Old definitions Management is the art of getting things done through people- Mary Parker Follett Management consists

of getting things done through others …. A manager is one who accomplishes organizational objectives by directing the efforts of others- C.S George Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively It does not give the functions which a manager has to perform to get results from others the needs of the workers have been ignored .the worker are supposed to work like machines Modern definitions management is the creation and maintenance of an internal environment in an enterprise where individual ,working in groups ,can perform efficiently and effectively towards the attainment of group goals.  process  effectiveness  efficiency  organizational objectives

Objectives of industrial mgmt.  Manufacturing costs  Selection of machinery and equipments  Materials  Manpower  Product quality  Manufacturing schedule Applications of industrial mgmt  Design and development  Plant layout and material handing  Method study and work measurement

and the narrowest.. Production forecasting  Inventory control  Quality control  Production control  Motivate workers Functions of mgmt.g. a tactic for accomplishing a specific goal. e. Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. planning is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished..g. . The focus is on division. its mission. and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization. coordination. e.

is the intangiable force  Management is a part of group effort  Management accomplishes result through the cooperations of others  Mgmt is a science as well as an art Scope of industrial mgmt The scope of industrial mgmt. is the continuous process  Mgmt. leadership and discipline. can be discussed in two broad areas  Designing of the industrial system and product  Primary task includes preparation of product profile with the help of experts of technological department and survey  Plant location . Characteristics of mgmt. evaluating and compensating are the specific activities included in the function.plant layout  Selection of the machine  Research and development activities  Human factors. Directing is influencing people's behavior through motivation.i. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and objectives while simultaneously helping them accomplish their own career objectives.e the impact of production system on the workers operating it . training. group dynamics. Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance standards based on the firm's objectives. and taking corrective or preventive action as necessary. staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions held by family members including the owner/operators. In the family business. comparing the two.Staffing is filling and keeping filled with qualified people all positions in the business. is a coordinative force  Mgmt.  Goal oriented  Mgmt. Recruiting. communication. hiring. measuring and reporting actual performance.

In marketing. purchased parts. per unit of input. Analyzing and Controlling the industrial mgmt  production planning  production control a) control of static inventory such as raw materials. Productivity may be conceived of as a metric of the technical or engineering efficiency of production . labor productivity is typically measured as a ratio of output per labor-hour. an input. a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need Productivity is a measure of output from a production process. For example. finished goods and supplies through the inventory control technique b) control of flow of materials c) control of work in progress through production control  Quality control  Co-ordination with other departments  Product.

Productivity is related to the efficient utilization of input resource into produced in the form of value added goods or services. For example. Its focus is on how well the input resource is used for conversion into output.white collar) .while keeping the same production  By keeping the rate of increase of output more as compared to the rate of increase in input According to the international labour office “the ratio between output and one of the factors of input is generally known as productivity of the factor considered. and capital). Factors of production A) Internal factors  Technological factors  size and capacity of plant  production design and standardization  Human factors (blue-collar . difference b/w production and productivity production refers to the quantity or value of output of particular goods or service produced in a given period of time by using a specified amount of input. There are many different ways of measuring productivity. in a factory productivity might be measured based on the number of hours it takes to produce a good. The emphasis is Not on how well the inputresources are utilized. Production is a measure of output produced.The amount of output per unit of input (labor. Productivity can be increased in various ways like  By increasing production using same amount of resources  By reducing the amount of resources . equipment. while in the service sector productivity might be measured based productivity = output/input There are two variables  Quantity of production  Quantity of resources Productivity varies with the quantum of production and the amount of resources used. on the other hand. puts emphasis on the ratio of output produced to the input used. Productivity.

