Humanitarian Emergency Response Review

28 March 2011 Chaired by Lord (Paddy) Ashdown



ForewordtotheHumanitarianEmergency ResponseReview
“The water started to rise, and it did not stop…the water was already so high and strong that I could not hold on to one of my children and the water swept her away. Luckily someone was there to grab her.”
Gonaïves,OgèLéandre,Haiti2008 ThepeopleoftheUnitedKingdomknowwhywerespond,individuallyandasasociety, tohumanitarianemergenciesaroundtheworld.Theyunderstandthatwhenweare confrontedbytheimageofachildtrappedintherubbleofanearthquake,orofafamily clingingtotheroofofafloodedhome,wedon’tsomuchcommittohelp,asfeel committedtodoso;committedbyoursharedhumanity. Itisbecausetheimpulsetorelievesufferingisrootedinmoralitythat our interventions to relieve suffering at times of disaster must always be driven by need and need alone. Nevertheless, the fact that Britain is prepared to play a full part (and often a leading part) as a member of the international community in order to relieve suffering at times of crisis makes for, not only a more compassionate world, but a safer one too – and that benefits all of us. Whatiscrucialisthatwhenwedecidetoact,wedosoeffectively.Thefactthat, acrossthecountry,householdbudgetsareunderparticularstrainatthemoment,only underlinesthepoint.Peoplewanttoknowthateverypoundtheygivewillbeapound spentsavinglivesandlivelihoods. InlookingatthewaytheUKgovernmentrespondstohumanitarianemergencies,this ReviewhasidentifiedmuchinwhichtheBritishpeoplecantakepride.TheDepartment forInternationalDevelopment,asapolicymaker,afunderandadelivererofaid,hasbeen widelypraisedforitsleadingrolewithintheinternationalhumanitariancommunity. Butbeinggoodisnotgoingtobegoodenoughgiventhechallengesahead.Thescale, frequencyandseverityofrapidonsethumanitariandisasterswillcontinuetogrowin thecomingyears,andatanacceleratingpace.Expertspredictthatclimaterelated disasterscouldaffect375millionpeopleeveryyearby2015,upfrom263million in2010. Thereasonsforthisaremany.Rapidpopulationgrowth,especiallyindisasterprone areas,isakeyfactor,especiallywhencombinedwithcontinuedmassurbanisation,much ofitunplannedandunsafe.Sotooarethechangesalreadyunderwayinsealevels,and inglobalrainfallandstormpatterns–changesthatwillcontributetosignificant additionalpressureforfoodandwaterintheyearsahead. Wearecaughtinaracebetweenthegrowingsizeofthehumanitarianchallenge,and ourabilitytocope;betweenhumanityandcatastrophe.And,atpresent,thisisnota racewearewinning. Somerecentlyaffectedcountries,likeChinaandChilehavedemonstratedremarkable resilienceinthefaceofnaturaldisasters.EvenJapan,wherethetriplecatastrophehas ledtotremendoussuffering,thingsmighthavebeenfarworsewithoutpreparation. Butothers,likeHaitiorPakistan,haveneededlargescaleoutsidehelpandwillcontinue todoso. Theabilityoftheinternationalhumanitariancommunitytoprovidethishelpis threatenedbyanumberofproblems,somenew,somefamiliar.

ThiswillrequireDFIDtomake humanitarianresponseapartofitscoredevelopmentwork.the effectivenessofDFIDwilldependmoreonwhatitcandowithothers.Unlesswe radicallyimprovethequalityoftheleadershipoftheinternationaleffortinhumanitarian crises.whichcouldmakethealreadyslowergrowing countriesoftheWestlessableorwillingtoprovideresourcesfordisasterrelief.managementandcoordinationoftheinternational community’seffortshavenotriseneventothechallengeswecurrentlyface.usingsciencetohelpusboth predict. Thesecondistherisingsecuritythreatfacedbyhumanitarianworkersontheground.impartialityandneutrality.weneedtoinnovatetobecomemoreefficientandeffective. Thereareseventhreadstothisnewapproach.itwillneed.ineverythingitdoes.theRedCrossandthe internationalNGOs.Inaddition.Thisinturnwillrequireustoreassertthecorehumanitarian principlesofhumanity. Third. Fifth.engagingmorecloselywith localpeopleandinstitutionssoastostrengthenlocalcapacity. Second. Sixth.weneedtoincreasetransparencyandaccountabilitytowardsbothdonorand hostcountrypopulations.andinany casearelikelytoremainpreoccupiedwiththerelativelyhighlevelsofpovertywithin theirownborders.wehaveconcludedthatmerelyimprovinguponwhatwehave doneinthepast–enhancingthestatusquo–willnotbesufficient.politicalandoperational leadershipoftheinternationalhumanitariansystem.weneedtocreatenewhumanitarianpartnershipstoallowDFIDbetterto influenceandworkwithinanincreasinglycomplexhumanitariansystem.onoccasion.DFIDwillneedtoworkmorecloselywiththeemergingworldpowersand withtheprivatesector.religion.soweneedtodefendand strengthenthehumanitarian space.thisisinfactapreconditionfor theimprovementswewanttoseeintermsofvalueformoneyandimpact. Fourth. Regrettably. AsDFIDseekstomeetthesechallenges.regardlessoftheirgender. Forallthesereasons.Thetaskof providinghumanitarianassistanceimpartiallyandonthebasisofneedishugely complicatedbyconflict.Thisgap couldbefilledbythefastergrowing‘emerging’worldeconomies. First.ethnicityorpoliticalallegiance.theleadership.Thesetooarelikelytogrowinnumberandcomplexity.Thesecountriescurrentlycontributefarlesstodisasterrelief.wewillnotsucceedindealingwithwhatisahead.andprepareforfuturedisastersandconflict.Farfrombeingburdensome.evenmoreofalearningorganisationthatisalwaysopenand welcomingtonewideas. Finally.butthisisfarfrom guaranteed.weneedtoplacethecreationofresilienceattheheartofourapproachbothto longer-termdevelopmentandtoemergencyresponse.otherdonors. .Thisreferstotheneedforhumanitarianworkersto begrantedaccessandprotectionastheyseektoprovidehumanitarianassistancein conflictaffectedareas.Wemustdevise newwaystomeetthenewchallenges.thepromisetoassistpeopleonthe basisofneed.Infuture.Theneed.tobecome evenmoreinnovative.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Thefirstistheglobaleconomiccrisis. andtheincreasingdifficultiestheyfaceinaccessingaffectedpopulations.itwillneedtonurtureits existingpartnershipswiththeEU.weneedsubstantiallytoimprovethestrategic.asemergenciesbecomebiggerandmorecomplex.thanonwhatit candoalone.aswellaswiththemilitary.Theseformthestructureofthisdocument.weneedtodevelopamoreanticipatoryapproach.toworkalongsideorwithhostile–even proscribed–groupsalreadypresentshumanitarianworkerswithanumberofmoraland practicalproblems.theUS.

 SueWardell. CarolynMiller.hasdrivenandsteeredusthroughoutthesevenmonthsofthe reviewprocess.who. Chair HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Director:RossMountain SeniorAdvisoryBoardMembers:AndyBearpark.ForewordtotheHumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview IhavebeenprivilegedtochairthisindependentreviewandamgratefultoSecretaryof StateAndrewMitchell. . RandolphKent.NiciDahrendorf.butforenablingmetowork withaSeniorAdvisoryBoardwhosetalent.DavidBryer.SimonMaxwell.YaseminAysan.SteffenStenberg. DFIDenjoysapositionofrespectandleadershipintheinternationalcommunityforthe workthatithasdoneinthepastandstilldoestoday.ElisabethRasmusson.GilbertGreenall. GordonConway.JodaSilva.as theReview’sDirector. Lord (Paddy) Ashdown.andwithmyfriendoffortyyears.withagiftedandcommittedteamofDFIDofficialswhohave supportedusoutstandingly.notonlyforaskingmetodothis.BarneyMayhew.MarkBowden.Itisourhopethatthisreportwill assistDFIDtomaintainthatpositionofinternationalleadershipinthefaceofthe challengesthatlieahead.RossMountain.experienceandwisdomhascontributedso muchtothiswork.

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TheUKisamajorcontributorinhumanitariancrises.or quicklyenoughwhentheyarehappening. as well as reacting to them.recommendationsintendedtobringthischangeabout.Thereviewmakesaseriesofhighlevelpolicy. ThisreviewhasfoundthattheUKDepartmentforInternationalDevelopment(DFID). givingpeoplesupportbeforedroughtforcesthemtosellalltheirpossessions. themainconduitthroughwhichthegovernmentresponds.asarethenumbersofpeopleaffectedby them.Resilienceisaboutbeingpreparedfordisasters. preparing for disasters.therewillhavetobeastepchangeinthe wayDFIDresponds.creatingdisastermanagementstructuresandplans.anamount itcouldnotsecure.Disastersareincreasing.andtheBritishpublic givesgenerouslyinappeals.But wecanbemoreanticipatoryinourapproach.Mozambiqueaskedthe internationalcommunityfor£2millionin2006tohelpprepareforthefloods.asare earthquakefaultlines.isalsowellrespectedand wellregarded.ExecutiveSummary ExecutiveSummary Thereviewcomesatatimewhenthehumanitariancommunityfacesanumberof dauntingchallenges.Hurricaneseasonsarewellknown.throughDFIDshould helpthemtodoso.Itisaboutinvestingininfrastructure.ThesearesetoutstarklyintheChair’sforewordandinthereportitself.andishighlyrespectedforitsrole.Butitisalsoaboutinvestinginhumancapacity.Nevertheless. Investinginresiliencewillsavelivesandmoneyinthefuture.Devolvingdecisionmakingtothoseclosesttoeventsisanother part.likebuilding housesandhospitalsthatcanwithstandearthquakes. Wheregovernmentsarecapableofbuildingresilience. .Itisabout economicplanningthatrecognisesdisasterscanhappenandmakesprovisionforthem.andhaving goodsystemsforrespondingtothem.aftertheUS. Resilience The more resilient a nation.includingequippingatriskgovernmentsandcivilsocietywiththemeanstoact. we have to be “ahead of the curve” rather than always behind.Droughtscanbequicklyidentified. the less lasting damage disasters cause and the quicker they can recover. Itisinthenatureofdisastersandconflictthattheycannotbepreciselypredicted.thentheUK.But theseearlywarningsandpredictableeventsareoftennotactedoninadvance.Partoftheanswerisbetterpresentationof thescienceforbetterdecisionmaking. Anticipation If we are to meet the challenges ahead.TheUKgovernmenthasbeenthesecondlargestbilateral donorforhumanitarianreliefinrecentyears.Afterthefloodstheinternationalsystemspent£60millionresponding.andhasplayedapositiverolein improvinginternationalresponse.andsomedownto earthpractical.whichisthemajorityofthe27inwhichDFIDnowworksbilaterally.Politicalinstabilityandtheconflictitcanleadtoarereportedearly. SomeofthebestknownhumanitarianorganisationsareUKbased.thereviewhasalsoconcludedthatin lightofthepotentialneedinyearstocome.ThisshouldbeacorepartofDFIDdevelopmentworkincountries thatareatrisk.Climatescienceisimproving allthetime.orschoolsthatdoubleupas cycloneshelters.Ithasexcellenthumanitarianstaff.strengtheninga government’scapacitytorespond.Partoftheanswerisfordecisionmakerstoact onthisinformation.

Accountability Humanitarianaidhelpsmillionsofpeoplearoundtheworldeachyear.CasestudiesforthisreviewinHaitiandPakistanmakethisdepressinglyclear.suchasinnutrition wherenewfoodproductshaveprovenrevolutionary. Innovation Whenitcomestosavinglivesinanemergencyweneedtobeasefficientandeffective aswecan.The UN needs to invest in a leadership cadre and ensure its best people are deployed quickly to the biggest and most complex disasters.satelliteimagerywasavailabletostrategicplanners. Ithelpedsetupanewinnovationsfund.Intractableproblemssuchasthetimelyprovisionof shelterremainachallenge. .InPakistan. there is a need for more investment in research and evidence. Changeisneededatthestrategicandtheoperationallevels.Overallthelevelofprofessionalisminthe humanitariansectorneedstoberaisedthroughbetterinvestmentinskillsandtraining.newprocessesand thenewideasfromthoseaffected.andwherenecessary.Oneofthewaysthiscanbeachievedisthroughgreateruseofnew technologiesandnewpractices.AlreadytheheadsofthemajorUNagencies.thesehavebeendrivenby committedindividualsusuallywithoutsupport.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Leadership Wheregovernmentsarenotabletorespondtodisastersorinconflictsituationsthey needastronginternationalsystemtohelpout. TheUNistheonlylegitimateauthoritythatcanleadbutisoftentooweakandslowto doso.Buttoooftentheinternationalsystem failsthem.institutional changesshouldbemadetomakethemso.Whilstthishaslongbeenrecognisedasanissue.This means that gender based issues and the needs of the vulnerable are too often overlooked. TheUKhasbeenastrongproponentofchangeintheinternationalsystemtodate.withotherdonorsandNGOs.Whilsttherehavebeenafewsuccesses. as well as new ways of working.andnewinnovationsneedtobetakentoscalefaster.butnotto thoserespondingontheground.Linesofauthorityneedtobeclearer.Theseneeddedicatedleadershipinthebiggestemergenciesandthey needtobestrategic.DFID should encourage and support further reform.Thesameistrueoftechnicalleadership –the‘clusters’.ledbythe UNEmergencyReliefCoordinator(ERC).TheNigercase studyforthisreviewalonemakesclearthattensofthousandsofchildrenweresaved fromstarvationthroughpromptaction.withDFIDfundingplayingameaningfulpart.andcontinuestoseeksolutionstoproblemslikeshelter. Thehumanitariansectorhasbeenslowtochange.Ithasprovidedstartupfunding formanynewinitiatives.Crucially.toolittle hasbeendoneaboutit.Thepeoplewhoareonthereceivingendofour assistancearerarelyifeverconsultedonwhattheyneed.Newapproachessuchasgiving peoplecash(insteadofbuyingthemblanketstheymaynotneed)havetakenyearsto gotoscale.and canhelppushthisnewagenda. Butthereisanaccountabilitydeficit.Theseleadersneedthesupportoftheirheadquartersand theagenciesthatdothemajorityofthework. and work with others to deliver the change needed to face future challenges.Thiswork needstobeaccelerated.harnessingthebestofnewscience.decision-makingbodieswithnationalandlocalgroupsfully integrated.orabletochoosewhohelps themorhow.arepushingtheseideas. DFIDhasagoodtrackrecordinsupportinginnovation.

thosewhodeliverhumanitarian aidcanonlyunderstandtheirimpactiftheyunderstandwhatpeopleneed.mandatedbytheUN. as power shifts towards the newly emerging economies. NGOs. and as greater challenges require more capacity.Nevertheless. Humanitarian agencies should also be more accountable to donors.andinsituationswheretheauthorityof thestatehasbrokendowntherewillbetimeswhenmilitaryforce.Itcombinesscarceresourcesforthebesteffect.Whereaidislinkedtopoliticalormilitarygoals. neutralityandimpartiality.whentheyare viewedasgenuinelyimpartial.makingitdifficulttoreachthose mostinneed. Delivering transformational change in DFID Todeliverastepchangeinthewayhumanitarianassistanceisconceivedanddelivered.The reviewalsorecognisesthatincomplexconflicts.Thisisconnectedtotheaccountabilityissue. Humanitarian space Inconflictzonesorfailedstates.withtheUnitedNationsandwithcivilsocietyorganisations makessense. to work with agencies that can access and help those in dire need.Theyareonly‘allowed’in. ManyofthepartnersDFIDworkswithinhumanitarianresponseareworld-class organisations. The UK should remain a committed multilateralist in its approach.ExecutiveSummary Understandingtheimpactofhumanitarianassistanceisanotherareawheremuchwork isneeded.Hencetheimportanceofthekeyhumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity.Whilstthis canbeexplained(partlybytheneedfororganisationstobeseenasneutraland impartial)thesystemdoesneedtochange. defend and where possible enlarge this fragile space. Partnership TheUKisnotalargedirectproviderofhumanitarianassistance. DFIDwillhavetomakesignificantchanges.DFIDoftencannotworkdirectlythroughthe authorities.Workingwith partnersinothernations. be they governments or the public.This review concludes that DFID needs to become more of a ‘network enabler’.The review endorses this approach. partnership will become even more important as the world becomes more interconnected.access canbedeniedandthesecurityofstaffcompromised.creatinga secureenvironmentbothfortheciviliansandfortheconductofhumanitarianworkcan oftenbeafirstpriority. Linking impact measurement and accountability better to the funds agencies receive is a key recommendation of this review.ratherthansomethingthat .thehumanitariansectorinrecentyearshasbeenseenby manyasa‘closedshop’withahandfulofagenciesanddonorsdominating.Insuchcases.Themostradicalchangewillinvolveseeing humanitarianconcernsasacorepartofDFIDprogramming.Donorshavearighttoknowhow–andhowwell–their moneyisspent.DFIDcan helpwithmeasuringimpactandmakingthosewhodeliverhumanitarianaidmore accountable. the private sector. working with existing partners but also developing new and dynamic partnerships with emerging nations.Insuchcasesthereisafragile‘space’intowhichhumanitarianagenciesare admittedtohelpthosemostinneed.preferringinsteadto workwithandthroughpartners. faith groups and the diasporas. The review concludes that DFID humanitarian policy should be to support. willbeneededtoprotectciviliansandhumanitarianworkers. and not to politicise humanitarian aid.however.

more integrated relationship between DFID’s core development work and the way DFID responds to meet rapid onset emergencies. both to those who provide the money. for instance in the supply chain. It needs to drive radical change. It needs to seek value for money.There should be a closer.Fundingshouldalsobeavailabledirectlyto governmentsforresilienceandresponsework. It needs to improve the way it provides leadership and coordination across the UK government when responding to humanitarian emergencies. Finally. To introduce a new dynamism into the humanitarian sector DFID needs to reach out to new partners.wheretheyarecapable. DFIDshouldactivelysupporttheUNinitseffortstoreformitshumanitarianleadership.Thereisa needforfastandflexiblefundingforthe‘criticalperiod’immediatelyaftera humanitarianemergencyhashappened.willingand transparent. FundingformultilateralandNGOpartnersneedstobecomemorepredictable. . and to those who are the beneficiaries of it.Suchworkshouldalsobeofcentralconcernto DFID’sdevelopmentpartners. It needs to put the measurement of impact at the heart of its work. not crudely through comparing costs but through focusing on achieving the best outcomes for affected people and improving the quality of future decision making. It needs to promote innovation and bring new innovations and processes to scale faster. it must become better at communicating what it does.suchastheWorldBankandtheUN. It needs to work better with new donors and the private sector.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview needstoberespondedtowhenithappens.sothat theycaninvestintheskillsandstructurestheyneedtobebetterprepared. and demand accountability and transparency of itself and its partners.

3 Leadership Strategicleadership Operationalleadership Humanresourcecapacities 4. Introduction Howthereportisorganised Howthereviewwasconducted 2.4 Innovation Cashbasedapproaches Shelter Technology 4.2 Resilience Embeddingresiliencewithindevelopmentprogrammes Regional.7 Humanitarian space Protectionofcivilians Securityofhumanitarianworkers 1 1 2 3 5 9 9 12 13 13 15 16 18 18 19 20 20 21 23 24 25 25 26 27 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 35 36 38 40 40 41 . Challenges Increasingdisasterrisk:themajortrends.threats.nationalandlocalcapacities Innovativefundingmodelsforrisktransfer 4.andprobabilities Respondingtoincreasedneed 4.1 Anticipation 4.5 Accountability Impact Addressingtheneedsofthemostvulnerable Gender 4. The international humanitarian system DFID:Aleadingactorinhumanitarianresponse 3.TableofContents TableofContents 1. Findings 4.6 Partnership WorkingwiththeUnitedNationsanditsagencies WorkingwiththeEuropeanUnion Workingwithbi-lateraldonors Workingwithnewdonorpartners WorkingwithNGOs WorkingwiththeRedCrossandRedCrescentMovement Workingwiththeprivatesector Workingwiththemilitary 4.

2 Delivering differently ShapingtheInternationalSystem Changingthefundingmodel Fastmobilisationfundingandpre-crisisarrangements Fundingrecoveryfromdayone Deliveringsmarterdirectaid WorkingstrategicallyacrosstheUKgovernment 5. Recommendations 42 42 43 43 44 45 46 46 47 49 50 50 51 53 53 54 54 55 58 .4 Driving results and value for money Outcomesandeffectiveness Outputsandefficiency Inputsandeconomy Theglobalsupplychain 5. Delivering transformational change in DFID 5.3 Changing the structure.5 Getting the message across 6. shifting resources Managingtheresponse Managingrisk 5.1 Changing the policy 5.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 5.

 CreatingthebestUKresponsewillonlygopartofthewaytowardsimprovingthewhole system. How the report is organised Thereportislaidoutinsixsections.Introduction 1.Sectionsixliststherecommendations. TheBritishpublicexpectstheUKtobeamajorhumanitarianresponder.whichhas recentlypublishedthefindingsofitsBilateralandMultilateralAidReviews.TheUKmustworktoinfluencetheglobalsystemifrealimprovementsare tohappen. Thescopeofthereviewdoesnotcoverlong-termchronichumanitariancrises. Theresponsewasespeciallynotableatatimeofglobaleconomiccrisis.TheUKisastrongsupporterofthemultilateralsystem.manyofthoseinchargeofmajoraidagenciesarewonderinghowtomeet thechallengesofthefuture. Introduction ThisindependentreviewintohowtheUKrespondstohumanitarianemergencieswas commissionedbytheSecretaryofStateforInternationalDevelopmentandledbyLord PaddyAshdown.ItwasaskedtoconsiderhowtheUKshouldbestrespondto humanitarianemergenciesoverseas. TheUKworksthroughandwithpartners.Workinginpartnershipisabigpartofthe reviewandtheproposedfutureapproach.thereviewnoteswherepastresponsehasbeenmosteffectiveandlooks forwaystoenhancewhathasbeendonewell.which brieflydescribestheinternationalhumanitariansystemandDFID’sroleinit.Itfocuses onsuddenonsetdisastersor‘spikes’inconflictsituations.andtheroletheUKshouldplayintheinternational humanitariansystem.ItisnotanevaluationofDFID’sworkinemergenciesto date.Thisintroductionisfollowedbysectiontwo.andiswidely regardedinternationally.InJanuary2010. providessignificantfundingandconsistentlyprovidesexperiencedstaffandreliefitems tosupporttheresponseinmajoremergencies. 1 . TheUKisconsideredoneoftheleadingnationsinhumanitarianresponse.TheBritish publicitselfgivesgenerouslytoemergencyappeals.Asthehorrendouseventsunfoldin JapanandoverayearaftertheHaitiearthquakeandsixmonthsafterdevastatingfloods inPakistan.Sectionfoursetsoutthefindingsofthereview.Italsocomesatatimeofchange forDFID.ItaimstobuildontheUK’sstrengths. ThisreviewofhowtheUKcarriesoutitshumanitarianresponseworkcomesata momentofreflectionfortheinternationalsystem.Inrecent yearsithasbeenthesecondlargestbilateralhumanitariandonorglobally.ItalsolookstonewpartnershipsandhowDFIDcanwork bestwithintheUKgovernment.theDisasters EmergencyCommittee(DEC)AppealforHaitiraised£101millionfromthepublic.Thethird sectionlooksatpotentialfuturehumanitarianchallengesandthecapacitiesthereareto copewiththese.Rather.Thereview’s conclusionsonhowDFIDshouldpositionitselfinordertomeetthefuturechallenges areoutlinedinsectionfive.ThereviewlooksatthewaytheUKcanworkwithotherinternationalbodies andUNagenciesinemergencysituationstoensurethattheglobalresponsetodisasters improves.butmanyofthe recommendationswillalsoapplytochronicsituations.ThereviewsetsoutwhereDFIDcandeepen thesepartnershipsandhow. Thereviewisforwardlooking.

Anindependentdirectorwasappointedtoheadtheteam.literaturereviewandpreparedmaterial fortheboard.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview How the review was conducted ThereviewwaschairedbyLordPaddyAshdownandwasentirelyindependentinnature.but representedthroughtheirexperiencethemajorinstitutionsandtraditionsinvolvedin humanitarianresponse. 2 . ASeniorAdvisoryBoard(SAB)of15metonamonthlybasisthroughoutthereview periodtosteerthedirectionofthereview. Asmallreviewteamcarriedoutconsultations.Theadvisoryboardservedinapersonalcapacity.examinematerialandsetoutthemain themesandrecommendations.

foundationsandindividualgivers)andtheimplementers(RedCrossand RedCrescentMovement.Anumberofkeyactorsalsoofimportancearestillseentobeoutside theformalsystem.andbusinesses.RefugeeLawandUN Resolutions. Theinternationalhumanitariansystem $12.namelyaffectedgovernments. IFRC.536bn International NGOs $* Local communities and organisations $5. 3 .1bn Affected country governments $* DELIVERY AGENCIES $7.Thelegalframeworkforaninternationalhumanitarianemergencyresponseisset outinInternationalHumanitarianLaw.themilitary. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies] International military organisations National Private Sector $1.Thechartaboveshows themaincomponentsofthesystem.NGOs.HumanRightsLaw. (*Amountsunknown) Theformalinternationalhumanitariansystemismadeupofproviders(donor governments. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemrespondstohumanitarianemergencieswhere thereisanappealforinternationalassistance.UNAgenciesandIOMandnationalandregionalNGOs andcivilsociety).orinextremecaseswheredirectedbythe UN.8bn $* International Private Sector $* Red Cross [ICRC.8bn UN agencies funds and organisations Local NGOs Governments DONORS Private contributions $4. Data included from the Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2010.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem 2. Remittanceflowsarealsonotcapturedbytheformalsystem.7bn $* $* Affected population Figure1: The international humanitarian system.

