Comparative study between Mobile WiMAX (IEEE802.

16e based) and 3GPP LTE
Karim Ahmed Samy Banawan, Mohammed Salaheldin Abdullah, and Mohamed Abdel Ghani Mohammed El-Gharabawy.

Abstract: In this paper we present a comparative study between Mobile WiMAX (IEEE802.16e based) and 3GPP LTE, we present the key technologies that are utilized in both systems, then PHY layers are presented ,besides Network Architectures. Our conclusions and result are also introduced. Key terms: Mobile WiMAX, IEEE802.16e, LTE, PHY layer, OFDMA,SCFDMA,MIMO, system architecture.

The demand for high data rate wireless multi-media applications has increased significantly in the past few years. The wireless user‘s pressure towards faster communications, no matter whether mobile, nomadic, or fixed positioned, without extra cost is nowadays a reality. Finding an optimal solution for this dilemma is a challenge, not only for manufacturers but also for network operators. The recent strategy followed within ETSI 3GPP LTE and the WiMAX Forum was a new and evolutionary concept, especially for mobile applications. Both have adopted a new PHY layer multi-carrier transmission with a MIMO scheme, a promising combination offering a high data rate at low cost. The 3GPP LTE is acronym for long term evolution of UMTS.The multiple access scheme in LTE downlink uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and uplink uses Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). These multiple access solutions provide orthogonality between the users, reducing the interference and improving the network capacity. The resource allocation in the frequency domain takes place with a resolution of 180 kHz resource blocks both in uplink and in downlink. The frequency dimension in the packet scheduling is one reason for the high LTE capacity. The uplink user specific allocation is continuous to enable single carrier transmission while the downlink can use resource blocks freely from different parts of the spectrum. The uplink single carrier solution is also designed to allow efficient terminal power amplifier design, which is relevant for the terminal battery life. LTE solution enables spectrum flexibility where the transmission bandwidth can be selected between 1.4 MHz and 20 MHz depending on the available spectrum. The 20 MHz bandwidth can provide up to 150 Mbps downlink user data rate with 2 × 2 MIMO, and 300 Mbps with 4 × 4 MIMO. The uplink peak data rate is 75 Mbps. The high network capacity also requires efficient network architecture in addition to the advanced radio features. The target in 3GPP Release 8 is to improve the network scalability for traffic increase and to minimize the end-to-end latency by reducing the number of network elements. All radio protocols, mobility management, header compression and all packet

retransmissions are located in the base stations called eNodeB. eNodeB includes all those algorithms that are located in Radio Network Controller (RNC) in 3GPP Release 6 architecture. Also the core network is streamlined by separating the user and the control planes. The Mobility Management Entity (MME) is just the control plane element while the user plane bypasses MME directly to System Architecture Evolution (SAE) Gateway (GW). The architecture evolution is This Release 8 core network is also often referred to as Evolved Packet Core (EPC) while for the whole system the term Evolved Packet System (EPS) can also be used. WiMAX is the commonly used name for broadband wireless access based on the IEEE 802.16 family of standards.WiMAX stands for worldwide interoperability for microwave access. The WiMAX forum is an industry-led, nonprofit corporation formed to promote and certify compatibility and interoperability of 802.16 broadband wireless products. IEEE 802.16 is an IEEE Standard for Wireless MANs (WMANs). The most recent addition to the WiMAX family of standards is 802.16e, which is also called ‗Mobile WiMAX. ‘ The IEEE standards specify the physical layer (PHY) and the Medium Access Layer (MAC), with no definition of higher layers. For IEEE 802.16, those are addressed in the WiMAX Forum Network Working Group. There is a range of options specified in IEEE 802.16, making the standards much more fragmented than what is seen in 3GPP and 3GPP2 standards. The 802.16 standard defines four different physical layers, of which two are certified by the WiMAX forum: ● OFDM-PHY: based on an FFT size of 256 and aimed at fixed networks.

● OFDMA-PHY (scalable): based on an FFT size from 128 to 2048 for 802.16e. In addition to the multiple physical layers, the 802.16 standards support a range of options, including: TDD, FDD, and half-duplex FDD (HFDD) operation, TDM access with variable frame size (2–20 ms),OFDM with a configurable cyclic prefix length, A wide range of bandwidths supported (1.25–28 MHz), Multiple modulation and coding schemes: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM combined with convolutional codes, convolutional Turbo codes, block Turbo codes, and LDPC (Low-Density Parity Check) codes, Hybrid ARQ and Adaptive antenna system (AAS) and MIMO. There is also a range of Radio Resource Management (RRM) options, MAC features and enhancements in the standards. The WiMAX forum defines system profiles that reduce all the optional features to a smaller set to allow interoperability among different vendors. This is done through an industry selection of features for MAC, PHY, and RF from 802.16 specifications and forms the basis for testing conformance and interoperability. Products certified by the WiMAX forum adhere to a Certification Profile that is based on a combination of band of operation, duplexing option and bandwidth. The intended applications with the original 802.16 standard were fixed access and backhaul, mainly for line-of-sight operation. The addition of a physical layer for non-line-of-sight applications in IEEE 802.16-2004 and support for mobility in IEEE 802.16e opens up the standard for nomadic and mobile use. In addition, provisions for multicast and broadcast services (MBS) are also included. This makes the standard more similar to the evolved 3G

standards, but coming from a completely different direction. The IEEE standards such as 802.16 are driven by the datacom industry as Layer 1 and 2 standards, starting with line-of-sight use for limited mobility, targeting best-effort data applications and now moving to higher mobility and encompassing also other

applications such as conversational services. The evolved 3G standards are driven by the telecom industry, targeting non-line-of-sight use and mobility from the beginning, optimized end-to-end standards for voice and later also data services, now moving to broader data applications including best-effort services.

1- Common key technologies: (a) Multiple Antenna support Multi-antenna techniques can be seen as a joint name for a set of techniques with the common theme that they rely on the use of multiple antennas at the receiver and/or the transmitter, in combination with more or less advanced signal processing. Multi-antenna techniques can be used to achieve improved system performance, including improved system capacity (more users per cell) and improved coverage (possibility for larger cells), as well as improved service provisioning, for example, higher per-user data rates .both systems support Multiple antenna systems. For the LTE Multiple antenna systems are integral part of its specifications.  Multiple antennas at the transmitter and/or the receiver can be used to provide additional diversity against fading on the radio channel. In this case, the channels experienced by the different antennas should have low mutual correlation, implying the need for a sufficiently large inter-antenna distance (spatial diversity). Multiple antennas at the transmitter and/or the receiver can be used to ‗ shape ‘ the overall antenna beam in a certain way, for example, to maximize the overall antenna gain in the direction of the target receiver/transmitter or to suppress specific dominant interfering signals. Such beam-forming can be based either on high or low fading correlation between the antennas. The simultaneous availability of multiple antennas at the transmitter and the receiver can be used to create what can be seen as multiple parallel communication‗ channels ‘ over the radio interface. This provides the possibility for very high bandwidth utilization without a corresponding reduction in power efficiency or, in other words, the possibility for very high data rates within a limited bandwidth without an un-proportionally large degradation in terms of coverage. Herein we will refer to this as spatial multiplexing. It is often also referred to as MIMO (Multi-Input Multi- output) antenna processing. (b) OFDMA transmission scheme: Both systems use OFDMA as multiple access scheme, for Mobile WiMAX it is the multiple access scheme for both UL and DL and for LTE it is the multiple access scheme in the DL only. The OFDM is used to mitigate the multipath fading which will result in delay spread and frequency selective

fading instead of using complex equalizers or high complexity rake receivers. OFDM systems break the available bandwidth into many narrower sub-carriers and transmit the data in parallel streams; each OFDM symbol is preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP), which is used to effectively eliminate ISI. In practice, the OFDM signal can be generated using IFFT with a CP of sufficient duration, preceding symbols do not spill over into the FFT period, Also, Once the channel impulse response is determined (by periodic transmission of known reference signals), distortion can be corrected by applying an amplitude and phase shift on a subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis. Problems of OFDM are: susceptibility to carrier frequency errors and a large signal peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR). OFDMA is an excellent choice of transmission scheme for the 3GPP LTE downlink and Mobile WiMAX which allows the access of multiple users on the available bandwidth. Each user is assigned a specific timefrequency resource. (C) Hybrid ARQ with soft combining Fast hybrid ARQ with soft combining is used in LTE and WiMAX to allow the terminal to rapidly request re-transmissions of erroneously received transport blocks and to provide a tool for implicit rate adaptation. The underlying protocol is also similar to the one used for HSPA– multiple parallel stop-and-wait hybrid ARQ processes. Retransmissions can be rapidly requested after each packet transmission, thereby minimizing the impact on end-user performance from erroneously received packets. Incremental redundancy is used as the

