This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
hybrid electric car
Ahmed Mahmoud Mohamed
Kareem Ahmed Said
Mahmoud Mohamed Hossiny
Supervised By Prof. Mohamed Abou Al Magd
Table of contents
123The Idea How Hybrid Cars Work ? Some of the advanced technologies typically used by hybrids include :
A-Regenerative Braking B-Electric Motor Drive/Assist C-Automatic Start/Shutoff
Electric Batteries And Car Engines History Predecessors of current technology Modern hybrids Latest developments Sales and rankings
10- Technology 11- Engines and fuel sources
y y y y
Fossil fuels Gasoline Diesel Liquefied petroleum gas Hydrogen Biofuels
12- Electric machines 13- Design considerations 14- Conversion kits
Raw materials shortage 20.Fuel consumption 16.Noise 17.References .Pollution 18.15.Hybrid Premium and Showroom Cost Parity 19.
2007. A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system.0 million vehicles by May 31. or better performance. The most common form of HEV is the hybrid electric car. followed by the Honda Insight in 1999. The electric motor gets energy from a controller. can be geared to run at maximum efficiency. A variety of types of HEV exist. The hybrid-electric vehicle did not become widely available until the release of the Toyota Prius in Japan in 1997. While initially perceived as unnecessary due to the low cost of gasoline.0 million . the 2. which regulates the amount of power³based on the driver·s use of an accelerator pedal. Worldwide sales of hybrid vehicles produced by Toyota. and 3. to either recharge their batteries or to directly power the electric drive motors. since an HEV's gasoline engine is usually smaller than a comparablysized pure gasoline-burning vehicle (natural gas and propane fuels produce lower emissions) and if not used to directly drive the car. A hybrid-electric produces less emissions from its ICE than a comparably-sized gasoline car. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional vehicle. Some varieties of HEVs use their internal combustion engine to generate electricity by spinning an electrical generator (this combination is known as a motor-generator).0 million mark was reached by August 31. Modern HEVs make use of efficiency-improving technologies such as regenerative braking. worldwide increases in the price of petroleum caused many automakers to release hybrids in the late 2000s. Many HEVs reduce idle emissions by shutting down the ICE at idle and restarting it when needed. although hybrid electric trucks (pickups and tractors) and buses also exist. which are recharged by common household electricity. Ferdinand Porsche in 1900 developed the Lohner-Porsche Mixte Hybrid. further improving fuel economy. rather than wasting it as heat energy as conventional brakes do. reached 1. they are now perceived as a core segment of the automotive market of the future. 2009.An electric car is powered by an electric motor instead of a gasoline engine. this is known as a start-stop system. and the degree to which they function as EVs varies as well. The electric car (also known as electric vehicle or EV) uses energy stored in its rechargeable batteries. the first gasoline-electric hybrid automobile in the world. the market leader. which converts the vehicle's kinetic energy into battery-replenishing electric energy.
The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to slow down. or hill climbing. Worldwide sales are led by the Prius. The electric motor provides additional power to assist the engine in accelerating.S. but is recognized as being a serious advance. In fact. with cumulative sales of 2. y Automatic Start/Shutoff. In some vehicles. the energy from the wheels turns the motor. which functions as a generator. Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives. the motor alone provides power for low-speed driving conditions where internal combustion engines are least efficient.units by February 2011. The global market leader is the United States with 1. y Electric Motor Drive/Assist. or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. continue to rise at alarming rates and filling up your tank costs considerably more than it did a year. Oil prices. This allows a smaller. converting energy normally wasted during coasting and braking into electricity. more efficient engine to be used. and California is the biggest American market How Hybrid Cars Work ? With so much emphasis being placed on the environment hybrid cars have emerged as one of the leading ways that we as individuals can do our bit. the Toyota Prius is the top U. which is stored in a battery until needed by the electric motor. and subsequently prices at the gas pump. passing. six months.0 million by September 2010. In return.0 million units sold by April 2011. The technology is now well developed. such as improved fuel economy. hybrid cars have a lot more to offer than being more environmentally friendly and reducing our carbon footprint. or even a couple of months ago. with hybrids sold in 80 countries and regions. Automatically shuts off the engine when the vehicle comes to a stop and restarts it when the accelerator is pressed. Some of the advanced technologies typically used by hybrids include y Regenerative Braking. increased power. seller with 1. and sold in 70 countries and regions. This prevents wasted energy from idling.89 million hybrids registered by December 2010. .