Inconflictsituationsthereistypicallyapeaceandsecuritydimensiontohumanitarian emergencies. militaryobjectivesorotherinterestsrelatedtothelocationwhereassistanceis provided. Humanity–thecentralityofsavinglivesandalleviatingsufferingwhereveritisfound. iii. Neutrality–humanitarianactionmustnotfavouranysideinanarmedconflictorother dispute.many humanitarianoperationsnowincludeawiderangeofotheractivities. 4 .whichdetermineswhenandwhereaUN Peacekeeping(DPKO)operationshouldbedeployed. Themaindeliveryactorsfallintothree‘pillars’:theUNanditsspecialisedagencies. 2 ALNAP.nationalandlocalinstitutionsinaffectednationstypicallyleadthe responseandprovidemuchoftheassistance.Aidworkerpopulationhasincreasedby6%yearonyearoverthe last10years2.humanrightsadvocacyandsupporttothereestablishmentoftheruleoflaw1.withtheinternationalsysteminsupport. ii. Thetotalnumberofstaffworkingfortheinternationalhumanitariansystemis estimatedat210.agriculture. Governments.900). Therangeofactivitiesundertakenbytheinternationalhumanitariansystemhasalso expanded.9billion)to2009 ($15.However.mentalhealthsupport.Althoughfundingtotheinternational humanitariansystemhasincreasedfasterthantherateofofficialdevelopment assistance(ODA)inrecentyears.500).ItismadeupofUN agenciesandtheIOM(49.TheStateoftheHumanitarianSystem.Insuchcasesothermultilateralmechanismsandinstitutionsarealso involvedsuchastheUNSecurityCouncil. Impartiality–humanitarianaidshouldbeimplementedsolelyonthebasisofneed.nutritionandfoodaidandshelter.thelatestGlobalHumanitarianAssistance(GHA) reportclaimsthathumanitarianaidfellby11%from2008($16.400)and NGOs(112. withoutdiscriminationbetweenorwithinaffectedpopulations.(2010).foodsecurity.education.asthisreportexplores.800(mostlynationalsintheirowncountry).theRedCross/CrescentMovement(48.1billion). Inrecentyears. Independence–humanitarianobjectivesareautonomousfrompolitical. iv.economic.the RedCrossandRedCrescentMovement.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Theselegalnormsestablishthathumanitarianaidshouldbeguidedbytheprinciplesof: i. Theinternationalsystemisfinancedbygovernmentdonors(ofwhichtheUKisa significantone)andprivatecontributions.internationalmilitaryforcesandlargeprivatecorporationshave increasinglybecomeaidproviders. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemhasgrownrapidlyoverrecentyearsandthereis oftenalackofclarityastowhatthetermactuallyreferstoandwhereitsboundarieslie.Thecorehumanitarianactivitiesremain:healthservices.Figuresfortotalinternationalhumanitarian resourcesvarydependingonthesource.including: protection.incomegeneration. 1 Stoddard(2008).waterand sanitation.andNon-GovernmentOrganisations(NGOs). infrastructurerehabilitation.

Exceptionally.morethan50%wentondirectexpenditure.Latterly.theUKhas alsosigneduptothePrinciplesandPracticeofGoodHumanitarianDonorship.3In severalsuddenonsetemergenciesresearchedaspartofthisreview.Institutionalstrategicpartnershipshavebeenformedaroundthiscore funding.theUK (throughDFID)workswithUNagenciestodelivereffectivelyandimproveperformance.aswellasadditionalfundinginbig emergencies. 3 AdaptedfromDFID.allowingDFIDandtheUNtosetlong-termgoals.2% Figure2: Percentage of DFID’s humanitarian spend by agency type 2009/10. Government 0.closerto40%withlargerpercentagesgoingdirectlytoNGOs andtheRedCross/CrescentMovement.9% ECHO 18.6% DFID Direct Contribution 1.Asadonor. DFID shapes the humanitarian system AsasignificantUNmemberstateandalargedonortotheinternationalsystem.5% UN 53.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem DFID: A leading actor in humanitarian response TheUK.“DFID’sExpenditureonHumanitarianAssistance2009/10”.DFID delivershumanitarianassistanceinfourdistinctways: 1.theUNcomponent wassignificantlysmaller.9% NGO 11.Accordingto theGHAReport201014donorsspentover60%oftheirhumanitarianaidthroughmultilateral agencies.ItgivestheSecretaryof StateforInternationalDevelopmentpowerstoprovidehumanitarianassistance. In2009/10totalDFIDhumanitarianspendwassplitasshowninthefigurebelow.1% Humanitarian Consultancy 0.throughitsDepartmentforInternationalDevelopmentisthesecondlargest bilateralglobalhumanitariandonor.theUKhasalsosignedtheEUconsensuson humanitarianaidthatenshrinestheprinciplesoutlinedabove. 5 . DFIDcontributescorefundingtotheUN.The2002InternationalDevelopmentActprovides thelegalbasisforDFID’sresponsetohumanitarianemergencies.with thesolepurposeto“alleviatetheeffectsofanaturalorman-madedisasterorother emergency”outsidetheUK.9% Red Cross 13.inthecaseoftheHaiti earthquake.

the EU’sfundforemergencies.however. DFIDalsosupportedtheestablishmentofthe‘cluster’approach4.Aswell asleadingbyexample.TheannualcontributiontotheCERF constitutedabout10%ofDFID’snon-ECHOhumanitarianspend. 6 .By2010 thatfigurehadrisento82countries.DFIDhasworkedtoenlargetheCentral EmergencyResponseFund(CERF)andcreatecountrypooledfunds.andthenOCHA(includingCERF).TheoneoffamountsthatDFIDspendson rapidonsetemergencies.AlargeproportionofthefundsspentthroughtheUNwerechannelled toimplementingNGOs.theRed CrossandNGOs.About£100 millionofthiswentthroughtheEuropeanCommunityHumanitarianOffice(ECHO).Asaresult.DFIDworkstoinfluenceothermemberstatestoincrease contributionstotheCERF. ECHOwasthebiggestrecipientofUKaidatabout£100millionin2009/10.aspx?tabid=53forafulllist ofclusters. 2. 4 Seewww. 5 AdaptedfromDFID:“DFID’sexpenditureonhumanitarianassistance2009/10”.leadershipandcoordination ofhumanitarianemergencies.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview In2005DFIDsupporteda‘humanitarianreform’processthatsoughtmorepredictable response.TheUKhasbeenthelargestdonortotheCERF –morethan$420milliontodate–andtocountrypooledfundingmechanisms.In 2010/11DFIDspent£134milliononrespondingtothefloodsinPakistanalone.anewcoordination mechanismthatmadeagenciesresponsibleforparticularareaslikeshelterorhealth. DFIDfundedglobalclusterappealstosetthesystemupandhascontinuedtopush agenciestodeploypeopletoleadthese.org/humanitarianreform/Default.changesignificantlydependingonthecontext. SeveralmillionpoundseachofcorefundingwenttoallofthebigUNagenciesinvolved inemergenciesandtheRedCross/RedCrescent.WFP.ECHOthenspentthismoneythroughUNagencies. 11%wentonrapidonsetfundingforhumanitarianemergencies.Theremainderon protractedcrisessuchasDRCongoorSudan.DFIDcontinuestoplayan influencingroleencouragingclusterleadagenciestoviewhumanitarianleadershipand co-ordinationactivitiesaspartoftheircorework.whichhelpUN agenciesrespondrapidlytoemergencies.UNDPandUNICEF(see figure3onpage75).In2006therewere52countrydonorstotheCERF.Thereformscalledformajorchangesinfunding.humanitarianreform. DFID funds humanitarian aid agencies and is the second largest bilateral donor after the US Government In2009/10DFIDspentabout£528milliononhumanitarianassistance.followedby theICRCat£66million.Throughitsfunding.

theUKcomesafterSaudi Arabia.asoutlinedbyfigure4onpage8.Kuwait. UN DP Ch ild re n 7 . 3.Italsohasitsown standing‘operationsteam’(CHASEOT)thatcandeployrapidlytoemergenciesandruns alldirectdeliveryfromLondon.currentlymanagedbyCrownAgents.Theoperationsteamisonstandby24/7andisa contractedoutfacility. Inabsoluteterms. Search and Rescue (SAR) capabilities. and supporting secondments where appropriate HavingadirectresponsecapabilityallowsDFIDtostrengthenandinfluencethe internationalhumanitariansystem.ItprovidesexpertpersonneltotheUnitedNationsonrequestand assemblesteamsspeedilyforDFID.Denmark.Ithasstandby arrangementswithairfreightcontractorsandcandeployrapidlynichecapabilitieslike airporthandling.Luxembourgandsomeothers. providing goods in kind.Ireland.In2009/10DFID’sin-kindgoodsorpersonnel supportamountedto£7million.Asapercentageofnationalincome(GNI)however. DFID is also on a small scale a direct deliverer of aid.Sweden.theUKhasbeenthesecondlargestbilateralhumanitariandonorafter theUS. InthecaseoftheHaitiearthquakeresponseover50%oftheexpenditurewasspent directly.Theinternationalhumanitariansystem £100 £80 Millions £60 £40 £20 £0 HO RC CH A FP DP EF CH A HC R HO W Sa ve th e IC W UN IC EC UN UN O /O Figure3: UK contributions 2009/10.DFIDhasastandbyarrangementwiththeUKfire servicetodeploysearchandrescueteamsaftermajorearthquakes.

DFID leads the HMG response to humanitarian emergencies DFIDworkswithotherWhitehalldepartments.DecisionsonwhethertodeployUKmilitarycapabilities aretakenonacase-by-casebasis. CHASE OT 4.DFIDleadson makingthehumanitariancase.MODandCabinet OfficetocoordinatetheUKresponsetoahumanitarianemergency.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Search and Rescue (SAR) Air brokers UN secondees MOD In kind Stabilisation Unit (SU) Government advisor Security Figure4: Percentage allocations of DFID’s direct spend on the Haiti earthquake response. 8 .principallytheFCO.

generalisedviolenceor humanrightsviolations7. Increasing disaster risk: the major trends.263millionpeoplewereaffectedbydisasters–110millionmorethanin 2004.TheRighttoSurvive.over61%oftheworld’spopulation(5billionpeople)willliveinurbanareas.andman-madeconflicts.Anestimated27.052peopledieinanygivendisasterinlessdevelopedcountries. Alreadyanaverageof1. Therisingworldpopulationandgrowthinurbanareas(demographicstress)willalmost certainlyincreasethehumanitariancaseload.lackingaccessto adequatewaterandsanitation.By2015.The 27. Lastyear.including refugees.willaffect manymore. Challenges Allcurrenttrendssuggestthatmorepeople–particularlyindevelopingcountries–will beaffectedbyhumanitarianemergenciesinthecomingdecades. Oxfam.(2009).theyearoftheTsunami.GlobalOverviewofTrendsandDevelopmentsin2009.IDMC/NRC.arepredictedtoaffectanaverageofover375millionpeople everyyear6.theywillalsobeincreasinglyunpredictableandcomplex.Theconcentrationofpopulationsinurban areaswillchangethenatureofmanyhumanitariandisasters.thoseinternallydisplacedhasconsistentlyrisen.TheRighttoSurvive.inovercrowdedandpoorlyplannedhousing.1billionby2050. InternalDisplacement(2010). threats. By2030.(2009).Nigeria.suchasfloods.Morepeoplewillbeliving onmarginalland.withvirtuallyallpopulationgrowthoccurringinlow-income countries.damagemayhavefarreaching consequencesmakingrebuildingcostlier.nationaland regionallevel.Challenges 3.Theimpactofdisastersonurbancentreswill haveeconomicconsequencespotentiallygreaterthaninthepast.Otherdisasters(suchasearthquakes).Bydefinition thesearepeoplefleeingconflictorpersecution.Bangladesh.Notonlywillthey becomemorefrequent. mostlyinlowandmiddleincomenations9.statelesspersonsandthosedisplacedwithintheirowncountry.5million. In2009UNHCRreportedits‘totalpopulationofconcern’at36.particularlyinlessdevelopedcountries. comparedto23indevelopedcountries8. faminesanddroughts.EthiopiaandtheDemocraticRepublic oftheCongo.includingPakistan. UNHABITAT. and probabilities 6 7 8 9 Oxfam.Theworld’spopulationispredictedtoreach 9.1millionreportedin2009weredisplacedin54countries.climate-relateddisasters.Thisfigurerepresentedanincreaseofoveramillioninthe numberofinternallydisplacedpeople(IDPs)comparedwiththe26millioninternally displacedin2008andalsoin2007.healthcareandeducation.atlocal.1millionofthesewere displacedwithintheirowncountriesasaresultofarmedconflict. 9 .Whilstavailabilityofservices andinfrastructureshouldmeanfewerfatalities.Whilstthetrendforrefugees(fleeingtheircountry) hasgonedowninrecentyears.

Data from the Defence Concepts and Doctrine Centre (DCDC) Strategic Trends review 2006-2036 and International Charter ‘Space and Major Disasters’. .10 HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Earthquakes Recent history of conflict Multiple stress zone Water stress Demographic stress Crop decline Hunger Coastal risk Figure5: Areas likely to be at risk of instability as a result of multiple environmental stress.

within countriesandregionsandalsoglobally.aswiththenuclearthreatinJapancaused bytsunami.theworldasawholefacesthetaskofincreasingfoodproductionby70to 100%by2050inordertocopewithagrowingpopulationwithagreaterlivestockbased diet.(2009). Futurecrisescoulddifferfundamentallyfrompastexperienceandtheprospectof ‘synchronousfailures’isagrowingconcern.China wasanimportantactorintheresponsetothePakistanfloodsattheendof2010. 11 JohnBorton. Globalisationandtheincreasinglyinterconnectedworldinwhichwelive.TheUSCongressisconsideringwhethertocut America’shumanitarianassistancebudgetin2011.Remittanceflowsarealreadythesecondlargestsourceofforeigndirect investment(FDI)fordevelopingcountriesandincreasesignificantlyafteranemergency.FutureoftheHumanitarianSystem:ImpactsofInternalChanges.theshortageoflandandwaterandtheirincreased degradation.(2010)TheWatersoftheThirdPole:sourcesofthreats. AseconomiesinChina.particularly asitispossiblethattraditionalDACdonorswillbeabletoprovidefewerresourcesfor disasterreliefinthecomingyears.Migrationandchanging employmentpatternswillcontributetovulnerabilityinunexpectedways.Newsourcesofdisplacementorconflictarealsopossible. makingtraditionalwaysofinterveningmoredifficult.Conflictdoesnotrespectborders.Challenges Growingfoodinsecurityislikelytocreatenewhumanitarianemergencies.Theexistenceofnearlyabillionchronically hungrypeople. necessitatingtheproductionofstoredsurplusesinsomeregionstocompensatefor losseselsewhere.sometimescatastrophically.reducingU.forinstanceas waterresourcesbecomescarce10.theyare playinganincreasinglyimportantroleglobally. TheDiasporacommunitycanalsoinfluencethesizeandtypeofdonorresponse.The internationalhumanitariansystemneedstoworkmorewiththesepartners. dependingonitssizeandvociferousness. Mediareportingofhumanitarianresponseshasgrownoverthelastyearsandwill continuetohaveanimpactonthepoliticalandpublicreactiontodisasters.India.particularlyintheirneighbouringregions.Thereisagrowingdemandforbio-fuelsandincreasingconstraintsareposedby thepriceoffertilisersandfuels.Thereispotentialforrepeatedfoodpricespikessimilartothoseofrecent years.foodaidprogrammes by41%($687million)andOfficeofForeignDisasterAssistancefundingby67% ($875million).primarilyinAsiaandAfrica. Economicshocksinoneregionspreadthroughcommoditypriceincreaseandlossof remittanceflows.alreadyexacerbatestheconsequencesof emergencies.BrazilandtheGulfStatescontinuetogrow.Governmentsandnon-stateactorsinconflicthavebecome increasinglysophisticatedintheirattemptstomanageinternationalhumanitarianism.Theyarebecomingmoreinvolvedin humanitarianemergencyresponses.Climatechangewillreduceyields. Timelyandunimpededaccesstoaffectedpopulationsisbecomingmoredifficultdueto theincreasinglycomplexnatureofemergencies. TheDiasporacommunityisplayinganincreasinglysignificantroleinhumanitarian responses. sourcesofsurvival.andspilloverfromconflict-affected areascontributetoregionaldestabilisationandrefugeeflows.whichhaveespeciallydamagingeffectsondevelopingcountries.Therehasbeenanunprecedented growthinviolentattacksonhumanitarianworkers(177%increasefrom1997to200811) andthereisagrowingneedforincreasedprotectionandsecurityaspartofthe humanitarianresponse.Donorswill 10 HumanitarianFuturesProgramme.withthe potentialtocreatenewsecuritythreats.Pandemicsspreadrapidlythroughairtravel. 11 .meansthat disastersoftenhaveaglobalimpact.S.Underlyingthese challenges.

 Theinternationalhumanitariansystemevolvedover150years.andengagementwithnewactors.itwasnotplannedor designed.whichis strugglingtocopewithcurrentlevelsofneed.inresponsetosuchconcerns.Thefuturechallengesoutlinedabovewillneedamoresophisticatedoperation.butnotaddressed.willallowclosercontactbetweenrecipientsofaidand thosedonatingthemoney. Responding to increased need Theincreaseintheinternationalhumanitariancaseloadandchallenges.Inbothcases.Seriousissues havebeenidentified.Asaresult.betterleadershipandcoordination. Fortoolong. Newandinnovativewaysofworkingneedtobewidelyintroducedtoimprovethe efficiencyandspeedofdisasterresponse.theperformanceoftheinternationalhumanitariansystemhasbeen inconsistent.overlapsandnumerousinefficienciesinthewayit works.therearegaps.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview havetomakedifficultdecisionsonhowtorespondtoadisasterinthefullglareof24/7 mediaattention.havethe potentialtobreakanalreadystretchedinternationalhumanitariansystem.Strongerlinksbetweenhumanitarianand developmentwork.whichrequiredinternationalhumanitarianassistance–theearthquake inHaitiandfloodsinPakistan.failingthosemostinneed. Increasedmediacoverageandnewwaysofcommunicatingthroughsocialmediatools.Togethertheywilldemandgreateraccountabilityofthe deliverersandtheofficialdonoragencies.Nowisthetimeforastepchangeinthe approachtohumanitarianreform.theinternationalhumanitariansystem showeditselftobelessthanthesumofitspartsandtheresponseswerecharacterised byweakleadership. suchasTwitterandFacebook. 12 .Numerousreportshavebeenwrittenbythe UN.andincreasedaccountability.Merelyimprovinguponwhathasbeendoneinthe pastwillnotbeenoughtomeetthechallengesofthefuture.Thereweretwomajorhumanitarian disastersin2010.NGOsandotherinternationalactors.willallbevitalpartsofahighperforming internationalhumanitariansystem.poorcoordinationandaslowresponse.whichisgreaterthanthesumofitsparts.betteruseoftechnologyand innovations.accesstonewresourcesthrough improvedpartnerships.

13 Dilley.This reviewhascalledthisbeinga‘networkenabler’.Casestudiesforthisreviewshowdramaticgainsinplacessuch asBangladeshandIndonesia12.andwith affectedpeople. Thisreviewsuggestsadifferentapproachisneeded.1 Anticipation Disastersareoftenviewedinthepublicimaginationas‘actsofGod’.incorporating disasterresilienceintodevelopmentprocesses. 13 .andthereareplentyof credibledataavailableidentifyingcountriesmostaffectedbydisasters.Findings 4.Mostofall.abuilderofcoalitionsandawillingparticipantinthem.itisthese peoplewhosuffer.orfindtheyarecompletelyunabletocoordinate.Mozambique).ALNAP.andneedtheinternationalcommunitytodothis ontheirbehalfforatime(e.In someinstancesgovernmentsareactivelybelligerent.A2005WorldBankreport‘globalhotspots’13identifiescountriesexposedto multiplenaturalhazards(earthquakes.it requiresbeingapartner.Italsorequiresmoreworkonbringinga disparateinternationalresponsetogethersothatitperformsmorereliably.sweepingasidelocalrespondersandaddingtothechaos ratherthanalleviatingit.(2005).Theyhavetosupportlocalinstitutions ratherthanweakenthem. DFIDtoohastendedtorespondasifalldisasters.Nigerin2009).werethesame. Friendsandneighbourssearchthroughtherubbleforlovedonesafterearthquakes.g. • Governmentswhoareunabletolead.droughtsandstorms). Inconflictsituationstheinternationalsystemoftenbecomesthelasthopeforpeople livingintheworstcircumstances.Whereitisslow.then thishastochange.g.WorldBank. Wherenationalgovernmentsarecapable. • Capablebutunderresourcedgovernmentswhoneedhelptolead(e.Whengovernmentsareoverwhelmedthey eitherstruggletoassertthemselves.DonoragencieslikeDFIDhavetoworkwithgovernments.theyinvariablyleadtheresponsetodisaster evenwhenitisonaninternationalscale.Butalltoooftentheinternationalresponsearrivesas thoughthiswerenotthecase.local hospitalsworkthroughthenighttocarefortheinjured. Findings Thefirstpeopletorespondtodisastersandconflictaretheonesaffectedbythem. 4. Inmanycountriesgovernmentsroutinelyaffectedbydisastershavebecomeadeptat responseandprevention.Metal. Inthesefourbroadcategoriestheinternationalcommunityhastoresponddifferently.Haiti).Thissuggestsfourbroad categories: • Strongandcapablegovernmentswhotakethelead(e.orgetsthingswrong.Inrealitymanyare predictable.orhostiletointernationalresponse (ortoaparticulargroupintheirpopulationbeinghelped). Iftheworldisgoingtogetbetteratthechallengessetoutintheprecedingchapter. • Governmentswhoareunableorunwillingtoleadandareobstructive(e. buttheapproachhasnotalwaysreflectedthisreality.g. 12 TsunamiEvaluationCoalition(2006).especiallywherethereisconflict.India).aswellaswithaidagencies.g.NaturalDisasterHotspots:AGlobalRiskAnalysis.Suchanapproachwouldrequire muchmoreworkontheanalysisofrisksandcapacitiesinadvance.andallgovernments.

ispossibleforsomehigh-risk nations.TherainfallthatproducedPakistan’sterrible floodsof2010happenedamonthbeforethefloodwatercauseditsgreatest devastation.TheNigercasestudyforthisreviewshows howclearevidencedoesnotalwaystriggeraresponse(theblockageinNigerwas domesticpolitics). 14 .andscientistsdonotroutinely produceinformationforthisaudience16.andisamatterofpoliticalwill.ElNinoandLaNinaoceaneffectslastforsomeyearsandchangeweather patternsinwaysthatarepartlyunderstood.andhowtimelyinterventioncansavetensofthousandsoflives.Butdisaster managersdonotmakeenoughuseofsuchscience. TheexpansionoftheCentralEmergencyResponseFund(CERF)wasinpartawayof makingsuchdecisionsmoretechnicalandlesspolitical.Theeffectswerepredictedbutnotactedon.butstillhasawaytogo.droughtsandstorms). Thiscanalsobethecasewith‘foodsecurity’crises(famines).Climatechangeisanotherobviouselementof stress.Buttherewill alwaysbeanelementofrisk. Althoughearthquakescannotbepredictedwithanycertaintyinshorttimeframes. Oneareawherepredictionisimproving. Earlyactionisatleastasimportantasearlywarning.witharecentreport15identifyingsub-SaharanAfricaasoneof themostatriskareas.See:www.Thecostbenefitofninetimely interventionseasilyoutweighsonewrongjudgementcall.howevergoodthescience.factoringin demography.thebetterwewillneedto becomeatpredictionifwearetohaveanyhopeofcopingwiththese.itwasalsobecauseDFIDhasan innovativeregionalfundinWestAfricaforcrisisresponse.iswithearthquakes andvolcanoes.Rainfalldataforregionsandcountriesin aridzonessuggestsdroughtcyclescanbeidentifiedearly.orvulnerability.Thousandsofchildrenweresavedasaresultoftheseearlyactions.HurricaneseasonsintheCaribbeanandtheBayofBengalarewellknownand monitored. Despitethis.despitetheintransigenceofgovernmentand thetardinessoftheUnitedNations.Theytendtohappenless frequentlybutcauseseveredamage.the locationofmajorfaultlinesiswellknown.Therehavebeensignificantadvancesin understandingearthquakeriskandwhentheymightoccurthroughmonitoringground motion.economyandconflict.these ‘slowonset’disastersareregularlymissed.Beingabletotoleratefailure– gettingitwrongoccasionally–isimportant.Climatevulnerabilitymonitor2010:thestateofclimatecrisis.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview TheUKDefenceConceptsandDoctrineCentre(DCDC)goesfurtherinits‘horizon scanning’reportof200714.Thereareprovenearly warningsystemsthatmonitorpotentialcrises.Likewise.Thesegeo-physicalhazardsaredifferenttothehydro-meteorological onestouchedonabove(floods.Partlythiswasduetopromptactionbythe EuropeanUnionhumanitarianorganisationECHO.notablytheUSAIDsupportedFEWSNET. ManyagencieswereabletoactinNiger.Itidentifiesareasof‘multiplestress’.Science 14 TheDCDCGlobalStrategicTrendsProgramme2007–2036. Whatisclearisthatprediction.Thisregionalfundallows agenciestogetmoneyquicklyforunexpectedandunnoticeddisasters–itallowsfor earlyaction.understandingthereasonsforbuildingdamageandcollapsesothat codesandstandardscanbedevelopedtoensuresafeconstructioninthefuture. 16 Seeforinstancethe1MarchSelectCommitteeonScienceandTechnologyfindingsthatthere isinadequateuseofscienceforanticipatingemergencies. Whatisalsoclearisthatasclimaterelateddisastersincrease.althoughfarfromperfect.ThequestionofearthquakesinKathmanduor Tehraniswhenratherthanwhether.andproofthatpriorinterventionnotonlysaveslivesbutischeaper.Supportingresilienceinatrisk nationswillfurtherincreasethelikelihoodthatearlyactionwillbetaken.mod.uk/ DefenceInternet/AboutDefence/Organisation/AgenciesOrganisations/DCDC/ 15 DARA(2010).