soft combining strategy and the receiver buffers the soft bits to be able to do soft combining between transmission attempts. 2-Key technologies for 3GPP LTE system (a) Spectrum flexibility A high degree of spectrum flexibility is considered one of the main characteristics of the LTE radio access. The aim of this spectrum flexibility is to allow for the deployment of the LTE radio access in diverse spectrum with different characteristics, including different duplex arrangements, different sizes of the available spectrum and different frequency-bands-of-operation. (i) Flexibility in duplex arrangement One important part of the LTE requirements in terms of spectrum flexibility is the possibility to deploy LTE-based radio access in both paired and unpaired spectrum. Therefore, LTE supports both frequencydivision-based and time-division-based duplex arrangements. Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) as illustrated to the left in Fig. 1 implies that downlink and uplink transmission take place in different, sufficiently separated, frequency bands. Time Division Duplex (TDD), as illustrated to the right in Fig. 1, implies that downlink and uplink transmission take place in different, non-overlapping time slots. Thus, TDD can operate in unpaired spectrum, whereas FDD requires paired spectrum. Support for both paired and unpaired spectrum is part of the 3GPP specifications already from Release 99 through the use of FDD-based WCDMA/HSPA radio access in paired allocations and TDD-based TDCDMA/TD-SCDMA radio access in

either by the assignment of new spectrum for mobile communication. The main reason for this is that the amount of spectrum being available for LTE may vary significantly between different frequency bands and also depending on the exact situation of the operator. The main benefit with halfduplex FDD is the reduced terminal complexity as no duplex filter is needed in the terminal. it is required that the LTE radio access should be able to operate in a wide range of frequency bands.and time-division duplex. leading to a minimum of deviation between FDD and TDD for LTE-based radio access. as a consequence. In half-duplex FDD. such as GSM or cdma2000 systems. which is especially beneficial in case of multiband terminals which otherwise would need multiple sets of duplex filters. this is achieved by means of relatively different radio-access technologies and. Furthermore. or even non-mobile radio technologies such as in current broadcast spectrum. on the other hand. at least. from as low as 450 MHz band up to.6 and 3. Frequency. (ii) Flexibility in frequency-band-ofoperation LTE is envisioned to be deployed on a per-need basis when and where spectrum can be made available.unpaired allocations. (iii) Bandwidth flexibility Related to the possibility to deploy the LTE radio access in different frequency bands is the possibility of being able to operate LTE with different transmission bandwidths on both downlink and uplink. The base station still uses full duplex as it simultaneously may schedule different terminals in uplink and downlink.5 GHz band. such as the 2. transmission and reception at a specific terminal are separated in both frequency and time. LTE also supports half-duplex FDD at the terminal (illustrated in the middle of Fig.5 GHz. Fig. supports both FDD and TDD within a single radio-access technology. However. or by the migration to LTE of spectrum currently used for other mobilecommunication technologies. LTE. 3. for example. this is similar to. terminals capable of both FDD and TDD operations are fairly uncommon. 1. As a consequence. . the possibility to operate in different spectrum allocations gives the possibility for gradual migration of spectrum from other radio access technologies to LTE. GSM operation. 1).

socalled channel-dependent scheduling. achieved by a flexible transmission bandwidth being part of the LTE specifications. . the maximum achievable data rates will be reduced correspondingly. The scheduler also determines the data rate to be used for each link. and is. as HSPA. but additional transmission bandwidths can easily be supported by updating only the RF specifications. Obviously. radio-frequency requirements are only specified for a limited subset of transmission bandwidth. LTE has. that is. rate adaptation can be seen as a part of the scheduler. The use of sharedchannel transmission is well matched to the rapidly varying resource requirements posed by packet data and also enables several of the other key technologies used by LTE. This is exploited already in HSPA. in such cases. However. to which users the shared resources should be assigned. also possible for the Enhanced Uplink. a wide transmission bandwidth is necessary. Both downlink and uplink transmissions are subject to tight scheduling. in which case LTE can be operated with a more narrow transmission bandwidth. time and channelization codes in case of HSDPA. either due to the band-of-operation or due to a gradual migration from another radioaccess technology. in practice LTE radio access supports a limited set of transmission bandwidths. select the user with the best channel conditions. a sufficiently large amount of spectrum may not always be available. This is illustrated in Fig.LTE supports operation in a wide range of spectrum allocations. Therefore. with the overall time-frequency resource dynamically shared between users. (b) Channel-dependent scheduling and rate adaptation At the core of the LTE transmission scheme is the use of shared-channel transmission. The basic radioaccess specification including the physical-layer and protocol specifications. This is similar to the approach taken in HSDPA. at an initially stage. In other words. to some extent. for each frequency region. 2. A substantial gain in system capacity can be achieved if the channel conditions are taken into account in the scheduling decision. To efficiently support very high data rates when spectrum is available. the scheduler can. also access to the frequency domain. Thus. However. but also in the frequency domain. although the realization of the shared resource differs between the two – time and frequency in case of LTE vs. especially in a highly loaded network. in addition to the time domain. The scheduler is thus a key element and to a large extent determines the overall downlink system performance. The LTE physical-layer specifications are bandwidth-agnostic and do not make any particular assumption on the supported transmission bandwidths beyond a minimum value. scheduling in LTE can take channel variations into account not only in the time domain. The scheduler controls. corresponding to what is predicted to be relevant spectrum-allocation sizes and relevant migration scenarios. At the same time. due to the use of OFDM in the downlink and DFTSOFDM in the uplink. where the downlink scheduler transmits to a user when its channel conditions are advantageous to maximize the data rate. allows for any transmission bandwidth ranging from roughly 1 MHz up to around 20 MHz. for each time instant.

in other words when the channel is varying slowly with time. Based on the channel-status report. a terminal may provide the network with channel-status reports indicating the instantaneous downlink channel quality in both the time and frequency domain. a time-domain only scheduler may be forced to schedule a particular user. For delay-sensitive services. In such situations. (i) Downlink scheduling To support downlink scheduling. Fig. scheduling decisions can be taken as often as once every 1 ms and the granularity in the frequency domain is 180 kHz. 2. For LTE. the downlink scheduler can assign resources for downlink transmission to different mobile terminals. for example. Downlink channel-dependent scheduling in time and frequency domains.The possibility for channeldependent scheduling in the frequency domain is particularly useful at low terminal speeds. despite the channel quality not being at its peak. This allows for relatively fast channel variations to be tracked and utilized by the scheduler. The channel status can. exploiting channel-quality variations also in the frequency domain will help improving the overall performance of the system. taking the channel quality into account in the . be obtained by measuring on a reference signal transmitted on the downlink and used also for demodulation purposes. Channel-dependent scheduling relies on channel-quality variations between users to obtain a gain in system capacity.

Hence. the interference seen in the neighboring cells in this part of the spectrum will be reduced. .scheduling decision. potentially. more limited by interference from other cells (inter-cell interference) compared to WCDMA/HSPA. (ii) Uplink scheduling The LTE uplink is based on orthogonal separation of different uplink transmissions and it is the task of the uplink scheduler to assign resources in both time and frequency domain (combined TDMA/FDMA) to different mobile terminals. Basically. This part of the spectrum can then be used to provide higher data rates for users in the neighboring cell. LTE performance in terms of spectrum efficiency and available data rates is. relatively speaking. obtaining information about the uplink channel conditions is a non trivial task. inter-cell interference coordination implies certain (frequency-domain) restrictions to the uplink and downlink schedulers in order to control the intercell interference. taken once per 1 ms. 3). the frequency reuse factor is different in different parts of the cell (Fig. In essence. etc. Channel conditions can also be taken into account in the uplink scheduling process. on what frequency resources the transmission is to take place and what uplink data rate (transport format) to use. In principle. However.) that can be provided to users at the cell edge. (c) Inter-cell interference coordination LTE provides orthogonality between users within a cell in both uplink and downlink. that is. especially in terms of the service (data rates. a scheduled terminal can be assigned an arbitrary combination of 180 kHz wide resource blocks in each 1 ms scheduling interval. similar to the downlink scheduling. provide substantial benefits to LTE performance. Therefore. Inter-cell interference coordination is a scheduling strategy in which the cell-edge data rates are increased by taking inter-cell interference into account. By restricting the transmission power of parts of the spectrum in one cell. different means to obtain uplink diversity are important as a complement in situations where uplink channel-dependent scheduling is not suitable. there is no interference between transmissions within one cell (no intra-cell interference). Scheduling decisions. Means to reduce or control the inter-cell interference can therefore. for each terminal. at least in principle. control what set of mobile terminals are allowed to transmit within a cell during a given time interval and.

