differences can lead to a hierarchy of good/not so good. 3. Understand that physical differences are not necessarily important to function or ability.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
events. Understand that differences & similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial & religious diversity, gender & disability. Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar & of interest to them. Consider social & moral dilemmas that they come across in life. and so on. Whole class teaching: Go to a larger space, e.g. the hall or playground. Physical differences can be seen between different people too. Ask students to get themselves into a line in order of their height & then separate into two groups depending whether they are left or right handed & then whether they are girls or boys. If approp use the hair colour cards (see resources) and ask the class to sort themselves into the relevant groups depending upon their hair colour. If all the students in your class have the same colour hair, focus on other differences (eye colour), e.g. divide students into three groups, those who can jump high, those who can jump far and those who don¶t like to jump at all! Then sort students according to whether their arm span (distance between finger tips when arms are spread wide) is greater or less than or equal to their height. Point out that students can be sorted using many different characteristics ± and they are all lovely students! Could use All Kinds of People by Emma Damon to emphasise that we are all different but special! Group activity: Give students a selection of pictures of dogs (see resources) ± discuss them in the same way in their groups ± list differences: colour, length of hair, size of animal, shape of head, length of ears, etc. and list similarities: four legs, tail, bark, growl, tail that wags, etc. Ask students to explain to the rest of their group, which dog is their favourite dog and why? describe their favourite dog & explain why they chose it in one or two sentences and then add an illustration. Plenary: Discuss mongrels and pure bred dogs. Discuss the characteristics that would be useful in a dog ± e.g. good sense of smell to find skiers buried in snow or to discover drugs or arms that are hidden; obedience to work well as a sheepdog, intelligence to learn the skills to help a blind person, etc. Ask: Which characteristics would a dog need to be a fantastic family pet? - Well-behaved, lovable, loyal, friendly, reliable, not too large, etc. Are there any physical characteristics that are needed? Possibly size is important« but otherwise it doesn¶t really matter what the dog looks like for it to be a super pet.

E st i

Same but different 2 To appreciate that there are similarities and

Whole class teaching: In the last session we looked at some physical differences between students in the class. Now we are going to look at different students from all over Britain. Show students the We are Britain book and share some of the poems and descriptions of the students involved.

I can: 1. Understand that there are many similarities and differences between people. 2. Realise that differences

We are Britain by Benjamin Zephaniah & Prodeepta Das ISBN 978-0711219021, skin tone crayons

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
m at e d ti m e differences between people. Know that the life processes common to humans & other animals include nutrition, movement, growth & reproduction. Appreciate the range of national, regional, religious & ethnic identities in the United Kingdom. Think about people with different values & customs. Know that differences & similarities between people arise from a number of factors, including cultural, ethnic, racial & religious diversity, gender & disability. What do students think the message of this book is? That there are many similarities as well as differences between all students. What are the similarities? The students have hobbies and play sport and they enjoy eating various foods. What are the differences? Different religion, home towns, physical appearance, etc. Can class think of other similarities between students? Children have legs, arms, etc. All students eat & drink, move around using their skeletons & muscles. Children develop from babies and learn to do many things. Chn go to school, etc. What about other differences? Different favourite foods, birthday, height, different number of siblings, want to do different jobs when they grow up, etc. Other differences that students may not suggest should be mentioned: disabilities ± some students move around in wheelchairs or can¶t see or hear; some students live with both of their parents, some with one parent, some with other carers; practise different faiths. Discuss how Britain is a multi-cultural society ± we have people whose parents, grandparents or great-grandparents originally came from many different places in the world living here. Discuss how differences do not make us better or worse ± just different! Everyone has some things about themselves they would LIKE to be different. But we also have things about ourselves we feel glad about. Return to the We are Britain book and discuss some of the things that the chn in it are proud of. Group activities: Independent: Ask chn to write some notes about themselves or a friend in the class. Include hobbies, sports played, brothers & sisters, favourite foods, football team or music, etc. Chn write a poem about themselves or a friend in the class in the same style as Benjamin Zephaniah¶s poems that describe children. Add photo of chd to the poem and create a class book called We are Class 7Y! Remind chn that they are each unique and spe Independent: Chn produce a µWanted¶ poster about someone else in the class. Put the names of all chn in the class into a hat and allow students to choose a name without looking. They must draw a portrait of the chd concentrating on getting the physical characteristics correct ± hair colour, eye colour, length of hair, glasses, skin colour etc. This is a good opportunity to give students a choice of skin tone crayons to accurately represent the chd they have picked. The chn then describe the µwanted¶ chd in a few words at the bottom of the poster, without giving the name! Display the posters and challenge students to work out which is which. Do they recognise themselves? are neither good or bad, they are just different!

Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar & of interest to them.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Consider social & moral dilemmas they come across in life, e.g. encourage respect & understanding between different races. Plenary: Discuss how some parents are supposedly choosing µdesigner¶ babies ± they may want a boy or a girl in particular because they already have several daughters or sons; or it may be that a boy baby is likely to inherit a family disability or illness, whereas a girl baby would be healthy, or the other way around. Talk about how a disability may also prove to convey a surprising plus side, e.g. if you cannot see very well, you develop especially acute hearing. Take feedback from any student in the class who live with disability in themselves or their family. Are there any occasions where the disability has a plus side?