BringingtheresourcesoftherestofIndonesiatobear enabledthisrapidrecovery. 4.almostonehundredtimesfewer.therehasneverbeenashortageof warningaboutpendingconflictsinahostofplaces.Theseareimportant.ThedifferencewasthatintheinterveningthirtyyearsBangladeshhadbecome betterprepared.000. Beingprepared. Anticipatingandpredictingconflictisanotherareathathasimprovedinrecentyears.Beingabletochannelinternationalresourceseffectivelywas anotherkeyaspect. Butthisisnotonlyaboutrichnations.ThiswassimilarlytrueforKhyberPakhtunkhwaprovinceinPakistan whichwasbetterpreparedasaresultofitsresponsetothe2005earthquake. MakebetteruseoftheDFIDChiefScientisttosupportUKscienceinanticipatingcrises.AmuchlargerearthquakeinChilelaterintheyearkilled 3.anticipatingunexpected hazards.Beingabletoanticipate disasters.orcombinationsofhazardsisafactorofmagnitudemoredifficult.Conversely.000people. wherenationsarefragiletheyaremuchlessabletocope.asistheabilitytoadapt.butmanagedtorebuild 100. RegularcrisesindicesfromtheInternationalCrisisGrouportheFundforPeacearebeing usedbygovernmentstoinformdecisionsonearlyaction.inaninter-connectedworldtheseeventsare evermorelikelyandpolicymakersneednewtoolstohelpthemanticipate. Whilstpredictingsinglehazardsispossiblebutoftenneglected.socialprotectionmechanisms. 15 .The possibilityofalarge-scalefloodcausinganuclearspillforinstance(asJapanhasproved).financial andhumanresourcesareallpartofbeingresilient.Findings inthisareahasproventohaveverysignificantlyreducedfatalitiesanddamageinmany countriesandiscritical.000housesinthreeyears.Banda AcehinIndonesiawasdevastatedbythe2005tsunami.a1970cycloneinEastPakistan(nowBangladesh) killednearlyhalfamillionpeoplewhereasasimilarstrengthcyclonein2008killed 3.2 Resilience Theimpactofadisasterdependsonhowwellpreparedacountryistocopewithit.asin contrasttoearlywarningfornaturaldisasters. Recommendations DFID should: 1 2 3 Assemble and regularly update a global risk register for DFID using information gained from its country teams and international organisations.andbeingabletorecoveriswhatmakesnationsresilient. ordroughtsinRussiaandfloodsinAustralialeadingtofoodpriceriotsinWestAfricais difficulttoseeinadvance.TheHaitiearthquakeatthebeginning of2010killed230. Makethisavailableasacontributiontopre-crisisarrangementsacrossthesystem.Nevertheless.butresearchandinvestmentisneededelsewheretopromote safeconstruction.havingshockresistantinfrastructure. Somearebetterabletobouncebackthanothers. TheearthquakeinHaitihassetbackthedevelopmentofthatnationmanyyears.000people.

as theytendtohavemanufacturingsectors(forexample)connectedtoagriculture.Thisisespeciallytrueincountriesthatdependon agriculture.workonplanning.noraretheymentionedinthe MillenniumDevelopmentGoals.Thebodyofacademicevidencethatdisastersand shocksmustbetakenseriouslyisgrowing.WorldBank.Reducingmaternalmortalityandothermillennium developmentgoalswilldependonnationsbeingresilient.astheyhavelessabilityto copefinanciallywiththecostofdisasters.“exposuretoriskandincomeshock”.InthefragilecountrieswhereDFIDisincreasinglyworking.org/webdocs/Tilz/Research/Investing%20in%20Communities%20web.Disastersoftenhitthepooresthardest.“Encouraginginvestmentinadaptationmeasuresthroughmulti-year contracts”.thepoorestandmostvulnerablecanbe disproportionatelyaffected. Workonlegalframeworks. 19 Somecostbenefitanalysiscitefactorsashighas1:24.Theeconomicimpactsofdisasters.Conventionalthinkinghasbeenthatscarceresources shouldbeusedtopromotegrowth.national.Disastersalsoaffecttheeconomiesofmiddle-incomecountrieshowever. Floodsanddroughtscanhaveknockoneffectsintermsoffoodproductionand internationaltrade.Thismeanspoorercountriesaredoublyaffected. Theseriskslooksettoincreasewithpopulationgrowth.andthatthisisultimatelytheansweranyway.Some smallcountrieshavesustainedlossesthroughdisasterofseveraltimestheirGDP. Anewresilienceapproachwillincludeworkingatregional.andworkonbolsteringthedepartments thatrespondafterdisasters. Thisanalysishasimplicationsfordevelopment.tearfund.Vietnamlosesover1%ofitsGDPannuallydealingwithdisasters.Atnationallevelthereneedstobemoreworkondisastermanagement.Thesameistruein developingcountries.andespeciallyfortheoverallgoalwithin DFIDofreducingpoverty.Bangladeshismoreresilientto disasterseconomicallybecauseofstructuralchangesinitsagriculturalsector(the deregulationofagriculturalinvestmentledtomoredisasterresistantirrigation). AseminalWorldBankstudyin2004foundthatdisasterssloweconomicgrowthinthe longtermaswellasshortterm18.Apaperforthe2010WorldEconomicForumHumanitarianCouncil.ata householdlevel. TheWorldBankrecognisesthisinitsguidelinesforpovertyreductionstrategies(PRS). Thisapproachisnolongerdefensible.climatechangeandresource scarcity.pdf 16 .setting thembackyears.SeeTearfundforinstanceat http://tilz. Ultimatelydevelopmentistheanswertobeingabletocopewithdisasters–the exampleatthebeginningofthischapterillustratesthat–butgettingtodevelopment candependonbeingabletobouncebackfromdisasters. Oneofthefourdimensionsofpovertyis.achievingpoverty reductionwillgetharder.Between2000and 2009MunichReestimateseconomiclossesfromdisasterswere$670billion17.Civil societyorganisationsthatrespondtodisastersshouldbesupportedtoplaytheirroletoo.andtheireconomiesareworseaffected overall.acommunitylevelandanationallevel. 17 QuotedbyKunreutherin.Droughts insouthernAfricainthe1990sledtobigswingsinGDPgrowthacrosstheregion.Flooddefenceandretrofittingbuildingsfor earthquakesintheUSfoundanaveragecostbenefitofonetofour19.littleisroutinely doneaboutdisastersindevelopmentstrategies. 18 BensonandClay(2004).Incorporatingdisastercostsintolongertermeconomicplanningis necessaryifvaluabledevelopmentresourcesarenottobedivertedtorecovery.Despitethis.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Embedding resilience within development programmes Disasterscanhavesignificantimpactoncountries’development.asistheevidencethatinvestmentin reducingdisasterriskshowsgoodreturns.suchasnationaldisastermanagementagencies.Evenwhenacountry copesquitewelloverallwithadisaster.communityand householdlevel.The earlywarningandactionsystemsinBangladeshhavealsopreventedhighdeathrates.

muchofwhatistodaycalled‘humanitarian’inDRCongoissimply substitutionservicedelivery.Many countrieshavenationaldisasterprotocols. 17 .apoliceorsecurityservicethatarrestsbandits.making stateslessfragile.Ensuringhumanitariananddevelopmentworkcloselytogetherwillbe vitallyimportant.smallconflictscannotberesolvedandgrowtobigonesand communitiesarenotabletoprotectthemselves. Inthisvacuum.ajudicialprocessthatallowsdisputestoberesolved beforetheybecomeviolent.DFIDhadastanding pledgetospend10%ofitsresponsebudgetonDRR. Governmentsandcivilsocietyorganisationsalsoneedhelptoprovidesocialprotection mechanisms.Sohumanitarianagenciesprovidebasichealthcareandrespondwhen majorkillerslikecholeraormeaslesbreakout.buttheyarenotresourcedorplannedindetail.Alackofinstitutionsandcapacitiesmeansthataccidentsleadto muchhigherlossoflife.petroltankerexplosionsthatdo thesame.establishesthecapacities neededforresponseandensurestraining.Thisplansetsoutprotocolsforincidentcontrol.Climatechangeadaptationworkisoftenaboutmitigation worktoo–fromplantingmoremangrovestonewseedvarietiesforwarmersummers.InDRCongothereareemergencies almostconstantly.sellingassets andincurringdebtalongtheway.ThecasestudyinDRCongoforthisreport highlightedthevulnerabilityofstatesandsocietiestoeventhesmallestshockswhen theyareveryfragile.notaftertheevent.Resilienceisanimportantwayto understandthiswork.Alicensingauthoritythatdoesnot allowferriestorunwithoutcheckingthemforsafety.riskmanagementand vulnerabilityreduction.anddisasterpreparednessandresponse. Thiskindofworkistakingplaceindifferentsectors.Disasterriskreduction(DRR)work seekstobuildlocalresponsesystemsandsmallmitigationinfrastructure.andwillbeimportantasDFIDworkstobuildinstitutions. governance.Massrapesandrobberyarecommittedintheeastby rovinggroupsofbandits.andoninfrastructurethat canwithstanddisasters.recognisingthatitdidnothavethewherewithaltodealwithsucha disaster. Intheaftermathofthe9/11atrocitiesintheUS.equippingandregularpractising.orplayadualrolelikeschoolsthatareusedascycloneshelters. Allofthisisavoidablewithworkinginstitutions.theinternationalhumanitariansystemisoftenthe provideroflastresorttotheverypoorest.theUKputinplacea‘national resilienceplan’.afireservicethatcanattend accidentsbeforetankersexplode.thatin fragilestates.Peoplelivingontheperilousedgeofextremepoverty cannotaffordtotaketherisksneededtoescapethissituationotherwise.Itisclearthough.TheHyogo FrameworkforActionsetsoutfivebuildingblocksforeffectivedisasterriskreduction.Healthcareisnotprovidedbythestateandpeoplearetoo poortopayforit.Findings Atcommunityandhouseholdlevelthereneedstobeworkonmechanismsand institutionstorespond(suchascivilcontingencycommittees).Afishingconflictin2009thatledtotheexodusofthousandsofpeopleacross theborderwhenitturnedviolent.Butasthemoneyis usuallyhumanitarianitisonlyavailableafteradisasterhasstruck.butthesemeasuresareneeded before.riskassessment. Thisreportwasnotmandatedtolookatprotractedconflicts.thecombinationofsuchmeasurescanprovidethebasis foreconomicdevelopment.Relativelysmallinputsattherighttimecansaveyears ofmiseryanddisease.orstatesinconflict.knowledgeandeducation.TheNigercasestudyforthisreviewdemonstratesthattargetedcash distributionsattherighttimecanstophouseholdsslippingintostarvation.Crucially.Allofthisneedstobebrought togetherformaximumeffectiveness. DevelopmentinplaceslikeEthiopiaisfocusingmoreonsocialsafetynetsandis exploringexcitingnewideassuchasmicroinsurance.boataccidentsthatkillhundreds.

 Insurancecanplayaroleinguaranteeingpredictableandreliablepayouts.spreadinggoodpracticeanddeveloping jointearlywarningsystems.e. NeitherdoesDFIDroutinelyfundlocalNGOsorlocalorganisationsinrapidonset emergencies.Itisnotaconsciousstrategy. ManyoftheinternationalNGOs(andespeciallyfaithbasedorganisationslikeChristian AidandCAFOD).Catastrophe bondsarealsoissuedmorecommonlynow.withjointprotocolsondeploymentofmilitaryassets oneofthelatestdevelopments.g.Similarly.incountrieslikeBangladesh.routinelyworkthroughlocalpartners. protectinglivelihoodsanddiminishingnegativeeffectsofreliefinterventionsonlocal 18 .allowingfor long-termplanning.it wouldalsobepossibletogivemoneyandgoodsdirectlytothegovernmentaftera disasterknowinghowsuchresourceswouldbeused.Public-privatepartnershipsinrisk financinghavebecomemorepopular. Thesameistrueofcivilsocietyorganisations.Withanestablishedrelationship.but moreofaby-product.Thisisnot routinelylinkedwithsubsequentresponsehowever.InMozambiquethegovernment askedfor£2milliontohelpthemprepareaheadofanticipatedfloodingin2006.thefundingof nationalandlocalNGOsbyDFIDremainshitandmiss.althoughithasfundedmulti-donorreconstructionfunds throughtheUNandtheWorldBank.2008. TheAssociationofSouthEastAsianNations(ASEAN)playedapivotalroleinfacilitating theresponsetocycloneNargisinBurmainMay.more sustainablewaystotackleweatherriskareneeded.TheRedCrossandRedCrescent Movementalwaysworkthroughitsnationalsocieties.whentherewasfloodinglaterthatyeartheinternationalresponse costover£60million.InBangladeshUNDPhasalistofmore than30pre-approvedlocalNGOsthatitgaveDFIDmoneytoafterthe2008cyclone.butoftenlackequipmentandtraining. Innovative funding models for risk transfer Asthecostofdamagecausedbyextremeweatherconditionsissoaring.byMexicotoprovideresourcesinthe eventofsevereearthquakeorhurricanedamage.asmanygrantstointernationalpartners arepassedontonationalandlocalorganisations.Specialfundingchannelscouldbe setupinadvance.inparticularparametricinsurance.Despitethis. GovernmentslikethePhilippinesandIndonesiacanalreadyrespondtoquitelarge disasterswithoutinternationalhelp.Thisregionalcooperationaround disasterresponsehascontinued.Therehasbeenfundingfornationaldisaster preparedness.leadingtopromptresponseintheeventofdisaster.ratherthangovernment.increasinggovernments’self-determinationandownership.Increasinglygovernmentsatriskfromdisastersare sharingexpertisethroughsuchregionalforums.Withproperresourcestheycanpreparejointlywithgovernmentandother privateorvoluntaryagencies. national and local capacities DFIDhasnottraditionallyfundedgovernmentsdirectlyinhumanitariancrises(lessthan 1%inthelasttwoyears). NationalDisasterManagementAgenciesexistinmostcountriesthatsufferregular disasters.Preservinginternationalcapacityforthosedisasters thataretrulyoverwhelmingmakesmuchmoresensethanhavingtodeployexpensive internationalworkerstofloodssimplybecausethelocalsystemwassounderresourced.althoughitfundsthemindirectly.This wasnotforthcoming.typicallythroughtheUN.itusuallydonatesitsinkindassistancethroughaid agencies.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Regional.makingtransparencyandreportingeasier.whilstDFIDhasbuiltupconsiderable expertiseinrapidprocurement.organisationssuchastheRedCrossand RedCrescentNationalSocietiesoftenhaveformalresponsibilitiesinthenational disasterplan. Anapproachtailoredtogovernmentcapacitywouldofferseveraladvantages. Anincreasedfocusonnationalandlocalcapacitiescouldalsoincluderegionalbodies.

AlthoughtheUNhasthemandatetolead.InallbutoneofthecasestudiesforthisreviewUNleadershipwaspoor. Promote national response capacities of governments and civil society in at risk countries including: • Thedevelopmentofnationalresiliencestrategies.Thereview welcomesthisgroundbreakingwork. 20 ChristianAid. integrating the threat from climate change and other potential hazards into disaster risk reduction. Thereisrarelyavisionbeyondfundraising.theUNremainstheonlylegitimateauthoritythatcandoso.andthatitisin theinterestoftheUKtochampionit. • Nationalandlocalprivatesectorcompanies. • ThroughcivilsocietyorganisationssuchasRedCrossandCrescentSocieties.Findings markets20.Thelimitationsarethatpremiumscanbetoohighwithhighopportunity costs.Thereisalso thedangerofmoralhazard–governmentsnotfocussingenoughonriskreductionand preventionbecausetheyfeelinsured. 5 4.andmarketsolutions.andinindividualcrises.withadedicated globalEmergencyReliefCoordinatorsupportedbythebigspecialisedUNagencies.Itistrueacrosstheinternationalsystem.Itistrueatastrategiclevelandatan operationallevel. 19 .whichwillincreaseinresilienceand improvedisasterresponse.Thisreviewfindsthatthereisappetiteforthiswithinthesystem. Overtheyearsacomplexsystemhasbeenputinplacetodothis.andrarelyanorganisingnarrativethat drawstogetherthedisparatecapacities.June2010.andthatitisnoteasytotelliftheinsurancegivesvalueformoney. Country offices should undertake contingency planning.3 Leadership Insituationswherethegovernmentofanaffectedcountryisunabletolead humanitarianresponse.DFIDisnowalsoinvestinginthedesignofthe AfricaRiskCapacity. • Theestablishmentofdirectfundingmechanisms.Onthestrengthofthese findingsthereviewconcludesthatthereisaneedforfurtherhumanitarianreforms.Timefor ClimateJustice.itsperformancehasbeenverydisappointing overall. Recommendations DFID should: 4 Ensure that building resilience is part of the core DFID programme in at risk countries. TheCaribbeanCatastropheRiskInsuranceFacility(CCRIF)isthemostprominent exampleofapublicprivateinsurancemechanismthatDFIDhasfunded.“DoesDisasterInsuranceHaveaRoleinClimateChangeAdaptation”. Thiswasespeciallytrueinthelargerdisasters. • Regionalresponsemechanismswheretheyaddvalue.Theissueisattheheartofensuringaffected peoplereceivewhattheyneedandachievingvalueformoney. Whatisneededisacompleteoverhaulofstrategicandoperationalleadershipinthe UN.leadingtotheestablishmentofanAfrican-ownedriskpooling entityforweatherrisk.whichareableatthecountrylevelto supportentrepreneurial.

Therefugeeagency UNHCRcansetupcampsforhundredsofthousandsofdisplacedpeoplefleeingwaror persecution.Andthesystemhasmerelyreplicatedagencydivisionsmeaning prioritisationremainsjustasdifficult.forexampleWFPleadsthelogisticscluster.Toooftencluster meetingsareinformationsharinggatheringsinsteadofthestrategicdecisionmaking forumstheyshouldbe.Clustercoordinatorsoftenlack experienceandthetrainingrequiredtoprovidestrongleadership.andforthispoliticalbackingtoextendinto responseswhentheyoccur. Operational leadership OneofthefundamentaldrawbackstoachievingamorereliableresponsefromtheUN isthatitismorealoosecollectionofstrongandseparateagenciesthanawell functioningsystem.Thiscreatescompetition.Thisis expandedinfurthersectionsofthisreport.DuringthereviewsconsultationsinNew Yorktheideaofa‘standaside’mechanismwherebythebesthumanitarianleaderscould bedeployedintomegacriseswasdeveloped. asdotheWorldHealthOrganisation(WHO)andtheFoodandAgriculturalOrganisation (FAO)whoarealsoinvolvedinhumanitarianemergencies. makingprioritisationespeciallydifficultasitcanhavefundingimplications.Thisideahassubsequentlybeentakenup intheIASCandthereviewstronglysupportsthisprocess.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Strategic leadership Firstandforemost.butwillhavetochangeif performanceistoimprove.Todo soitwillneedtobuildcoalitionsofsupportandworkcleverlywithitspartners.Itneedstolookoutsideitsownnarrowbasetosecurethebesttalent.Leadersonthegroundmustbeconfidenttheyhavethe backingoftheirseniors. Butperformanceofclustershasbeendisappointing.Itsoughttofillgapsinhumanitarianservicedelivery. Someofthesestructuresareinplaceandworkwell.withlogisticsthatrival manymulti-nationalcompanies.TheUKisalsooneofthebestplaced. 20 .Thesehavebeenseenasintractableissues.LeadersofthevariousUNhumanitariancoordinationmechanisms havenoformalauthorityandreportinglinesbetweenclustersandcoordinatorsare unclear.missionsandhistoriesandallare suspiciousoftoomuchcentraldirection. Theclusterapproachwasdevelopedasthelatestattempttosolvethecoordination problem. Finally.Allthreeneedtofundraiseinbigemergencies. FortheUKasastrongUNsupporter.Itneedsthe rightapproachtotalentmanagementandtherighttermsandconditionstounderpin this. Secondlythereisaneedfortherightpeople.forinstancefinancingwhichhas improvedasaresultofthelastroundofreform.WFPistheworld’spremierfoodagency.Thereisaneed forthisvisiontobebackedpolitically.Butplanningandprioritisationremain weakandpoliticised.Improvedcoordinationof allplayersbyanamedleadagencywasexpectedtoeliminategapareasandavoid overlaps.thereisaneedfortherightsupportsystemsandstructuretoenableleaders.UNICEFistheworld’slargestchildren’sagency providingeverythingfromcleanwatertotemporaryeducation.Keyagenciesweregivenresponsibilityforleadershipandcoordinationforeach sector.thereisaneedforvision.andofthememberstatesoftheUN.The clusterleadisusuallyaUNagencyalthoughIFRCleadstheshelterclusterandSavethe Childrenco-leadstheeducationclusterwithUNICEF.andalargedonortothesystemitisimportantto workontheseissues.asoutlinedabove.Eachhasseparatemandates.WHOleadsthehealthcluster. TheUNneedstodevelopacadreofcapablehumanitarianresponseleaders.Itdrove thelastroundofreformsandwillreceivemuchsupportforinitiatinganewround.ThereisaneedfortheUNatthehighest leveltosetoutthechallengesaheadandhowitplanstodealwiththem.boards.Therearefewstandingsupportstaffanddeploymentoftherightteamcantake weeks.

takingaccountofskillsthatarealready there.clusterlead. Therehasbeenprogressonstaffskillsinthepastdecade.managersandstaffdonothavealltheskillstheyneed.NGOsshouldplayagreaterroleinco-chairingclusters. Wherethishappens.Itneednotbeexpensiveorlengthy.thereisaneedfordedicatedandexperiencedclusterleadership.theclusteroftenhasabetterunderstandingofthesituationon theground.andacommitmentfromhumanitarianagenciesto createcareerpathsforhumanitarianprofessionals.This isparticularlytrueattheleadershiplevel. Thereisaneedtogrowthepoolofcompetentprofessionalsinvolvedinhumanitarian work.Forhumanitariansthisfigureisreversed.Typicallyprofessionalmilitaryforcesspend95%oftheirtimetrainingand 5%oftheirtimeinaction. UNagencyautonomymeansthatclusterleadsoftenreportthroughtheiragencyrather thanthroughtheHCandOCHAcanbeexcludedaltogether.Thiscouldberectifiedifdonorsmadelocalparticipationaprerequisitefor clusterfundingineachemergency. TobefullyeffectiveclustersneednationalNGOsandlocalgroups.Butitalsomeans that.Butthesearethe verypartnersthatgetexcludedfirstduetosecurityreasons.Thisrequiresinvestment. Trainingisnottheonlymethodoflearningandshouldcomplement. which.overtime.Onemajorissueisthatthereisnostraightforward professionalrouteintohumanitarianwork. 21 . Inmegacrises.95%oftheirtimeis spentinactionand5%ofthetimetrainingwouldbeahighfigure.languagebarriersorsizeof cluster.butalsowithclusterleadership.Clearreportinglinesshould beestablishedbetweenHC.insteadvaluingrapidactionandon-the-joblearning.Theconsequencesarehard tomeasurebutareboundtoincludelostlivesandwastedfunds.notreplace.Thisapproach hasstrengths:aidagenciesremainnimbleandkeeptheircostslow.toooften.Thiscanlead toless.ratherthanmoreeffectivecoordination.nottotake over.agencyandOCHA.Thetypeofdisasterandtheeffectivenessofexistingcoordination mechanismsshoulddictatehowmanyandwhichclustersneedtobeactivated.notallclustersareneededin everyemergency.Butineverymajoremergencytherearestillsignificantnumbersofaid personnelwholacksomeoftheskillsessentialtotheirjobs.Itshouldbebasedonan assessmentoftheskillsneededforthejob.Inlargeremergenciesclustersshouldbecometwo-tier.In naturaldisastersthisshouldbeanationalgovernmentleddecisioninconsultationwith theUNHumanitarianCoordinator(HC).Clustersalsoneed‘nontraditionalactors’suchas theprivatesectoriftheyaretobeeffectiveincoordinatingthefullresponse.securedbypredictable donorfunding.andanumberofworthwhile initiatives. Human resource capacities Theunevenqualityofpersonnelisamajorlimitingfactorinhumanitarianresponse.resultinstrongindividualswithinwell-managedteams.Agreateremphasisthereforeshouldbeputonclusterleadershipbynational governmentwhereappropriate.Infact.Findings Theclustersystemneedstoberevisedtoaddressthesefailings.Aidagencieswanttohireexperiencedpeople buthowdopeoplegetexperienceunlesstheyareofferedajob?Gettingstartedin humanitarianworkbecomesachickenandeggconundrum.Ideallyitshouldbecombinedwitharangeofcareerdevelopmentmeasures.Where thisisnotthecaseexperiencedcoordinatorsshouldbedeployed.consistingofa ‘strategicbody’groupandan‘informationsharing’group.Theroleofthe internationalsystemistosupportnationalgovernmentintimesofdisaster. ThegulfisstarkestwhenoneconsiderstheinvestmenttheUKmilitarymakeintheir preparedness.Manyaidagenciesgrewupwithouta cultureoftraining.Thisallowsallpartnerstobe includedbutalsoallowsforacoregrouptosetstrategicdirection. learningonthejob. Somedisastershaveseenanoverproliferationofclustersandsub-clusters.technical expertsandmid-levelmanagers.

Iftheyincreasedtheiradministrationbudgetsfrom.Theyknowthepublicarerightly sensitiveaboutthis.prioritisationandplanning. 22 .andfasttrackthemwhenthey provecapable.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Intheprivatesectorthislessoniswellknownevenifnotalwaysfollowed. everyoneshouldbepleased.This shouldinclude. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtoresolvesomeofthedeficienciesinmanagement.Aidagenciesshouldexplaintodonorsandthepublicthattheir beneficiarieswillbebetterservedifthereisamodestinvestmentinstaffdevelopment. • Ensuringpre-qualifiedpartnersdemonstrateadequateinvestmentinskills development(seesection5.Thisshouldincludea ‘stepaside’systemtoensurethebestleadershipisinplaceatboththestrategicand operationallevel. Professionalisationoftheaidindustrywillcomethroughbetterpreparationandtraining ofstaff.say. • Worktocreateasetofstandardsforhumanitarianleadership. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtostrengthenandprovidebetterleadershipofthe clustersystem. • TrainingwithinDFID.DFID’scommitmenttothiscouldbedemonstratedbyinvestinginagencyskills developmentandbybettertrainingofitsownstaffworkinginhumanitariansituations.to12pinordertopayfortraining. Recommendations DFID should: 6 Build coalitions to drive forward humanitarian reform based on improving leadership. 7 DFIDshouldmakeasustainedefforttoimproveskillsinthehumanitariansector.theymightworrythatitwould appearwasteful. • WorkwiththeUNtocreateanewcadreofhumanitarianleadersandthetalent managementsystemsandtermsandconditionstosustainthis. recruitment. including.aidagenciesandgovernmentsandcivilsocietyindisasterprone countries.Themost successfulcompaniestakecaretoinvestintheirstaff.Andindeed.someofthebestaidagencieshavebeendoingsoforyears.Butifthe2pspentontrainingincreasestheimpactoftheremaining88p.anaverage of10pinthepound. • WorkcloselywithUKmissionstobuildcoalitionsforreformoftheinternationalsystem.Thismustincludetherightsupportstaff availableforrapiddeployment. Skilledstaffwillmakebetteruseofthefundstheyhavebeenentrustedwith. • Rapiddeploymentofexperiencedleadershipteamsinbigcrises.2). includingmorecoherentuseofUNexecutiveboardpositions. DFIDshouldinvestigateandsupportthedevelopmentofprofessionalstandardsthatit canuseitselfandwillbeofusetoothers. Someaidagenciesmaybereluctanttoinvestintrainingforfearofincreasingthe percentageoftheirfundsspentonadministration. • EncouragetheconveningofaUNHighLevelPaneltolookatwaysofimprovingthe internationalhumanitariansystemtofacefuturechallenges.