Sufficiently low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted waveform. to minimize intra-cell interference and maximize capacity. such multi-cell transmission. but also eliminate the inter-cell interference. By transmitting not only identical signals from multiple cell sites (with identical coding and modulation). even when transmitting at low data rates. will then not only improve the received signal strength. Inter-cell interference coordination is mainly a scheduling strategy. This also implies that interference coordination can be applied to only a selected set of cells. Due to the OFDM robustness to multi-path propagation. (e) New transmission scheme for the uplink: SC-FDMA(DFTS-OFDM) While many of the requirements for the design of the LTE uplink physical layer and multiple-access scheme are similar to those of the downlink. also referred to as Multicast–Broadcast Single-Frequency Network (MBSFN) transmission. Thus. to avoid excessive cost. Some of the desirable attributes for the LTE uplink include:  Orthogonal uplink transmission by different User Equipment (UEs). By exploiting this at the terminal. Thus.      The multiple-access scheme selected for the LTE uplink so as to fulfill these principle characteristics is SingleCarrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA). LTE takes this one step further to provide highly efficient multi-cell broadcast. effectively using signal power from multiple cell sites at the detection. A major advantage of SCFDMA over the Direct-Sequence Code . size and power consumption of the UE Power Amplifier (PA). reach extremely high values. Flexibility to support a wide range of data rates. Ability to exploit the frequency diversity afforded by the wideband channel (up to 20 MHz). To aid the implementation of various inter-cell interference coordination schemes. 3 Example of inter-cell interference coordination. the uplink also poses some unique challenges. LTE supports exchange of interference indicators between base stations. with OFDM. a substantial improvement in coverage (or higher broadcast data rates) can be achieved. and to enable data rate to be adapted to the SINR (Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratio). depending on the requirements set by a particular deployment. but also synchronize the transmission timing between the cells. Support for advanced multipleantenna techniques. in case of small cells. the signal at the mobile terminal will appear exactly as a signal transmitted from a single cell site and subject to multi-path propagation. multi-cell broadcast/multicast throughput may eventually be limited by noise only and can then. taking the situation in neighboring cells into account. inter-cell interference coordination is to a large extent an implementation issue and hardly visible in the specifications. Support for frequency-selective scheduling.Fig. to exploit spatial diversity and enhance uplink capacity. (d) Multicast and broadcast support Multi-cell broadcast implies transmission of the same information from multiple cells as described.

SC-FDMA divides the transmission bandwidth into multiple parallel subcarriers. Like OFDM.Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) scheme used in UMTS is that it achieves intra-cell orthogonality even in frequency-selective channels. 4. This gives SC-FDMA its crucial single-carrier property. all the transmitted subcarriers of an SC-FDMA signal carry a component of each modulated data symbol. (ii) T-Domain Signal Generation Time-domain generation of an SC-FDMA signal is shown in Fig. SCFDMA avoids the high level of intracell interference associated with DSCDMA which significantly reduces system capacity and limits the use of adaptive modulation. where the data symbols directly modulate each subcarrier independently (such that the amplitude of each subcarrier at a given time instant is set by the constellation points of the digital modulation scheme). In principle. (f) SC-FDMA Principles (i) SC-FDMA Transmission Structure An SC-FDMA signal can. enabling the receiver to equalize the channel simply by scaling each subcarrier by a complex gain factor. However. in theory. The use of a CP prevents InterSymbol Interference (ISI) between SCFDMA information blocks. It is similar to conventional singlecarrier transmission. . the time-domain generation is less bandwidth-efficient due to timedomain filtering and associated requirements for filter ramp-up and ramp-down times. Although the two techniques are duals and ‗functionally‘ equivalent. in practice. The use of OFDMA for the LTE uplink would have been attractive due to the possibility for full uplinkdownlink commonality. unlike OFDM. be generated in either the timedomain or the frequency domain. 4. an OFDMA scheme similar to the LTE downlink could satisfy all the uplink design criteria listed above. which results in the PAPR being significantly lower than pure multicarrier transmission schemes such as OFDM. Fig. in SC-FDMA the signal modulated onto a given subcarrier is a linear combination of all the data symbols transmitted at the same time instant. with the orthogonality between the subcarriers being maintained in frequency-selective channels by the use of a Cyclic Prefix (CP) or guard period. SC-FDMA combines the desirable characteristics of OFDM with the low CM/PAPR of singlecarrier transmission schemes. A codemultiplexed uplink also suffers the drawback of an increased PAPR if multi-code transmission is used from a single UE. Thus in each symbol period. SC-FDMA time-domain transmit processing. except for low PAPR. It transforms the linear convolution of the multipath channel into a circular convolution.

or for inter-cell interference coordination. The repetition of the symbol blocks results in the spectrum of the transmitted signal only being non-zero at certain subcarrier frequencies (namely every Lth subcarrier in this example) as shown in Fig. the transmission is said to be ‗distributed‘ and is one way of providing a frequency-diversity gain.The input bit stream is mapped into a single-carrier stream of QPSK or QAM symbols. in which each block is repeated L times. by which each user‘s transmission may be translated to a particular part of the available bandwidth. This may in general be . 5. the resulting signal is transmitted. especially if the time interval between hops is shorter than the duration of a block of channel-coded data. as a result of channel sounding). This may be followed by an optional repetition stage. Localized transmissions are beneficial for supporting frequency-selective scheduling. Distributed transmission with equal-spacing between occupied subcarriers. 5.g. By varying the block length M and the repetition factor L. After filtering (e. Since such a signal occupies only one in every L subcarriers. the transmitted signal spectrum in this case is similar to what would be obtained if data symbols were only modulated on every Lth subcarrier of an OFDM signal. for example when the eNodeB has knowledge of the uplink channel conditions (e. under the constraint that the total number of possible occupied subcarriers in the bandwidth is constant (ML = constant). using different repetition factors or bandwidths. with a root-raised cosine pulse-shaping filter). A CP is then inserted. and a user-specific frequency shift. When no symbol-block repetition is performed (L = 1). Thus. a wide range of data rates can be supported. Localized transmission may also provide frequency diversity if the set of consecutive subcarriers is hopped in the frequency domain. Different users‘ transmissions. the signal occupies consecutive subcarriers and the transmission is said to be ‗localized‘. which are grouped into symbol-blocks of length M. remain orthogonal on the uplink when the following conditions are met:  The users occupy different sets of subcarriers. Fig.g.

Fig. ISI in multipath channels is prevented by the CP. which enables efficient equalization at the receiver by means of a Frequency Domain Equalizer (FDE). 6. SC-FDMA frequency-domain transmission processing (DFT-S-OFDM) showing localized and distributed subcarrier mappings. The first step of DFT-S-OFDM SC-FDMA signal generation is to perform an M-point DFT operation on each block of M QAM data symbols. The received signals are properly synchronized in time and frequency. Zeros are then inserted among the outputs of the DFT in order to match the DFT size to an N-subcarrier OFDM modulator (typically an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT)). with the positions of the . The latter method as Interleaved Frequency Division Multiple Access (IFDMA). 6. (iii) F-Domain Signal Generation (DFT-S-OFDM) Generation of an SC-FDMA signal in the frequency domain uses a Discrete Fourier Transform-Spread OFDM (DFT-S-OFDM) structure as shown in Fig. The zeropadded DFT output is mapped to the N subcarriers. The SC-FDMA time-domain generated signal has a similar level of PAPR as pulse-shaped single-carrier modulation.  accomplished either by introducing a user-specific frequency shift (typically for the case of localized transmissions) or alternatively by arranging for different users to occupy interleaved sets of subcarriers (typically for the case of distributed transmissions). The CP is longer than the sum of the delay spread of the channel and any residual timing synchronization error between the users.