Life cycles 1 To rehearse knowledge of life cycles in animals & plants. Know that the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction. Know that the life processes common to plants also include growth, nutrition and reproduction. Know about the parts of the flower & their role in the

Whole class teaching: Start reading Flour Babies by Anne Fine outside the Science Sessions ± students will need to have heard the story by Session D1. Before continuing this Strand the class need to agree a set of ground rules ± this might include, e.g. i) do not ask personal questions of teachers or others ii) be sensitive to other people¶s feelings iii) be aware that you can choose not to speak if you feel uncomfortable about an issue iv) listen to each other v) understand that it is alright to giggle sometimes (with embarrassment) but don¶t go over the top vi) use the correct scientific vocabulary (see resources) Remind students of work done in earlier years about the life cycle of plants and of creatures such as frogs & butterflies. Look at diagrams (see resources pdf or websites, e.g. http://www.zephyrus.co.uk/spring2.html & http://www.blithfieldeducationcentre.co.uk/kp/environmentpages/butter fly_life_cycle.htm) ± what are the similarities and differences between the various life cycles? Seeds instead of eggs/frog spawn but the seeds can be quite different ± dispersal by wind, eaten & excreted by animals, catching on animals, by explosion (see resources pdf or

I can: 1. Describe the life cycles of some organisms. 2. Explain why it is important for organisms to reproduce.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
life cycle of flowering plants. Understand why different rules are needed in different situations & how to take part in making & changing rules. Reflect on moral, social & cultural issues, using imagination to understand other people¶s experiences. http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/seed_dispersl/index.htm or http://www-saps.plantsci.cam.ac.uk/docs/p4pp/ralc2/ralc2.htm). Growth and maturity are needed for female and male parts to combine to create new organism/s, etc. Some of the life cycles chn have met before include metamorphosis, not simply an animal growing bigger, e.g. frogs, dragonflies, moths and butterflies. Metamorphosis is the process of transformation from an immature form to an adult form in two or more distinct stages. The different stages of the life cycle are easier to identify than in humans and other animals. Some young develop inside their mother and others are laid as eggs in which they develop outside the mother¶s body. Point out that we normally eat unfertilised eggs & explain the functions of the different parts of the egg. Ask why it is important for plants and animals to reproduce. As plants and animals get older and die, the species will become extinct if they do not reproduce. Discuss some examples of animals e.g. panda, tiger, cheetah, that are facing extinction and how conservationists attempt to deal with the issue. Problems: loss of natural habitat, e.g. deforestation, being killed to use as food or for their fur, horns, etc, killed by accident, e.g. turtles caught in fishing nets, pollution, conflict with humans, e.g. elephants destroying human crops (see http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/conservation/). Conservation: zoos, protected areas with wardens, etc. Group activities: Look at plant structure and life cycle at http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/activities/life_cycles. shtml. Give students a selection of seeds/seed pictures to sort into types of seed dispersal (see resources). Use magnifying glasses to look at seeds in more detail. Useful PDF: http://www.wowforwater.org/nc_resource/seed_dispersal_info_pack.p df. Add labels to diagram of inside of egg (see resources). Students visit http://www.crackingeggs.co.uk/teachers/ks2-whats-in-an-egg.php or http://www.garden-birds.co.uk/information/eggs.htm to research their answers. Plenary: Ask students to describe the human life cycle and draw/write their ideas on f/c and save for Session A2. Have fun with Who Wants to be a Millionaire? ± Life Cycles http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/science/powerpoint/Life_Cycles_W WtbaM.ppt.

Use appropriate scientific language and terms to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things. Participate in creating a set of ground rules.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Life cycle 2 To extend their understanding of life cycles to include the human life cycle. Know that the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction. Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Use appropriate scientific language and terms to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things. Use bar charts and scattergrams to communicate data in an appropriate & systematic manner. 2j Use data to draw conclusions. Whole class teaching: Ask students the riddle of the Sphinx from ancient mythology: What creature walks on four legs in the morning, on two at noon, and on three in the evening? The solution: A man, who crawls on all fours as a baby, walks on two legs as an adult, and walks with a cane in old age ± the cycle of life. Read Shakespeare¶s µAll the World¶s a Stage¶ ± this describes the life cycle of a human in seven stages. Talk about the stages in the growth and development of humans and discuss the relative lengths of each stage. Use secondary sources to compare lengths of stages e.g. gestation period, life span, for different animals (see list of possible websites). Discuss the age at which different animals are able to reproduce and the fact that some animals have a large number of offspring, while others like humans have only a few offspring and take many years to grow into adults. Read The World is Full of Babies! to stimulate discussion about the range of gestation periods, how quickly some young develop, how different skills are needed for survival by different animal babies, etc. Play Follow Me with the set of cards given in resources. Hand out cards to students and choose one student to ask the question on their card. The student with the correct answer puts up their hand and then reads it out. If the class agree, that student then reads out their question and so on. You should be able to include everyone! Some answers are the same, so it is the student who puts their hand up first with the correct answer that asks the next question. Draw a bar chart to show gestation periods and/or life span of different animals (see resources). Can students spot any patterns? Encourage students to draw both charts on the same axes with left hand Y axis for gestation period and right hand Y axis for life span. Extension: Students draw a scattergram of gestation period against life span. If a more or less straight line is obtained this indicates a relationship between the two measurements. Begin researching and write notes on an animal explaining the different stages of their life cycle, e.g. how quickly they become adults, how long their gestation period is, how long their normal life span is, etc. Some websites are listed in resources. Some sample notes about some mammals are included in the resources. This research will be continued I can: 1. Describe the different stages of the human life cycle. 2. Describe the different stages of other animal life cycles.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
and extended in Session B1. Plenary: Warn students that you will be looking at the development of babies in the first years of life in the next session and that you¶d like them to prepare for the session. Ask students to bring in a photo of themselves as a baby before the next session (so a hidden display can be set up in advance) and ask if they can find out details of when they reached various milestones, e.g. when they first sat up, grew a tooth, had solid food, crawled, etc. Babies 1 To be aware of the changes that have taken place (both physical & developmental) since they were babies. Compare with the young of other animals. Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Know that the life processes common to humans & other animals include nutrition, movement, growth & reproduction. Look at a range of sources of information & data, including ICT-based sources. Whole class teaching: Ask students to discuss with a partner for two minutes what they can do now, that they could not do when they were babies. Bring class back together and discuss changes, e.g. much bigger; communicate ± talk, read & write; walk, run, jump, etc; eat solid foods, feed themselves; ride a bike; do mathematics; knit; play the violin and so on. Ask whether or not students are able to look after themselves completely yet. Provide themselves with shelter, food etc. Write babyhood, childhood, adolescence and adulthood on the board. Define the words if necessary (see resources). Discuss how long these stages last in humans (suggestions given in resources). Use books and websites to illustrate the differences between newly born animals of different species in terms of dependence on their parents and ask students about the implications of these differences. Ask at what age does a human baby develop early skills, e.g. sitting up, walking, talking, eating solid foods, holding objects, etc. Useful website: http://www.babycentre.co.uk/baby/development/milestonesfirst6months /. Some students may have brought some details into school about their own milestones. Emphasise that different babies reach the milestones at different ages and that this is perfectly normal. Remind students of Pre sessions 1 & 2 when they found that differences are often neither good or bad, but merely different! Show children All Kinds of Babies by Emma Damon if it is available, which emphasises that all babies are different, but that this is normal and that all babies should be loved and cherished. Group activities: Students draw a timeline of their lives so far, with highlighted changes I can: 1. Describe the stages of the human life cycle. 2. Compare the development of human babies with those of other animals. Access to internet, information books, photos (that students have brought into class) of them as babies on display (but covered temporarily). All Kinds of Babies by Emma Damon ISBN: 9781857076790