Theyneedtobuildontheprincipleofbetterlearning fromandwith.org/pool/files/8rhach3.Alsoimportantaregood partnershipswithactorsoutsidethetraditionalhumanitariansector.Manyofthemost importantinnovationsofthepast30years–fromcashtocommunityfeedingtherapy –havecomefromrethinkingthiscentralrelationship.includingeffectivesupportfromdonors. Giventhelimitedresourcesthatwillbeavailablerelativetoothersectors(e.andinoperationalcontextssuchas community-basedfeedingtherapy.Relatively straightforwardideaslikecashtransfershavetakenalongtimetobecomeaccepted.Findings 4. Recentresearch21hasidentifiedanumberofsuccessfulhumanitarianinnovations.therehasbeenrelativelyless attentionpaidtoresearchforhumanitarianaction.affectedcommunities.Collectively.alnap. Newsocial.Synchronousfailures suchasthoseseeninJapan.And majororganisationsarebeginningtounderstanditsimportance.Coalitionbuildingisvital.organisationalprocessesandwaysofthinking.g.simultaneousdisasterstaxingglobalcapacitywillneednew approaches.Resourcesforstrengtheningtheinnovationscapacitiesofhigh valuepartnerswhichwillalsobeessentialtocreatethetimeandspaceneededfor reflectionandgenerationofnewideas.TheWorldFoodProgrammeisinnovatingthewayitdeliversfoodaid23.USAIDhasmade innovationacentralpillarofitsongoingstrategicrenewalinbothpolicyand operations22.technology andprivatesectorknowledgetosupporthumanitarianinnovation.itisessentialfordonorstotakean‘openinnovation’approachfromthe outset.WhileDFIDhas placedconsiderableimportanceonresearchfordevelopment.andnoneofithasfocusedon 21 www.Thisexperienceandreputationareassetsthatcould beleveraged.andgreateraccountabilityto.DFIDanditspartnersneedtoinvestinrobustinnovationprocesses focusingonbothlongstandingunresolvedproblemsandnewemergingchallenges.headoffices.demographic.org/pool/files/8rhach3.usaid.research.the privatesector).html 23 www.DFID needstobecomemoreconsistentinusingevidenceandsystematicanalysistodecide wheretoinvestandhow. Thiscontextofgrowinginterestandcommitmentpresentsclearopportunities.gov/press/speeches/2010/sp101008.4 Innovation Theinternationalhumanitariansystemisfacinggreaterandmorecomplexchallenges.wfp.withsignificant investmentinresearchcapacityNorthandSouth.DFIDhas areputationforbeing‘outaheadofthedonorpack’intermsofflexibilityand responsiveness.pdf 23 . Thebarrierstoinnovationareoftenmoretodowithpoliticsandinstitutionalinterests.establishingtheUKasaninnovativeleaderinglobalhumanitarianefforts. Buthumanitarianpractitionersandanalystsbemoantheslowpaceofchange.org/content/revolution-food-aid-food-assistance-innovations-overcoming-hunger 24 www.pdf 22 www.seniormanagersandlikemindedpeersinotherimplementingorganisations. Thereisanurgentneedtoleverageappropriateformsofscience.environmentalandpoliticalproblemsincreasinglydemand innovativeproducts.Ithassupportedspecificinnovationsprocessesbothatpolicylevelsuch astheGoodHumanitarianDonor-shipinitiative. Evidenceshows24thatsuccessfulinnovationshaveanumberofcommonenabling factors.alnap.Itisnowwidelyacknowledgedthathumanitarianactorscannotsimplydo moreofwhattheyhavealwaysdone.Anydonorseeking toimprovethesystemmustworkonthebasisthatitisnotpossibletosinglehandedly reformacomplexsystemwithmultipleactorsandfactors. Amoreinnovativeinternationalresponsetodisastersneedstobefirmlygroundedin humanitarianprinciplesandvalues.

DFID staffmembersareavitalassetfortheorganisation. Inevitablytherewillbetimeswhencashisnotappropriate.wherethereistoleranceofrisk. IntheNigercasestudyforthisreview.Leadersneedtofosteran atmosphereofenquiry.DFIDprovidedsomeofthe firstfundstotrialthe‘plumpynut’ideainnutrition. thereisscopefortransformativedevelopmentsinthislastarea.twoaspectsoftheresponsestoodout.andasupporterofitasanapproachatapolicylevel. InnovationalsopresentsanumberofinternalopportunitiesandchallengesforDFID. andthereisoftenahardbattletogetnewwaysofworkingaccepted.withawealthofexperienceand knowledgefromarangeofdisastersettings.Partnersshould berequiredtoexplainwhy they are not using cash.Themajorityofreliefoperationsstillsupplystrickenpopulationswith blankets.andalsoforhighlightingtherangeofwaysDFIDcansupportinnovations.demonstratedthatcashdistributionscouldprevent malnutrition.ConcernWorldwide.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Southerncapacities.ratherthantheconverse.costscanbe marginal.sincehailedasoneofthemost excitinginnovationsofthelastdecade. Oneofthekeyfindingsofthisreviewisthatthereareopportunitiestobenefitfrom freshideasthroughoutDFID’shumanitarianpolicyandoperationalwork.Thishastochange.doesnotroutinelyrequireits partnerstoworkwithcash.despitebeingafunderofresearchinto cash.anNGO. noraretheyconsistentlyrewardedforit.Itispossibletoenvisageasystemwherebyinleanyearstargetedcash distributionsforseveralmonthswouldpreventmalnutrition.largevolumesofcashmightpushpricesup. Twoapproachesarehighlightedherefortheirimportanceforaneffectivehumanitarian response.Wherethereare 24 . Anyefforttoenhancehumanitarianinnovationsneedstobuildonandenhancethe entrepreneurialandcreativecapabilitieswithintheorganisation. DFIDalsoneedstoworktojointhedotsbetweenthesuccessfulinnovationsitfunds andtheproposalsitsubsequentlyapproves.Moreworkis neededtosystematicallyidentifywheretheneedforinnovationismostpressing.andfarcostliermedical interventions.Forinstance. Whilstthebenefitofusingcashiswidelyacknowledged.Butitdidnotpushthisnewwayofworking throughitsfundingdecisions.Traditionally.potsandpans.secondmentsandreflectionspaceforDFIDstaff.ThisurgentlyneedstochangesothatDFID’sresearch fundscansupportthedevelopmentofsuccessfulinnovationthataretakentoscale throughoperationalfunding.DFID.feedbackandchallenge.moreefficientandmoreeffectivein certainsituations.soapandsoon.requiringthemtoargueagainstitsuseratherthan forit.andthisshouldbebuiltinto appraisalsystemsandultimatelycareerdevelopment.Asnotedpreviouslyinrelationtoinsuranceandnationalresilience. Cash based approaches Oneoftheexcitingadvancesinrecentyearshasbeentheuseofcashforreliefand recovery.Effective innovatorsandinnovationfacilitatorsshouldberewarded.Withanestablishedinfrastructurefortransfer.Thereisnotimetodevotetodevelopingideas. ThisreviewhasconcludedthatDFIDshouldfollowtheleadofECHOandmakecash basedresponsestheusualreliefandrecoverypositionforitspartners.Butstaffarenotencouragedtoinnovate.Thereisaneedto provideappropriatetraining.Concerndidhalfoftheircashdistributionsusingmobilephones–they distributedthephonesandthenusedatransfersystemcalled‘zap’toallowrecipientsto buygoodsinlocalshops.itsadoptionatscalehasbeen frustratinglyslow.butawealthof academicworkhasprovencashtobemoreflexible.humanitarianagencieswouldsupplygoods.Wheremarketsdonot functionefficiently.ECHO insistedthatitspartnersusedcash.

Findings

extremesecurityconcernsthismightalsobeanissue.Twoofthecasestudiesfromthis reviewsuggestthatthesecircumstancesmaybelessfrequentthanimaginedhowever. InNigerthecashdistributionsbyConcern,SavetheChildrenandotherstookplacein remoteareasatatimeofabsolutefoodshortages.Despitethispricesdidnotriseinthe markets,astradersefficientlydrewinsurplusfromneighbouringNigeria.SimilarlyinDR Congo,‘voucherfairs’demonstratedthatlocaltraderscouldbringgoodstoneedy populationsfarfasterandmoreefficientlythanaidagencies. Onefearthathasconsistentlydoggedthescalingofcashisthatofcorruption.The extensiveliteratureoncashhasfoundnoincreasedriskofthiscomparedtootherrelief goodshowever,andwithsystemssuchasmobilephonetransferandmicrobank accountsitmayinfactbeless.

Shelter
Providingadequateshelterisoneofthemostintractableproblemsininternational humanitarianresponse.Tentsaretoocostlyanddonotlastlongenough.Plastic sheetingcanbegoodbutmostoftenislowqualityandfallsapartimmediately. Rebuildinghousestakesyears,evenwhenlandissuesarenotmajorobstacles. Tosolvethisissue,agencieshaveincreasinglyused‘transitionalshelter’,awiderangeof alternativesolutionsincludingcash,communalbuildingsandtemporaryshelters. Typicallyacompromisebetweenatentandafullhouse,transitionalsheltercanlastfor threeyearsuntilproperreconstructionisachieved.Atbestituseslowcostlocal materialsandisbasedonasimpledesign.Materialscanbeusedafterwardstoo,when peoplemovetotheirnewhome. Whilstthisapproachshowspromise,therearealsochallenges.Transitionalshelterscost morethanafewbitsofplasticsheeting,andinemergenciesthatarenotwellfunded ‘transitional’canquicklybecome‘permanent’.Argumentsbetweenexpertsoverdesign, qualityandcostcanslowtheprocess,andweakcoordinationinthesectoroftenleads toawidevarianceinwhatisprovided.Thatcanmeanaffectedcommunitiesgetting differentlevelsofprovisiondependingontheagencyallocatedtobuildtheirshelter. Theissueofweakcoordinationwasattheheartoftheestablishmentofthecluster system.Assection4.3ofthisreviewsetsout,insomeareasthishasworkedwell. Logistics,foodandwaterhaveallimproved.Otherareashaveimprovedinparts.In shelter,theInternationalFederationoftheRedCross(IFRC)wasnominatedasthe clusterleadagency,andthishasnotworkedwell.Partlythisisbecauseshelteris difficult.PartlyitisbecausethereisanartificialsplitwherebyIFRCisresponsibleinthe immediateaftermathofadisaster,butnotbeyondtheemergencyphaseofdisplacement. DFIDhasbeenheavilyengagedinsheltersincetheIndianOceantsunamiin2004.Ithas fundedresearchandpushedqualitystandardsandcoordination.Thisreviewconcludes thatDFIDmustcontinueandintensifyitseffortstofindbettersolutionstoproviding shelterafterdisaster.Shelteriscriticaltohealth,employment,familyandsafety. Withoutadequateshelter,inallbutthemostbenignclimatespeopleareterribly vulnerable.Partlythismayinvolveresolvingtheclusterissuestouchedonabove.Partly itwillinvolvemoreresearch.Partlyitmayinvolvebringinginnewactors,suchasthe privatesectorconsortiumrecentlyfoundedthroughtheWorldEconomicForum. Continuingtofundandresourceshelterduringresponsewillalsobeimportant.

Technology
Technology,althoughnotasilverbullettotheproblemsofhumanitarianaid,alsoneeds moreconcertedsupport. Someexistingtechnologiesofferconsiderablepotential.TheNigercasestudyforthis reviewhighlightedtheuseofmobilephonesforcashtransfers(alsosuccessfullyusedin

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HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview

Kenya).Thisrapidlydevelopingtechnologycouldbecomethestandardinafewyears, revolutionisingthebankingandremittancesectoralongtheway.Satellitesarealready widelyusedintrackingstormsandinprovidingimageryforhumanitarianoperations. “Crowdsourcing”,suchasthatusedinKenyaandHaitimayprovetobeanimportant newwayofdoingneedsassessment.Socialmediaisdrivingnewaccountabilitytouched oninthesectionbelow.Googlehaspilotedseveralsoftwareapplicationsfor humanitarianoperationsincludingthroughitsGoogleEarthmapanditspeoplefinder softwarenowbeingusedinJapan. Thereareemergingtechnologiesthatalsohaveconsiderablepotential(andrisks). Foremostamongtheseisnanotechnology,whichiswidelyseenashavingthepotential totransformmedicine,watersafetyandfoodstuffswithinthenext5-10years.Another isagentbasedmodelling,increasinglyusedineconomics,whichmayhaveapplications inunderstandingthespreadofepidemicsorevenpopulationmovement. Recommendations DFID should: 8 Nurture innovation and its application in dealing with and preparing for humanitarian emergencies, including through partnership with operational agencies, private sector, technological innovators and science and research communities. Appoint a Humanitarian Senior Research Fellow, reporting to the Chief Scientific Officer with a dedicated budget tasked with developing evidence and innovation. Investinthreekeytechnologies;mobiletechnologies,satellitesanddatamanagement anddisplay. Supportexplorationofemergingandcutting-edgetechnologiessuchasnanotechnology, andnewcomputermodellingapproaches. Workwithpartnerstoensurecashbasedresponsesaregivenfullconsiderationand whereappropriatebecomemuchmorewidelyadopted.

9 10 11 12

4.5

Accountability
Accountabilityinsuddenonsethumanitarianemergencieshasparticularcharacteristics: thepresenceofacuteneeds,lackofchoice,lackofvoiceandaccesstoformal procedures,disconnectbetweendonorsandsurvivors,andtheprevalenceoflifeand deathdecisions.Allofthesemakeaccountabilitymorechallengingbutalsomore important. TheparadigmisstillviewingtheaffectedpopulationtoomuchaswhateconomistJulian LeGrandhascalled“pawns”(passiveindividuals)andtheinternationalcommunityas “knights”(extremealtruists).Thisapproachcosts.Localcapacitiesarenotutilised,the beneficiaryisnotinvolvedenoughandthequalityofdeliveryislowerthanitshouldbe. Sincethelate1990sthehumanitariancommunityhasinitiatedanumberofinteragencyinitiativestoimproveaccountability,qualityandperformance.DFIDhasbeen fundingthemostwidelyknownones:theActiveLearningNetworkforAccountability andPerformanceinHumanitarianAction(ALNAP),HumanitarianAccountability Partnership(HAP),PeopleInAidandtheSphereProject.

26

Findings

Theseinitiativesandothershaveimprovedstandards,quality,learningandtransparency inthesectorbutnotenoughprogresshasbeenmade.Itistimenowtoputthese approachesattheheartofhowthesystemworks. Thecasestudiesforthisreviewshowthatinvolvementofaffectedcommunitiesand provisionofinformationaboutprogrammestorecipientsofaidwaspatchyeverywhere. Ingeneral,performancewasworstduringthereliefphase,andimprovingduring recoveryandreconstruction.Theveryfactthatthemostinnovativepractices highlightedearlierarethosewhichfocusonrecipientcapacitiesandneedshighlights howfarthesystemhastogo. Theinternationalhumanitariansystemneedstoputaccountability,learningand transparencyintothecentreofitsresponse.Withthetechnologyandmethodsnow available,thereisnoexcusenotto.Assistancehastobeinaccordancewithwhat affectedpeoplehavemadecleartheyneed,ratherthanwhatthesystemispreparedto offer.Andtheinternationalsystemhastobeheldtoaccountforthat,andforlearning howtodeliverimprovedservices.Thiscanbedonethroughbetterfeedbackloopswith theaffectedpopulation,througharangeofmechanismssuchasListeningProject-style assessments,HAPcomplaintsmechanismsandperceptionsurveys. DFIDisbeingaskedtobemoreaccountablethaneverbeforetoUKtaxpayersinaperiod ofheightenedgovernmentbudgetaryconstraints.DFIDhastakenimportantstepson transparencyasasteptowardsgreateraccountabilityandisattheforefrontamongst donorsonthis.UndertheUKAidTransparencyGuaranteeDFIDhasstartedpublishing detailedinformationaboutallnewprojectsandprogrammesonthewebsince1January 2011.DFIDrecognisesthattransparencycreatesbetterfeedbackfrombeneficiariesto donorsandtaxpayers.Ithelpstobetterunderstandwhatworksandwhatdoesnot.It alsohelpsreducewasteandtheopportunitiesforfraudandcorruption. DFIDisalsocommittedtopushforfulltransparencyacrosstheinternationalaidsystem byaskingpartnersandotherdonorstoadheretosimilarstandardsoftransparency. Andtosquarethecirclefromtransparencytoaccountability,DFIDhascommittedto providingopportunitiesforthosedirectlyaffectedbyDFIDprojectstoprovidefeedback ontheirperformance.Thiscommitmentneedstoapplytoallhumanitarianemergency workaswell.Evenifputtingthemintopracticewillbemorechallengingthanin otherareas. Improvingaccountabilityisintimatelytieduptotheworkonimpactassessments–for credibleimpactassessmentsthereisaneedtoputdisaster-affectedpeopleatthecentre oftheanalysis. Thiscanbesupportedthroughinnovativeuseofappropriatetechnologythatimproves communicationstoandfromaffectedpopulations.Hi-techwasseeninHaitiwiththe Ushahidi“crowdsourcing”platform,low-tech–menonbicycleswithmegaphonesin BangladeshandBurmaforearlywarning.Mobilephonesandradioarebothimportant toreachpeople.

Impact
Theemergencyresponsesectordoesnotroutinelyassessimpact.Whatthismeansis thatforsomeoperationsitisalmostimpossibletosayhowtheassistancehelped people,orevenwhetherithelpedthem. Therearegoodreasonsforthissometimes.Inemergencies,thereislittletimeto measureintheearlyhoursanddaysofaresponse,inwhatthereviewseesas“the CriticalPeriod”.Inconflictitcanbedangerous.Andsavinglivesisthepriority.Itisalso moredifficulttomeasureavertingnegativechange(e.g.topreventfamine)than bringingaboutapositivechange(asindevelopment)becauseofthelackofdecent

27

needsassessmentsshouldprovidebaselinesagainstwhichimpactcanlaterbe measured.Anyattempttoassessevenatasystem-wide levelisplaguedwithattributionissues. Ex-postevaluationstendtoevaluateactivitiesratherthanimpactanddonotoften enoughincludeaparticipatoryelementsothatdisastersurvivorscanholdagenciesto account. Monitoringhasalsobeenfoundtobeweakandsuffersfrompatchy. Thelackofbaselinesisnottheonlyproblem.Theyaremoreaboutgatheringinformationforplanning andfundraisingbyspecificagenciesthanbuildingacomprehensivepictureofneedand prioritisation.Lessonsneedtobelearnedandapplied.andtodatefewdonorshave beenwillingtosupporttheseeffortsonthehumanitariansideofthesystem.theprocessisnot transparentandsharinginformationissometimesdiscouragedasitmightposeariskto aninstitution’sroleintheresponse.Deliveringinsomeofthemostimportantsectorsofhumanitarianaid.DonorslikeDFIDneedtochange theincentivesinthefinancingsystemtoensurethatimpactisroutinelymeasured.thecompetitionbetweenagenciesandthelackofseriousconsultationwith thepeopleinneed.monitoringis anevengreaterchallenge.Thequalityof 28 .testingtherelativeimpact ofoneapproachcomparedtoanother. Incomplexemergencieswheresecurityandaccessaremajorconstraints. anditmustuseevidenceonwhatworksandwhatdoesnotandwhytoimproveits performance.A frameworkformonitoringandevaluatingresultsandimpactisbeingdesignedforDR Congo’sHumanitarianActionPlan. ratherthanfitfullyifatall.Itcannotbedoneas anadd-onalone.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview counterfactuals.3and4.leadershipandstrongpartnershipsareessential(seesections4.CasestudieshavebeencollatedbyALNAPandothers.impact assessmentsrequiretimeandresourcesthatarenottrivial.Remoteprogrammingisincreasinglyused.system-wideassessmentsarestillrare.Becauseofalackofresourcesandnarrowagendas.6).Perfectionisnotpossibleforthevalidreasonsoutlinedabove butalotmorecanbedone.For that.Thesectormustincreaseitseffortstodemonstrateimpact.Needsassessments routinelylackbaselinedata.Whatisnecessaryistomoveawayfromasystemwheremany agenciesstillcontinuetomeasuresuccessinvolumeoffood.impactassessmentsaredifficulttocarryout.Needsassessmentsarequiteoftentoolateto informfundingdecisions.participatoryapproachesshouldbetaken wherepossible.neverminddowntothelevelofindividual donors’contributionstoaparticularproject.isdifficulttoassess.therealitylooksdifferent.Needsassessmentsshouldalsobedesignedandcarriedouthavingtheviews ofaffectedpeoplecentrestage.inconsistentefforts.goodsorvaccinesdelivered ratherthantheimpactontheaffectedpopulation.Withoutacommonstrategyandagreed definitionsofhumanitarianoutcomes.actionneedstobetakenatvariousstagesofan emergencyresponseaswellasinresiliencebuildingprogrammes.Perhapsmostimportant. Thisreviewfoundthattoolsexistorarebeingdevelopedtoovercomethe methodologicalchallenges.However. Thisisnolongeracceptable. Otherreasonsfornotdoingimpactassessmentscannotbesoeasilyjustified:itis convenientnottohavetodoit.especiallyin countrieslikeSomalia.mostevaluationsfocusona particularprojectorprogramme. Intheory.Andthroughoutallstages.Thiswillprovidefurtherinsightintowhatcanand cannotbedone.thefailuresinleadership. suchasprotectionanddignity.theneedforhighvisibilityaction.Aidisonlyoneofanumberofinputs intothelivesofdisaster-affectedpeople.Thereiscompetitionbetweenorganisationsandsectors.shapedbydonorsand themedia. Tomeasureanddemonstrateimpact.Aparticularlyimportantand necessaryareaforimpactassessmentswillbeininnovation.

London.Projectsthatare genderblindriskmissingoutonthemostvulnerableindividualsandmayalsoprovidean inappropriateresponseduetolackofanalysisandlimitedunderstandingofwhatthe genderspecificneedsare. Addressing the needs of the most vulnerable Thehumanitariansystemispoorlyequippedtoensureanequitableresponseforthe mostvulnerable.whetheragency-specific. 26 Gender.includingforneedsassessments.Whilstissuesspecifictochildren.DisasterRiskReductionandClimateChangeAdaptation:ALearningCompanion. Children.2010.Thecampsprovidedshelterandaccesstobasicservicesin theimmediateaftermathbutnoadequateprotectionforwomenandgirls. 27 TheGenderedNatureofNaturalDisasters:theimpactofcatastrophiceventsonthegender gapinlifeexpectancy1981–2002.sector-wideorsystemwide.27 Anapproachthatdoesnotrecognisethatwomen.26Astudy bytheLondonSchoolofEconomicsshowsthatnaturaldisastersandtheirsubsequent impactonaveragekillmorewomenthanmenorkillwomenatanearlierage.makeupatleast50%ofaffected populationsinmostoftheemergenciesaroundtheworld.Findings evaluations.Impactassessments. Thereisnoformalplatformforcollectiveengagementonspecificissues.findingshelterandfood–toidentifyingwaystogenerate 25 HelpAge(2010). Technologicaladvancessuchassatelliteimageryarestillnotusedenoughtocollect dataacrosstheprogrammingcycle.Neitherarenationalcapacitiesusedenoughinmonitoringand evaluativeefforts–whetheroperationalagenciesorthinktanksandacademics.womenandthose withdisabilityarewidelywrittenabout.oldpeople. Atthesametime.Themostpervasiveoneisgender inequalityandthisismagnifiedbytheimpactsofclimatechangeanddisasters. AmnestyInternationalreportedthatwomenandgirlslivinginthemakeshiftcampsin Haitioneyearafterthedevastating12January2010earthquakefacedanincreasingrisk ofrapeandsexualviolence.monitoringand impactassessments.girlsandboysinanemergency situationhavedifferentneedsandareexposedtodifferenttypesofriskwillinthebest casebebadqualityprogramming. OxfamDisasterRiskReductionandClimateChangeAdaptationResources.Astudy byHelpAge25showsthatadisproportionatelylowamountofhumanitarianassistance wasdedicatedtoensuringthattheneedsofaparticularvulnerablegroupindisasteraffectedpopulations–olderpeople–aremet.therearefewmechanismstodealwiththem. 29 .intheworstcaseitcancauseharm.LondonSchoolofEconomics.pickedupbysomeonewhowasawareoftheneedsof vulnerablegroupswhiledoingsomethingelse.asassessedbyALNAPfrom2000to2008hasbeenconsistently disappointing.arenotusuallycarriedout.Previousevaluationsshowthatwomendrivethemovefromimmediate concerns–reunitingfamilies.theroleofwomeninprevention.DuringthePakistan earthquakethispreventedwidowswithoutmalecompanyfromaccessingaid.Astudyofhumanitarianfinancingforolderpeople.andthereis littleifanydisaggregateddataonneedsandimpactonvulnerablegroups. Gender Accountabilitycannotimprovewithoutthehumanitariansystembecomingmoregender aware.age.definedbythoseundertheageof18.men.Humanitarianassistancethat doesnotassessandaddresstheneedsofchildrenmaybeignoringthemajority–and wouldthereforepotentiallybefailingtohavethegreatestimpact.Alotofthe evidencebaseisanecdotal.reliefandrecoveryisnotrecognised enough.Povertyexperiencedbywomenandmenisshapedbyinequalitiesthatdiscriminate againstandmarginalisecertainsocialgroups.Culturallyinsensitivepracticessuchas deliveringreliefitemsinsinglelanesarestillroutinelypractised.

appropriatelyandcomprehensivelythroughoutall stagesofassistance.partnershipwillbecome evenmoreimportantasourinterconnectedworldgetsmoresoandaspowershifts towardsthenewemergingeconomiessuchasBrazil.andtheirknowledgeandresponsibilitiesrelatedtonaturalresource managementhaveprovencriticaltocommunitysurvival.UNagencieshavethereachandthepresencetodeliver 28 A. Givegreateremphasistobeneficiaryaccountabilityfactorswhenmakingfunding decisions.asmuchifnotmorethanitsownstandalone capacity. ManyofthepartnersDFIDworkswithinhumanitarianresponseareworld-class organisations. Promote the development of improved needs and robust impact assessments.28Womenandgirlsneedtobe consultedontheirneedsimmediately.theUKhashistoricallybeenactiveinsupportingmultilateralism.andafounder memberoftheUN.China.GenderEqualityandAdaptation.withmultilateral responsethedefaultpositionoftheUKandDFID. Encouragethespreadofbestpracticeinthisarea.Thisreviewendorsesthisapproach. TheUKcanachievemorethroughandwithpartners.IndiaandtheGulfStates.6 Partnership TheUKisnotalargedirectgiverofhumanitarianassistance. Nevertheless.AsapermanentmemberoftheSecurityCouncil.thehumanitariansectorinrecentyearshasbeenseenbymanyasa closedshopwithahandfulofagenciesanddonorsdominating. Thisreviewhasconcludedthatthispositionshouldbemaintained. Working with the United Nations and its agencies TheUnitedNationsasawholeisthelargestpartneroftheUKinhumanitarian emergencyresponse.commissionedatthesametimeasthisreview.Andwomenhaverepeatedlyledinitiativestoadapttotheimpactsofclimate change.sothatDFIDrecognisesthatitisthe qualityofitspartnershipsthatmatters. 30 .TheWorldFood Programme(WFP)delivered44billionmealsin2010.Inthemodern worldthemostimportantpartofwhatanorganisationcandoiswhatitcandowithothers.usingitsresourcestobring togetherorganisationswithdifferentskillstorespondtoacuteneed. Recommendations DFID should: 13 14 15 16 17 Promote and support mechanisms to give recipients of aid a greater voice.mostofitinresponseto emergenciesorongoingcrises.Amultilateralaidreview. foundthat80%ofhumanitarianagencieswereeithergoodorverygood.preferringinsteadtowork withandthroughpartners. 4.Itsroleshouldbemore‘networkenabler’thanindividualdoer.Whilstsomeofthishas beenforgoodreason–theneedtobeseenasneutralandimpartialinconflictand beingabletoaccesspopulationsmostly–someofthisissimplynotworking.IUCN. Workwithotherstocreateanover-archingsetofstandardstoassessbeneficiary accountability.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview income.Araujoetal(2008).Thisreview concludesthataseachangeinthinkingisrequired. UNagenciesareamongstthelargestdeliverersofhumanitarianaid.