this simplistic construction would not provide any oversampling or pulseshape filtering. does not require paired spectrum. M<N results in zero being appended to the output of the DFT spreader resulting in an upsampled/interpolated version of the original M QAM data symbols at the IFFT output of the OFDM modulator. the zeros appended on either side of the DFT output provide upsampling or sinc interpolation. The channel bandwidths supported are 5. As for the time-domain SCFDMA signal generation. However. 3. however.Key technologies of WiMAX: Mobile (a) Spectrum. The CP structure is the same as for the timedomain signal generation. every Lth subcarrier). while the zeros inserted between the DFT outputs produce waveform repetition in the time domain. • Distributed transmission. require system-wide . and has a less complex transceiver design. The transmitted signal is thus similar to a narrowband single carrier with a CP (equivalent to time-domain generation with repetition factor L = 1) and ‗sinc‘ pulse-shaping filtering (circular filtering). To counter interference issues. As with the localized case. TDD enables adjustment of the downlink/uplink ratio for asymmetric traffic. thus providing for efficient oversampling and ‗sinc‘ (sin(x)/x) pulse-shaping.zeros determining to which subcarriers the DFT-precoded data is mapped. The equivalence of DFT-S-OFDM and a time-domaingenerated SC-FDMA transmission can readily be seen by considering the case of M = N. and therefore the same efficient FDE techniques can be employed at the receiver.g. and 3. Usually N is larger than the maximum number of occupied subcarriers. As with the time-domain approach.3. The subcarrier mapping allocates a group of M adjacent subcarriers to a user. It is worth noting that. in principle. 2. the first release only supports TDD operation. and 10 MHz. 3. While WiMAX supports TDD. the use of nonDFT spreading would result in increased PAPR since the transmitted signal would no longer have the single carrier characteristic. However. This results in a transmitted signal similar to timedomain IFDMA with repetition factor L and ‗sinc‘ pulse-shaping filtering. (L − 1) zeros are inserted between the M DFT outputs. and half-duplex FDD.5.5 GHz bands. bandwidth options and duplexing arrangement The Release 1 WiMAX profiles cover operation in licensed spectrum allocations in the 2. The subcarrier mapping allocates M equally-spaced subcarriers (e. any unitary matrix can be used in the place of the DFT for the spreading operation with similar performance.75. orthogonality between different users with different data rate requirements can be achieved by assigning each user a unique set of subcarriers. and additional zeros are appended to either side of the DFT output prior to the IFFT (ML<N). TDD does. where the DFT operation cancels the IFFT of the OFDM modulator resulting in the data symbols being transmitted serially in the time domain. 8. FDD. 7.3. DFT-S-OFDM is capable of generating both localized and distributed transmissions: • Localized transmission.

There are three handover methods supported. (c) Mobility Mobile WiMAX supports both sleep mode and idle mode for more efficient power management. While the initial profiles and deployment of WiMAX use TDD as the preferred mode. Because of adjacent channel interference. FDD may be introduced in the longer term. For users at the cell edges. The QoS parameters are set per service flow. Web Browsing. but co-channel interference may in this case degrade the quality for users at the cell edge. with Hard Handover (HHO) being mandatory and Fast Base-Station Switching (FBSS) and Diversity handover (MDHO) being optional. there can be an effective reuse of not supported frequencies for users at the cell edge. There are different ‗ power saving classes ‘ suitable for applications with different QoS types. (d) Fractional frequency reuse WiMAX can operate with a frequency reuse of one. while still maintaining a reuse of one for the OFDMA carrier as a whole. (b) Quality-of-service handling A connection-oriented Qualityof-Service (QoS) mechanism is implemented. it is possible to have a subchannel reuse by proper configuration of the subchannel usage for the users. the Base Station operates on a zone with a fraction of the subchannels. In this way. while users close to the Base Station can operate on a zone with all subchannels. The parameters define transmission ordering and scheduling on the air interface and can be negotiated statically or dynamically through MAC messages. with multiple service flows possible to/from a mobile station. Applications supported through the WiMAX QoS mechanism are: ● Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS): VoIP ● Real-Time Polling Service (rtPS): Streaming Audio or Video ● Extended Real-Time Polling Service (ErtPS): Voice with Activity ● Non-Real-Time Polling Service (nrtPS): File Transfer Protocol (FTP) ● Best-Effort Service (BE): Data Transfer. which becomes an issue in multi-cell deployments. . each having different sleep mode parameters. The reason may be local regulatory requirements or to address need for more extended multi-cell coverage where FDD may become more suitable. There is also an idle mode. In sleep mode. As shown in the example in Figure 7. there is a pre-negotiated period of absence from the radio interface to the serving base station. etc. where the terminal is not registered to any base station and instead periodically scans the network at discrete intervals. where the mobile station may power down or scan other neighboring base stations.synchronization and use of the same uplink/downlink ratio in neighboring cells. a flexible subchannel reuse is made possible by dividing the frame into permutation zones as described above. enabling end-to end QoS control. However. The reason is the potential for mobile-to-mobile and base station-tobase station interference if uplink and downlink allocations overlap. system-wide synchronization may also be required for TDD operators deployed on adjacent or near-adjacent channels.

7 Fractional frequency reuse III.PHY LAYER 1.PHY layer for WiMAX (IEEE802. so it divides the data into blocks.Fig. (3) Randomizer: Aim: The randomization process ensures that there is no long runs of ones or zeros in the input bits. This will result in:  Decrease the Peak to average power ratio (PAPR).  Ensure the clock synchronization at the receiver as the transition . so this block pads ones to reach the frame size.8 The block diagram of the transmitter of the downlink PHY layer of mobile WiMAX with 2antennas. each of them is with the suitable size that can be transmitted in one frame. (2) slot concatenation is used if the data size from the MAC layer is larger than the number of data to be transmitted in one slot. (b) Overview of the PHY layer blocks (1) padding one: is used if the data size from the MAC layer is less than the frame size according to the selected modulation scheme and code rate.16e based) (a) System block diagram Fig.

Convolutional Turbo code(CTC) along with H-ARQ. These appended bits flush out the bits left in the encoder by the previous FEC block. as the output of PRBG is used as the input to an XOR Gate and the second input is the block of data to be transmitted. between bit values helps the receiver in synchronization. The Derandomizer It has the same construction of the Randomizer. The first 12 parity bits that are generated by the convolutional encoder which depend on the 6 bits left in the encoder by the previous FEC block are discarded  and four optional coding schemes: Zero Tailing Convolutional code. (5) Puncturing: In order to achieve code rates higher than 1/2.Elements that are not a part of the source data. The convolutional encoder uses a constituent encoder with a constraintlength 7 and a native code rate 1/2 The 6 bits from the end of the data block are appended to the beginning. In duo binary turbo codes two consecutive bits from the uncoded bit sequence are sent to the encoder simultaneously. Only source bits are randomized . This can be achieved by: The randomization process is carried out using pseudo random binary generator (PRBG). have been defined in WIMAX as optional channel coding schemes but are unlikely to be implemented in fixed or mobile WiMAX. and Block Turbo code(BTC) and low density parity check (LDPC) codes  The most popular optional channel coding scheme is (CTC) WiMAX uses duobinary turbo codes with a constituent recursive encoder of constraint length 4.The LFSR shall be preset at the beginning of each frame to the value 100101010000000 and shall be clocked once per processed bit. using a specified puncturing pattern (6) Interleaving: The interleaver is defined by a two step permutation: . to be used as flush bits. the output of the encoder is punctured. such as framing elements and pilot symbols shall not be randomized. If we have long runs of ones the power of the signal will be decreases until the threshold and hence error happened due to Gibbs phenomena. as the data has a XOR operation with the output of PRPG that has a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) has the same seed value of the Randomizer used at the Transmitter (4) Channel Coding: The OFDMA PHY supports  Mandatory tail-biting Convolutional Coding.

The symbols are further multiplied by a pseudorandom unitary number to provide additional layer 1 encryption. Preamble and midamble symbols are further scaled by 2 2 which allowsboost in the power and allows for more accurate synchronization and various parameter estimations. number of subcarriers. 64QAM is optional in gray coded scheme. assuming that all symbols are equally likely. thus avoiding long runs of lowly reliable bits. Data subcarriers are used for carrying data symbols. The second step ensures that adjacent bits are alternately mapped to less and more significant bits of the modulation constellation. such that the performance degradation owing to ICI and ISI (intersymbol interference) is minimal without compromising the performance. and their respective values in IEEE 802. but In the UL. and preamble interval.. such as channel response and noise variance. Table 1 Primitive Parameters for OFDM Symbol The OFDMA symbol structure consists of three types of sub-carriers: 1. which provides frequency diversity and improves the performance of the decoder. The four primitive parameters that describe an OFDM symbol. The interleaver indices are determined using following equations (7) Symbol Mapping: Mobile WiMAX supports QPSK. 16QAM and 64QAM in DL. are shown in Table 2. Each modulation constellation is scaled such that the average transmitted power is unity. subcarrier separation. such as cyclic prefix length.  The first step ensures that the adjacent coded bits are mapped onto nonadjacent subcarriers. (8) OFDMA: (i) OFDM Symbol Structure The flexibility of the WiMAX PHY layer allows one to make an optimum choice of various PHY layer parameters. .16e-2005.