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
that have occurred since they were babies. They will add to this timeline later with their future hopes & predictions. What were the high &/or low points about that stage of the students life? Annotate the timeline. Continue the research about another animal concentrating on the young of animals now and find out what they are able to do when they are born, a few weeks old, a few months old, etc to compare with human babies. Write a fact file about the chosen animal, comparing them with a human of a similar age (use notes & resources from Session A2 too). Create a display or a class book. Opening Minds teachers to bring in their own baby photos for the chn to try and identify! Reveal the photos of students as babies on display. Have a class challenge to identify the babies ± this could be set up before this Session and answer sheets provided to fill in. No giving hints to your friends!! What features have helped students work out which baby is which? Plenary: Go through baby photos identifying the students. Show a photo of yourself and other adults in the classroom, as a baby, if you did not include them in the class photo challenge. Who was hardest to identify? Easiest to identify? Often the younger the baby in the photograph, the harder it is to identify. Introduce (erring)-eg. The younger the baby the harder to identify. Will feed into future scientific explanations eg the greater the force exerted the further distance is travelled. Whole class teaching: Look at the shape of a baby human and how it changes during growth (see resources ± Word & PDF). The head of a newborn baby is about one quarter of its total length, whereas an adult¶s head is about one seventh of the adult¶s height. This is important when drawing figures ± unless the proportions are correct students could look like adults and vice versa. Look at Leonardo¶s Vitruvian Man, which shows the relative sizes of different parts of a man¶s body (see resources). Look at various drawings/paintings of children and adults from a range of present (any recent photographs will do) and past times (see resources for some paintings). Is it always possible to tell which are the chn and which are the adults? What clues can you use? Clothing, activities, size, etc. Is clothing always a good indication?

Babies 2 To become aware of the way the proportions of a human body changes as a baby grows and develops into an adult. Know that the life processes common to human & other animals include nutrition,

I can: 1. Describe how the proportions of a human body changes as growth occurs from baby to adult. 2. Use this knowledge to draw child & adult human figures.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
movement, growth & reproduction. Use first-hand & secondary data to carry out a range of scientific investigations. Make systematic observations & measurements. Group activities: Measure the head size (chin to top of head) and the body size (height) of up to 10 chn or 10 adults (see resources). Work out a simple ratio of head to body. Is there a difference between chn and adults? If you can collect photos of several babies lying down these could be measured too (see resources too). Measurements will have to be made using string as babies don¶t usually lie completely straight ± these will not be actual size measurements but the ratio of head to body will still be valid! Extension: Do the height measurements match the µaverage¶ growth charts as shown in resources? Can you predict how tall an individual is likely to be when they become an adult? An alternative investigation that perhaps another group of students can carry out: compare arm span with body height ± these are shown as the same in the Vitruvian Man (see resources). Is it true of chn¶s bodies too? Draw two characters: a child and an adult on separate pieces of A5 paper. Ask their partner to point to the chd. How do they know that drawing is of a chd rather than an adult? For some help sheets ± see resources. Plenary: Discuss the findings of the measurement investigations ± do the students findings back up Leonardo¶s suggested proportions? Whole class teaching: Today we are going to talk about puberty which is the time when children begin to change both physically and emotionally as their bodies prepare to be able to reproduce and have babies. Explain that this is when children move from childhood stage in their life cycle to adolescence. You might want to remind students of the ground rules set up previously at this point. Show students a video clip from BBC Sex & Relationship Education or Growing up DVD, Explain that these are physical changes that we can see (e.g. hair growing in various places) & hear (e.g. young men¶s voices become deeper ± their voice µbreaks¶). Some of the changes are the same for girls & boys (e.g. growing taller, getting spots) and some are particular to either girls or boys e.g. breasts growing, penis growing). Emphasise that these changes do not happen at the same age for all chn (remind students about differences talked about in Presessions 1 & 2 again!) ± some begin to go through puberty when they

E st i m at e d T i m e

Puberty 1 To understand what happens to bodies during puberty. Understand that the life processes common to humans and other animals include nutrition, movement, growth and reproduction. Know about the