Agenciesmustcollaboratewitheachother.ButDFIDcanalsolinkthismoreclearlyto resultsandperformance. 31 .Thisexperienceif bettershared.Theyneedtobe strategic.IndisastersituationsECHOisroutinelyunawareofwhatDFID’sresponsewill be.Findings aidatscale.Thedefaultpositionofmultilateralismmeanstheseagenciesneed supporting.Italso concludesthatNGOsneedsimilarsupport.Astheyapplymostlytoprotractedcrisesthereviewhasnot studiedtheseindepth.fromWFPrapidlydeliveringfoodto7millionpeopleinfloodhitPakistan.to UNICEFsupplyinginfantfoodnationallyforstarvingchildreninNiger. Working with the European Union TheEuropeanUnioncollectivelyprovideshalfofallofficialhumanitarianaid.itneedstoprovide greaterpredictabilityoffundingsothatthemainUNagenciescaninvestintheir humanitarianresponsecapacities.chartcareersandinvestin peopleifyoudonotknowwhetheryouwillhavemoneynextyear.Butsupportcannot. AtpresentDFID’srelationshipwithECHOappearstobedelegatedtojuniorstaff.couldbebeneficialtobothagencies. decisionmakingbodies.failingtocommunicateeffectively.Italsohas itsownhumanitarianaidagency.notjustUNagenciesandinternationalNGOs.andtheUKisconsistentlyoneofthe largestcontributors.asdoestheoverallinstitution.ThereviewdocumentedsomeexcellentexamplesofUNagency-led response.AndalthoughtheUKprovidesasixthofitsfunding.andoftentheyneedtoworkonseverallevels.Themultilateralaidreviewcanbeagoodbasistostartthis rebalancingoffunding.accountabilityandimpactinthisreviewmake thepointthatthereisstillmuchworktobedonetoimprovetheperformanceofthe internationalsystem.finance.andshouldnotbe uncritical.theUNagenciesneed tobettersupportOCHAandtheERC.andnotberoutinelyallocated. DFID’spolicylevelrelationshipwithECHOisweak.PooledfundsliketheoneinDRCongohave generallyworkedwell.notablytheinabilitytotreatandcontaincholerainHaiti.What isneededisbetterengagementatpolicylevel. ThisreviewconcludesthatalongsidemorepredictablecorefundingtheCERFisa valuablemechanismandshouldcontinuetobesupportedandexpanded.ThelackofeffectivepartnershipwithECHOisa wastedopportunity. UNagenciesarethebackboneofmanyresponses.Agenciesneed togetbetteratreportingresultsratherthanwhattheyhavepurchased.DFIDfocusespriorityattentiononthemajorUNhumanitarian partnersratherthanotherdonors.ECHO.Clusterleadershipneedstobeimproved.Theclusterapproachisthecorrectvision–strategic networksbringingtogetherthemainactorsinvolvedinresponse.Itneedstobe awareofECHO’sstrategicplanningprocessesandengagewiththese.whichisthesecondlargestglobaldonorinits ownright. includingallkeyactors.Agenciesneedmultiyearfundingtomaketheseinvestments. Thesectionsonleadership.andtheirinternationalstatusoftenmeanstheyhaveabetterrelationship withgovernment.Theyneedtobecreative.TheUKholdsauniquepositionamongstEUmemberstates.Butitsimplementation hasbeentooinflexible.excepttogenerallyendorsethisapproach.ResourcesfromDFIDshouldfollow successonthesecriteria.Itisdifficulttokeepstaff. DFIDneedstosupporttheseefforts.withNGOs andwithUNappointedleadership.andbetteralignmentatdeliverylevel.DFIDandECHOtoooftenworkin parallel.andneedtoworkmorecollegially.Asoneofthemajordonors.Thisneedstochange. DFIDneedstohaveamoreconsistentstrategicdialoguewithECHO.notuninspiringtalkshops.Clustersneedtobegroupedaroundneedratherthanmandate.with capacitytoprovideeffectivehumanitarianaidwhenactingalone.Thisresultsinduplicationofworkandcostly overlaps.itdoesnotengagewith ECHOstrategically.Atpolicylevel.Therehavealso beenfailures.withgovernments.

DFIDshouldworktoreinvigoratethisgroup. TheUSwasconsideringasignificantreductionintheamountofhumanitarianaidit givesasthisreviewwenttopress(40%offoodaidanddisasterresponseby70%). DFIDreliedonECHOtoleadtheresponse.Nigerisa goodexampleofhowthiscanwork.bothgloballyandincountries likeDRCongowhereitplaysapivotalrole.UNICEFandtheWorldBanktraditionallycoming fromtheUS.Russia.andisoftenperceivedbytheUSasaloner.WheretheUSwillobviouslylead–Haitiwasagoodexample –thenDFIDshouldbeabletofitaroundthis.Lately.forDFIDitwouldmeanthatconversationsaboutburdenshare–similar tothosewithECHO–wouldbeevenmorevital.Nationssuchas India. DFIDisoneofthestrongergroupmemberswithcapacitytoinfluencehowtobring othersin.The globalpictureofwhorespondstohumanitarianneedischangingtoo.Increasing contributionstodisasterresponsearebeingseenfromdonorsoutsidethe‘traditional’ OECDDACgroup.andSaudiArabiaareimportantregionalpowers. ThismeanstheUShasanopportunitytoinfluenceUNagenciesatahighlevel.neutralityandimpartialityas astartingpointforpartnershipwithothertraditionalhumanitariandonors.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Mostimportantly.ithaslost momentum.TheGHDgroupisastartinggroundfor moreeffectivedonoraction.Thisis oftennotusedcoherentlybecauseofthefragmentednatureoftheUSaidbureaucracy.GHDhascreatedaspaceforcollectiveactionthatdid notpreviouslyexist. WideningthegroupwhoadheretoGHDprincipleswouldbeapositivewayforward.Itisvery influential. Working with new donor partners Theworldischanging.TheannualMontreuxmeetingmightbetheforumforthisandcould potentiallybewidenedinscopeandambition.SouthAfrica. 32 .Brazilwasamajor responderinHaiti.China’s contributiontoWFPdoubledin2005andwasoneofthelargestdonorsinBurmaafter CycloneNargisin2008(andinPakistanduringthefloodsin2010).DFIDdoesnothaveasustainedpolicydialoguewiththehumanitarian agenciesoftheUSgovernment.TheUSgovernmentisalsothelargestdonortoUNHCRandtheICRC.NorwayandCanada havebeenclosealliesforDFID.InothersituationsECHOmight followaDFIDlead. Butevenso. DFIDsharesthebasichumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity.Itwillbeimportanttounderstand wheretheUSwillfocusitsefforts.DonorssuchastheNetherlands. Allofthenationscitedabovesignificantlyrespondtodisastersintheirregions.Were thistohappen.andtoensurethatscarcehumanitarianresourcesare spreadmosteffectively.SaudiArabiawasthesinglelargestdonortoBangladeshfollowing cycloneSidr(andwasoneofthetopfiveglobaldonorsin2009). Working with bilateral donors TheUSgovernmentistheworld’slargestindividualhumanitariandonor.ButmoreneedstobedonebyDFIDtodemonstratea collegialapproach.ButDFIDalsoperiodicallysenthumanitarian advisorstoreinforceandcomplementECHOleadership.The principlesofGoodHumanitarianDonorship(GHD)bindlike-mindeddonorstogether aroundafurthersetofcoredonorprinciples.Chinaisnowthesecondlargestglobaleconomy.Brazil.ECHOhasstrongtechnicaladvisorypresence throughitsspecialisedofficesandpermanentrepresentationthroughtheEUdelegation.DFIDneedstogetsmarteratsharingresourceswithECHO.andprovidedDFIDwithitsmostconsistentallies.Sweden.withtheheadsofWFP.Indiagavethrough multilateralchannelstoPakistanfloodrelief. TheGoodHumanitarianDonorship(GHD)grouphasplayedaroleinachievingchangein thehumanitariansystem.

DFIDshouldmakemoreuseofthediplomaticnetworksandother governmentdepartmentsinordertobuildwidercoalitionsitneedstodrivethroughthe internationalreformagenda.TheFCO’scapacitytobuildrapidconsensusthrough cablesinsupportofASEAN’sroleinresponsetoCycloneNargisin2008hasalready beendemonstrated.andunderstandbothcultureandcontext.Brazil’sviewon humanitarianresponseis.Theirpioneeringtechnicalworkhasoftensetthestandardforotherhumanitarian agencies.InternationalNGOs areadeptatdeployingquickly. Inforgingnewhumanitarianrelationships.likeDFIDtobuildownershipbyworkingwithlocalauthorities. DFIDcancombineitsexpertisewiththatofnationsthatregularlyexperiencelargescale naturaldisasters.suchasQatar.DFIDmustlookforareasofcommongroundthatalready exist.OrganisationslikeOxfamandSavetheChildrenareknown worldwide.Toremainahumanitarianleaderintothe 21stcentury.7billiononhumanitarianassistance29.ClosecollaborationbetweenDFID. highlightingtheimportanceofmultilateralcoordination.TheyarehighlyregardedbytheUKpublicandreceivegeneroussupportwhen massivedisastersstrike.China’shandlingoftheSichuanearthquakeresponse wasexemplary.SupportmustbecorralledfromwithintheDACgrouptocreateareceptiveforum fornewdonorstojoin. Russia’sEmergencyControlMinistry.DevelopmentInitiatives.GujuratandTamilNadu.andworkwiththemtosharelearningwithotheratrisknations. DFID’scommitmenttohumanitarianprincipleswillbecomeincreasinglyimportantas partnershipsaredeveloped.have experienceinresiliencebuildingespeciallyincommunitybaseddisasterriskreduction andmanyworkwithnationalandlocalorganisations.Todoso. Non-governmentorganisations(NGOs)alsoprovidemuchoftheimplementation capacityinhumanitarianemergencyresponse. 29 GHAreport2010.DFIDisalreadyworking withtheGCCandhumanitarianassistanceisagoodareaofcommoninterest.theUAEandSaudiArabiaaresignificantdonorsinthe humanitarianassistanceandareincreasinglybecominginvolvedinotherways.Findings Theemerginggroupofnon-traditionalpartnersisanopportunityforDFIDtoestablish newrelationships.Similarviewpointscanbeusedasstartingpoints.India hasacadreofexperienceddisastermanagersingovernment.In2008NGOsspent$5.oftensettingupbigreliefoperationsweeksbeforethe UNcranksintogear.DFIDwillhavetolookwideracrossWhitehalltoinfluenceinthis action.China’scurrent5yearplan(2006–2011)includesdisasterrelief.Alliances mustbebuiltwithothertraditionalhumanitariandonorstowelcomenewpartnerson board.DFIDshouldnotrisk‘goingitalone’.TheGulf CooperationCouncil(GCC)hasanewhumanitarianmechanism.DFIDshouldreachouttoseektobuildnewrelationshipswithChinaalong thelinesoftheirrecentWhitePaper.EMERCOMhasvastcapacityandexperience.TheirworkhashelpedmillionsindisasterfromEthiopia. 33 .Forexample. TheGulfStates.toBangladeshto Haiti. Working with NGOs TheUKhassomeofthemostrespectedandimportantinternationalnon-government organisationsintheworld. NGOsoftenhavelargeprogrammesinaffectedcountriesbeforedisasterstrikes.IndigenousandfaithbasedNGOsare oftenthefirsttorespond.Demonstratingthevalueofthesewillbeanimportantpart ofnewrulesforinternationalhumanitariancollaboration.followingdisastersin Orissa.AnydisastersintheregionoftheHinduKushwill likelyseeChinarespondinginasignificantway. Chinahasenormouscapacitytorespondanddeepexperienceofhumanitarian emergencieswithinitsownborders.FCOandotherWhitehalldepartmentswillbe vitaltodevelopopportunities.

1 billionin200630.TheConsortiumofBritishHumanitarianAgencies(CBHA)andtheWest AfricaRegionalHumanitarianFund(WARHF)offertwoprovenmodelsataglobaland regionallevel.receiving86%oftheirfundsfrom privatedonations.AfricaHumanitarianActioninEthiopiaruns programmesacrosstheHorn.ButotherNGOseitherdonot know.7billioninthesameyear. FaithgroupsareanotherexampleofagrowingNGOsectorwithpotentialtoimprove responsesthroughtheirstronglinkswithandaccesstolocalcommunities.Onlytwogovernments –theUKandtheUS–spentmoreonofficialbilateralhumanitarianassistancethatyear.eitherthroughconsortiaorindividually.leading tomultiplesurveysandorganisationsjostlingforfundingforparticulargeographicareas ortechnicalsectors.bothforimprovingrapidresponseandin-country forlocalNGOs.investinginNGOs withspecialistresponsecapabilitiestoensurethesecanbedeployedrobustly.DFIDhasratherneglected theNGOsectorinthelastfiveyears.MercyMalaysiahasbecomeawell-knowninternationalNGOrunning programmesasfarafieldasAfrica.Forexample.technicalstandardsforeachsectorofactivityandlots ofworkonaccountability.OrganisationslikeMSFhavevery generouspublicsupportacrossEuropeandtheUS.SavetheChildrenco-leadstheeducationclusterwithUNICEF.Insomecases.MSFFrancespentanestimated$81millionoftheFrench public’smoneyonrespondingtocrisesin2006. 34 .manyofwhomdonotknowaboutstandards. DFIDshouldalsoconsider.In2006Medecins SansFrontieres(MSF)spent$575milliononhumanitarianaid.BRACinBangladeshclaims tobetheworld’slargestNGOifnumberofemployeesisconsideredratherthanfinancial turnover.Manyturnuplookingforguidance.Theincreasedcapacity.thesixthlargestdonorin2006.Thiscould 30 DIreportfor2009Montreuxdonorsconference.rivallingUNICEFat$2.Otherstryto pushapoliticalagenda.Neitherhasitmadeanimpacton thecompetitionbetweeninternationalNGOs.TheHaitiearthquakeprovidesanexamplethoughoftheheadache thattryingtocoordinatetheNGOsectorcanbe. AsaresultofthehumanitarianreformeffortswiththeUN.codesandthe ideathattheirhelpmightdomoreharmthangood.Indiahasamillion indigenousorganisationsthatdescribethemselvesasNGOs. WhatNGOsrepresentattheirbestiscitizens’action.Latterlythishasbeenchangingwiththe establishmentofinnovativeconsortia.Theirglobalspreadistestimonytotheirenduringappeal.Theyraise considerabledonationsfromfaithandDiasporacommunitiesoutsidetheDECappeals.Thereisan industrywideCodeofConduct. NGOsarealsorapidlygrowinginscaleandgeographicspread.SomeNGOsareanintegralpartofthe system.comparedwithbilateralspendingof only$48millionbytheFrenchgovernment. Forofficialdonorsandtheinternationalsystemthiscreatesbothanopportunityanda challenge.withmorethan1.AswithUNagenciesthiscompetition meansthatassessmentinformationisoftentreatedascommerciallysensitive. TheCatholicChurchnetworkCaritas’svoluntaryspendwasequivalenttothebilateral humanitarianassistanceofSweden.Unfortunatelythishasnotbeenenoughtostemthetideof firsttime“wellwishers”.ordonotacceptthissystem.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview ThetermNGOcoversadiversityoforganisations.Oxfamprovides peoplereadytogoforthewaterandsanitationcluster.WorldVisionhadaturnoverof$2.000international NGOsflyingintoPortauPrincereadytohelp. TheinternationalNGOsectorhasgonealongwayintryingtoself-regulate.especiallyofnationalandlocalNGOsprovides untappedpotential.Theseareeffectiveandshouldbeexpanded.a singlememberofanNGOfamilymakesamoresignificantcontributionthanitshost government.

NationalSocietiesarerequired tohaveauxiliarystatustogovernmenttobeamember.However.Thisworkcanonlybe conductedbytheNGOsectoritself. IncountrieswhereDFIDhasapresencethistypeofapproachcanbeextendedto nationalandlocalNGOsandapplytointernationalNGOswithsubstantialpresenceand experience.TheAmericanRedCrossisresponsibleformasscarein domesticdisasters.withhugereliefstocksandlogistics assetsincludinghelicopters. Butthenetworkdoesnotroutinelyachieveitspotential.atrustedandprincipledpartnerinconflictsituations.ButDFIDshouldencourage.orMerlinwhohaveco-chairedcountryhealthclusters).Itislessthanthesumofits parts.andwithcountryoffices.includingtherecentmultilateralaid review. Whilstthesetypesofapproacheshavethepotentialtoimprovetheeffectivenessof manyofthebiggerinternationalNGOs.Thisideahasbeenresistedonthegrounds thatitwouldbealmostimpossibletoachieveandthatitmightunfairlyexcludeNGOs withrealcapacityorinsighttooffer–especiallynationalNGOs.withmanyNationalSocietiesthatareunder-resourcedandunder-performing.ThecivilsocietyfundinDRCongocouldserveasamodel.allowingaccreditedNGOseasier accesstocoordinationmeetingsandsoon.TheChineseRedCrosshasaround20millionvolunteersandoften respondsalongsidethePeople’sLiberationArmyindisasters.ithastohelpaffectedgovernmentsandthosecharged withcoordinationtounderstandwhereareputableorganisationhasprovencapability andhowitcouldbestbedeployed.itwillnotsolvetheissueofeverincreasing proliferation.TheICRCiswidelyadmiredforitsprofessionalismanditsadherenceto mandate.Thereare186NationalSocietieswithaSecretariatinGenevaaswellasthe InternationalCommitteeoftheRedCross(ICRC).ThismakestheICRCapartnerofchoiceinconflict situationsandthisreviewendorsesthatview.Whateveritlookslike.TheICRCreceivesthelargestamountofDFID humanitarianfundingofanysingleagency.DFIDshouldcontinuetoworkwiththe ICRCasitis. TheNationalSocietiesandtheIFRCSecretariataredifferent.andinmanycountriesthisisa significantrole.at£66millioninfinancialyear2009/2010.DFID fundsforboththeIFRCandICRCpassedthroughtheBRCSinwhatwascalleda ‘tripartite’relationship. Working with the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement TheInternationalRedCross/CrescentMovementistheworld’slargesthumanitarian network. Thedifferentarrangementsreflectthestrengthsandcharacterofthedifferent organisations.andastrategicvoiceintheIFRCSecretariat.OnepotentialmeasurethathasbeendebatedwithintheNGOcommunity formanyyearsisfor‘accreditation’ofsomesort.anotheristhe recentlyformedCBHA.Findings belinkedtoclusterneedsandresponsibilities(forinstancewithCAREwhosupportthe sheltercluster.alargecontributortootherNSin itsownright.TheIranianRedCrescent Societyistheofficialresponsearmofgovernment.ThisrecentlychangedfortheICRC–DFIDfundsnowgodirectto Geneva–butremainsthesamefortheIFRC.Forthepastdecade.wherebyone NGOactsasthegrantholderonbehalfofthecollective.rootedasitisinitsnationalbase. 35 .Thenetworkhas tremendouspotential. TherelationshipbetweenDFIDandtheRedCross/RedCrescentMovementhas traditionallybeenmediatedbytheBritishRedCrossSociety(BRCS).helpandsupportthis process.aprivateSwissorganisationdedicated tohelpingvictimsofconflict.thereview findsthatasystemisneededtohelpshortcutsomeofthechaosofcoordinationof NGOs.AnothermodelisUNDPinBangladesh.TheBRCSisoneof thestrongerNationalSocieties(NS)intheMovement.ItscoreshighlyininternalDFIDanalysis.perhapslinkedtopre-crisisarrangementsandplanning.USAIDusesthesetypesof ‘umbrellagrants’routinely.

creditandinvestment(e.g.manyoftheNationalSocietiesaremarginaltotheir nationallifeandincapableoflarge-scalemobilisation.andwithnationaldisasterlegislation.asforexamplewithDigicellinHaiti. Butthereisstilldistrustfromthehumanitariansectorthatcharacterisesitselfas‘nonprofit’towardsprivatesectororganisationswhoseprimemotivationisperceivedas ‘profit’.Itisalsoaquestionof managementandgovernance.theBritishEarthquakeConsortiumforTurkey). TheIFRCalsoremainsamassivenetworkfordisasterresponse. andasavaluedpartnernotacontractedentity.Theirperformanceinresponsehasbeenmixedhowever.althoughinpracticethishasnot oftenbeeninvokedinrecentyears.throughtheirvolunteernetworksandthe Federationhaspioneeredworkoncommunitybaseddisasterpreparedness.DFIDshouldworkcloselywithBRCSandtheIFRC SecretariattoinvolvetheFederationinitsresiliencework.Thenationalsocietyhasofferedtoextendthis typeofsurgearrangementtoDFID. TheBRCShasauxiliarystatustogovernmentintheUK.includingbrand.newmarkets. andstaffmotivation.oftenonavolunteerorpartialcostbasis.Andinviewofthisfirmsareoftenwillingtoengageonareduced rateor‘atcost’basis.Thisbarriertocollaborationneedstobeovercome.Examplesofthisincludepublic-privatepartnershipsthatenable thesharingofrisks. Butthiscanonlyworkifsomeofthefundamentalproblemscanberesolved.Theprivatesector’smotivationforengagementisbasedona widerbusinessinterest.thereisamajorroleforRedCrossandRedCrescentNationalSocieties.This criticalrolecouldbeimprovedwithgreaterclarityoffocusonimprovingtheglobalRed Cross/RedCrescentresponsesystemfromtheFederation.TheBRCS alreadyprovidesadegreeoflegaladviceonthelawsofwartotheMOD.Working withandthroughtheBritishRedCrossisasensiblehalfwayhouseforthetimebeing. TheroleoftheBRCSasanauxiliarycouldbere-invigoratedinotherways.andstrengthenedbetter capacityattheNSlevel.andwasremuneratedatan internationallevel. 36 .andDFIDshouldbeactivein helpingtoachievethis.thiscouldbe extendedtoDFID.National Societiesareoftenclosetocommunities.Newmodalitiesofengagementare requiredinordertoenablethehumanitariansectortohaveaccesstoskillsandproducts asandwhenrequired.somethingthatshouldbeexplored.corporatesocialresponsibility.Itshouldalsocontinueto supporttheglobalreadinessoftheFederation.theCaribbeanCatastropheRisk InsuranceFacility.TheBRCScanactasaninterlocutor. WorkingthroughandwithNationalSocietiescanbeagoodwaytoengagewith NationalDisasterManagementAgencies.Thispotentialmust beunlockediffuturechallengesaregoingtobemet. giventheotherwisetimeconsumingnatureofapotentialengagement.oftentheveryfirstto helpthroughlocalvolunteersandmobilisingthenetworkofNationalSocietiesata regionalorgloballevel.focusingonnational resilience.Itcanalso helptomitigatedisasterriskthroughpreventionandpreparedness.Partlythisisaquestionof resources–whenahighachievingofficerfromtheIFRCSecretariatbecameSecretary GeneralofaweakperformingNationalSociety. Working with the private sector Theprivatesectorrepresentsahugesourceofuntappedcapacityandexpertiseto reducesufferingandhelprebuildcommunitiesintheaftermathofadisaster. Theemphasisneedstoshiftfromseeingtheprivatesectorasadonortobeinga‘doer’.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Particularlyinsub-SaharanAfrica.BRCSalsokeepsanumberofhighqualityemergencyteamson permanentstandbyfortheFederation.therewasastepchangeinperformance. InthenewdirectionrecommendedforDFIDinthisreview.Humanitarianorganisations suchasMapActionandRedRrelyontrainedpersonnelfromtheprivatesectorbeing availablewhenneededforcriticalshort-termassignmentsintheimmediateaftermath ofadisaster.