is boosted by 2. Since the resource unit sub-carrier bandwidth and symbol duration is fixed. Pilot subcarriers are used for carrying pilot symbols.16e Wireless MAN OFDMA mode is based on the concept of scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA). Null subcarriers have no power allocated to them. the impact to higher layers is minimal when scaling the bandwidth.2.5 dB. 3. as shown here. The pilot symbols are known a priori and can be used for channel estimation and channel tracking. The system bandwidths for the initial planned profiles being developed by the WiMAX Forum Technical Working Group for Release-1 are 5 and 10 MHz. The power in the pilot subcarriers. Table2 OFDMA Scalability Parameters . including the DC subcarrier and the guard subcarriers toward the edge. to prevent any saturation effects or excess power draw at the amplifier. (ii) Scalable OFDMA The IEEE 802. The scalability is supported by adjusting the FFT size while fixing the sub-carrier frequency spacing at 10. of the OFDM symbol within the allocated bandwidth and thus reduce the interference between adjacent channels.94 kHz. S-OFDMA supports a wide range of bandwidths to flexibly address the need for various spectrum allocation and usage model requirements. allowing reliable channel tracking even at low-SNR conditions. The DC subcarrier is not modulated. No power is allocated to the guard subcarrier toward the edge of the spectrum in order to fit the spectrum.

code rate.  The pilot subcarriers are allocated first then the data subcarriers are mapped using permutation scheme. each antenna uses half of number of pilots. A subchannel is a logical collection of subcarriers.  Uplink PUSC and TUSC: Each slot is 16 subcarriers by three OFDM symbols.  Each subchannel is made up of 48 data subcarriers. such as the size of the data block. the modulation format. or 24 subcarriers by 6. and type of FEC. In the time and frequency domains. in case of multicast—is referred to as the data region of the user(s) and is always transmitted using the same burst profile.  When transmit diversity of 2. for example. is used.(9) Subchannelization & subcarrier permutation: In order to create the OFDM symbol in the frequency domain. A burst profile refers to the combination of the chosen modulation format. and the coding rate.  Downlink PUSC: Each slot is 24 subcarriers by two OFDM symbols.  Band AMC: Each slot is 8. The number of subchannels allocated for transmitting a data block depends on various parameters. The number and exact distribution of the subcarriers that constitute a subchannel depend on the subcarrier permutation mode. or 2 OFDM symbols. Four subcarrier permutation are applied:  FUSC: Each slot is 48 subcarriers by one OFDM symbol.  Variable set allows receiver to estimate channel response across the entire frequency band. Table3 Parameters of DL FUSC Permutation . 3.  Set of pilot subcarriers is divided into 2 constant sets and 2 variable sets. (i) DL Full Usage of Subcarriers  All data subcarriers are used to create various subchannels. the contiguous set of subchannels allocated to a single user—or a group of users. the modulated symbols are mapped on to the subchannels that have been allocated for the transmission of the data block. 16.

(iii) Uplink Subcarriers     Partial Usage of  Subcarriers are divided into tiles.(ii) Downlink Partial Usage of Subcarriers  All subcarriers are divided into 6 groups.  All subcarriers (except null subcarriers) are arranged into clusters.  Cluster = 14 adjacent subcarriers ×2 OFDM symbols.     Cluster = 24 data subcarriers + 4 pilot subcarriers. The clusters are then divided into 6 groups. Tiles are renumbered and divided into 6 groups. Subcarrier = 8 data subcarriers + 1 pilot subcarrier. The clusters are then renumbered. Subcarrier = 8 data subcarriers + 4 pilot subcarriers. A subchannel is formed using 2 clusters from the same group. Subchannel = 6 tiles from a single group A special case from the UL PUSC is Uplink Optional Partial Usage of Subcarriers (OPUSC) where:   Tile = 3 subcarriers ×3 OFDM symbols. . Tile = 4 subcarriers ×3 OFDM symbols.

Although frequency diversity is lost to a large extent with this subcarrier permutation scheme. since a subchannel at any given time is allocated to the user with the highest SNR/capacity in that subchannel. Nine adjacent subcarriers with eight data subcarriers and one pilot subcarrier are used to form a bin. Multiuser diversity provides significant improvement in overall system capacity and throughput.(iv) Band Adaptive Modulation and Coding Unique to the band AMC permutation mode. . all subcarriers constituting a subchannel are adjacent to each other. 2 bins ×3 symbols. or 3 bins ×2 consecutive symbols. exploitation of multiuser diversity is easier.  An AMC subchannel consists of six contiguous bins from within the same band.  An AMC subchannel can consist of 1 bin × 6 consecutive symbols.  Four adjacent bins in the frequency domain constitute a band.

ℎ13 = ℎ14 − ℎ11 + ℎ11 ℎ32 = ℎ32 = Finally.   𝑟𝑝 𝑡. the outer carriers of each tile are pilot subcarriers. as the time dispersion of the channel has been removed by the use of OFDM and the addition of a cyclic prefix. In WiMAX the reference design estimates the channel frequency response using linear interpolation in time and frequency on a tile-by-tile basis for each subchannel. The equalization removes the effect of the wireless channel and allows subsequent symbol demodulation. 𝑘 = 𝑟𝑝 (𝑡. The pilot structure is also outlined by Fig (6. 1 ℎ + ℎ34 3 14 When the data and pilot information has been assembled as shown in Fig (6.31).a single-tap zero forcing equalizer removes the channel distortion by dividing the received signal by the estimated channel frequency response. In the first and third OFDMA symbol. Only a single-tap equalizer is required.31). The frequency response of the two inner subcarriers may be estimated by linear interpolation in the frequency domain. 𝑘 is the pth received pilot subcarrier 𝑠𝑝 𝑡. (11) Advanced and Multiple antenna support: there several advanced multiple antenna techniques supported in the IEEE 802.(10) Channel estimation and equalization form an estimate of the amplitude and phase shift caused by the wireless channel from the available pilot information.ℎ22 ℎ21 = ℎ22 = 1 ℎ + ℎ31 3 11 1 = ℎ12 + ℎ32 3 1 3 ℎ13 + ℎ33 . ℎ14 .16 standard including adaptive antenna systems (AAS). 2 ℎ − ℎ31 + ℎ31 3 34 time domain linear interpolation is achieved as follows: ℎ21 = . ℎ31 . 𝑘) 𝑠𝑝 (𝑡. it is possible to calculate ℎ11 . 𝑘 is the pth transmitted pilot subcarrier Subsequently. space time coding(STC). 𝑘) for the tile t of OFDMA symbol k where: When all of the channel estimates have been formed. and so it is possible to make an estimate of the channel response at these frequencies by comparison with the known reference pilot subcarrier. multiple input multiple output (MIMO) to provide . frequency domain linear interpolation is performed to calculate channel estimates using the following equations: 1 ℎ12 = ℎ14 − ℎ11 + ℎ11 3 2 . 3 1 3 ℎ34 − ℎ31 + ℎ31 . ℎ34 using the equation ℎ𝑝 𝑡.

r1 is the received signal at Ant0 at time t+T. r2 is the received signal at Ant1 at time t. To decode. 𝑠𝑖 ) for both S0. the combiner builds the signals for S0. S1. the transmitted sympols are S0. in case of TDD. in the case of FDD. Ant0 and Ant1. S1 respectively. the transmitter knows the CSI. where T is the sympol duration. (a) Open loop mode: (1) Space time coding(Alamouti 2×2) For 2x2 Alamouti case. The received signals are as follow: 𝑟0 = ℎ0 𝑆0 + ℎ1 𝑆1 + 𝑛0 ∗ ∗ 𝑟1 = −ℎ0 𝑆1 + ℎ1 𝑆0 + 𝑛1 𝑟2 = ℎ2 𝑆0 + ℎ3 𝑆1 + 𝑛2 ∗ ∗ 𝑟3 = −ℎ2 𝑆1 + ℎ3 𝑆0 + 𝑛3 where r0 is the received signal at Ant0 at time t. either due to channel reciprocity. the transmitted signals are – S1*. 2 .1 + 𝑑2 (ŝ0. r3 is the received signal at Ant1 at time t+T.significant improvement in the overall system capacity and spectral efficiency of the network There are 2 modes: (1) open-loop mode the transmitter does not know the CSI (2) closed-loop mode. At instant t+T. S1 2 2 2 2 ŝ0 = (𝛼0 + 𝛼1 + 𝛼2 + 𝛼3 − 1)𝑠0 ∗ ∗ ∗ + ℎ0 𝑛0 + ℎ1 𝑛1 + ℎ2 𝑛2 ∗ + ℎ3 𝑛3 2 2 2 2 ŝ1 = (𝛼0 + 𝛼1 + 𝛼2 + 𝛼3 − 1)𝑠1 ∗ ∗ ∗ − ℎ0 𝑛1 + ℎ1 𝑛0 − ℎ2 𝑛3 ∗ + ℎ3 𝑛2 Then a Maximum Likelihood detector searches for Si that minimizes: 2 2 2 2 (𝛼0 + 𝛼1 + 𝛼2 + 𝛼3 − 1) 𝑠0. t. S0* . At a given time instant.1 . or to explicit feedback from the receiver. we have two transmit antennas.