usually through a conventional transmission. Parallel hybrids are more efficient than comparable non-hybrid vehicles especially during urban stop-and-go conditions and at times during highway operation where the electric motor is permitted to contribute. This means a smaller battery can be used and the regular driving of the vehicle ensures that the battery remains charged and serviceable. is only required to recharge a small portion of the components in a gasoline car and is not required to drive the vehicle. and the ICE works as a generator to power the electric motor or to recharge the batteries. Civic. as well as the GM Belted Alternator/Starter (BAS Hybrid) system found in the Chevrolet Malibu hybrids are examples of production parallel hybrids. Honda's Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system as found in the Insight. though. which makes them more y . Hybrid electric vehicles can be classified according to the way in which power is supplied to the drivetrain: y In parallel hybrids. The standard car battery. in the same way that a gasoline car battery is recharged. Current. commercialized parallel hybrids use a single.Electric Batteries And Car Engines Electric engines tend to use the motion of the car to help recharge their batteries. In series hybrids. only the electric motor drives the drivetrain. the ICE and the electric motor are both connected to the mechanical transmission and can simultaneously transmit power to drive the wheels. Series hybrids usually have a smaller combustion engine but a larger battery pack as compared to parallel hybrids. Accord. small (<20 kW) electric motor and small battery pack as the electric motor is not designed to be the sole source of motive power from launch. Parallel hybrids are also capable of regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine can also act a generator for supplemental recharging. The battery pack can be recharged through regenerative braking or by the ICE.
This configuration makes series hybrids more efficient in city driving. is a vehicle that can not be driven solely on its electric motor. at some cost in complexity. and Toyota. y Power-split hybrids have the benefits of a combination of series and parallel characteristics. or a combination of both. because series hybrids tend to be more efficient at lower speeds and parallel tend to be more efficient at high speeds. Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive and General Motors/Chrysler's Two-Mode Hybrid technologies are full hybrid systems. Ford's hybrid system. A large. however. high-capacity battery pack is needed for battery-only operation. sometimes also called a strong hybrid. it utilizes the electric batteries to greatly reduce emissions and improve fuel consumption. Examples of power-split (referred to by some as "series-parallel") hybrid powertrains include current models of Ford. Ford Escape Hybrid. Lexus. is a vehicle that can run on just the engine. The end result is a vehicle that is better for the environment but still offers a viable means of transport to the owner. General Motors. although GM prefers to describe the Volt as an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline powered ICE as a generator and therefore dubbed an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle" or E-REV. as these cars can be moved forward on battery power alone. and Ford Fusion Hybrid are examples of full hybrids. the power-split hybrid is higher than a pure parallel. These vehicles have a split power path allowing greater flexibility in the drivetrain by interconverting mechanical and electrical power. because the electric motor does not have enough power to propel the vehicle y . The Toyota Prius. As a result. Types by degree of hybridization y Full hybrid.expensive than parallels. How Hybrid Cars Work To Combine Power Sources A hybrid car combines electric motors and a gasoline engine to give greater performance and longer traveling distances than an electric car. they are more efficient overall. The Chevrolet Volt is a series plug-in hybrid. At the same time. Nissan. just the batteries. Mild hybrid.
braking. PHEVs have a much larger all-electric range as compared to conventional gasoline-electric hybrids. leveraging their reputation for design of small. efficient gasoline engines. which allows manufacturers to reduce cost and weight. and of an all-electric vehicle. Accessories can continue to run on electrical power while the gasoline engine is off. the Saturn Aura Greenline and the Mailbu Hybrid. is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric powersource. the IMA system now can propel the vehicle solely on electric power during medium speed cruising. and as in other hybrid designs. up to 15 percent in urban driving and 8 to 10 percent overall cycle. yet restart quickly and cleanly. As compared to full hybrids. the motor is used for regenerative braking to recapture energy. General Motors has also used its mild BAS Hybrid technology in other models such as the Saturn Vue Green Line. allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting. also known as a plug-in hybrid. mild hybrids have smaller batteries and a smaller. also having a plug to connect to the electrical grid. Starting with the 2006 Civic Hybrid. and usually achieve limited fuel consumption savings. taking the place of the torque converter. Mild hybrids only include some of the features found in hybrid technology.on its own. because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted. Chinese battery manufacturer and automaker BYD Auto released the F3DM PHEV-62 (PHEV-100 km) hatchback to . and is used to supply additional propulsion energy when accelerating. and also eliminate the "range anxiety" associated to all-electric vehicles. The motor is often mounted between the engine and transmission. having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. a full-size pickup truck. their system is dubbed Integrated Motor Assist (IMA). A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle. Honda's early hybrids including the first generation Insight used this design. Chevrolet was able to get a 10% improvement on the Silverado's fuel efficiency by shutting down and restarting the engine on demand and using regenerative braking. Another example is the 2005-2007 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid. or stopped. weaker motor/generator. Plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A mild hybrid is essentially a conventional vehicle with oversize starter motor.