I can: 1. Explain the physical changes that happen during puberty. 2. Understand that I need to keep myself clean during puberty. 3. Describe the special ceremonies held in some cultures to mark puberty.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
main stages of the human life cycle. Recognise, as they approach puberty, how people¶s emotions change at that time & how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family & others in a positive way. Learn about how the body changes as they approach puberty. Use appropriate scientific language and terms to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things. Feel positive about themselves. are as young as 8 or 9, others don¶t begin until they are 12, 13 or even 14. So students shouldn¶t worry if their body doesn¶t change as early as some of their friends ± the changes will happen when their body is ready. Discuss two physical changes that can¶t be seen so easily: periods and wet dreams. Again you can use clips from BBC DVDs or pictures from suitable books. There is a useful cloze procedure on the first BBC DVD about wet dreams. Go through the menstrual cycle in detail, explaining that the lining of the uterus is not needed if the egg released that month has not been fertilised, so it breaks down and passes out of the uterus and through the vagina. The liquid contains blood, other fluids & tissues and can seem a lot but is actually only a few tablespoons dribbling out each month. Explain that some cultures have special ceremonies to mark the stage when young people are going through puberty or for girls when they experience their first period (called menarche), as it is such an important stage in the human life cycle. Group activities: Look at the drawings of a child and a young adult (see resources). Ring and annotate the differences that you can see ± the physical changes. Visit this website to see an interactive description of the changes that occur in puberty: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/interactives/lifecycle/te enagers/. Students research the special ceremonies that are held in some cultures to mark reaching the age of puberty and create a fact sheet for display (use books and suggested websites ± see resources). This will be part of a larger display on the rites of passage through the human life cycle. Independent for girls: Imagine you have a younger sister; how could you help her prepare for her periods? She might ask you questions if she sees your (sanitary) towels or tampons or hears you complain of tummy pains before or during your period. Work in pairs. What would your top three tips/facts be? Independent for boys: Imagine you have a younger brother; how could you help him prepare for wet dreams? Work in pairs. What would your top three tips/facts be? Plenary: Discuss how to look after yourself during puberty. Talk about washing regularly, using deodorant, girls changing their towels or

Understand that science is about thinking creatively to try & explain how living & nonliving things work, & to establish links between causes & effects.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
tampons regularly when they are having a period, boys cleaning their penis properly, using medicated soap to help with greasy skin & spots, etc. Whole class teaching: The other changes that happen during puberty are emotional changes. Adolescents(going through puberty) or teenagers find that their mood can change very easily ± sometimes they can feel really happy, and at other times they can feel depressed and think that the whole world is against them. They fall out with their parents; they don¶t like being told what to do or what to wear. Arguments occur in families and lies may be told. Use for example, BBC DVD Programme 2.1 How am I behaving with my family? (Short scenes played by adults). Sometimes it is difficult for children to ask their parents for help and advice during this stage of their life. Discuss with students to whom they could go for support. Other family members, such as older siblings, aunts & uncles, grandparents, teachers, youth group leaders, health professionals, etc. The thing to remember is that all those people have been through puberty themselves and therefore have first hand experience! There are also websites that give useful advice and telephone numbers like Childline to call (see website list in resources). Young people going through puberty sometimes pretend to be someone that they¶re not, so that they seem to be the same as their peers ± this means that they may tell lies or exaggerate things. They may agree with someone so that they can be their friend or in their gang, even if they don¶t really think that way. Show examples from DVDs, e.g. BBC Sex & Relationship Education DVD ± section called Resisting Negative Peer Pressure (drama activity) in Keeping Safe, or BBC Growing Up DVD, programme 2.3 How am I behaving with my friends? (Short scenes played by adults). Ask students what being a friend (& a boyfriend or girlfriend) means. Is the latter different from being a friend? You will often hear couples saying that their spouse (husband or wife) or partner is their very best friend. List ideas on what makes a good friend on f/c & leave for later individual activity (e.g. kind, can be trusted, reliable, helpful, good sense of humour, shared interests). Could use All Kinds of Feelings &/or All Kinds of Bodies to discuss differences in our bodies and the range of feelings we might have. Group activities: Adult-led: Drama activities: chn act out short scenarios in pairs ( see resources for suggestions) and then the class discusses how the actors behaved ± was it the right thing to do? How could the different characters improve their behaviour? Who could they ask for advice? Give the pairs some time to prepare their short scene and remind them

Puberty 2 To be aware of the emotional changes that occur during puberty. Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Recognise the different risks in different situations & then decide how to behave responsibly, & judging what kind of physical contact is acceptable or unacceptable. Realise the nature & consequences of racism, teasing, bullying & aggressive behaviours, & how to respond to them & ask for help. Recognise, as they approach puberty, how people¶s emotions change at that time & how to deal with their feelings towards themselves, their family & others in a positive way.

I can: 1. Describe the qualities of a good friend. 2. Discuss some of the feelings I experience in different situations. 3. Explain where to get help with my problems.

Access to computers, DVDs as in session C1. Download SEAL Photocards From http://nationalstrategies.standard s.dcsf.gov.uk/node/65868?uc=fo rce_uj All Kinds of Feelings &/or All Kinds of Bodies by Emma Brownjohn ISBN: 9781857075960 & 9781857075601