Suchskillsneedtobecontextualizedtothechallengesofpost-disaster situationsthroughworkinginpartnershipwithhumanitarianorganisationsandbuilding long-termcollaborativerelationshipsthatenableknowledgetransfer.Notablyitisnationalcompanieslikethese whohavethecapacitytorespondaswellastherelationshipswiththelocalgovernment andcommunity.leadershipandmanagementbestpractice.thelocalandnationalprivatesectorneedstobea keypartner.HindustanConstruction CompanyinIndiahasbeenabletorespondtofloodsinOrissaandfloods/landslidesin Laddakhwheretheyhadconstructionsites.InDFID’s resilienceandpreparednesswork.Thebestknown exampleinthesectoristhecollaborationofAgility. Recognitionofthevalueoftheinternationalprivatesectorneedstobematchedwith understandingoftheimportanceoflocalbusinessesandcompaniesinimmediate responseandincatalysingeconomicrecovery.mapping. InHaiti.ThereisevidencethatNiger’s cerealmarketisstrictlycontrolledbyarestrictedgroupoftraders. skillsandexpertisetoresponseoperations.mosteffectively.concentratingontheir coreadvantage.Theycouldbeofgreatvaluetohumanitarianorganisations 37 .sanitation.TNTandUPSinprovidinglogistics andtransportationservicestoWFP.withapotentially detrimentaleffectontheagriculturaleconomy.andfundingandprocurementbarriersoftenprevent suchskillsbeingaccessedinatimelyfashionfromtheprivatesector.energy) Damagedinfrastructureneedstoberapidlyreinstatedandissueslikerubbleremovalare criticaltomakinglandavailableforcamps. Thecurrentmodelsofprivatesectorengagementinhumanitarianactiongenerallyfocus onlargemultinationalcompaniesandinvolvepro-bonocontributionsoftheirproducts. Alltheseexamplesshowthatpositiverelationshipswiththeprivatesectorneedtobe establishedpre-disastersothattheycanbebestusedwhendisasterstrikes.Urbanenvironmentsare characterisedbyahighconcentrationofprivatesectorinterests(markets.Again. Thelocalprivatesectorisusuallythefirstthatcanrespondwithreliefitemsandfood.Findings Companiesandgovernmentshaveoutsourcedservicesforyears. Thelocalprivatesectorcanalsoprofiteerfromdisasters.Thehumanitariansectoralsohasasetofquasi-commercial relationshipsinitsgrant/recipient/sub-contractingmodel. Disastersareincreasinglytakingplaceinurbanenvironments.Thisismostlyinthesectorsoflogistics. Theprivatesectorcanbringprofessionalism. Local.Large-scalefoodaidwasneverthelessimported.It canprovideemploymentandcontributetonormalisation.nationalandinternationalcompaniesholdtheknowledgeandexpertiseto respondtourbandisasters.Protectionistrhetoricneeds tobereplacedwithafocusonwhocandowhat.DFIDshould encourageandstimulatethisprocess.Thesetraderskeep cerealsoutofcirculationuntilthemaximumpriceisreached.Therehavealsobeenproactiveeffortsbythe privatesectortobetterunderstandhumanitarianaction.suchas theWorldEconomicForumDisasterRiskPartnershiptofacilitateaccesstoprivate sectorexpertiseinengineeringandconstruction.andtheuseofcuttingedgetechnology andinformation.labour.andintegratedurbanplanningisneededin ordertoprovideabasisforrecoveryandreconstruction.engineeringandmedicalsupplies.Urbanareasarealsodependentoninfrastructureforthedeliveryof essentialservices(water.Thisimportanceislikelytochange significantlywhencashtransfersbecomemoreprominent. toolsfordrivingefficiencyandmanagingrisk.solidwastemanagement.the supplychain).IT andcommunication.Reinstatingtheseisoutsidethe skillssetofNGOsorUNagencies.drainage.theruralhinterlandwasnotmuchaffectedbytheearthquakeandmarkets resumedquickly.andvariousinitiatives.

Internationalmilitaryinvolvementindisaster reliefhasbeenmorecontentious. Inarmedconflict.Followingthe tsunamithathitBandaAceh.attherequestofgovernmentandwithclearcomparativeadvantage. 31 TECcoordinationstudy:www.Domesticmilitaryare oftenthefirstresponseofgovernment.Chinaprovidedmilitaryhelicoptersand medicalteamsafterthePakistanfloodsin2010. Itisthenationalgovernment’sresponsibilitytodecidewhethertocallinmilitary resourcesinsupportofahumanitarianresponse.Thisisan excellentinitiative. extentandeffectivenessofDFID’sengagementwiththeprivatesector.especiallyifpredictionsofincreasedneed materialise.CHASEandthePrivateSectorDepartmentcouldworktogetheron galvanisingprivatesectorexpertisearoundspecificopportunitiesthatneedunblocking.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview operatingoutoftheirtraditionalareasofexpertise.calling intheirownmilitarytorespondtoalarge-scaledomesticdisasteristhemostobvious thingtodo.Existingandnewprogrammescouldaddressmanyoftheissues raisedabove. Anationalgovernmentmayrequestassistancefromforeignmilitary.Theseexamplesdemonstratethe benefitofextramilitarysupportwhendisastersaresolargethatthecombined resourcesofdomesticmilitaryandthoseoftheinternationalhumanitariancommunity areinsufficienttomeettheneedsoftheaffectedpopulation.thePakistanarmywasthefirstresponder.Chile.theministryofhousingandlocalmunicipalityinSantiago. DFIDhassetupanewPrivateSectorDepartmentinJanuary2011tohelpraisethelevel.orsensitivepoliticalsituations.andapublic-privatepartnership (PRES)betweenArauco.DFIDshouldrecogniseacountry’srighttouse itsownmilitaryindisasterresponseandbesupportive.Itisvitaltouphold humanitarianprinciples.usingmilitaryassetsassociatedwith partiestotheconflictcancompromisetheperceivedneutrality–andthereforesafety –ofhumanitarianworkers.FacilitiessuchasthePrivateInfrastructureDevelopmentGrouporthe BusinessInnovationFacilitycouldhavehumanitarianwindows. Anexamplewouldbefastinfrastructurerehabilitationinurbanareas.Buthumanitarianworkersneedtobeabletoacknowledgeareasofmilitary comparativeadvantageandrecognisewheretheycanworktogether.org/initiatives/tec/thematic/coordination. savingthemostlivesbypullingpeopleoutoftherubbleandbyprovidingthefirstrelief items.Thismaybeadecisiontousethe country’sownmilitaryortoaccepttheuseofforeignmilitary.oftenacountry’smilitaryistheonlyactorwithadequate resourcestorespondatspeedandscale.Aftertheearthquakeof2005.alnap.Anothermightbe encouragingtheprivatesectortohelpstrengthenthehumancapacityoflocal governmentsandstructurestomanageemergencies.Asubsequentreviewfounditoneofthemosteffective partsoftheinitialinternationalresponse31.Knowledgegeneration anddisseminationactivitiescouldincluderelevanthumanitariancases.Inmanycountries.Itisequallyvitaltousethemosteffectiveresourcesatour disposaltomeettheneedsofthoseaffected.aspx 38 .Indonesiain2004militaryhelicoptersfrominternational forceswereneededtoreachcutoffpopulationsandmanynationsprovidedmilitary assetstowardthisoperation.Indisasterscaused bynaturalhazard.Thereareexamplesofmunicipal governmentsturningdirectlytotheprivatesector.Thereisanobviousneedtobeabletodistinguishbetween thesesituationsandmakesensiblepolicydecisionsbasedoncontext.Whenbigdisastershit. Working with the military Themilitaryhaslongbeeninvolvedindisasterreliefoperations.Andwhere appropriate. ThereviewtakestheviewthattheBritishmilitarydoeshavearoletoplay insupportoftheUKresponseledbyDFID.especiallywherethereareobviouspoliticalormilitary objectives.forinstancetheDujiangyan MunicipalGovernmentaftertheChineseearthquake.

Twoinstrumentscurrentlyexisttoguidetheappropriateuseofmilitaryresourcesin humanitariansituations.Thiswillopenthedoortotheuseofnichecapabilities. NichecapabilitiesoftheBritishmilitarymayincludestrategicplanningandsurge deployment.Thisisusefulasit makesgovernmentsandpolicymakersthinktwicebeforedeployingmilitaryforces.andinsuchsituations humanitarianorganisationsneedtoworkwiththem. Brazil and the Gulf States).‘onlyusingmilitaryassetswhen nothingelsewilldo’. WorkwithNGOstopromotetheconceptofaccreditationorcertification.Inconflict.without openingthe‘floodgates’tounwelcomedeploymentofmilitaryassetsforeverybig emergency. India.the‘Oslo’guidelinesfordisasters.TheOsloguidelinesestablishtheprincipleof‘lastresort’. In particular it should: • EngagemoreeffectivelywithECHOonapolicylevel. • WorkwithotherstosupporttheUNEmergencyReliefCoordinatorinthereformof OCHAandthesystemmorewidely.Thereisanassumption thatthiskitistooexpensive.DFIDshouldinterpret andwherepossibledefinetheprincipleoflastresortas.Itmayalsoincludeagreateruseofmilitaryassets. includingatthecountrylevel.Findings militaryplanningandassetscanbehugelybeneficial.This reviewhasconcludedthattheOsloguidelinesarestillrelevant.andexplorethepossibilityof co-financing.orprovidebettervalueformoneythancommercialalternatives.Therealissueiswhetherthereareessentialassetsfor savinglivesthatcannotbesecuredintimeanyotherway. 20 21 WorkwithpartnerstopromotedonorcoordinationandrevitalisetheGood HumanitarianDonor-shipgroup.coe-dmha.Whenmilitaryforcescontrolareasthereisa needforahumanitariandialoguetoensurepopulationsinneedcanbeaccessed.33 Recommendations DFID should: 18 19 Reach out to create new partnerships with new donor partners (including China.org/media/guidance/3mcdaguidelines.pdf 33 Seesection5.Butthereisawiderpointabouthowhumanitariansengagewithmilitary forces. EnsurethatthenewPrivateSectorDepartmentgivesfullconsiderationtothoseareas whereprivatesectorexpertisecanimprovehumanitarianresponseeffectiveness. InconflictsituationsdeploymentofmilitaryassetsshouldbeinlinewiththeUN guidelines.althoughUNmandatedforcescanhelpinsecuringhumanitarianaccess.Many UNforcesareroutinelygivenmandatestoprotectcivilians. 22 23 32 MilitaryandCivilDefenceAssets(MCDA): http://www.2forrecommendationonfunding.andthedifferencebetweenthem.thisisnotusuallythe case. UsemilitaryassetsinsituationswhereareconsistentwithOsloguidelinesandoffer capacityotherscannot.andtheUNguidelines32for conflict. Maintain its default position that humanitarian response is multilateral33. 39 .

especiallywhencoupled withwaysforcommunitiestotriggerthem.andhasmerit.makingitdifficulttoreachthosemostinneed.DFIDneedstodowhatitcantonurtureandexpandthisspace.particularlyinurbanareasciviliansneed protectionfromviolence.Wherethoseagenciesareseenasneutral.however.theUNHCRandOHCHRtoenablethemto carryouttheirprotectionwork(visitingprisoners.registeringrefugeesandpromoting rights).andthebreakdownofstateauthoritythat therewillbetimeswhenmilitaryforce.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 4. InthecasestudyforDRCongo.byobservingthe keyprinciplesofhumanity. TheUKcanplayameaningfulroleinsuchsituations.This shouldbereinforced.allowingthemtodeliveraid.itwasclearthatUNpeacekeepinghasmadeprogressin itsprotectionwork.Itishardforsoldiers. Protection of civilians Inconflictsituationsandaftersomedisasters.Insuchcasesthereisafragile ‘space’inwhichhumanitarianagenciesareacceptedandworktohelpthosemostin need.itisclearthat protectionofciviliansandhumanitarianaccessisparamount.toworkwithagenciesthatcanaccessandhelpthose indireneedandtocontinuetoresistthepoliticisationofhumanitarianaid. Humanitarianprincipleshaveevolvedovertimetohelpagenciesaccessandprotect populationsmostatrisk.Itcanuseitsinfluenceto remindothersoftheirobligationsunderinternationalhumanitarianlawandhuman rightslaw.evenwhereitisapartytothe conflict.andthatpeacekeepingforces areresourcedforthis.Thisistechnical work. thattherearethingsthatcanbeachieved.especiallywhenresourcesarescarce.Whilsttherecontinuetobehorrificattacksagainstcivilians(mass rapesbygovernmentaffiliatedforcestonameone).focusing onlyonnaturaldisastersandspikesinconflict. AnditcansupporttheworkoftheUnitedNationsinpeacekeeping.byensuringthat peacekeepingmandatesincludetheprotectionofcivilians. Thisreviewwasnotmandatedtoconsiderthefullrangeofconflictsituations.whengovernmentsarebelligerentor venalDFIDcannotworkdirectlythroughtheauthorities. ThisreviewconcludesthatDFIDhumanitarianpolicyshouldbetoprotectandwhere possibleenlargethisfragilespace.mandatedbytheUN.GazaandBurmademonstratethelimitedinfluencetheUK workingonitsownhasinsituationsofconflict.Itmustobserveinternationalhumanitarianlaw.Humanitarianwork cannotbethestickingplasterforalackofpoliticalaction.Thesamecasestudiesshow. DFIDcanworkwithagenciesliketheICRC.especiallyworkingwithothers. DFIDcanworkwiththeUN.thepeacekeepingforceunderstands ithasadutytotryandpreventtheseandworkswithhumanitarianstothisend.Thereview alsorecognisesthatincomplexconflicts.InBurma 40 .InparticularDFIDmustensurethatinconflicthumanitarianbudgetsfund neutralandimpartialagencies.Insituationsofconflict.trainedinthetacticsoffightingbattles.andsubstitutionofbasicserviceswhereappropriate.Oftentheneedforsecuritycomesbeforeanythingelse.to findwaysofpreventingattacksoncivilians.willbeneededtoprotect civiliansandhumanitarianworkers.7 Humanitarian space Whenthereisconflict.Thebiggerpictureisthatconflictispolitical.impartialand independenttheycanbuildtrustwithcombatants.includinginpeacekeepingassetoutabove.Itcanworkwithlegitimatehumanitarianagenciestoassistthemintheirrole. CasestudiesinDRCongo.wherestateshavefailed.impartialityandneutrality.andbyleadingwhereithas influencetoensureothersdo.Mobile operationalbasesofthetypetrialledinDRCongohavemerit. Whereaidislinkedtopoliticalormilitarygoalsthesecurityofstaffcanbe compromised.

InDRCongo.Partlythisisthe resultofamorecomplexandlesscertainworld.thismeanscontinuingtohaveacloserelationshipwithitssecurity department(UNDSS). Traditionallyhumanitarianagencieshaveworkedonthebasisofbeingacceptedbythe localpopulation. neutrality and impartiality in the new DFID humanitarian policy.andnotlefttofieldworkerstomanageontheirown.Statisticsquotedinthechallenges sectionofthisreviewoutlinehowmoreandmorehumanitarianworkersarebeingkilled andwoundedinthecourseoftheirwork. Ensurefundingismadeavailableforsecurityandriskmanagementforhumanitarian workers.patchybuild-upofinternational humanitarian.SriLankaandGaza)andislikelytocomeup moreofteninthefuture.andinallcasesofconflict. Deterrence.thepatient.praisedbyBanKi-Moon.onoccasion.Thislargelyremainsthecase.exemptionscanbemadebytheEuropeanCouncilon humanitariangrounds. Recommendations DFID should: 24 Re-assert the premise that humanitarian action should be based on need. andrelyingontheirgoodworkstospeakforthemselves.European legallybindinginstrumentsoncounter-terrorismandUKlegislationstipulatethat anybodydirectlyorindirectlyfundingterroristorganisationswillbeprosecutedunder criminallaw.DFIDsupportedtheUNincoordinatingaccessadvocacythrougha HumanitarianAssistanceFramework.andthatprotectingthemis necessaryiftheworkisgoingtogetdone.InGaza.Findings followingcycloneNargis. Aparticularissuerelatingtocounter-terrorismlegislationhasariseninseveralcomplex emergenciesrecently(Somalia. Theissuesaffectingthesafetyofhumanitarianworkersarebeyondthescopeofthis review.Allpartiesarerequiredto grantsuchaccessunderInternationalHumanitarianLaw.asemployedbypartisanmilitaryforcesandforeigngovernmentsin conflicts.anessentialpriority istonegotiatehumanitarianaccessonanunimpededbasis. 25 41 .thelegalproblemshouldbeovercomebyapplyingforexemptionson humanitariangrounds.workingwiththeASEANgroupofnationsitwaspossibleto gainaccessforhumanitarians.Whatisclearisthattheyareinmoredanger.Thehumanitarianimperativeshouldbeaprimaryconsideration. reaffirming the key principles of humanity. Thisreviewfindsthatinthesecircumstances.islargelycounter-productive.However.Inthe casesabove.hadtostopfundingthehumanitarianwork ofinternationalNGOsandotherimplementingpartnersbecausetheycouldnot100% ensurethataterroristorganisationwouldnotindirectlyordirectlybenefit. Security of humanitarian workers Humanitarianworkisbecomingmoredangerous.HavingUNinyourtitleandflyingaUNflag onyourvehiclenolongerprovidestheautomaticprotectionitusedto.Thisshouldbenegotiatedat thehighestnecessarylevel.fundingwhennecessary.WithNGOs.thismeansputtingsecurity intoanyauditingprocessconnectedtopre-qualification. DFIDneedstoensurethatthoseagencieswithwhichitworkstakesecurityseriously.militaryandlegalactiontriestocontainconflictandhelpthoseaffected byit.insomeplacesitisalsoaperception thathumanitarianworkerandeventheUNispartisan.DFID.Colombia.Thishasmeantmoreinvestmentinexplainingwhattheyaredoing. WiththeUN.andinvestingininter-agency securityinitiativeswhenthesehaveprovenworth.

Wherethescaleoftheneedexceeds regularresources.unableorunwillingtoact’.Notablyit ‘firmly’commitstothe‘fundamentalhumanitarianprinciplesofhumanity. 5.1 Changing the policy TheInternationalDevelopmentAct2002isthekeypieceofUKlegislationthatframes overseasassistance.Workonanticipationand resilienceshouldbepartofDFID’severydayworkincountrieswhereithasapermanent presence(seesections4.andlooksattheresourcing. • Beabetterdonor.accountability. IftheinternationaldevelopmentactandthekeypiecesofEuropeanandInternational lawdeterminetheoverallframeworkforDFIDhumanitarianaction. Thispolicyneedsupdating.innovation.1and4.Fundingshouldalsobeavailabledirectlyto governmentsforresilienceandresponsework.ratherthan somethingthatneedstoberespondedtowhenithappens.Thissectionsets outhowitshouldengageintheseroles.afunderanda‘doer’.Intheact.DFIDhasalsocommittedtotheseprinciplesinits2006 humanitarianpolicy.structureand accountabilitymechanismsitneedsinplace.neutrality.‘providea needs-basedemergencyresponseaimedatpreservinglife.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 5. Thepolicyshouldalsosetoutwhy. Thestepchangesoughtbythisreviewwillalsohaveconsequencesforthewaythat DFIDprovidesfundingbeforeandduringhumanitarianemergencies.wheretheyarecapable.where.Themostradicalchangewill involveseeinghumanitarianconcernsasacorepartofDFIDprogramming.preventingandalleviating humansufferingandmaintaininghumandignitywherevertheneedarisesif governmentsandlocalactorsareoverwhelmed.thenDFIDshouldstandreadytomakeadditionalfundsavailableinto themultilateralsystem. • Reduceriskandextremevulnerability.DFIDisashaper.theUKissignatorytoEUandinternational law.2).Thissuggeststheformulashouldbe: 42 . DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Todeliverthestepchangeinthewayhumanitarianassistanceisconceivedanddelivered outlinedabove.Theconsensus ofthisreviewisthatthedefaultpositionforthisresponseshouldbemultilateral.OccasionallyDFIDwillalsoresponddirectly.partnershipandhumanitarianspace. leadership.Suchworkshouldalsobeofcentralconcernto DFID’sdevelopmentpartners.whenandhowDFIDresponds. impartialityandindependence’.aswellassomecriticalareasfor investmentsuchasresearchandinnovation. Inadditiontoitsdomesticlegalobligations.notleastbecauseofthisreview. Asoutlinedintheintroduction.sothattheycan investintheskillsandstructurestheyneed.Fundingfor multilateralandNGOpartnersneedstobecomemorepredictable.inthat DFIDwillworkwithandthroughitspartners.humanitarianassistanceisdefinedas.suchastheWorldBankandtheUN.willingand transparent.Ithadthreepolicygoals: • Improvetheeffectivenessofhumanitarianresponses.DFIDwillhavetomakesignificantchanges.Anewpolicyshouldbe groupedaroundthemajorthemesidentifiedinthisreviewofanticipation.“assistanceforthe purposeofalleviatingtheeffectsofanaturalorman-madedisasterorotheremergency onthepopulationofoneormorecountriesoutsidetheUnitedKingdom”.TheEUconsensusonhumanitarianaidinparticularcommitstheUKto.thenthe2006 humanitarianpolicyisthekeyinternaldocument.basedon comparativeadvantageincludingpresence. Theconsensusalsosubscribestoanumberofotherprinciplesandcodes.resilience.

Sincethehumanitarianreformsof2005. Aninternationalsystemthatworksprovidesthebestvalueformoney.innovation.InmegadisastersUKto routinelyrespondwithadditionalfundinganddirectdelivery. • Where:onthebasisofneed.DFID beratestheUNfornotdoingmoretorecruithumanitarians.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID • Why:becauseofinternationaldevelopmentact.Humanitarianadvisorsneedtobesureof topmanagementandpoliticalsupportbeforeengaginginnegotiationswiththeUN systemonreform. Buttheimplicationsofthisreviewgofurther.politicalandsenior organisationalleaderswillnotexpendpoliticalcapitaltofixit.seennotasa‘humanitarian’activity.Thisneedstoplacethecreationofresilienceinatrisk countriesintheheartofdevelopmentprocesses.asoutlinedinprevioussections.Butthishaswaned.leadershipandcoordination. • How:throughregularfundstomultilateralandNGOpartners.withthemajorityofits humanitarianresourceschannelledthroughpartners.exerts withintheinternationalhumanitariansystem.throughDFID. AnewapproachisneededifDFIDwantstocontinuetoshapetheinternationalsystem. where.andhelpsthe mostpeople.Thereviewhasconcluded thatthisefforthasbeenbeneficialandshouldcontinue.DFIDto responddirectlyonlywherethereiscomparativeadvantageoroverwhelmingUKpublic interest. 43 .2 Delivering differently Shaping the International System TheUKisamajorcontributortotheinternationalsystem.andwhichthe IASChasrecentlyendorsed. when and how.partnershipandhumanitarianspace.IntheUN.andlesstimeactingalone. Recommendations DFID should: 26 27 Incorporate resilience into its development policy and programmes.andtooinconsistent.Internationalagencieshavecometorealisethatwhile humanitarianstaffmightbehighlycriticalofanoperation.accountability.DFIDhasbecome tooshrill.DFIDhasbeenoneoftheleadingvoicesin pressingforreformsinfinancing. ThismeansthatDFIDhasadirectinterestinmakingtheinternationalsystemwork. Thepolicyshouldbuildonthereviewthemesofanticipation. DFIDwillhavetolearntobemorestrategic. • When:throughmultilateralpartnersinthefirstinstance.ThereneedstobeapolicychangeinDFID onthedevelopmentsidetoo.Thesameistrueacross government.Atthesametime.onbudgetarygroundstheUKhasdriventermsofservice changesthathavemadeithardertorecruithumanitarians.Whereneedexceeds thislevelofresources.resilience. leadership.additionalfundingtobeconsidered(basedonadvice). butasadevelopmentnecessity. 5. Develop a new humanitarian policy setting out why the UK responds.EUconsensusandBritishpublic support. ThisreviewhighlightsinseveralsectionstheinfluencetheUK.DFID’sinfluenceinbringing aboutmuchneededchangeandreformswillbeincreasedifitspendsmoretimebuilding alliances.givingspecialemphasistothe changesinleadershipstructuresandcapacitythereviewrecommends.

ThroughtheMAR. theyarefarmorepowerful.Butthesystemisnotservingtheneedsof affectedpeopleaswellasitmight.andwhenusedwellcan deliverimpact.withinthevariousUNcommittees.focuson resultsandvalueformoney.Thisneedstochange.andsharperadvocacybyleaders withinDFIDisneeded.ButUKMISinGenevacanneverthelessalsobeusedmore effectivelytohelpbuilddiplomaticalliancesinthepursuitofDFID’sreformagenda.Maintainingapositionasatop donorwillbeessentialifthisinfluenceistoberetained.34 34 Carefulconsiderationwillneedtobegivennottobreachtheruleonfundinginadvanceofneed.TheHERRwelcomesthis andrecommendsthatDFIDtakesafurthersteptowardsmulti-yearcorefundinglinked toperformancesothatthemajoragenciesandtheRedCrossMovementget predictabilityforfinancialplanningandcapacitybuilding.ForDFIDtoachievebetterresults andgreatervalueformoney.hasapowerful effectonthesystem–aslaidoutabove.Fundingisnotproportionatetoneeds.itdoesnotfocusenoughonprevention anditdoesnotdemanddemonstrableperformanceoffundedagencies.Butbetteruseofpositionson UNagencyboards.WherepolicymessagesarecommonbetweentheUK. DFIDcurrentlyfundsthemultilateralhumanitariansystemthroughacombinationof corefundingandadditionalnon-corefundingatthecountrylevelforemergencies.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview TheUKmissionsinNewYorkandGenevaarevaluableassets.notsquanderedinfrustration.Indevelopmentaid. 44 .Thisposition shouldbemaintained.Genevadoesnot haveaDFIDpresence.TheBilateralandMultilateral AidReviewsarechangingthissplit.Someofthisis intended. DFIDalsoneedstoworkbetterwithitsdonorpartners.Betterallianceswithestablisheddonorpartnersandthenew emergingeconomieswillbeessential.ManyintheUNseeDFID asthesinglemostinfluentialdonor. AboveallDFIDneedtobemorestrategicinitslobbyingwork.itisnotcoordinatedorharmonised.ButDFIDdoesnotuseeithermissionsystematicallyforitshumanitarian lobbyingandalliancebuilding.The splitoverthelastfewyearshasbeenstronglyinfavourofadditionalnon-corefundingin responsetoUNFlashAppealsforsuddenonsetdisasters.DFIDhaslongbeenseenasafastandflexiblehumanitariandonor.TheGHDgrouphasbeenanengineforchange–theUK needstoworkwiththisgrouptoseethishappenagain.Theabilitytoleverageitspositionasthethird largestdonortoachieverealchangegivestheUKuniqueopportunities.DFID.ButDFIDalsoneedstouseitsfundstopromotechange–to ensurethatagenciesareequippedtorespondfastanddeliverwhatpeoplereallyneed.accountability.asoneofthemostinfluentialdonors.DFIDhasbeenastrongadvocateofgreateraid effectiveness. Changing the funding model ThemajorityofwhattheUKgovernmentdoesinhumanitarianassistanceisfunding others.thesameprinciplesofaideffectivenessneedtoapplyto thefundingofhumanitarianpartners.asoutlinedinprevioussections ofthisreport.aswillnewrelationshipswithregionalbodies.Theseneedto becarefullymanaged. Donorsshapetheinternationalresponsesystembythewaytheyfund.transparency.itisnot equitable. DFIDcanchangetheincentivesinthewayitfunds.ECHOandtheUS.Astepchangeisneededongreaterpredictability (includingmulti-yearcommitments).TheNewYorkmissionhasa sizeableDFIDpresence.thebestperformingagencies shouldreceivesignificantlymorecorefundinglinkedtoresults.bettershapingtheinternational system.whichshouldbebetterusedtoplanadvocacy.throughseveralinternationalinitiatives.butmostisnot.coherence.ThemainpriorityshouldbetoequipDFID’spartnersto buildtheircapacityandmanagehumanitarianresponse.