and also won the Exelberg Rally in 1901 with Porsche himself driving. The Volt displaced the Toyota Prius as the most fuel-efficient car sold in the United States. The Mixte included a pair of generators driven by 2.the Chinese fleet market on December 15. proving to be too slow for its price. George Fischer sold hybrid buses to England in 1901. Piper filed a US patent application for a hybrid vehicle. H. The Mixte broke several Austrian speed records. In 1905. The hybrid was a commercial failure. About 600 were made up to 1918. The 1915 Dual Power. while employed at Lohner Coach Factory. made by the Woods Motor Vehicle electric car maker. The Mixte used a gasoline engine powering a generator. and above this speed the "main" engine cut in to take the car up to its 35 mph (56 km/h) top speed. Additional power to charge the battery was provided . A Canadian company produced a hybrid car for sale in 1915. Ferdinand Porsche developed the Mixte.22 kW during 20 minutes.5-hp Daimler IC engines to extend operating range and it could travel nearly 65 km on battery alone. which in turn powered electric hub motors. History In 1900. Knight Neftal produced a racing hybrid in 1902. It was presented in the Paris Auto Show in 1901. and too difficult to service.000). with a small battery pack for reliability. In 1931 Erich Gaichen invented and drove from Altenburg to Berlin a 1/2 horsepower electric car containing features later incorporated into hybrid cars. drawing power from a battery pack. taxed by the German Revenue Department and patented by the German Reichs-Patent Amt. 2008. General Motors launched the 2011 Chevrolet Volt series plug-in in December 2010. The first gasolineelectric hybrid car was released by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of Chicago in 1917. but it was licensed by the Motor Transport Office. Its maximum speed was 25 miles per hour (40 km/h). had a four-cylinder ICE and an electric motor. Below 15 mph (24 km/h) the electric motor alone drove the vehicle.800 yuan (US $22. It had a top speed of 50 km/h and a power of 5. The car battery was re-charged by the motor when the car went downhill. for 149. a 4WD series-hybrid version of "System Lohner-Porsche" electric carriage previously appeared in 1900 Paris World Fair.
The intent was to produce a vehicle which could operate on the engine in the country. The vehicle exhibited 75 miles per US gallon (3. 90 mpg-imp) fuel efficiency. 101 mpg-imp). In 1989. Audi produced its first iteration of the Audi Duo (the Audi C3 100 Avant Duo) experimental vehicle. and DC generator was Arthurs'. The regenerative braking system.3 litre five-cylinder petrol engine with an output of 100 kilowatts (136 PS. An account of the car and his characterization as a "crank inventor" can be found in Arthur Koestler's autobiography. The vehicle's front roadwheels were powered by a 2.8 PS. and electric mode in the city. one drawback was that due to the extra weight of the electric drive. . a plug-in parallel hybrid based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. the vehicles were less efficient when running on their engines alone than standard Audi 100s with the same engine. Wouk's work with HEVs in the 1960s and 1970s earned him the title as the "Godfather of the Hybrid". the first transistor-based electric car). motor (a jet-engine starter motor).6 bhp) Siemens electric motor which drove the rear roadwheels. Mode of operation could be selected by the driver. the head of the EPA at the time. Just ten vehicles are believed to have been made. This car had a 9. 12. using offthe shelf components and an Opel GT. No production beyond the prototype was reported.8 L/100 km. Predecessors of current technology A more recent working prototype of the HEV was built by Victor Wouk (one of the scientists involved with the Henney Kilowatt.by a cylinder of compressed air which was re-charged by small air pumps activated by vibrations of the chassis and the brakes and by igniting oxyhydrogen gas. The Mother Earth News' own 1980 version claimed nearly 84 miles per US gallon (2.4 kilowatts (12. However the voltage controller to link the batteries. Arrow in the Blue. pages 269-271. which summarize a contemporaneous newspaper account written by Koestler.Wouk installed a prototype hybrid drivetrain (with a 16 kilowatts (21 hp) electric motor) into a 1972 Buick Skylark provided by GM for the 1970 Federal Clean Car Incentive Program. and plans for it (as well as somewhat updated versions) are still available through the Mother Earth News web site. was developed by electrical engineer David Arthurs around 1978. 134 bhp). but the program was stopped by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1976 while Eric Stork. the core design concept of most production HEVs. was accused of a prejudicial coverup.1 L/100 km. A trunk-mounted nickel-cadmium battery supplied energy to the motor that drove the rear wheels.