of workers employed *no. Ability to work  Willingness to work  Financial factors  Materials and energy B)External factors  Natural factors (geographical .climate .hours= no.minerals .forests fertile land)  Government policy  Sociological factors Measuring productivity of resources Productivity of labour productivity of labour= output no. of workers or no. of Man-hours Man.of hours worked Productivity of capital Productivity of capital = output/ capital employed Productivity of other factors Productivity of materials= output/ materials Productivity of machine= output/machine – hours worked Productivity of land=output / area of land used total productivity index TPI= total output/total inputs =Total production of goods and services/ labour+ materials+ capital+ power this index measures the efficiency of the entire organization in the use of all the resources importance of productivity  increase in production  reduction in costs .

 increasein profits  competitive advantage  better quality of life increasing industrial productivity  improved raw materials  better technology  scientific selection and training of workers  work study  research and development  good working condition  provision of incentives Job Production Associated with small firms (making railings for a specific house. low-skilled jobs in mass production) slow compared to other methods (batch production and mass production) . Examples include: • • • • • Designing and implementing an advertising campaign Auditing the accounts of a large public limited company Building a new factory Installing machinery in a factory Machining a batch of parts per a CAD drawing supplied by a customer Key benefits of job production include: • • • • work is generally of a high quality a high level of customization is possible to meet the customer's exact requirements significant flexibility is possible.) but large firms use job production too. building/repairing a computer for a specific customer. especially when compared to mass production workers can be easily motivated due to the skilled nature of the work they are performing Disadvantages include: • • • higher cost of production requires the use of specialist labour (compare with the repetitive. making flower arrangements for a specific wedding etc.

a trial run for production. batch production can be useful for small businesses who cannot afford to run continuous production lines. As shown in the example. There are inefficiencies associated with batch production as equipment must be stopped. products for which it is difficult to forecast demand. reducing manufacturing cost Flow production Flow production is also a very common method of production. many of the same model cars can be made at the same time without stop. The production method is financially the most efficient and effective. Flow production is when the product is built up through many segregated stages. and its output tested before the next batch can be produced. because there is less of a need for skilled workers Intermittent manufacturing  used by mass production  known as large production  mixture of continuous and job production  large variety of products are made in small quantities  both general and special purpose machines are used sole proprietorship. re-configured. it can reduce initial capital outlay because a single production line can be used to produce several products. pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Continuous production is used for products that are made in a similar manner. also known as a sole trader or simply a proprietorship. If a retailer buys a batch of a product that does not sell. Cycle time variation is a Lean Manufacturing metric. For example.Batch production is the manufacturing technique of creating a group of components at a workstation before moving the group to the next step in production. In the manufacture of inks and paints. Batch production is common in bakeries and in the manufacture of sports shoes. a certain car model has the same body shape and therefore. Idle time between batches is known as downtime. There are several advantages of batch production. the product is built upon at each stage and then passed directly to the next stage where it is built upon again. inks. The time between consecutive batches is known as cycle time. paints and adhesives. a technique called a colour-run is used. Batch production also has disadvantages. or products that have a high profit margin. Batch production is also useful for a factory that makes seasonal items. is a type of business entity that is owned and run by one individual and in which there is no legal . then the producer can cease production without having to sustain huge losses.

Cooperative enterprises are the focus of study in the field of cooperative economics A partnership is an arrangement where entities and/or individuals agree to cooperate to advance their interests.[1] Cooperatives are defined by the International Cooperative Alliance's Statement on the Cooperative Identity as autonomous associations of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic. social. Every asset of the business is owned by the proprietor and all debts of the business are the proprietor's.[2] A cooperative may also be defined as a business owned and controlled equally by the people who use its services or by the people who work there. This means that the owner has no less liability than if they were acting as an individual instead of as a business. a partnership is formed between one or more businesses in which partners (owners) co-labor to achieve and share profits or losses  joint hindu family . often referred to as a co-op) is a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit. In the most frequent instance. The owner receives all profits (subject to taxation specific to the business) and has unlimited responsibility for all losses and debts. It is a "sole" proprietorship in contrast with partnerships features A cooperative (also co-operative.distinction between the owner and the business. and cultural needs and aspirations through jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprises.

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