 AsDFID’scontributiontoECHOisfixed.DFIDshouldlookforwaysofco-financing ECHOresponseswherethiswouldaddvalue.theHERRalsorecommendsa highercontributiontotheCERFlinkedtoresults.as theCERF.Having todecidequicklywhattofundandwhatnotanddealingwithmanydifferentfunding streamscarrieshightransactioncostsforDFID.Programmeauditsarerarelycarriedout.Inmanyemergenciesin facttheseboxesusuallyrotinwarehouses. Keepingwiththesameprinciplesappliedabovetothemultilaterals.thebestperforming NGOsshouldgetmorepredictablelong-termfundinglinkedtoperformancethrough strengthenedProgrammePartnershipArrangements.theCBHAandotherregional.Inreturnforanagreedenvelopeoffundingforanemergency.This reviewrecommendsDFIDlinksdemonstratingresultsandimpactcloselytofuture country/emergencyfunding.thislocksagenciesintoacourseof actionthatmayonreflection(i.Often.nationalandlocalconsortia. Oncefundingisapproved.promotingbothpositiveandnegativebehaviours. 45 .ItisoneofDFID’smostimportantand valuablecontributionstoemergencyresponses.inlinewiththeMARfindingongood performance. transport. Nevertheless.wheninfactthisisonlytrueifeachfamilyreceivesa handful–somethingimpracticalinmostdistributionmodels.Itdoescomeatacosthowever.Oneoftheperverse incentivesitcreatesisforimplementingagenciestoproposethehighestbeneficiary numberspossiblefromtheirprogrammes. implementingpartnershavetobeabletodemonstrateresultsandreportaccordingly.Onceapprovedhowever.agenciesdoneedsubstantialfundingtomobilise–tohirepeople.Henceaboxofwaterpurificationtablets ‘servesthousandsoffamilies’.e.Andforgreaterequityin allocationsandcoherence.DFID’sabilityand willingnesstoprovidefastfundingtogetthewheelsrollingandenablingthewider systemtostartprovidingreliefiswidelypraised.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Forgreaterglobalequityinallocationsandcoherence. Whatisrequiredisastepchangeinlinkingcountrylevelfundingtoperformance.howitwillbeaccountabletobeneficiaries orhowspecificissuessuchasgenderareaddressed.However.notbethemostjudiciousone.Butmoreimportantlythecurrent approachdoesnotprovidetherightincentivesforagenciestodeliverhighqualitywork forthebestvalue.DFIDneedsto retainitscommitmenttofundinghumanitarianneedsatthecountrylevel.shouldgetincreasedfundingonamulti-yearbasis.purchasegoods.Importantareasofperformancejust getbox-ticking.thisis whereDFID’sseatatthetableprovidesgreatvaluebyimprovingoverallaideffectiveness. Fast mobilisation funding and pre-crisis arrangements Aparticularchallengeinfundingsuddenonsetdisastersisthefirstweekafterdisaster strikes.Thesemobilisationfundsare connectedtothe‘programmes’andsohighlyspeculative‘proposals’aremadesimplyto allowagenciestomobilise. asdemonstratedforexamplebyitsinvolvementintheDRCongopooledfund.whentheyactuallyhavetimetomakeaproper assessment).partnershavefewpressurestoprovideinformationonhow theirprojectwillachievethedesiredimpact.theFlashAppealsandConsolidated Appealsshouldbecomeproportionatelysmallerovertimeapartfrominexceptional circumstances. Generally.thewayhumanitarianfundingisallocatedactsasa‘complexincentive system’.DFID’scontributiontothemwillalsogodown. Asaresultofmorecorefundingformajoragencies.TheCERFshouldbeenabledtofundpreparedness.inwhatwerefertointhisreportasthe‘criticalperiod’.useequipmentandsoon.

Bythen.The‘criticalperiod’iswheninternational actorsandmoneypourintocountriesintheaftermathofanemergencytryingtosave lives.Thisreviewhasfoundthatwhataffectedpopulationswant andneedmostisanimmediatestarttolivelihoodsrecovery.findingshelterandfood–toidentifyingways togenerateincomeveryquickly.Andthen. Funding recovery from day one Internationalfundingforemergenciesisusuallysplitintothreelevels.the reconstructionphasestartssometimeduringrecoverywithdifferentfundingcomingon streamfromtheWorldBankandIMFoftentorepairpre-existinginfrastructure.forexampleintocashbasedsocial protectionschemesthatcanreducevulnerabilityandbuildresilienceforthenextcrisis.therebycreatingacompetitivedynamicwhichcanerode collectiveactionandcompromisestheoutcomesfortheaffectedpopulated.Theun-clearedrubbleinHaiti highlightsthis.drivethemovefrom immediateconcerns–reunitingfamilies.DFIDcandeliveraidrapidlythroughitsstandingemergency team. Thenumberofprojectgrantsinemergencieshasalsobecomeoverwhelming.Onoccasion.Thevalue formoneyofthereliefitemsdeliveredhasbecomequestionable.Theresultinghighercostsofrecoveringlostlivelihoodswillhavetobe pickedupbydevelopmentprogrammes.Afterthefirstmonth.OrtheexamplefromCycloneNargisinBurmaofthe privatesectorsellingthepotsandpansthatenabledthepreparationofcookedfood andareturntonormallongbeforetheinternationalpotsandpansarrived.DFIDdoesneedvaried fundingmechanismsandaflexibleapproach.DFIDhasacalldownarrangementwiththeUKfire serviceforSearchandRescue.Itisimportantthattheir impactisassessedinrelationtothesegoals.52inthe aftermathofCycloneNargisor27afterOperationCastLeadinGaza.ThisprovidesforoneUNclassified‘heavy’team(64 people. Evidenceisbuildingupontheeffectivenessofcashresponses.dogsandequipment)tobedeployedwithinhoursofbeingcalled. Infrastructurerehabilitationisanotherexamplethereviewfounddoesnotgetenough attentionintheimmediateaftermathofanemergency. beneficiarieshadincurreddebtunderminingtherecoveryoftheirlivelihoods.Adonorpledging conferenceisheld.forexample.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Similarly.Evaluationsshowthatwomen.Theimmediate reliefphase.Theneatdonorsplitdoes notworkforthem.Itcanalsodeliverhighqualitypeopleintotheinternationalsystem.whileDFIDasksforgreatercoordination.Butthesenumbersoffundingstreams resultinhightransactioncostsofstafftimeandprovideastrainonhumanresourcesto adequatelymonitorandfollowupprojectsfunded. Whatthissplitfundingmodelhascausedisafalsedichotomyinseparatingrelieffrom recoveryandreconstruction.recoveryneedsassessmentsarecarriedoutandlonger-term humanitarianprogrammingbegins.itoftenfundsimplementing organisationsindividually.Becauseinsuch complexemergenciesobjectivesandcontextschangefrequently.whilstsolvingsomeoftheissuesoutlinedabove.typicallywithlessmoneypledgedthanrequired.DFIDneedstorecogniselivelihoodsfundingis legitimatefromdayone. Cash-basedapproachestoacceleraterecoveryareonewayoutofthisfalsedichotomy andeasethewayintodevelopmentprogramming. Toincreaseitsflexibility. Inadditiontotheinternalcapacity.recoveryandreconstruction.Bothofthese capacitiesarehighlyappreciatedandhavebeenproventomakearealdifference.DFIDneedsa fundingmodalitythatcanprovidefastmobilisationfundinginthefirstweek. 46 .This shouldbebasedonpre-qualificationratherthanspeculativeproposals. Delivering smarter direct aid Inthebiggestemergencies.targetedatsavinglivelihoods.

Andastherearenomajorearthquakefaultlinesclose totheUK. 47 .ForexampletheFCOandCabinetOfficethroughtheir informationnetworkscanproviderapidsituationupdatestocomplementthoseof DFID’sownstaffandagencycontacts.500)perlifesavedinHaiti.TheSearchandRescueteamsarehighly visibleanddemonstratemuchvaluedsolidarity.TheresponseisusuallyledbyDFID. Alloftheinterventionscitedabovehavevalue.InNigeragencies spentlittleover£100perchildsavedinfeedingprogrammes.ArrangementsbyDFIDaread hocand departmentsarecalledinasandwhenDFIDconsidersthereisaneedforwidersupport.Thiscouldeasilybeextended –onoccasionswheretheUKhasdeployedclusterleadsquicklythistoohasmadea hugedifference.Othergovernmentdepartmentsprovidesupportinwayswhere theyhavedistinctadvantage.Italsoneedstothinkaboutthefuture. DFIDdeploymentsaretypically‘enablers’–aircrafthandlerstomakesureaidflows swiftly.ascouldothersciencebasedassets.ButSearchandRescueunderthismodeliscostlywithover £250. WhatthismeansisthattheUKneedstobesmartaboutwhereandwhenitdeploys theseassets.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID theUKalsoprovidesmilitaryassetssuchasships.andDFIDusuallyprovidesthe majorityofresources.ForexampletheMODchainofcommandrequiressomeoneoftheright ranktoapprovetheuseofanaircraftforreliefsupplies. Thereisforexample. Theinformalityofthisarrangementmeansthattherightpeoplearenotalways availableatshortnoticetoattendmeetings.noformalmechanismforconveningallgovernmentdepartments inresponsetoaninternationalemergency.Thismightbemachines forunloadingaircraft.InHaiti.TheUK hasotherassetsthatcouldbeharnessedfordisasterresponseas‘nichecapabilities’. WhereUKdirectassistanceconsistentlymakesadifferenceiswiththedeploymentof personnel. DFIDhasalsobuiltanicheexpertisein‘enablingequipment’.DFIDshouldworkwiththeUNtoensureithasthemostneeded enablingstaffonstandby(andnotsimplytakerequestsforcheappeoplethrough traditionalagencystandbyschemes).asthisreviewmakesclear.The same‘resilience’teamsintheUKfireservicehavenuclear.However.ThisisoneofthemostcosteffectiveandinfluentialactionsDFIDundertakes.DFIDmay lookelsewherefortransport.lesssoafterwards.DFID helpeddeployateamofhighlyqualifiedsurgeonstoworkoncomplicatedtraumawounds.andcontinuityofstaffwhoattendmeetingsisnotmaintained. Working strategically across the UK government TheUK’sresponsetointernationaldisastersneedstobecoordinatedacrossgovernment departments.chemicalandbiological capabilities–thesecouldberapidlydeployedincircumstanceswheretheycouldmakea realdifference.000perlifesavedinHaiti.FromaUKperspectivesuchdeploymentsoffer uniqueopportunitiesforteamstoexperiencearealdisaster–invaluableshouldtherebe somethingsimilarintheUK.Thesepeoplemaynotbeofsufficientsenioritytotake decisions.Thiscanlead toalackofeffectivecommunicationbetweendifferentdepartmentsandafailureto achieveresults.Morejuniorstaffmayrepresenttheir departmentthanisideal.informationmanagerstosetupsystemsquickly.orhighqualitysheltermaterials.thedirectdeliveryofDFID shouldberetained.Theseareespeciallyusefulinthe ‘criticalperiod’.thedecisioncannotbetakenandtimeislost.TheNHSprovidessurgeonsforresponseinthe ‘criticalperiod’.evidencefromthereviewsuggestswecandobetterat integratingtheseseparateinputs.Thistooisvaluable.Thesurgicalteamscostaboutonehundredthofthe searchandrescueteams(littleover£2.Itshouldworkwithotherstobetteralignthis surgecapacity(forinstanceNRCandtheBritishRedCross).Iftherightpersonisnotatthe meetingwhenitisrequested.andinthe workrecommendedaroundsupplychainbythisreport.aircraftandhelicopters.theycanarrivetoolate.

2008includedthecreationofacross-Whitehallteamfor planningjointresponseoptions. TheNationalSecurityCouncilisthenewmechanismunderwhichcross-government departmentsareconvenedundertheauthorityofthePrimeMinister.chairedbyDFIDandconstitutedunderstricthumanitarianprincipleswould providethenecessarycoordination. 31 48 .suchastheCBHA andWAHRF.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Thereviewunderstandsthatothergovernmentdepartmentsarekeentoprovide supportinemergenciesandconsidertheyhavemoretocontributethanDFIDisaware of. performance and coherence by: • Increasingpredictablemulti-yearfundinglinkedtoperformancetomajorUNagencies.Usetheprocesstoreducebureaucracyinthis CriticalPeriod.crossgovernmentactionhasbeenmoreeffective.perhapsby providingitinstages. Develop and deploy niche capabilities in a more focused way where they add value: • OnlyusesearchandrescueinsituationswheretheUKcangenuinelyaddvalue.Asimilarbody thatcoulddrawtogethergovernmentdepartmentsundertheauthorityofthePrime Minister.Carryoutindependentperiodic programmeauditsandafteractionreviewstoinformfuturefundingdecisions. • Increasinglong-termsupporttointernational(theCERF)andcountrylevelpooled fundsandtoglobal.regionalandcountrylevelNGOconsortia. Recommendations DFID should: 28 Change the funding model to achieve greater preparedness. • Investigatenewformsofnichecapabilitiesthatcanrespondtonewtypesofthreats suchasnuclear. • Incorporatesurgicalteamsintofirstphasedeploymentsespeciallyafterearthquakes.Thisisparticularlythecaseifotherdepartmentsaregivenenoughtimetoplanand preparetheirresponse.Forexampletheresponse toCycloneNargisinBurma. pre-crisis arrangements.Awayshouldbefoundthroughtheexisting NationalSecurityCouncilmechanismtoconveneastandingcommitteeon humanitarianemergencyresponsetodothis.biologicalandchemical. 30 Useallnewfundingmodelstoenforcestandardsandlinkfundingtoperformance throughclearimpactassessmentsandreporting. 29 Design fast and flexible funding models for emergency responses: • ProvidefastmobilisationfundingintheCriticalPeriodbasedonpre-qualification ratherthanspeculativeproposals. Conveneandleadastandingcross-governmentemergencymechanismformega emergencies. • Ensurerecoveryandlivelihoodsfundingisconsideredduringandimmediatelyafter theCriticalPeriod.Theresultwasaneffectivebodymadeupofpeopleof therightsenioritywhowereabletomakedecisionsandactrapidly. • Ensurethereisflexibilityoffundingasfastmovingsituationschange.Incaseswheremoreformalcoordinationarrangementshave beenmade.usingtheauthorityoftheNationalSecurityCouncil. capacity.ratherthanlaterashastraditionallybeenthecase. theRedCrossMovementandNGOs. 32 33 ContinueandexpandthesurgeofUKcontractedpersonnelintotheinternationalsystem.

responseshouldbeledfrom 49 . shifting resources HumanitarianemergencyresponsehashistoricallybeenundersupportedwithinDFID. Inparalleltothisreview.specialist deploymentequipmentandsoon. Tosomeextentthisassumptioniscorrect.Inthisexercise humanitarianspendwasforecasttofall.despitehumanitarian spendingconstituting8%ofoverseasdevelopmentaid(ODA)annually. Thedisparateandneglectedstructuredoesnotonlyhaveaneffectonoverallstrategy.Thislackof strategyisnotconfinedtoCHASE.anideathatDFID’scorebusinessisdevelopmentand thathumanitarianemergenciesareanunwelcomedistraction.communications.Thishasledtomixedmessages andlostopportunities. PartnersremainhighlypositiveaboutDFIDandvalueboththequalityofthepersonnel anditsabilitytoreactquicklyandflexibly.Thisreviewconcludesthatfor overwhelminglylargeemergencies.‘megaemergencies’.ACHUoversawanAfricaemergencyreservefundandhadnoformal connectionwithCHASE.DFIDalsoundertookabilateralaidreview(BAR)thatasked countryofficestopredicttheirexpenditureforthenextfewyears.astheworkhasbeenalmostconstant‘fire-fighting’.Astheconflictportfolioofworkincreases. HumanitarianandSecurityTeam(CHASE)managesallhumanitarianissues.Thecontractcurrentlyprovidesfor27staffsharedwiththe StabilisationUnit.Itcurrentlystandsat12peopleglobally.The smallteamofhumanitarianpolicyadvisorscentrallyholdlongtermfunding relationshipswithbigagencieslikeUNICEFandUNHCR.Itmayalsoreflectan assumptionbycountryofficesthatCHASEwillrespondifthereisanemergencyandthe resourceswillbemadeavailablecentrally.Despitealargeresearchbudget.strategicdirectionhas beenmissing.3 Changing the structure.Italso paysforasignificantlogisticalstandingcapacity–cars.Whilst theinternationalreputationoftheOTisextremelyhigh(andmuchenvied).Therearesixdedicatedhumanitarianstaffonthecontract.However.orrathercountryofficesdidnotmakeabidfor humanitarianresourcestorise.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID 5.ThereisdemandforDFIDtobepresentin large-scaleemergenciesasitsabilitytoinfluencetheoverallstrategyismuchvalued. Thereisalsodemandforacontinuedcapacitytodeploybothpeopleandgoodsintothe internationalsystematshortnotice.inrecent yearscorporateworkhasbeenincreasinglyundertakenbytheteamasaresultoflackof capacitywithinDFID.including response. Theemergency(rapid)responsecapabilityhasbeenoutsourcedonathreeyearrolling contractualbasis.DFIDdoesnotsupport significanthumanitarianresearch.Untilrecently therewasaseparateAfricaConflictandHumanitarianUnit(ACHU)withinAfrica division.butitistheOTstaffthatsee howtheseagenciesperforminsuccessiveemergencies.withOTstaffintegratedintotheDFIDmainoffice.TheConflict. ThehumanitariancadrewasonlyrecentlyformedandisthesmallestofDFID’stechnical networksbyamargin.ThiscapabilityiscalledtheOperationsTeam(OT) andisco-locatedwithCHASE.itisoutofstepwithmostforecastsofneedandmayalso reflectadesire‘nottobeinvolved’. ThelackofcapacitywithinbothCHASEandOThasmeantclear.Countryofficescanchoosewhethertohavehumanitarian advisors.HumanitarianactionisspreadacrossDFIDina largelyunconnectedandad hocfashion. ithasledtoaschismbetweenthepolicyfunctionandtheresponsemechanisms.andthereisnoseniorchampion.eveninhigh-risksituations(Pakistanhadaconflictadvisorwithresponsibility forhumanitarianbutnoexperienceinthisarea).Theimpactof successivelarge-scaleemergencieshasbeentostretchresourcesstillfurther.themanagerialloadhasbecome increasinglyuntenable.Thismightreflectanaturaloptimism–thatthingswill getbetterorthatdevelopmentgainswillmeantheimpactofhumanitarianemergencies willbediminished.

andaclear strategy. Partlyalsoitisbecausethisskillhasnotbeenprioritised.andwillneedtoexpandthiscapability.itscountryofficestoworkwith governmentsandUKmissionstoworkwithothernations.Theyarechaoticanduncertain anddecision-makinghastoberapid.anddecision-makingneedstobedelegated.Formediumandsmall-scaledisastersthecountryofficesarewell placedtolead.andtoimplementitfastisessential.IfbuildingresilienceistobecomeacorepartofDFID’sworkasthis reviewsuggests.capacityandresources aswellasinrhetoric. AcomparativeadvantagethatDFIDhaslongenjoyedisthequalityofitsadvisorycadre.oranaccusationofwaste. Slowdecision-making. Butthereareoftengreaterriskswithdoingnothing. Humanitarianemergenciesarehighriskbecausetheyinvolvelifeordeathsituations.crossWhitehallworkandanydirectassistance.thanbeing accusedoflettingpeopledie. ItalsomeansthatDFIDneedstomakebettersenseofitsinternalstructureandstrategy –reflectingtheimportanceofitshumanitarianworkinstructure.Thenewsystemmusthave experiencedresponsemanagerswithdelegatedauthority. Politicallythereislessriskinamessyresponse.Theycan helpshapetheresponse.Thisisnottruejustinmega-emergenciesbut alsoinemergingcrisesandconflict. 50 .ornotreacting.Wherethereisacountryofficetheyshould leadondelivery.Theintenseinterestfromacrossgovernmentandfromthepublicmeansthatit isnecessaryforLondontoleadonstrategy. Aneffectiveresponserequiresclearlinesofauthorityandresponsibility.Theproductionofawiderangingstrategyincludingfunding.shouldbeapriorityfortheresponse management.Thistradition needstocontinue.thenitwillneedtobebetterintegrateditself.Theyneedexperienced managerswithclearauthoritytobeincharge.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview London. Managing the response Humanitarianemergenciesarechaoticandfastmoving.Iftheperformanceoftheinternational systemistrulytobeimprovedthenDFIDwillneedtomakebetteruseof(andincrease) itshumanitarianstaffanditsoperationsteam.althoughDFIDshouldalsooperatea‘stepaside’policysimilartothat beingadvocatedwiththeUN. ThereisaneedforDFIDhumanitarianadvisorstobedeployedtoemergencies.Thereismorechanceofgettingthingswrong. DFIDhasasystemof‘responsemanagement’butitisdiluted.Historicallythishas beenacknowledgedwithinDFIDandprocedureshavebeenmodified.buildnewpartnershipsandenablenewnetworks ofhumanitarianpolicyandpractice.Empoweringthosewiththe informationtomakeadecision. Theconsequencesofthisarethatproceduresneedtobestreamlinedforhumanitarian emergencies.canleadtolossofbothlivesandopportunities.lobbying.perhapswithsometechnicalorlogisticalsupportfromCHASE.Theycanalsoprovide valuableanalysisandinsighttoLondon.InamegaemergencythiswouldbeatDirectororDirectorGenerallevel.thenbothseniormanagementandthecountryofficeswillneedto reflectthisinthewaytheyworkandplan.Theownershipoftheresponsestrategyshouldbeatasufficientlysenior level. Managing risk Humanitarianemergenciesarehigh-riskenvironments.orrespondingtooslowly. Theremustbeagreatertoleranceforriskinsuchsituation.wherebyitensuresthatdeliveryisledwiththerequisite levelofexperience.using itspolicydivisiontopromoteresearchandevidence.andsafeguardUKtaxpayerinvestments.Thisisduetothe separationofthecontractedoutOperationsTeamfromthemanagementofCHASE.If DFIDisgoingtopromoteinnovation.

whatdoesnotandwhy. Recommendations DFID should: 34 Ensure that the structure.managedbyCHASE. 51 .4 Driving results and value for money Thehumanitariansectorhastraditionallybeenreluctanttocollect.Itisabouttheoptimumcombinationofcostsandqualityofthegoodsand servicestomeettheneedsofbeneficiaries. Inahumanitarianresponse.Therisksoflateornoninterventionneedtobeconsidered.Connectedtothisistherequirementforagenciestodemonstrate results.Thereasonsare laidoutintheImpactsectionabove.itis notjustaboutthelowestcost. Amongst others. • Leadlarge-scaleresponsesfromLondon.andsometimesaninabilitytofindanswers. funding and human resources for humanitarian work reflects its move to being a central part of DFID work.Andithasrarelybeentried.Value formoneyanalysishastoincludethiswholechain.togetvalueformoney. • Ensuringeveryresponsetorapidonsethumanitarianneedisledbyanexperienced responsemanager.itisoutputsratherthanimpactthatarebeingconsidered.AsinallotherareasofHMGspending.andprovetheyaregoodvalueformoney. this will require: • RebalanceresourceswithinDFIDtomeetthechallengesofrisinghumanitarianneed. not least by having a Director General champion this work.Liveswillbelost.bothinLondonandinthefield. Valueformoneyisabouttheoptimaluseofresourcestoachievetheintended outcomes.Butthiscannotcomeattheexpense ofrapidresponseorifDFIDhumanitarianstafffeelafraidtomakedecisions.Andthecostsattachedtotheresultsthroughitslightbluesquares.itisnoteasytodeterminethevalueformoneyofhumanitarian actions.speedisoftheessence.Therehasbeenalackofdemand forthiskindofinformation.timelinessorspeedneedstobeadded intotheequationonvalueformoney.Thereisno valueinaresponsethatcomestoolate.Therefore. • Expandthehumanitariancadre.Andwhenfundingdecisionsare basedonevidenceofresults. Fundingdecisionsarenotroutinelybasedonevidence. Withoutgreaterclarityonresults(bothonwhatistheevidenceandwhatisthe humanitarianobjective). ThefigurebelowfromtheNationalAuditOfficeshowstheresultschainthroughitsdark bluearrows. 35 Redefinetheobjectivesforthecontractedresponseteamsothatitissolelydedicatedto supportingrapidresponseandpre-crisisarrangements.withsufficientdelegatedauthoritytoensureswiftaction. 5.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Thisreviewsetsoutseveralmeasuresforimprovingaccountabilityintheinternational humanitariansystem.systematiseand shareevidenceonwhatworks.