0 PS.and petroleum-free vehicles. The car managed to finished second in class at Petit Le Mans the same year. Bush administration in 2001. North America and the rest of the world in 2000. The program was replaced by the hydrogen-focused FreedomCAR initiative by the George W. Ford. This time. which use a gasoline piston engine to provide additional acceleration and to recharge the battery storage. and followed by the Honda Insight. In contrast to most production hybrids. The United States National Research Council (USNRC) cited automakers' moves to produce HEVs as evidence that technologies developed under PNGV were being rapidly adopted on production lines. Based on information received from automakers. however. General Motors.6 bhp) three-phase machine. pre-production prototype vehicles by 2004. The Volvo ECC was built on the Volvo 850 platform. The first mass-produced hybrid vehicle was the Toyota Prius. a 21. NRC reviewers questioned whether the "Big Three" would be able to move from the concept phase to cost effective. and other various governmental agencies to engineer the next efficient and clean vehicle. The Prius was launched in Europe. Once again. with the long-term goal of developing effectively carbon emission. this featured an electric motor.0 litre four-cylinder engine. as set out in Goal 3. The first generation Prius sedan has an estimated fuel economy of . the Volvo ECC used a gas turbine engine to drive the generator for recharging.3 kilowatts (29. an initiative to fund research too risky for the private sector to engage in.Volvo ECC was developed by Volvo. launched in Japan in 1997. which housed a 2.Two years later. Modern hybrids Automotive hybrid technology became widespread beginning in the late 1990s. The Clinton administration initiated the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program on 29 September 1993. 28. USCAR. although the car failed to qualify for the main event. 1998 saw the Esparante GTR-Q9 became the first Petrol-Electric Hybrid to race at Le Mans. launched in 1999 in the United States and Japan. that involved Chrysler. the DoE. the rear wheels were additionally powered via the Torsen centre differential from the main engine compartment. Audi. In 1992. driving the rear roadwheels. unveiled the second duo generation. the Audi 100 Duo likewise based on the Audi 100 Avant quattro. as called for under Goal 2.
5 L/100 km.S. The Audi Duo III was introduced in 1997. the Prius global cumulative sales were estimated at 1. and cumulative worldwide Prius sales reached the 1 million mark in April 2008.6 million units. Ford licensed patents involving their European diesel engines to Toyota. The 2003 Civic Hybrid appears identical to the non-hybrid version. 28 bhp) electric motor. which was coupled with an 21 kilowatts (29 PS. while increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. only about sixty Audi Duos were produced.9 L/100 km. the Duo was the only European hybrid ever put into production. The redesigned 2004 Toyota Prius (second generation) improved passenger room. based on the seventh generation Civic. Honda also released a hybrid version of the Accord but discontinued it in 2007 citing disappointing sales. In 2004. based on the Audi B5 A4 Avant. The Honda Insight first generation stopped being produced after 2006 and has a devoted base of owners. A second generation Insight was launched in 2010. 60 mpg-imp). although Ford's engine was independently designed and built. but delivers 50 miles per US gallon (4.2 L/100 km. Toyota and Ford entered into a licensing agreement in March 2004 allowing Ford to use 20 patentsfrom Toyota related to hybrid technology. Toyota announced calendar year 2005 hybrid electric versions of the . the first hybrid electric sport utility vehicle (SUV) was released in 2005.7 L/100 km. By early 2010. a 40 percent increase compared to a conventional Civic LX sedan. The Ford Escape Hybrid. Until the release of the Audi Q7 Hybrid in 2008.52 miles per US gallon (4. The Honda Civic Hybrid was introduced in February 2002 as a 2003 model. 73 mpg-imp) miles per gallon in city driving and 68 miles per US gallon (3. Unfortunately due to low demand for this hybrid because of its high price. Toyota launched a second generation Prius in 2004 and a third in 2009. The two-door first generation Insight was estimated at 61 miles per US gallon (3. Environmental Protection Agency combined fuel economy cycle of 50 miles per US gallon (4. The 2010 Prius has an estimated U.9 litre Turbocharged Direct Injection (TDI) diesel engine. 82 mpg-imp) on the highway.500 in 2000.5 L/100 km. The Duo III used the 1. and power output. 60 mpg-imp). 62 mpg) in the city and 45 miles per US gallon (5. cargo area. The Toyota Prius sold 300 units in 1997. 19. In exchange for the hybrid licenses. and was the only Duo to ever make it into series production. Along with the conventional Civic. it received styling update for 2004. 54 mpg) in highway driving.7 L/100 km.