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Resolve differences by looking at alternatives, making decisions & explaining choices. Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar & of interest to them. Make real choices and decisions. Take responsibility, e.g. by acting as a peer supporter, as a befriender, or as a playground mediator for younger pupils. Find information & advice. Understand that science is about thinking creatively to try & explain how living & nonliving things work, & to establish links between causes & effects. to act like moody teenagers! In the discussion following each scene, make sure the chn look at the situation from the adult¶s point of view as well as the young teenager¶s and look for compromises. Independent: Chn design a poster about being a good friend ± entitled µAre you a good friend?¶ These could be placed in a school corridor/shared area to encourage good friendships throughout the school. Alternatively chn create a poster about the people they can ask for help ± entitled µDo you need advice?¶ or µWho can you turn to?¶ This might include websites (like Kidscape), phone numbers (like Childline 0800 1111) or responsible adults. Independent: Chn complete some sentences that show what gives them different feelings (see resources), e.g. I felt happy when« I felt sad when« Share some of the sentences with a partner. Independent: Give chn some of the relevant photocards (it is worth laminating them first) from SEAL resources. Ask them to answer some or all of the corresponding questions that come with the photos. Plenary: Volunteers read out some of their feeling sentences, missing out the feeling word, e.g. I felt _____ when I « The rest of the class hold up a feeling picture (see resources) to indicate what they would have felt at that time. Does everyone agree? How did that emotion make the rest of your body feel? How did it affect your behaviour? What did you learn from the experience? Share some of chn¶s thoughts about the SEAL photos.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
ba .

Life choices 1 To show responsibility in looking after a Flour Baby. Learn about the main stages of the human life cycle. Face new challenges positively. Recognise the range of jobs carried out by people they know (looking after younger siblings). Realise that there are different kinds of responsibilities, rights & duties at home, at school & in the community, & that these can sometimes conflict with each other. Be aware of different types of relationships & to develop the skills to be effective in relationships.

Whole class teaching: You should have read Flour Babies by Anne Fine to your class by now! Explain to the class that they are going to have a Flour Baby each to look after for a week! However point out that your class is going to be far better at looking after the babies than the boys in Mr Cartright¶s Class! They will find out by experience what it means to look after a baby. Ask: What did Simon realise that you needed to be to look after a baby? Much older and more experienced! Hard working, responsible, etc. Ask: What difficulties did the boys experience? Babies got dirty, chewed by pets, found it awkward or embarrassing to take them to football practice, etc. Draw up some ground rules for looking after the Flour Babies, e.g. You must bring them to school each day; You must keep them safe, warm, clean and fed (in other words put time aside for µchanging their nappies, giving them a bottle, bathing them¶, etc); c) You must take them everywhere with you unless you can find a willing babysitter. Some enterprising students usually suggest that they set up a crèche at playtimes and dinner times ± you may be able to arrange for your classroom to be used in this way if an adult is will ing to keep an eye on the students! No payment allowed! Many parents get involved even to the extent of setting an alarm at least once during the night and waking their chn to µfeed and change¶ the baby ± obviously you cannot expect this to happen in all homes! Ask if any of the class have a baby brother or sister. Can they describe what has to be done for the babies? Discuss the daily life of a baby and its carers ± activities such as feeding, sterilising bottles, changing, washing, clothes washing, comforting & entertaining. What happens when both parents/carers go out to work ± child minders, nurseries, etc. (be sensitive about single parent families)? Group activities: a) b)

I can: 1. Understand that I need to show responsibility when looking after a baby. 2. Appreciate that it is hard work to look after a baby.

Enough bags of 3kg flour for each student in the class to have one plus one extra for you if required! Copies of a letter to send home to parents explaining the activity the students are undertaking (see resources). Books that give suggestions for naming babies.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Understand that their actions affect themselves & others. Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar and of interest to them. Take responsibility. Discuss the importance of names given to babies. You can tell whether the baby is a boy or a girl and often the country they come from or the religion of their family. Explain that many names have meanings and that the most popular names change from year to year. Do any of the students know what their name means (look them up at http://www.babynames.co.uk/ or http://babynamesworld.parentsconnect.com/)? Or whether they were given their name for a special reason, e.g. named after another member of their family (parent, grandparent, etc.), after someone well known, after a place that is special to their parents, etc. Show students a book of names. Point out that these are their first names (Christians call them Christian names) and that they also have a family name or surname. There are lists available of the most popular names given each year to babies born in this country (see lists at http://www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=184). Students will keep a diary during the week of their experiences, so they need to make the first entry including a prediction of how they will manage with their Flour Baby (see resources-photocopy double-sided if possible) and naming their Flour Baby. Plenary: Allow students to ask any questions that will help clarify this task. Give out a letter that explains the class activity in detail to parents ( see resources ± adjust the letter to suit your class). Discuss nicknames. Are they always used in a friendly way? Does the person being called by the nickname like it? Sometimes nicknames are used in bullying. Life choices 2 To be aware of the importance of marriage to many people in many different cultures. Know that the life processes common to humans & other animals include nutrition, movement, growth & reproduction. Understand that Whole class teaching: At the end of a week of looking after Flour Babies most 11 and 12 year olds will agree that it is not something they wish to do for many year s yet! Explain to/agree with students that the ideal situation for a student is to have two parents/carers looking after them, so that the responsibility is shared. Remind students of the ground rules agreed in session A1 before discussing the different types of relationships where students are involved, that are found in our society and different societies across the world: marriage (monogamous), partners living together in a settled relationship (can be male and female or both be male or both female), single parent families, step mothers & s tepfathers, foster parents, adoptive parents, polygamous marriages (having more than one wife or husband at the same time). Be sensitive to the situations of the students in your class! Some students who have lost both their parents (orphans) may live in a chn¶s home and sometimes chn are taken away from their families for safety reasons or are given I can: 1. Understand why marriage is important for many people and describe marriage ceremonies held in different cultures. 2. Be aware of the many different relationships I have within different groups or communities. 3. Express my hopes & plans for the future. Information books on weddings/marriage, BBC Rites of Passage DVD ISBN 9781406641523, access to internet, chn¶s timelines drawn in Session B1