At the receiver. bit stream is modulated then demultiplexed into 2 substreams. and each substream is sent to its respective transmit antennas. known as the frequency-hopping diversity code (FHDC). after estimating the channel parametrs. the first antenna transmits the OFDM symbols without any encoding. and the second antenna transmits the OFDM symbol by encoding it over two consecutive subchannels.16 described in the previous section do not require the transmitter to know the CSI for the receiver of interest. as shown in Figure 8 rather than the space and time domain. MIMO and diversity schemes can benefit significantly if the CSI is known at the transmitter. At the transmitter. (2) Frequency-Hopping Diversity Code WiMAX also defines an optional transmit diversity mode. the received signal and and channel parameters are sent to V-BLAST signal processing decoder. using the 2 × 2 Alamouti encoding matrix (b) Closed loop mode: The various transmit diversity and spatial-multiplexing schemes of IEEE 802. using two antennas in which the encoding is done in the space and frequency domain. CSI information at the transmitter can be used to select the appropriate MIMO mode number of transmit antennas. The CSI can be known at the . which performs ordered successive cancellation. much like a singleantenna transmission. number of simultaneous streams. In FHDC. taking the following steps: Ordering: selects the data stream with the highest signal to interference ratio Nulling: remove the effect of other streams by multipling the received signal by zeroing weights Slicing: quantize the output to get the received symbol.(1) Spatial multiplexing (SM) Multiplex a data stream into several branches and transmit via several independent channels overlapping in time and frequency. SM Transmission (using V-BLAST algorithm) We consider a V-BLAST system with 2 transmit antennas and 2 receive antennas. and space/time encoding matrix as well as to calculate an optimum precoding matrix that maximizes system capacity.

In the case of closed-loop MIMO. The MIMO precoding matrix in general is a complex matrix. with appropriate amplitude and phase adjustment Closed-loop MIMO framework in IEEE 802. The IEEE 802. The linear precoding matrix spatially mixes the various parallel streams among the various antennas. based on the entries of a predefined codebook. The MS indicates to the BS the optimum precoding matrix to be used.transmitter due to channel reciprocity. 3.16 standard defines the following five mechanisms so that the BS can estimate the optimum precoding matrix for closed-loop MIMO operations: 1. The long-term feedback provides information related to the maximum number of parallel streams: the rank of the precoding matrix to be used for DL transmissions. The MS quantizes the MIMO channel and sends this information to the BS. 4. of a space/time encoding stage identical to an open-loop system and a MIMO precoding stage. Codebook based feedback. the feedback falls broadly into two categories: long-term feedback and short-term feedback.16. as shown in consists . using the MIMO_FEEDBACK .16In order to determine the appropriate amplitude and phases of the various weights. in the case of TDD. Antenna selection. the transmitter requires some feedback from the MS. The framework for closed-loop MIMO in IEEE 802. The uplink bandwidth required to provide the full CSI to the transmitter the MIMO channel matrix for each subcarrier in a multiuser FDD MIMOOFDM system is too large and thus impractical for a closed-loop FDD MIMO system. The short-term feedback provides information about the precoding matrix weights to be used. 2. Quantized channel feedback. For practical systems. The MS indicates to the BS which transmit antenna(s) should be used for transmission in order to maximize the channel capacity and/or improve the link reliability. it is possible only to send some form of quantized information in the uplink. in the case of FDD. Antenna grouping. The MS indicates to the BS the optimum permutation of the order of the various antennas to be used with the current space/time encoding matrix. or by having a feedback channel. with the number of rows equal to the number of transmit antennas and the number of columns equal to the output of the space/time encoding block.

enhancing the interference resistance of the system. Drawbacks of these approaches include the increased system complexity and the inability to broadcast messages. enabling large cell ranges. To counter interference issues. TDD only requires a single channel or both downlink and uplink providing greater flexibility for adaptation to varied global spectrum allocations. higher range. Channel sounding. In addition. however the initial release of Mobile WiMAX certification profiles will only include TDD. improving the SNR at the receiver. the IEEE 802.16 Through the AAS options. AAS also allows for the suppression of noise sources. The BS obtains exact information about the CSI of the MS by using a dedicated and predetermined signal intended for channel sounding. Data subcarriers transmission. used for guard bands and DC carriers.16e PHY supports TDD and Full and Half-Duplex FDD operation. which requires a pair of channels. With ongoing releases. nulls can be steered in particular directions. for data 2. equal DL and UL bandwidths. Transceiver designs for TDD implementations are less complex and therefore less expensive. and TDD is the preferred duplexing mode for the following reasons:  TDD enables adjustment of the downlink/uplink ratio to efficiently support asymmetric downlink/uplink traffic. resulting in increased gain and. downlink and uplink always have fixed and generally. MIMO and other closed loop advanced antenna technologies. This in turn increases capacity by increasing the range at which a particular PHY burst profile can be received. reducing the spectral efficiency due to repetition of broadcast MAC messages to the various recipients. The BS can use the quantized MIMO channel to calculate an optimum precoding matrix. .16 standard supports the use of smart antennas to perform beam forming. Beam forming can effectively create a narrower signal beam. and discrimination on the AoD allows energy to be concentrated in the direction of the intended recipient. FRAME    BASICS OF OFDMA STRUCTURE: There are three types of OFDMA subcarriers: 1. Null subcarriers for no transmission at all. Pilot subcarriers for various estimation and synchronization purposes. Unlike FDD.message. TDD assures channel reciprocity for better support of link adaptation. FDD profiles will be considered by the WiMAX Forum to address specific market opportunities where local spectrum regulatory requirements either prohibit TDD or are more suitable for FDD deployments. (c) AAS support in IEEE Std 802. (12) Mobile WiMAX TDD Frame Structure: The 802. TDD does require system-wide synchronization. therefore. 3. 5. while with FDD.

estimation. The downlink-to-uplinksubframe ratio may be varied from 3:1 to 1:1 to support different traffic profiles. initial channel . adjacent. such as time and frequency synchronization.Active subcarriers are divided into subsets of subcarriers called subchannels. The pilot allocation is performed differently in different subcarrier allocation modes. The relevant information about the starting position and the duration of the various zones being used in a UL and DL subframe is provided by control messages in the beginning of each DL subframe. but need not be. It provides the frame configuration information such as MAP message length and the modulation and coding scheme and usable sub-channels. In a frame. respectively) to prevent DL and UL transmission collisions. BPSK modulation is used. Each frame is divided into DL and UL sub-frames separated by Transmit/Receive and Receive/Transmit Transition Gaps (TTG and RTG. The subcarriers forming one subchannel may be. DL-MAP and UL-MAP: The DL-MAP and UL-MAP provide subchannel allocation and Multiple users data regions within the frame and other control  The preamble can be used for a variety of PHY layer procedures. To create the preamble in frequency domain. Fig illustrates the OFDMA frame structure for a Time Division Duplex (TDD) implementation. and noise and interference estimation. the following control information is used to ensure optimal system operation:  Preamble: The preamble is the first OFDM symbol of the frame.  Frame Control Header (FCH): The FCH follows the preamble.

frequency.  UL ACK: The UL ACK is allocated for the MS to feedback DL HARQ ( Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request ) acknowledge.  UL CQICH: The UL CQICH channel is allocated for the MS to feedback channel state information. it is often sent over a very reliable link. Since MAP contains critical information that needs to reach all users.9 µs 2.  UL Ranging: The UL ranging sub-channel is allocated for mobile stations (MS) to perform closed-loop time. In order to conserve resources.information for the DL and UL sub-frames respectively. The BS also transmits the downlink channel descriptor (DCD) and the uplink channel descriptor (UCD) following the UL-MAP message. such as BPSK with rate 1/2 coding and repetition coding.  TTG & RTG : Transmit/Receive and Receive/Transmit Transition Gaps . Each frame has 47 OFDM symbols each symbol duration is 102. the DCD and the UCD are not transmitted every DL frame. Burst Regions is used as Data regions from different users each burst has the same modulation and code rate for all users that are included in this burst. and power adjustment as well as bandwidth requests. which contains additional control information pertaining to the description of channel structure and the various burst profiles that are allowed within the given BS.3GPP LTE PHY layer: Downlink Physical layer: . Frame duration is almost 5 ms (it is variable from 2 ms to 20 ms).