closely followed by the 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid version.3 mpg-imp) and CO2 emissions of 99 g/km to qualify as a Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV).S. The Elantra PLI is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid to adopt advanced lithium polymer (Li²Poly) batteries. In 2006. 50. The Elantra LPI Hybrid delivers a fuel economy rating of 41. General Motors released the same technology in their half-ton pickup truck models. Nissan launched the Altima Hybrid with technology licensed by Toyota in 2007. with a power output of 335 bhp.Toyota Highlander Hybrid and Lexus RX 400h with 4WD-i. In 2007. Lexus released a hybrid electric version of their GS sport sedan. together with the second generation Honda Insight and the Mercury Milan Hybrid. For the 2009 model year. As of December 2009. and was launched to the U.4 litre L4 engine and a FWD automatic transmission.61 L/100 km. The Elantra LPI (Liquefied Petroleum Injected) is the world's first hybrid vehicle to be powered by an internal combustion engine built to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a fuel. which uses a rear electric motor to power the rear wheels negating the need for a transfer case. the GS 450h. only the BAS equipped Malibu is still in (limited) production. General Motors Saturn Division began to market a mild parallel hybrids in the form of the 2007 Saturn Vue Green Line which utilized GM's Belted Alternator/Starter (BAS Hybrid) System combined with a 2. The 2007 Camry Hybrid became available in Summer 2006 in the United States and Canada. The same hybrid powertrain was also used to power the 2008 Saturn Aura Greenline and Mailbu Hybrid models. The Ford Fusion Hybrid officially debuted at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show in November 2008. . the 2009 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra Two-Mode Hybrid models.9 miles per US gallon (5. Commencing in the fall of 2007 General Motors began to market their 2008 TwoMode Hybrid models of their GMT900 based Chevrolet Tahoe and GMC Yukon SUVs. Latest developments The Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid was unveiled at the 2009 Seoul Motor Show. and sales began in the South Korean domestic market in July 2009. market in March 2009.
61.K. and sales began in the U.9 mpg-US). in September 2010. began in July 2010. in October 2009. scheduled for 2011. 2011-2012 Volkswagen announced at the 2010 Geneva Motor Show the launch of the 2012 Touareg Hybrid.S.S.80 L/100 km. and unveiled the European version. followed by the Golf Hybrid in 2013 together with hybrid versions of the Passat. GB£550 (US$800) less than the Toyota Prius. The MKZ Hybrid is the first hybrid version ever to have the same price as the gasoline-engine version of the same car. In December 2009 BMW began sales of its full hybrid BMW ActiveHybrid X6. The Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 will be launched in the European market in early 2011 and is expected to become the world's first production diesel-electric hybrid. becoming Honda's third hybrid electric car in the market. in August 2010.The Mercedes-Benz S400 BlueHybrid was unveiled in the 2009 Chicago Auto Show. The S400 BlueHybrid is a mild hybrid and the first hybrid car to adopt a lithium ion battery.950 (US$27. The hybrid technology in the S400 was co-developed by Daimler AG and BMW. According to Peugeot the new hybrid delivers a fuel economy of up to 62 miles per US gallon (3. The same hybrid technology is being used in the BMW ActiveHybrid 7. Other gasoline-electric hybrids already scheduled for commercial sales . while Daimler launched the Mercedes-Benz ML450 Hybrid by lease only. and Europe by mid 2010. Mass production of the 2011 Toyota Auris Hybrid began in May 2010 at Toyota Manufacturing UK (TMUK) Burnaston plant and became the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle to be built in Europe. Honda also launch in Japan the 2011 Honda Fit Hybrid in October 2010. beginning with the new Jetta. the Honda Jazz Hybrid.450). The Porshe Cayenne Hybrid was launched in the U. Sales in the U. The Jazz Hybrid will go on sale in some European markets by early 2011.3 mpg-imp (3.S in late 2010.S. in the 2010 Paris Motor Show. The 2011 Lincoln MKZ Hybrid was unveiled at the 2010 New York International Auto Show and sales began in the U. followed by the U. 74 mpg-imp) and CO2 emissions of 99g/km on the European test cycle. Sales of the 2011 Honda CR-Z began in Japan in February 2010.S. and combined fuel economy is 74. VW also announced plans to introduce dieselelectric hybrid versions of its most popular models in 2012. The 2011 Auris Hybrid shares the same powertrain as the Prius.8 L/100 km. at a price starting atGB£18. The CR-Z is scheduled to be launched in the European market also in 2010. expected to go on sales in the U.