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
pressure to behave in an unacceptable or risky way can come from a variety of sources, including people they know, and how to ask for help & use basic techniques for resisting pressure to do wrong. Understand that their actions affect themselves & others. Be aware of different types of relationship, including marriage & those between friends & families, and to develop the skills to be effective in relationships. Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar & of interest to them. Feel positive about themselves. up by their parents. Some of these chn may then be fostered or adopted, (chn will often have come across some of these examples in TV soaps). Chn have many different relationships in their lives too ± at home, at school, at clubs they attend, etc. Ask students why they think so many people regard marriage as the best partnership especially if they intend to have children. Commitment to each other, recognition that they are a couple, evidence to their friends & family of how they care for each other, start a new life together, give each other love, friendship & support through the bad and good times. Getting married is a special ceremony and is one of the most important events (rites of passage) in many people¶s lives (like ceremonies held for the birth of a baby, a death in the family or going through puberty). Couples often exchange rings at the ceremony as a symbol of eternity ± something that has no beginning & no end. Some people marry in a religious ceremony, others have a simple ceremony performed by a justice of the peace and yet others see no need for a ceremony and live very happily together. In some cultures family members help decide who would be a good husband or wife for someone, and sometimes marriages are arranged as a way to bring two families or groups together (e.g. in the past the royal families of Europe used marriages between their chn as a way of linking their two countries together). Group activities: Students research the marriage ceremony of one particular culture and create a fact sheet to add to the class display on Rites of Passage. Include traditions like those in Christianity of throwing the bouquet, giving bride a horseshoe for luck, throwing rice, bride wearing µsomething old, something new, something borrowed, something blue¶; in a Hindu wedding the bride & groom wear white & red clothing to represent fidelity, wealth & purity; the µfilling of the sacks¶ before a Greek Orthodox wedding; a Jewish bride to betakes a ritual bath in the week before the wedding to cleanse & purify herself; pinning money to the newly married couple at Turkish weddings, the µwedding newspaper¶ written by both families in a German wedding to tease the happy couple, songs about the couple written to well-known tunes by the family & friends in Denmark, etc. Return to the timeline drawn in Session B1. Predict some of the things that they think will happen in their lives or that they would like to happen, their hopes for the future, e.g. taking their GCSEs, having a fantastic 18th birthday party, passing their driving test, going to college or university, starting their first job, moving into their first house, getting married, having a baby, etc.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Each chd should write their name in the middle of a sheet of paper and then draw links to all the communities or groups that they belong to, e.g. immediate family, class, scout group. This can then be extended to show the larger communities that they therefore belong to, e.g. extended family, village, town, school, worldwide scout movement, etc. Share with a small group ± which communities do they share, e.g. class, school, village, town, possibly even the extended family? Plenary: Ask volunteers to describe what they are looking forward to about getting older, and conversely what they are not looking forward to. ***Whole class teaching: Masturbation-Split girls and boys-letter home before? Need to discuss as an Opening Minds Team Explain that our bodies change at puberty so that we are ready when we are adults to have babies. Our bodies make hormones (chemical messengers) that make us feel different and we begin to have sexual feelings. At this stage adolescent boys may want to touch & rub their penis, which is perfectly normal. Adolescent girls also have very sensitive genitals and may want to touch themselves ± this is completely normal too. This is called masturbation. When two people love each other they may want to share these touches & good feelings and have sexual intercourse. This is when a sperm can fertilise an egg and a baby has started to grow. Half of the baby¶s genetic material will come from the father and half from the mother. So the child will have some characteristics of the mother and some of the father. Ask chin if they look more like one of their parents than the other. These physical differences are the easiest to spot, e.g. hair colour, height, shape of nose, etc. but the students will also have inherited characteristics that are not so easy to see, e.g. relaxed & laid back personality or asthma or a lovely singing voice. Students might also look like their siblings (brothers and/or sisters). Ask students how long the gestation period for a human is ± discussed in Session A2. Show a series of pictures of pregnancy at different stages ± use a suitable book, the BBC Sex & Reproduction Education DVD ± How a baby grows ± the Inside Story or Living & Growing DVD Unit 2, programme 6: How babies are born (Chapter 2 shows video of the baby inside the uterus. Use the relevant vocabulary (see Session A resources)). Explain that once the egg has been fertilised by a sperm it moves into the womb and plants itself in the lining of the uterus, which then does not break down (so no menstruation/periods while pregnant). A sac filled with a watery fluid forms around the baby ± amniotic sac (filled with amniotic fluid) and a special organ forms in the uter us where the fertilised egg (embryo) has attached called the placenta.

Pregnancy 1 To find out about pregnancy in humans. Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Look at a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar and of interest to them. Use appropriate scientific language and terms to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things. Know that science is about thinking creatively to try and explain how living & nonliving things work, and to establish links between

I can: 1. Explain the stages of human pregnancy. 2. Understand that a woman has to keep herself healthy when she is pregnant.

BBC Sex & Relationship Education DVD ISBN 9781406612523 (UKS2) or BBC Growing Up DVD ISBN 9780563516385 (UKS2) or Channel 4 Living & Growing DVD ISBN 1851446680, information books

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QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
causes & effects. Discuss how important it is for the mother to stay healthy while she is pregnant ± enough rest & exercise, eat a healthy diet, has regular checkups at the doctors or hospital, her baby has the best chance of being born healthy. If the mother smokes, drinks alcohol, takes drugs or has certain illnesses her baby can be harmed. She should not take medicinal drugs without checking with her doctor first. The baby receives oxygen & food though the blood vessels in the umbilical cord that lead to the placenta and the waste (including carbon dioxide) from the baby passes back through the umbilical cord to the mother¶s blood and she gets rid of it with her own waste. So anything in the mother¶s blood, including medicines, alcohol & drugs passes into the baby¶s blood. Once babies are born they breathe for themselves and start drinking milk for nourishment and so the umbilical cord is cut and after a few days, the end attached to the baby shrivels and drops off leaving the tummy button. Group activities: Sort pictures of different stages of pregnancy into the correct order (see resources) and annotate to explain the details, e.g. size, stage of pregnancy, etc. Write an information sheet to help a new mother-to-be look after herself during pregnancy. Or write an information sheet for prospective fathers for them to help the new mother-to-be look after herself. Draw a graph to show how a baby grows in length during pregnancy using given lengths (see resources). Plenary: Discuss multiple pregnancies ± Explain that identical twins are formed when the fertilised egg splits into two, whereas fraternal twins (non identical) are the result of two separate eggs being fertilised by two different sperm at the same time. Questions about conjoined (Siamese) twins may arise too. Triplets or more babies can include identical twins or can be three or more separate eggs that have each been fertilised by a separate sperm.