Note that filler bits may be needed also if there is no actual codeblock segmentation. 16 Having a CRC per code block allows for early detection of correctly decoded code blocks and corresponding early termination of the iterative decoding of that code block. the WCDMA/ HSPA Turbo encoder internal interleaver has.(1) CRC insertion: In the first step of the transportchannel processing.27 code-block segmentation also implies that an additional (24 bits) CRC is calculated for and appended to each code block. In order to ensure that the size of each code block is matched to the set of available code-block sizes. eight-state constituent encoders. is applied before Turbo coding. It should be noted that. in case of no code-block segmentation. that is in case of a single code block. and K is the codeblock/interleaver size. This can be used to reduce the terminal processing effort and power consumption. In case the transport block. exceeds this maximum code-block size. However. that is if the transportblock size does not exceed the maximum code-block size. implying an overall code rate of 1/3. (2) Code-block segmentation and per-code-block CRC insertion: The LTE Turbo-coder internal interleaver is only defined for a limited number of code-block sizes with a maximum block size of 6144 bits. filler bits may have to be inserted at the head of the first code block. The values of the parameters f1 and f2 depend on the . c(i) is the index of the same bit at the input of the interleaver. The CRC allows for receiverside detection of errors in the decoded transport block. been replaced by QPPbased17 interleaving . Codeblock segmentation implies that the transport block is segmented into smaller code blocks that match the set of code-block sizes defined for the Turbo coder. no additional code-block CRC is applied (3) Turbo coding The overall structure of the LTE Turbo encoding is illustrated in Figure The Turbo encoding reuses the two WCDMA/HSPA rate-1/2. a 24-bit CRC is calculatedfor and appended to each transport block. used by the downlink hybrid-ARQ protocol as a trigger for requesting retransmissions. code-block segmentation as illustrated in fig. including the transport-block CRC. 15 As can be seen in Figure 16. The corresponding error indication is then. the QPP interleaver provides a mapping from the input (non- interleaved) bits to the output (interleaved) bits according to the function: where i is the index of the bit at the output of the interleaver. for example. for LTE.

together with the associated values for the parameters f1 and f2 . The set of bits to extract depends on the redundancy version corresponding to different starting points for the extraction of coded bits from the circular buffer.code-block size K . The LTE specification lists all supported codeblock sizes. As can be seen.30 . As illustrated in Figure 16. . from the blocks of code bits delivered by the channel encoder. ranging from a minimum of 40 bits to a maximum of 6144 bits. The interleaved bits are then inserted into what can be described as a circular buffer with the systematic bits inserted first. there are four different alternatives for the redundancy version. (4) Rate-matching and physicallayer hybrid-ARQ functionality The task of the rate-matching and physical-layer hybrid-ARQ functionality is to extract.first parity bits. the outputs of the Turbo encoder (systematic bits. The bit selection then extracts consecutive bits from the circular buffer to the extent that fits into the assigned resource. followed by alternating insertion of the first and second parity bits. the exact set of bits to be transmitted within a given TTI. and second parity bits) are first separately interleaved.

respectively. In case of localized VRBs. 16QAM. corresponding to two. The key to distributed transmission then lies in the mapping from VRB pairs to Physical Resource Block (PRB) pairs. and MCH transport channels. only QPSK modulation can be applied to the BCH transport channel. and 64QAM. that is. Each resource block consists of 84 resource elements (12 subcarriers during 7 OFDM symbols) when deciding what set of resource blocks to use for transmission to a specific terminal.  even a single VRB pair is distributed in the frequency . in case of distributed VRBs. there is a direct mapping from VRB pairs to PRB pairs as illustrated in Figure.(5) Bit-level scrambling LTE downlink scrambling implies that the block of code bits delivered by the hybrid-ARQ functionality is multiplied ( exclusive-or operation) by a bit-level scrambling sequence . What is being provided in the resource allocation is the resource allocation in terms of VRB pairs. the mapping from VRB pairs to PRB pairs is more elaborate in the sense that  Consecutive VRBs are not mapped to PRBs that are consecutive in the frequency domain. two transport blocks. PCH. the notion of a Virtual Resource Block (VRB) has been introduced for LTE. the interfering signal(s) after descrambling are randomized. Such time/ frequency-domain channel-dependent scheduling. However. In general. thus not being able to properly suppress the interference. the network may take the downlink channel conditions in both the time and frequency domain into account. By applying different scrambling sequences for neighbor cells. Without downlink scrambling. at least in principle. and six bits per modulation symbol. in the general case. ensuring full utilization of the processing gain provided by the channel code (6) modulation The downlink data modulation transforms the block of scrambled bits to a corresponding block of complex modulation symbols. The set of modulation schemes supported for the LTE downlink includes QPSK. the channel decoder at the mobile terminal could. (7) Antenna mapping The Antenna Mapping jointly processes the modulation symbols corresponding to. four. be equally matched to an interfering signal as to the target signal. The LTE specification defines two types of VRBs: localized VRBs and distributed VRBs. to the actual physical resource used for transmission. taking channel variations However. In order to provide the possibility for distributed resource-block allocation in case of resource allocation type 2. and maps the result to the different antenna ports (8) Resource-block mapping The resource-block mapping maps the symbols to be transmitted on each antenna port to the resource elements of the set of resource blocks assigned by the MAC scheduler for transmission of the transport block(s) to the terminal. All these modulation schemes are applicable to the DL-SCH. scrambling of the coded data helps to ensure that the receiver-side decoding can fully utilize the processing gain provided by the channel code. As will be described in Chapter 18. in some cases downlink channel-dependent scheduling is not suitable an alternative means to handle radio-channel frequency selectivity is to achieve frequency diversity by distributing a downlink transmission in the frequency domain. as well as to allow for distributing the transmission of a single resource-block pair in the frequency domain.

On the second antenna port. The spreading in the frequency domain is done by means of a block-based ‗ interleaver ‘ operating on resource-block pairs. LTE transmit diversity is based on Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC).domain. As can be seen in combined SFBD/FSTD implies that pairs of modulation symbols are transmitted by means of SFBC with transmission alternating between pairs of antenna ports (antenna ports 0 and 2 and antenna ports 1 and 3. LTE transmit diversity is based on a combination of SFBC and Frequency Shift Transmit Diversity (FSTD). spatial multiplexing implies that multiple streams or ‗ layers ‘ are transmitted in parallel.33 . thereby allowing for higher data rates within a given bandwidth.32 ). the swapped and transformed symbols are transmitted on the corresponding subcarriers. in addition to single-antenna transmission: ● Transmit diversity ● Closed-loop spatial multiplexing including codebook-based beamforming ● Open-loop spatial multiplexing Transmit diversity In case of two antenna ports. This step can be seen as the introduction of frequency hopping on a slot basis. SFBC implies that consecutive modulation symbols 1 are mapped directly on adjacent subcarriers on the first antenna port.The basic principle of distributed transmission consists of two steps: o A mapping from VRB pairs to PRB pairs such that consecutive VRB pairs are not mapped to frequency-consecutive PRB pairs This provides frequency diversity between consecutive VRB pairs. where NA is the number of antenna ports. This provides frequency diversity also for a single VRB pair. The LTE spatial multiplexing may operate in two different modes: closed-loop spatial multiplexing and open-loop spatial multiplexing where . o A split of each resource-block pair such that the two resource blocks of the resource-block pair are transmitted with a certain frequency gap in between (second step of Figure 16. Closed loop Spatial multiplexing As described in Chapter 6. (9) Multi-antenna transmission LTE supports the following multiantenna transmission schemes or transmission modes . up to a maximum of NA layers. LTE spatial multiplexing allows for the transmission of a variable number of layers. respectively). As can be seen from Figure 16. In case of four antenna ports.

three. One or two codewords. As can be seen. As an example. also sometimes referred to as large-delay CDD The structure of large-delay CDD is illustrated in Figure 16. and 4×4. respectively. the matrices U and D ( i ) for the case of two layers ( NL ×2) are given by: . are mapped to the NL layers.37 can be expressed as a product of two matrices P =U. corresponding to pre-coder matrices of size 4×1. the overall pre-coding functionality can in this case be seen as a combination of two pre-coder matrices. two. a matrix P of size NL×NL and a matrix W of size NA ×NL . This combining/mapping can be described by means of a pre-coder matrix W of size NA *NL As LTE supports multi-antenna transmission using two or four antenna ports. 4×3. respectively.closed-loop spatial multiplexing relies on more extensive feedback from the mobile terminal. corresponding to precoder matrices of size 2×1 and 2×2. The number of NL layers may range from a minimum of one layer up to a maximum number of layers equal to the number of antenna ports After layer mapping. and four layers. The matrix P in Figure 16. 4×2. four antenna ports ( NA = 4) and one. where U is a constant matrix of size NL×NL and D ( i ) is matrix of size NL×NL that varies between subcarriers.37 . D . a set of NL symbols (one symbol from each layer) is linearly combined and mapped to the NA antenna ports. corresponding to one or two transport blocks. pre-coding matrices are defined for: two antenna ports ( NA = 2) and one and two layers. Open loop SM LTE also supports open-loop spatial multiplexing .