was the Toyota Prius.101 units.S.S. Ltd. was unveiled at the January 2011 North American International Auto Show and is scheduled to be released to the U. Japan and the U.S. Toyota Motor Company is the leader with more than 3. with sales of 36. The top selling hybrid in the U.S.in 2011 are the Lexus CT 200h. followed by Japan with more than 1 million units and Europe with more than 200 thousand. and the mode of operation. market by mid 2011. and worldwide sales of hybrids by both brands totaled over 2 million vehicles by August 2009. Technology The varieties of hybrid electric designs can be differentiated by the structure of the hybrid vehicle drivetrain. by February 2009. 2010. . with more than 300 thousand hybrids sold by January 2009. The Toyota Yaris HSD Concept was introduced at the March 2011 Geneva Motor Show and is expected to go on sale in Europe in 2012. led by the United States with almost 1. Sales and rankings The Toyota hybrids combined with Lexus reached 1 million hybrids sold in the U. U.. the first spinoff from the Prius family.370 units.564 units. More than 3 million hybrid electric vehicles have been sold around the world by July 2010. followed by Honda Motor Co. with 169. and the Toyota Camry Hybrid. the top seller in the U. As the top selling hybrid in both the U. and Japanese markets. by an American manufacturer is the Ford Escape Hybrid. the Hyundai Sonata Hybrid and its siblling the Kia Optima Hybrid. and Ford Motor Corporation with more than 140 thousand hybrids sold by December 2010. with 204. the fuel type. followed by the Honda Civic Hybrid.S. with cumulative sales of 955. Worldwide. By December 2010.513 vehicles.0 million milestone in early April 2011.0 million hybrids sold by February 2011. sales of the Toyota Prius reached the 1. followed by the Fusion Hybrid. represented 84% of global hybrid sales in 2009. The Toyota Prius V. the Infiniti M35 Hybrid.0 million Prius as of September 30.S.S.8 million units.467 vehicles by December 2010. with cumulative sales of 106. the Toyota Prius reached global cumulative sales of 2.
it is possible to mix in varying levels of ethanol created from renewable energy sources. and will likely remain dominant for the foreseeable future. as of 2007. this benefit would likely also apply. The diesel engine's high torque. Engines and fuel sources Fossil fuels Gasoline Gasoline engines are used in most hybrid electric designs. There is no standard terminology for such vehicles. Peugeot is expected to produce a diesel-electric hybrid version of its 308 in late 2008 for the European market. may offer substantially improved mileage. suffering less wear while operating at higher efficiency. such as air conditioning. Diesel Diesel-electric HEVs use a diesel engine for power generation.In 2007. While petroleum-derived gasoline is the primary fuel. Regenerative braking can be used to recapture energy and stored to power electrical accessories. although they may be termed mild hybrids. so they can use but do not need petroleum at all for fuel (although mixes of biofuel and petroleum are more common. Diesel-electric hybrid drivetrains have begun to appear in commercial vehicles (particularly buses). although prototypes exist. HEVs can typically use up to about 15% bioethanol. and petroleum may be needed for lubrication). no light duty diesel-electric hybrid passenger cars are currently available. but no plans are in place at present. several automobile manufacturers announced that future vehicles will use aspects of hybrid electric technology to reduce fuel consumption without the use of the hybrid drivetrain. If diesel-electric HEVs were in use. which would increase allowable ratios. some of the advantages of hybrid electric technology are gained while additional cost and weight may be limited to the addition of larger batteries and starter motors. Like most modern ICE powered vehicles. Shutting down the engine at idle can also be used to reduce fuel consumption and reduce emissions without the addition of a hybrid drivetrain. In both cases. . Manufacturers may move to flexible fuel engines. combined with hybrid technology. Most diesel vehicles can use 100% pure biofuels (biodiesel). Diesels have advantages when delivering constant power for long periods of time.
but has yet to sell a hybrid vehicle. At the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2009 both Mercedes and BMW displayed diesel-electric hybrids. or a source of electrons for an electric motor. Liquefied petroleum gas Hyundai introduced in 2009 the Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid. is combined with oxygen to form water. but it is consumed. As of October 2007 Fedex now operates more than 100 diesel electric hybrids in North America. Robert Bosch GmbH is supplying hybrid diesel-electric technology to diverse automakers and models. production dieselelectric engines have mostly appeared in mass transit buses FedEx. in the USA and Iveco in Europe. along with Eaton Corp. Hydrogen is not burned. it is the hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicle (HFEV) which is garnering all the attention. Asia and Europe. This means molecular hydrogen. There have been no concrete dates suggested for these vehicles. 120 mpg-US) fuel economy. Hydrogen fuel cells create electricity fed into an electric motor to drives the wheels. 2H2 (4e-) + O2 --> 2H2O (4e-). Hydrogen Hydrogen can be used in cars in two ways: a source of combustible heat. which is the first mass production hybrid electric vehicle to run on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). to use them to power the electric motor. including the Peugeot 308.PSA Peugeot Citroën has unveiled two demonstrator vehicles featuring a dieselelectric hybrid drivetrain: the Peugeot 307. has begun deploying a small fleet of Hybrid diesel electric delivery trucks. The burning of hydrogen is not being developed in practical terms. H2. The molecular hydrogen and oxygen's mutual affinity drives the fuel cell to separate the electrons from the hydrogen. Citroën C4 Hybride HDi and Citroën CCactus. and to return them to the ionized water molecules that were formed when the electron-depleted hydrogen combined with the oxygen in . Volkswagen made a prototype diesel-electric hybrid car that achieved 2 L/100 km (140 mpg-imp. but press statements have suggested production vehicles would not appear before 2009. General Motors has been testing the Opel Astra Diesel Hybrid. So far.