Pregnancy 2 To find out about the birth of human babies. Investigate the rites of passage connected to birth.

Whole class teaching: A useful addition to this session is to invite parents with babies into school so that students have some experience of real babies! NCBT (National Childbirth Trust) Explain to students that they are going to see a video of the birth of a baby today. Remind students of the ground rules agree.. There are two

I can: 1. Describe the birth of a baby in simple terms. 2. Describe the special ceremonies held in different cultures to mark birth (& death).

BBC Sex & Relationship Education DVD ISBN 9781406612523 (UKS2) or BBC Growing Up DVD ISBN 9780563516385 (UKS2) or Channel 4 Living & Growing DVD ISBN 1851446680, BBC

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Use appropriate scientific language and terms to communicate ideas and explain the behaviour of living things. Study a range of domestic & environmental contexts that are familiar & of interest to them. Know that science is about thinking creatively to try and explain how living & nonliving things work, and to establish links between causes & effects. different clips available on the BBC Sex & Relationship Education DVD, one in the Unit 2 Cycle of Life, Birth section called Having a Baby and the other in the Sexual Reproduction section called Puberty & Sex (mark 6) and one clip in Chapter 3, Unit 2 on the Channel 4 DVD. You will need to decide which is most suitable for your class. These videos will often stimulate the students to ask a lot of questions ± it is worth spending some time answering those that are relevant & suitable. Remember to use the correct scientific vocabulary during these discussions, noting that there are some everyday terms for all aspects of human reproduction. Talk about how the parents would be feeling at this time: joy, happiness, relief, excitement, exhaustion, trepidation, etc. Also discuss how their lives will change ± remind students of how they felt when they were looking after their Flour Babies. Giving birth is often referred to as µlabour¶. Ask students what the word labour means in everyday usage ± physical or mental work, exertion, toil, etc. Explain that although it is very hard work (and sometimes painful) to give birth to a baby, the overwhelming majority of mothers agree that it is well worthwhile! (students may have seen birth scenes in TV soaps with mothers crying, screaming, etc. and will need reassurance). Discuss briefly (as this is a question that is usually asked by at least one child) how some mothers have to have a Caesarean delivery instead, because the baby is too big or in an awkward position or because the baby¶s or mother¶s health is at risk. Also mention that some babies are delivered using forceps ± they are gently pulled out using special tongs (forceps). Most babies are born head first (the largest part of the body ± remind students of earlier lesson when they saw how large a baby¶s head is in comparison to the rest of its body) but some babies are born feet first and this is called a breech bir th ± it is more difficult because the largest part is being delivered last. Special nurses called midwives usually assist the mother to give birth, either in hospital or at home. Explain how the baby¶s skull has not yet fused, which enables the head to be squeezed out of shape as the baby is born. The baby¶s head has to pass through the mother¶s pelvis during birth. Care has to be taken with a baby¶s head because of the µsoft spots¶ where the skull has not yet hardened & joined. Group activities: Imagine you are a new mother or father. How has your life changed? How do you feel? Write a letter to your best friend from school who has moved away from the area since leaving school, describing how you feel and describe your life now. Draw a poster to give new parents advice on caring for their babies Rites of Passage DVD ISBN 9781406641523, information books, access to the internet.

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QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
from the point of view of health & safety, e.g. wash hands before preparing food, change nappies regularly, etc. Welcome to the world ± students research the celebrations & ceremonies associated with the birth of a baby in different cultures and create a fact file for the class display on the Rites of Passage. Could look again at All Kinds of Babies by Emma Damon. Plenary: Discuss briefly the final Rite of Passage in the human life cycle ± the ceremonies connected with death in different cultures. You may wish students to research this and add fact files to the class display on another occasion. Whole class teaching: Explain that couples may not want to start a baby when they have sexual intercourse (make love). Some couples use contraceptives when they don¶t want to start a baby; other couples don¶t use contraceptives for religious or other reasons. It is up to the couple to decide what they want to do. This is a particularly important decision when the couple feels they are not ready to have a baby because of their age & experience, lack of money, their career development, etc. Unfortunately in the UK we have the highest number of teenage pregnancies in Europe. Most of these girls did not plan to have a baby and they find it has a considerable affect on their lives and those of their partner. Another good way of preventing an unwanted pregnancy is to say no when your boyfriend/girlfriend wants to have sexual intercourse. This pressure on young people can be compared to peer pressure to smoke or take drugs. Just say NO! is a useful slogan to remember. Ask students why it is not recommended to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol or take drugs, e.g. breath & clothes smell horrible, waste of money, damage your lungs or liver, can kill you, make you incapable of looking after yourself temporarily. Explain that students do not need to do things they don¶t want to just to be popular with their peers ± it is perfectly alright to be different (remind students of discussion in Pre-sessions 1 & 2). Show students some examples of cigarette packet warnings. There are not similar warnings on bottles or cans of alcohol. However there is also another very good reason for using a condom (one type of contraceptive) ± to prevent catching a sexually transmitted infection/disease or STI/D. See http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/chlamydia.htm to find out more about the most common STI/D in the UK. Some of these diseases can be cured by medicines but they can cause serious problems such as infertility.