post-actionreviewsandevaluationscanhelpgreatlytoinformfuture decisionmakingaboutdeliverypartnersandmechanismseveninthecriticalperiod.Yearsofinvestmentcandisappearinminutesif 35 ThisBusinessCasemodelisbasedonHMTreasuryguidanceandensuresconsistencyacrossUK governmentdepartments.Itisestimatedthat£1inpreventionsaves£4inresponse(seesection 4.allproposalsforDFIDfundingmustbeaccompaniedbyaBusiness Case.Witharelativelyhighfixed initialcost.Costandqualitythenincreaseinimportancewithtime.inthisphasespeed saveslives.because. Valueformoneyinaresponsecanbestbeachievedthroughafocusonachievingresults withallresources.CTCcantreatseveralthousandmalnourishedpeoplewithlittlemorethan theextracostsoffoodandmedicine.DFID’sinvestmentinCommunity-BasedTherapeuticcare(CTC) isagoodexamplewhichhasmadethetreatmentofmalnourishedpeopleinmajor emergenciesmorecost-effectivethantraditionaltherapies.cost. 52 .2).justificationandaffordabilityofanintervention. Whilethereviewrecommendsmoreworkonevidenceofwhatworksandwhatdoesnot andcost-effectivenessinhumanitarianaction.2). Duringaresponse. InnovationisanotherareawhereDFIDinvestmentcouldreapsubstantialgainsinvalue formoneyinthefuture. National Audit Office.domesticresourcesortheprivatesector. IntheCriticalPeriod.hastochangeifthehumanitarianimperativeofsavinglivesistheprinciple. Itshouldnotbeforgottenthatbuildingresilienceisoftenthebestmeansofproviding valueformoney. SinceJanuary2011.35Ithas notbeendevisedthoughforcompletingwithinhoursofadisasterhittingwhen informationisscarceandpeoplearedying. DFID’sresourcesinaneffectivesystemcanachievemuchgreatervalueformoneythan inanineffectivesystem.thisworkislessrelevantintheCritical Period.therelativeimportanceofthethreekeycomponents.Othersubstantialcoststothecommunity(suchas travelcostsandopportunitycostsofbeinginfull-timecare)havealsoreducedsignificantly.itisspeedthatshouldcountthemost.DFID’simportantroleinmakingthesystemmoreeffective.partnerslooktoDFIDimmediatelyforfunding.Beitfromotherdonors.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Value for money Economy Efficiency Value for money Qualitative Costs (£) Inputs Outputs Qualitative Outcomes Figure6: Value for Money: Costs and results.quality andspeed.isthereforelikelytohavethegreatestimpactonvalue formoney.AsDFID’scomparativeadvantageisfast response. throughprequalificationofpartners(seeChangingthefundingmodelinsection5.AstheIFRCAnnualreport2008says:‘thereisnoeconomicsenseinspending moneyonemergencyresponsealone.as laidoutthroughoutthisreport.However.whichsetsouttheneed.

theimpactwouldnothavebeen thedesiredoneofrecovery.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID riskreductionandpreventionareignored.ButassessingtheoutcomesofDFID’sfundingand influencingisfarmorecomplexthanmeasuringoutputs. 36 IFRCannualreport2008.cash-for-work versuspsychosocialsupport.Internally.HowardKunreuther.fertiliser.cannoteasilybecomparedoraggregated. • Toiletsandsanitationforalmost500.Second.arecurrentlyclosetoimpossible.Fundingisfast. • Outputsarenotstandardised(evenwithinsectors)withtheresultthatcomparingis oftenlikeappleswithpears.goestothesectorswheretheneedis greatestandenablesotherpartsofthesystemtobecomemoreeffective.Henceitisdifficulttojudgethe efficiencyofimplementingpartnersandDFID’sfunding.withafocusin impact.outputscanonlybeproxies forimpactandcangetitwrong.animalstockfeed.outputs. • Somebenefitsaredifficulttomeasure.000people.Qualityandspeed–twokeyparametersof humanitarianeffectiveness–cannotbeassessedbyoutputmeasurement.Howexactlyitdoesthat.Theyalsodonotshowifthetoiletswereplacedandlitin suchawayastobegendersensitive.’36ThisiswhyDFID’sapproachtohumanitarian workneedstohavepreventionatitscore.andveterinaryservicestomore than115.p14. 53 .e.Thereare however. DFIDismakingeffortsonvariousfrontstorectifythis.includingindisasterresponse. ThefollowingareexamplesofoutputsfromthePakistanfloodsresponse: • Wheatandvegetableseeds.atwhat costandwhatwouldhappenwithoutDFID’ssupporthoweverisoftennotclear.First.Andquantitativeassessments areastepmoredifficultthanqualitativeones. JudgingfromthequalitativeassessmentsmadeinevaluationsofDFID’sresponseefforts.Thereisa dangerbyfocusingononeareaoftheresultschainofhittingthetargetbutmissing thepoint.Ifthetimingwaswrong.a bodythatwillevaluateDFID’swork.buttheydonotsayiftheseedsandfertiliserscamein timefortheplantingseason.g.Thisshould leadtobetteroutcomesfortheaffectedpopulation.Anyprojectorprogrammehastobeableto showwhattheintendedoutputsareandlaterwhattherealoutputswere.otherstudiesestimate evenhighercostbenefitratios.for example.ascurrentlyreportedinproject documents.hasstartedpilotinganapproachtobetteroutcomeassessmentandunitcost analysis.Cost andbenefitsarerarelyquantified. Thenumberssoundimpressive.Externally.November2010.flexible.000ruralfamiliestoavoidfurtherlossofanimalsanddependencyonfoodaid forthenextyearormore. Comparisonsbetweencostsofoutputsandhencethecostefficiencyofimplementing partners.Thereviewwelcomesthisinitiative. DFIDoftengetsitright. Outcomes and effectiveness Thesectiononimpactsetsouttheimportanceofbeingcleareraboutdesiredoutcomes andimpactandmeasuringthem.inprotectionanddifferentinterventions havedifferentbenefits–theydonotalladdressthesameneed.twoproblemswithreportingoutputresults.DFIDPakistan.g. Outputs and efficiency Outputsarethefirstresultsinthechain.DFIDKenyaandSomaliaarebuildingupadatabaseofhumanitarianindicators andcosts.DFIDhassetuptheIndependentCommissionforAidImpact.e.

 internationalmovement. stockpilemanagement.Withthis£1million.itisobviousthatcostscan differsignificantly.Aprojectinacomplexemergencywith securityimplicationswillhavegreatersecuritycoststopersonnelattachedthananother oneinanaturaldisasterzone. 54 . Onlywhenoutputsarethesame.personnel andpersonnelsupport(includingsecurityforpersonnel)toindirectsupportcosts (theoverheads).HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview • Theinformationcurrentlyreceivedfromimplementingpartnerscangivearough indicationofwhatthingscost.theglobalsupplychainwarrantsspecial consideration.000families couldhavebeenpurchasedanddeliveredamonthearlier. The global supply chain Aslogisticscanaccountforasmuchas80%37oftheeffortofhumanitarian organisationsduringareliefoperation.AnagencyinthePakistanflood responseforexamplewantedtochargeDFID£1millionmoreforthesamenon-food itemsdeliveredtothesameplacebutwithaonemonthtimedelaythanifDFIDhad procuredtheitemsitself.isitpossibletocarryoutananalysistoseewhich interventionisthemostcost-efficient.EvaluationsofNGOresponseshaveshownthatmistakes areroutinelymadealongthesupplychain.differentdonorrequirements andUNbureaucracy. UNagenciesontheotherhandhavesignificantprocurementandlogisticsdepartments buttheyareconstrainedbyantiquatedprocurementrules. • Anycomparisonsofcostswouldbemisleadingwithoutknowingtheexact circumstancesoftheactions.managingproductioncapacity.Thiscapabilityloss onthedevelopmentsideofoperationshastranslateddirectlyintoalossonthe humanitarianresponseside.supplychainmanagementneedstoberecognisedasan integralpartofpreparednessandresponse.qualityandcostcontrol. Keyconcernsthatimpactnegativelyontheaffectedpopulationare: 37 Trunick(2005). End-to-endsupplychainmanagementinahumanitarianresponseincludesprocurement. Comparingunitcostsofinputsbetweenimplementingpartnersoracrossemergenciesis relativelyeasy.Butthecomparisonsdonotmakesenseifthecontextisnottakeninto accountasexplainedintheoutputsection.Itcannotgivemuchmorethough. LookingthroughbudgetsofDFIDimplementingpartners. Inputs and economy Inputsareeasytoidentifyandquantify.Inputsrangefrommaterialsandlogistics. ManyINGOshavelosttheirsupplychainmanagementcapabilitiesthroughthechange intheirfocusfromdirectdeliverytoadvocacyoverthelastdecade.levelof securityrisk.coordinationwithotheragenciesanddeliverytothe beneficiaries.Aprojecttargetingdifficulttoreachpopulationswillhave veryjustifiablygreaterlogisticscoststhanaprojectinanurbaneasy-to-reach environment.includingtargetingofdifferentpopulationgroups. IfDFIDwantstoimproveitsabilitytorespondattherighttimefortherightpriceand withtheappropriatequality.Allbudgetsofimplementingpartnersshow whatinputsareusedatwhatcost.notalwaysforjustifiablereasons.ortiming.shelterforanadditional10.

 Basedonthefindings.Itisestimatedthat70%ofthemillion plussheetsprovidedtoHaitiaftertheearthquakeneededreplacingafter9months.Withanaidbudgetunderattackfromsomequartersandquestions aboutfailureinHaiti. Carryoutanin-depthstudyonhowDFID’sfundingimpactsonthehumanitariansupply chainrecognisingthatthesupplychainisamajorcostdriverinsudden-onsetresponses.After CycloneNargisinBurma. Thecommunicationsenvironmentischanging.5 Getting the message across ThereisstrongpublicsupportfortheUKresponsetodisastersandemergenciesin developingcountries38. costs of inputs.pricesgoupandquality decreases.whichhaveatbestlasted9months.faithbasedgroupsand partnerships. • Reliefitemsarenotalwayswhatthebeneficiariesmostneedorarrivetoolate.womengotintodebtbecausetheypurchasedreliefitemslong beforetheinternationalresponsereachedthem.CommunitiesintheUKareoften independentlylinkedtoaffectedpopulations. Atacost(withoutfreight)ofaround£10asheetthatmeans£7millionwasspenton commodities.Itisnolongerpossible.theprivatesectorandimplementing partnerstoalignsupplychainpractices.throughdiasporas.workwithotherdonors. • Lackofpreparednesscanleadtomultiplesoftransportcostsnecessary(especiallyair versusseatransport).DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID • Qualityofnon-fooditemsbeingsubstandard.Thiscanbeovercomebybuildingupthesupplierbaseinadvanceand collaboratingonqualitystandardsandspecifications.DFIDneedstogetbetteratcommunicatingthegenerallyexcellent workitdoes.ButhistoricallyDFIDhasnotusedtheseopportunitiestotalk aboutitswork.Ifforexample cashresponsesbecomeagame-changerinhumanitarianresponse. HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011. Recommendations DFID should: 36 Build up a library of results. Whilstdecreasingtheseinefficienciesshouldbeseenasaprioritynow. outputs and outcomes from different countries and regions and different types of disasters in order to be able to carry out effective unit cost analysis and enable fast evidence based decision-making.DFIDhasto recognisethattheglobalsupplychainislikelytochangesoonerorlater.Domesticmediacoverageisincreasinglyhostiletothe 38 93%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘WhereverpossibletheUK governmentshouldresponddirectlytodisastersandemergenciesindevelopingcountries’. 55 .Blanketsprovidedintheaftermathof theSamanganearthquakeinAfghanistanweretoothinfortheclimate. Share this where appropriate with other donors.thiswillhave importantimplications.willalsochangethenatureof thetraditionalsupplychain. EncouragetheIndependentCommissionforAidImpacttoexaminearangeof humanitariancasesandresiliencebuildingwork. • Becauseoflimitedsupplysidecapacityinanemergency. 37 38 5.Afocus onmorelocalprocurement.ordesirabletoadoptabroadcastapproachto communicationswork.asincreasinglydonebyWFP.Internationalprocurementandtransportwilldecrease.

TherelationshipbetweenthemediaandNGOsisa complexone. 39 PlanUK:Unnaturaldisasters:compassionversuscomplexityinthemedia’sreportingof humanitarianemergencies.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011. Thereisalsoaneedtoemployalongertermstrategicapproachtohelpshareabetter understandingabouthowanemergencyresponseworks–andwhyitisimportant.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview government’sringfencedaidbudget.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011.Italso showedthatthepublicfeelpleasedwhentheyhearabouttheUKgovernment’s response41alongwithadesiretoknowmore42.IfanNGOhelpsajournalistreacha communitythatisreceivingsupportduringaresponse.EarlystatementsonUK’splansandobjectivestoresponseshouldbeposted on-lineassoonaspossible.HERRon-linepublicsurvey:Feb2011 43 PlanUK:Unnaturaldisasters:compassionversuscomplexityinthemedia’sreportingof humanitarianemergencies.Itisabletorefer neutrallytotheworkofothers. 42 94%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘TheUKgovernmentshould domoretoexplaintothepublichowitsworkishelpingtomeettheneedsofpeopleaffected byinternationaldisastersandemergencies’. UsingitsrelativeindependencefromthisrelationshipDFIDcanmakegeneralcomments onthecontextandnatureofthedisasterandtheplannedresponse.Thesecanbedevelopedastheresponseprogressesand shouldcomplementmediaannouncementsonfundingallocations.plansandexpectedresultsneedtobereadily available.ThemediaoftenreliesonNGOsforaccessandinformationatthesame timeasseeingitsroletoholdthemtoaccount. 56 .Intimethiswillhelpchallengetheperception thataid. 41 98%ofrespondentsstronglyagreedoragreedwiththestatement‘IfeelpleasedwhenIhear thattheUKgovernmentishelpingplayapartinaninternationalresponsetoadisasterof emergency’.tosecureauniquepositionincommunicatingtotheUK public.and thepublicarereadytobeengaged.and36%werepromptedtodonate43.Aproactiveandstrategic approachtopubliccommunicationswork(mediaandnon-media)willbeneededtoput thisinformationincontext.Thiswillmake detailedinformationofeachemergencyresponseavailable. Foranemergencyresponse. HumanitariandisastersnaturallyattracthighlevelsofmediaattentionintheUK.ThispresentsDFIDwithaclear opportunitytobringitsworktotheattentionofanalreadyengagedpublic–oneofits bestchancestoreachabroadUKpublicisthroughcommunicationsarounditsresponse torapidonsetdisasters.ComRes:Feb2011.MediaSymposium:Feb2011.andthemoneyandsupportdoesn’tgettothe peolewhoreallyneedit’. Thisneedsastrongandconsistentnarrativetoenablethepublictounderstandthat differentdisastersandemergenciesneedadifferentresponsefromtheUK–including explanationofhumanitarianpolicy.andtherearegreaterexpectationsaroundthe speedandavailabilityofaccurateinformationaboutDFID’swork. 40 60%ofrespondentsdisagreedorstronglydisagreedwiththestatement‘Emergencyaidis wastedthroughinefficiencyandcorruption.strategy.Andmorerecentresearchcommissioned byPlanUKreportedthat90%ofrespondentsrecalledrecentdisastersinHaitior Pakistan. Butwhereconcernsabouteffectivenessandcorruptionaregenerallyhighthereview publicsurveyshowedsupportforDFID’sresponsedidn’tcarrythesamelevelsof concernaboutwasteandcorruptionthathavebeenreflectedinothersurveys40. TheUKAidTransparencyGuaranteewillputallnewspendingon-line.thejournalistislikelytogo furthertofindacommunitythathasbeenoverlookedtopresentthestoryofaidnot gettingtothosewhoneedit39.Butthispositioncanonlybeexploitedifitcanofferanauthoritativevoiceonthe groundfromtheoutsetofaresponse.developmentandhumanitarianresponseisoneandthesame.howtheinternationalcommunityisrespondingand therangeofresponsestomeetneeds.

communicationsthroughDFID’sownwebsiteandonlinepresenceis vitaltothesuccessofitscommunicationstrategy.and/ortheteamleadertrainedincommunicationsshouldbe supportedtospeakpubliclyonDFID’sbehalf.andtheon-lineFlood MonitorshowingclearlywhereandhowUKAidishelpingpeopleaffectedbythefloods inPakistan44. • Embedcommunicationsatthepolicyandoperationslevelfromthebeginningof aresponse. Communicationsstaff. and resource it accordingly. Recommendations DFID should: 39 Prioritise communications as a key factor in the UK’s emergency response. • MakeDFID’shumanitarianandemergencyresponseworkpermanentlymore visiblethroughDFID’swebsite–inadditiontofeaturesonspecificresponses. 44 www. • Makebetteruseoffaithbasedanddiasporapartners.gov.CommunicationsactivityaroundtheUK’sresponsetomeet humanitarianneedsinGazafollowingOperationCastLead.Thisworkhasbeendevelopingwell: e-bulletins.uk/Where-we-work/Asia-South/Pakistan/Pakistan-Floods-Monitor/ 57 . Thoseaffectedbydisasterareincreasinglyabletoprovideinformationandcontributeto assessmentofneedaswellascallingdonorsandtheinternationalcommunitydirectly toaccountviaonlinechannelsmeansevengreaterneedforcontinuedbuildingofits onlineprocess.FacebookandFlickrpagespresentDFID’sworktoan engagedpublic.DeliveringtransformationalchangeinDFID Governmentrestrictionsonspendingmeansthatalongsidetraditionalbroadcastand printmediaactivity.blogs.hasshownDFID’scommunicationsworkaroundanemergencyresponseat itsbest.tweets.dfid.Theserelationshipsneedtobedevelopedinadvanceof anemergencyresponse.YouTube. • Workmorecloselywithfundedpartnersoncommunications–toagreeaconsistent narrativeandsharechannels. 40 Request the International Development Select Committee to scrutinise progress on the implementation of these findings one year on from the launch of this report.

 • WorkcloselywithUKmissionstobuildcoalitionsforreformoftheinternational system.This shouldinclude. Makethisavailableasacontributiontopre-crisisarrangementsacrossthesystem. Leadership 6 Build coalitions to drive forward humanitarian reform based on improving leadership. • EncouragetheconveningofaUNHighLevelPaneltolookatwaysofimprovingthe internationalhumanitariansystemtofacefuturechallenges.Thisshouldincludea ‘stepaside’systemtoensurethebestleadershipisinplaceatboththestrategicand operationallevel.prioritisationandplanning. Anticipation Resilience 4 Ensure that building resilience is part of the core DFID programme in at risk countries. integrating the threat from climate change and other potential hazards into disaster risk reduction. Promote national response capacities of both governments and civil society in at risk countries including: • Thedevelopmentofnationalresiliencestrategies. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtoresolvesomeofthedeficienciesin management. • Regionalresponsemechanismswheretheyaddvalue. Country offices should undertake contingency planning. including. • Nationalandlocalprivatesectorcompanies. • Rapiddeploymentofexperiencedleadershipteamsinbigcrises. • WorkwithotherdonorsandtheUNtostrengthenandprovidebetterleadershipof theclustersystem. • Theestablishmentofdirectfundingmechanisms.whichareableatthecountrylevelto supportentrepreneurial.includingmorecoherentuseofUNexecutiveboardpositions. MakebetteruseoftheDFIDChiefScientisttosupportUKscienceinanticipatingcrises.whichwillincreaseinresilienceand improvedisasterresponse.Thismustincludetherightsupportstaff availableforrapiddeployment.andmarketsolutions. • WorkwiththeUNtocreateanewcadreofhumanitarianleadersandthetalent managementsystemsandtermsandconditionstosustainthis. 1 2 3 Recommendations Assemble and regularly update a global risk register for DFID using information gained from its country teams and international organisations. • Ensuringpre-qualifiedpartnersdemonstrateadequateinvestmentinskills development 5 58 . • ThroughcivilsocietyorganisationssuchasRedCrossandCrescentSocieties. • TrainingwithinDFID. • Worktocreateasetofstandardsforhumanitarianleadership. 7 DFIDshouldmakeasustainedefforttoimproveskillsinthehumanitariansector.aidagenciesandgovernmentsandcivilsocietyindisasterprone countries.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview 6.

satellitesanddatamanagement anddisplay.orprovidebettervalueformoneythancommercialalternatives. • WorkwithotherstosupporttheUNEmergencyReliefCoordinatorinthereformof OCHAandthesystemmorewidely. Encouragethespreadofbestpracticeinthisarea. Workwithotherstocreateanover-archingsetofstandardstoassessbeneficiary accountability. Partnership 18 19 Reach out to create new partnerships with new donor partners (in particular China. andnewcomputermodellingapproaches. Appoint a Humanitarian Senior Research Fellow. includingatthecountrylevel. 20 21 WorkwithpartnerstopromotedonorcoordinationandrevitalisetheGood HumanitarianDonor-shipgroup. 9 10 11 12 Accountability 13 14 15 16 17 Promote and support mechanisms to give recipients of aid a greater voice. Brazil and the Gulf States). Promote the development of robust impact assessments. Workwithpartnerstoensurecashbasedresponsesaregivenfullconsiderationand whereappropriatebecomemuchmorewidelyadopted. reporting to the Chief Scientific Officer with a dedicated budget tasked with developing evidence and innovation. including through partnership with operational agencies. technological innovators and science and research communities. 22 23 59 . private sector. WorkwithNGOstopromotetheconceptofaccreditationorcertification. UsemilitaryassetsinsituationswheretheyareconsistentwithOsloguidelinesandoffer capacityotherscannot. Supportexplorationofemergingandcutting-edgetechnologiessuchasnanotechnology. Givegreateremphasistobeneficiaryaccountabilityfactorswhenmakingfunding decisions. Investinthreekeytechnologies. Maintain its default position that humanitarian response is multilateral. India.Recommendations Innovation 8 Nurture innovation and its application in dealing with and preparing for humanitarian emergencies.andexplorethepossibilityof co-financing. In particular it should: • EngagemoreeffectivelywithECHOonapolicylevel. EnsurethatthenewPrivateSectorDepartmentgivesfullconsiderationtothoseareas whereprivatesectorexpertisecanimprovehumanitarianresponseeffectiveness.mobiletechnologies.

Carryoutindependentperiodic programmeauditsandafteractionreviewstoinformfuturefundingdecisions. pre-crisis arrangements.partnershipandhumanitarianspace. • Investigatenewformsofnichecapabilitiesthatcanrespondtonewtypesofthreats suchasnuclear.resilience.ratherthanlaterashastraditionallybeenthecase. when and how.regionalandcountrylevelNGOconsortia.HumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview Humanitarian space 24 Re-assert the premise that humanitarian action should be based on need.accountability.suchastheCBHAand WAHRF. where. performance and coherence by: • Increasingpredictablemulti-yearfundinglinkedtoperformancetomajorUNagencies.innovation. 25 Changing the policy 26 27 Incorporate resilience into its development policy and programmes.perhapsby providingitinstages. Develop a new humanitarian policy setting out why the UK responds. 32 33 ContinueandexpandthesurgeofUKcontractedpersonnelintotheinternational system. Develop and deploy niche capabilities in a more focused way concentrating on those areas where DFID or the UK are able to add value: • OnlyusesearchandrescueinsituationswheretheUKcangenuinelyaddvalue.usingtheauthorityoftheNationalSecurityCouncil. • Incorporatesurgicalteamsintofirstphasedeploymentsespeciallyafterearthquakes. • Ensurerecoveryandlivelihoodsfundingisconsideredduringandimmediatelyafter theCriticalPeriod.Thepolicyshouldbuildonthereviewthemesofanticipation. • Increasinglong-termsupporttointernational(theCERF)andcountrylevelpooled fundsandtoglobal. reaffirming the key principles of humanity. capacity. • Ensurethereisflexibilityoffundingasfastmovingsituationschange. 29 Design fast and flexible funding models for emergency responses: • ProvidefastmobilisationfundingintheCriticalPeriodbasedonpre-qualification ratherthanspeculativeproposals.biologicalandchemical. Delivering differently 28 Change the funding model to achieve greater preparedness. leadership. 31 60 . 30 Useallnewfundingmodelstoenforcestandardsandlinkfundingtoperformance throughclearimpactassessmentsandreporting. Ensurefundingismadeavailableforsecurityandriskmanagementforhumanitarian workers. theRedCrossMovementandNGOs. neutrality and impartiality in the new DFID humanitarian policy.Usetheprocesstoreducebureaucracyinthis CriticalPeriod. Conveneandleadastandingcross-governmentemergencymechanismformega emergencies.

• Ensuringeveryresponsetorapidonsethumanitarianneedisledbyanexperienced responsemanager. this will require • RebalanceresourceswithinDFIDtomeetthechallengesofrisinghumanitarianneed. shifting resources 34 Ensure that the structure. EncouragetheIndependentCommissionforAidImpacttoexaminearangeof humanitariancasesandresiliencebuildingwork.and/ortheteamleadertrainedincommunicationsshouldbe supportedtospeakpubliclyonDFID’sbehalf. Carryoutanin-depthstudyonhowDFID’sfundingimpactsonthehumanitariansupply chainrecognisingthatthesupplychainisamajorcostdriverinsudden-onsetresponses. • MakeDFID’shumanitarianandemergencyresponseworkpermanentlymore visiblethroughDFID’swebsite–inadditiontofeaturesonspecificresponses. outputs and outcomes from different countries and regions and different types of disasters in order to be able to carry out effective unit cost analysis and enable fast evidence based decision-making. 40 Request the International Development Select Committee to scrutinise progress on the implementation of these findings one year on from the launch of this report. • Makebetteruseoffaithbasedanddiasporapartners. 37 38 Getting the message out 39 Prioritise communications as a key factor in the UK’s emergency response. not least by having a Director General champion this work.withsufficientdelegatedauthoritytoensureswiftaction.Recommendations Changing the structure.theprivatesectorandimplementingpartnerstoalignsupply chainpractices. and resource it accordingly.bothinLondonandinthefield. • Embedcommunicationsatthepolicyandoperationslevelfromthebeginningofa response. Workwithotherdonors. • Leadlarge-scaleresponsesfromLondon. 61 . Communicationsstaff. Driving results and value for money 36 Build up a library of results.Theserelationshipsneedtobedevelopedinadvanceof anemergencyresponse. funding and human resources for humanitarian work reflects its importance as a central part of DFID work.managedbyCHASE. 35 Redefinetheobjectivesforthecontractedresponseteamsothatitissolelydedicatedto supportingrapidresponseandpre-crisisarrangements. Amongst others. • Workmorecloselywithfundedpartnersoncommunications–toagreeaconsistent narrativeandsharechannels. costs of inputs. • Expandthehumanitariancadre. Share this where appropriate with other donors.

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CarolynMiller.RosTendler.dfid.ElisabethRasmusson.gov.RachelKessler. Thisreportisavailableonline:www. MarkBowden.LouisaBrewin.DavidPratt.LewisSida.SteffenStenberg.PublishedbytheHumanitarianEmergencyResponseReview March2011 Chair:Lord(Paddy)Ashdown Director:RossMountain SeniorAdvisoryBoardMembers:AndyBearpark. HumanitarianReviewTeamSecretariat:MelindaSimmons.GilbertGreenall.JodaSilva.BarneyMayhew.GordonConway. SueWardell.MalcolmRidout. SophiePongracz.uk/emergency-response-review .YaseminAysan.NiciDahrendorf. DavidBryer.RandolphKent.SimonMaxwell.

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