but (for high efficiency) use very strong rare earth . Department of Energy (DOE). in essence. Ford. Specifically. they are of a type called an interior permanent magnet (IPM) machine (or motor). and do not contain any type of heat engine. one of which functions as a motor primarily. and the other functions as a generator primarily. a Ford Escape Plug-in Hybrid. Also as a demonstration project. through two inverters. the motor is driven by the proton's atomic attraction to the oxygen nucleus. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle would be the first commercially available flex-fuel plug-in hybrid capable of adapting the propulsion to the biofuels used in several world markets such as the ethanol blend E85 in the U. such as a flexible-fuel engine running on ethanol or engines running on biodiesel.S. but this does not change the source of the motivation. or biodiesel in Sweden. One of the primary requirements of these machines is that they are very efficient. An HFEV is an all-electric car featuring an open-source battery in the form of a hydrogen tank and the atmosphere. through the motor again and then to the wheels. Recaling that a hydrogen atom is nothing more than a proton and an electron.the fuel cell. they are not hybrids.. as the electrical portion of the energy must be converted from the engine to the generator. These machines are wound similarly to the induction motors found in a typical home. In 2007 Ford produced 20 demonstration Escape Hybrid E85s for real-world testing in fleets in the U.S. HFEV's may also comprise closed-cell batteries for the purpose of power storage from regenerative braking. capable of running on gasoline or E85. and the electron's attraction to the ionized water molecule. Electric machines In split path vehicles (Toyota. Since HFEV's are purely electric.S. Chrysler) there are two electrical machines. Most of the electric machines used in hybrid vehicles are brushless DC motors (BLDC). It implies the HFEV is an electric car with two types of batteries. Ford delivered in 2008 the first flexible-fuel plug-in hybrid SUV to the U. or E100 in Brazil. GM. Biofuels Hybrid vehicles might use an internal combustion engine running on biofuels. The Volt will be E85 flex-fuel capable about a year after its introduction.
and hence inefficiencies from under-utilization. weight and cost profiles. manufacturers are producing HEVs that use the added energy provided by the hybrid systems to give vehicles a power boost.magnets in the rotor. battery and motor size. 2006 that it was considering a "high-efficiency" button. regenerative braking) 3. The drive . The magnet material is expensive. In the future. rather than significantly improved fuel efficiency compared to their traditional counterparts. power. by using the added power from the electric motor to compensate for the loss in peak power output from the smaller ICE.e. because the combustion engine can be sized for slightly above average power demand rather than peak power demand. and are therefore called Neodymium magnets. Recapturing waste energy (i. emissions. The trade-off between added performance and improved fuel efficiency is partly controlled by the software within the hybrid system and partly the result of the engine. and more efficient than the one in a conventional vehicle. and its cost is one of the limiting factors in the use of these machines. manufacturers may provide HEV owners with the ability to partially control this balance (fuel efficiency vs. compared to otherwise similar conventional vehicles. Design considerations In some cases. lighter. generally by turning the ICE off 2. These magnets contain neodymium. The ICE in an HEV can be smaller. Toyota announced in January. iron and boron. Conversion kits One can buy a stock hybrid or convert a stock petroleum car to a hybrid electric vehicle using an aftermarket hybrid kit Fuel consumption Current HEVs reduce petroleum consumption under certain circumstances. through a user-controlled setting. Any combination of these three primary hybrid advantages may be used in different vehicles to realize different fuel usage. primarily by using three mechanisms: 1. Reducing the size and power of the ICE. Reducing wasted energy during idle/low output. added performance) as they wish.
The U. during daytime and in clear weather.system in a vehicle is required to operate over a range of speed and power. the loudest noises at highway speeds from the interior of most vehicles. leading to roadway noise reduction. A 2009 study conducted by the U. Infrastructure. are not affected by the hybrid design alone). These accidents commonly occurred on in zones with low speed limits. the ICE operates closer to its range of highest efficiency more frequently. and as a . in comparison to conventional gasoline or diesel powered engine vehicles. Transport and Tourism issued guidelines for hybrid and other near-silent vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found that crashes involving pedestrian and bicyclist have higher incidence rates for hybrids than internal combustion engine vehicles in certain vehicle maneuvers. in most HEV designs. Congress and the European Commission are exploring legislation to establish a minimum level of sound for plug-in electric and hybrid electric vehicles when operating in electric mode. so that blind people and other pedestrians and cyclists can hear them coming and detect from which direction they are approaching. making conventional vehicles inefficient. as blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets and feel quiet hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard. Even though no specific national regulation has been enacted in most countries as of mid 2010. The greater fuel economy of HEVs has implication for reduced petroleum consumption and vehicle air pollution emissions worldwide Noise Reduced noise emissions resulting from substantial use of the electric motor at idling and low speeds. but an ICE's highest efficiency is in a narrow range of operation. Tests have shown that vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (32 km/h).S. In January 2010 the Japanese Ministry of Land. Reduced noise may not be beneficial for all road users. resulting in beneficial noise health effects (although road noise from tires and wind. The power curve of electric motors is better suited to variable speeds and can provide substantially greater torque at low speeds compared with internal-combustion engines. some carmakers announced they have decided to address this safety issue shared by regular hybrids and all types of plug-in electric vehicles.S. On the contrary.