Sexual health 1 To understand how to try to resist peer pressure. To understand why contraceptives are important. Know about the main stages of the human life cycle. Know about the effects on the human body of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs and how these relate to their personal health. Be aware of different types of relationships, including marriage & those between friends & families, & to develop the skills to be effective in

I can: 1. Explain how to try to resist peer pressure. 2. Understand that it is alright to be different from other people.

Examples of cigarette packets with different warnings, access to internet

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
relationships. Know how to respond to different behaviours and to ask for help. Recognise that there are hazards in materials & assess risks & take action to reduce risks to themselves & others. Make real choices & decisions, e.g. about smoking. Know that science is about thinking creatively to try & explain how living things work, & to establish links between causes & effects. Sexual Health 2r To find out about HIV/Aids. Know that microorganisms are living organisms that are often too small to be seen, and that they may be beneficial or harmful. Group activities: In small groups students plan and rehearse a scene about saying no when your peers are trying to persuade you to smoke, drink alcohol or take drugs. Think about the use of persuasive language and how to resist the pressure that is applied. Each group should have the opportunity to show their scene to the rest of the class and to receive feedback. Look again at the examples of cigarette packet warnings. Design their own warning label against smoking or drinking alcohol. Plenary: Talk to students briefly about the different kinds of contraceptives that are available (barrier methods like condoms, diaphragms or caps, hormonal ± various forms of the pill or implants & intrauterine methods when a tiny device is inserted into the uterus which stops fertilisation or a fertilised egg from settling in the uterus) wit h a simple explanation of how they work.

Whole class teaching: One virus that can be caught when people have sexual intercourse with an infected person is HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Students will almost certainly have heard of this. It can also be caught through other body fluids ± e.g. blood & breast milk and so infection can occur when people share needles to inject drugs such as heroin and by babies drinking their mother¶s breast milk. In the past many people caught it when they had blood transfusions (before the danger was recognised ± all blood has been screened for it since 1985) including haemophiliacs (whose blood does not clot properly). It is important to point out to students that the HIV virus cannot be caught by sharing e.g. a mug, towel, toilet, with someone who is HIV -positive, nor can it be caught by talking to, touching, playing with, sitting by an HIV -positive person.

I can: 1. Explain how people infected with the HIV virus can develop Aids. 2. Explain in simple terms how people can & cannot become HIV-positive.

In the News: HIV & Aids by Andrew Campbell ISBN 0749657863 (optional), access to internet.

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
Know about the effects on the human body of tobacco, alcohol & other drugs, and how these relate to their personal health. Know that bacteria & viruses can affect health & that following simple, safe routines can reduce their spread. Recognise that there are hazards in living things, materials & physical processes, and assess risks & take action to reduce risks to themselves & others. Make real choices & decisions. Consider social & moral dilemmas that they come across in life. Know that science is about thinking creatively to try & explain how living & nonThe virus is mainly passed on through sexual intercourse or shared needles. People who have caught the virus are said to be HIV-positive. The HIV virus attacks white blood cells, whose function is to protect against diseases. As the number of white blood cells (actually the socalled T-helper cells ± one of several types of white blood cells) becomes very low in people who are HIV positive, their body is unable to fight off other infections, such as pneumonia. They may also develop cancer. It is at this stage that they are said to have Aids (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The illness was first recognised in 1981 & in 1984 HIV was identified as the cause of Aids. Like many other illnesses Aids can be serious if not treated. Some medicinal drugs called anti-retrovirals are available and people taking these regularly can expect a normal full and happy life. However, ARVs are expensive and therefore many people in poorer countries do not receive them. In 2008 nearly three-quarters of all those with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. Why Africa? ± Many reasons, often to do with poverty and exploitation forcing the break-up of traditional family structures, and lack of education & awareness (other statistics at http://www.until.org/statistics.shtml?gclid=CNX6yfyQ pYCFQpzHgodRXnpYA). One statistic is that HIV/AIDS is a µdisease of young people¶ with half of the 5 million new infections each year occurring amongst those aged 15 to 24 ± so young people need to be aware of the problem so that they can take action to prevent themselves catching the virus. There are over 900 children under the age of 15 living with HIV in the UK. Students around the world are affected by Aids in different ways ± they lose their parents (and other relatives who could have looked after them in place of their parents) to the illness or catch it themselves ± possibly show students video at http://www.steppingstonesfeedback.org/?page_id=1131. They might catch the virus from their mothers before birth or through breast milk. There is an idea that has become popular across Africa ± parents dying of Aids are writing µmemory books¶ for their students. One of the worse thing about having Aids is the stigma attached to the disease ± some people have lost their jobs or been refused permission to attend their school or their doctor¶s or dental surgery because they have stated that they are HIV-positive. See http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/dec/01/schools-hiv-refusedplaces. Group activities: Adult-led: Watch the film (with subtitles) of two Dutch children describing their life with their mother who is HIV -positive found at http://www.lifeboatfilms.org/ called Lullaby. There is also another good

J Guirguis

QK, UK, The World-Learning Journey-Science
living things work, and to establish links between causes & effects. film called The Dream here. Ask for students reactions. Independent: Why is there a stigma against people with HIV-AIDS when they need present no danger to those around them? Students design a poster which outlines the ways that AIDs cannot be transmitted but are part of common mythology. Plenary: Talk about World Aids Day ± on December 1st each year . Visit the World Aids Day website at http://www.worldaidsday.org/ and read Why Respect & Protect? and HIV facts & stats sections. Look at Newsround report from 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_4050000/newsid_4058700/4 058759.stm to see how celebrities get involved.

J Guirguis