this included an error with charging the "hybrid premium" twice. although today's hybrids use NiMH batteries. Consumer Reports ran an article in April 2006 stating that HEVs would not pay for themselves over 5 years of ownership. both due in 2011. more electronics and in some cases other design considerations (although battery renting can be used to reach the cost parity). both due in late 2010. plug-in hybrids. Pollution Battery toxicity is a concern. and the new Nissan Fuga hybrid and the Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid. and in some cases. Traditional economy vehicles may result in a lower direct cost for many users (before consideration of any externality). and they pay a $200 "bounty" for each battery to help ensure that it will be properly recycled. government subsidies. They can be fully recycled. the upcoming Nissan Leaf and Chevrolet Volt. will include synthesized sounds to alert pedestrians. "Nickel metal hydride batteries are benign. Toyota plans to use other versions of the device for use in gasoline-electric hybrids.result. the blind and others to their presence. However. not the environmentally problematic rechargeable nickel cadmium. electric vehicles as well as fuel-cell hybrid vehicles planned for mass production.miles traveled." says Ron Cogan. This . The trade-off between higher initial cost (also called showroom costs) and lower fuel costs (difference often referred to as the payback period) is dependent on usage . There is also after market technology available in California to make hybrids sound more like conventional combustion engine cars when the vehicle goes into the silent electric mode (EV mode). fuel costs. Toyota and Honda say that they will recycle dead batteries and that disposal will pose no toxic hazards. Toyota puts a phone number on each battery. due to extra batteries. or hours of operation. the Honda Civic Hybrid and Toyota Prius did have a payback period of slightly less than 5 years. On August 2010 Toyota began sales in Japan of an onboard device designed to automatically emit a synthesized sound of an electric motor when the Prius is operating as an electric vehicle at speeds up to approximately 25 kilometres per hour (16 mph). When corrected. editor of the Green Car Journal. Hybrid Premium and Showroom Cost Parity HEVs can be initially more expensive (the so-called "hybrid premium") than pure fossil-fuel-based ICE vehicles (ICEVs).
com shows that all 22 currently available HEVs will save their owners money over a five year period. In particular. however it is not known if these sources will be developed before a shortage hits . the pay-back period can be immediate and allcombustion engine vehicles (ACEVs) can cost more than hybrids because they generate more pollution. this is a volatile market and hard to predict. In countries with incentives to fight against global warming and contamination and promote vehicle fuel efficiency.700 in gasoline at current gasoline prices. which has a five year cost of ownership 40.3% lower than the cost of comparable non-hybrid vehicles. gallon. gas prices ranged from low $2 to low $3. As recent events have shown. $3/U.includes conservative estimates with depreciation (seen as more depreciation than a conventional vehicle. nearly all the rare earth elements in the world come from China. gallon for 3 years. although that is not the current norm) and with progressively-higher gas prices. gallon the last year. a hybrid Camry driver could save up to $6.S.S. For 2006.60/U. Raw materials shortage The rare earth element dysprosium is required to fabricate many of the advanced electric motors and battery systems in hybrid propulsion systems. Toyota and Honda have already said they've halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives). A report in the Greeley Tribune says that over the five years it would typically take for a new car owner to pay off the vehicle cost differential. gallon for one year and $4/U. In addition. A few non-Chinese sources such as the advanced Hoidas Lake project in northern Canada and Mt Weld in Australia are currently under development.S.S. averaging about $2. A January 2007 analysis by Intellichoice. the Consumer Reports article assumed $2/U. export quotas on Chinese rare earth exports have resulted in a generally shaky supply of those metals. The most savings is for the Toyota Prius. with hybrid tax incentives as an additional saving. and one analyst believes that an overall increase in Chinese electronics manufacturing may consume this entire supply by 2012. However.
com www.wikipedia.References : 123www.ehow.org Compare hybrid cars USA 4.About FedEx Hybrid Electric Vehicle in the .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.