the SC-FDMA parameters chosen for the LTE uplink have been optimized under the assumption of frequency-domain DFTS-OFDM signal generation. Thus there is a tradeoff between bandwidth efficiency and CM/PAPR reduction between the timeand frequency-domain SC-FDMA generation methods. resulting in a much shorter ramp time similar to OFDM. for a 5 MHz operating bandwidth. physical layer parameters optimized for time-domain implementation might have a sampling rate of 4. including the same subcarrier spacing. the pulseshaping filter in the time-domain generation does provide the benefit of reduced CM by approximately 0. This enables efficient. a 10% increase in bandwidth efficiency can be achieved. is to average out any differences in the channel conditions as seen by the different layers. while for DFT-S-OFDM there is no explicit pulse-shaping filter. Thus. resulting in bandwidth efficiency which is smaller than that achievable with the frequency domain method with its inherent ‗sinc‘ (zero excess bandwidth) pulse-shaping filter which arises from the zero padding and IFFT operation.5 ms slots. low-complexity mixed-radix FFT implementations.5 dB compared to DFT-S-OFDM. closed-loop spatial multiplexing includes beamforming as a special case when the number of layers NL equals one. that is the ‗ large-delay CDD ‘ part of the open-loop spatial multiplexing. This provides maximal commonality between uplink and downlink. An equivalent set of parameters optimized for the frequency-domain generation can support a bandwidth efficiency of 90% (with 300 occupied subcarriers and 15 kHz subcarrier spacing). including for example the same clock frequency. SC-FDMA Parameters for LTE The same basic transmission resource structure is used for the uplink as for the downlink: a 10 ms radio frame is divided into ten 1 ms subframes each consisting of two 0. allowing higher data rates. with frequency-domain processing. For example. number of occupied subcarriers in a given bandwidth. As LTE . Frequency-domain signal generation for the LTE uplink has a further benefit in that it allows a very similar parameterization to be adopted as for the OFDM downlink. each technique requires a slightly different parameterization for efficient signal generation. However. For these reasons. 3 and/or 5. This kind of beamforming can be referred to as codebook-based beam-forming. SC-FDMA Design in LTE Transmit Processing for LTE Although the frequency-domain generation of SC-FDMA (DFT-SOFDM) is functionally equivalent to the time-domain SC-FDMA signal generation.The basic idea with the matrix P .25– 0. as shown in Fig. ?. The pulseshaping filter used in the time domain SC-FDMA generation approach in practice has a non-zero excess bandwidth. An important feature of the LTE SCFDMA parameterization is that the numbers of subcarriers which can be allocated to a UE for transmission are restricted such that the DFT size in LTE can be constructed from multiples of 2. and CP lengths.096 Mps (256 subcarriers with 16 kHz subcarrier spacing) resulting in bandwidth efficiency of 82%. The non-zero excess bandwidth pulseshaping filter in the time-domain generation also requires ramp-up and ramp-down times of 3–4 samples duration. General beam-forming As described above.

consisting of one SC-FDMA data block length on one subcarrier. all the uplink data transmissions are localized. one difference from the downlink is that the uplink coverage is more likely to be limited by the maximum transmission power of the UE. The 1 ms subframe allows a 1 ms scheduling interval (or Transmission Time Interval (TTI)). One solution to this is to segment the VoIP packet at higher layers to allow it to be transmitted over several subframes.69 μs and an extended CP of 16. However.e. Frequencydiversity can still be exploited by means of frequency hopping. The LTE uplink allows groups of 4 TTIs to be ‗bundled‘ in this way. as for the downlink. where a single transport block from the MAC layer is transmitted repeatedly in multiple consecutive subframes. However. using contiguous blocks of subcarriers. The uplink transmission resources are also defined in the frequency domain (i. with only one set of signaling messages for the whole transmission. it uses the same 15 kHz subcarrier spacing as the downlink. In the case of .67 μs. The extended CP is beneficial for deployments with large channel delay-spread characteristics. this may mean that a single Voice-over-IP (VoIP) packet. and enables the same RB structure to be used as in the downlink. as in the downlink. The LTE uplink SCFDMA physical layer parameters for Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD) deployments are detailed in Table 6. with the smallest unit of resource being a Resource Element (RE). and for large cells. In some situations. a Resource Block (RB) comprises 12 REs in the frequency domain for a duration of 1 slot.SC-FDMA is based on the same fundamental processing as OFDM. cannot be transmitted in a 1 ms subframe with an acceptable error rate. such segmentation results in additional signaling overhead for each segment (including resource allocation signaling and Hybrid ARQ acknowledgement signaling). A more efficient technique for improving uplink VoIP coverage at the cell edge is to use so-called TTI bundling. LTE uplink SC-FDMA physical layer parameters Two CP durations are supported – a normal CP of duration 4. This simplifies the transmission scheme. In practice in LTE. as detailed in Section 6. which can occur both within one subframe (at the boundary between the two slots) and between subframes. Table 6. to enable low latency. As in the downlink.2. in addition to the normal 1 ms TTI. before the IFFT). for example.

Thus two subcarriers . such that one of the RBs includes information modulated at d. Note that in the OFDM downlink parameter specification. this effect would be most noticeable with a narrow bandwidth transmission consisting of a single RB.c.c. for ease of implementation in a multimode UE. the LTE uplink supports scalable system bandwidths from approximately 1.4 MHz up to 20 MHz with the same subcarrier spacing and symbol duration for all bandwidths. in baseband). (e. Like the downlink. Table 7. subcarrier which were considered in the design of the LTE uplink in order to minimize d. the channel coding spans the two transmission frequencies. subcarrier being one of the subcarriers for RB 26).c.g. d. subcarrier would be reduced at the receiver.c. The d. 601 subcarriers for the 10 MHz bandwidth case). for example arising from local oscillator leakage. subcarrier distortion region falls in the middle of a RB. and therefore the frequency diversity gain is maximized through the channel decoding process. • Option 3.frequency hopping within a subframe.c. subcarrier is unused. In this section we explore three possible configurations of the d. no unused d. This option would be beneficial for the case of a system bandwidth with an even number of RBs where the additional subcarrier would be unused and correspond to the d. resulting in an offset of 7. the d. The only instance of distributed transmission in the LTE uplink (using an IFDMA-like structure) is for the ‗Sounding Reference Signals‘ (SRSs) which are transmitted to enable the eNodeB to perform uplink frequency-selective scheduling. The uplink scaling for the bandwidths supported in the first release of LTE is shown in Table 7. The performance of the RB containing the d.c.c. • Option 2.84 MHz chip rate.5 kHz for subcarriers relative to d. In contrast.c. One more subcarrier is configured than is required for the number of RBs (e. LTE Uplink SC-FDMA parametrization for selected carrier bandwidths. subcarrier located between RBs allocated to different UEs.5 kHz). • Option 1. Note that the sampling rates resulting from the indicated FFT sizes are designed to be small rational multiples of the UMTS 3.c. Subcarrier in SC-FDMA Direct conversion transmitters and receivers can introduce distortion at the carrier frequency (zero frequency or d.c.g.c. The subcarriers are frequency-shifted by half a subcarrier spacing (±7.c. distortion effects on the packet error rate and the CM/PAPR. 600 subcarriers for 10MHz operation bandwidth with the d. subcarrier is possible for SC-FDMA as it can affect the low CM/PAPR property of the transmit signal.

IV. location. and is illustrated in Fig. This is the option used in LTE.c.straddle the d. System Architecture . 5 for deployments with even and odd numbers of RBs across the system bandwidth.

and service credentials to selected NSP AAA and temporary storage of user‘s profiles • Relay functionality for establishing IP connectivity between the MS and the CSN • Radio resource management (RRM) and allocation based on the QoS policy and/or request from the NSP or the ASP .Specifying the PHY and MAC of the radio link alone is not sufficient to build an interoperable broadband wireless network. user. The subscriber is served from the CSN belonging to the visited NSP. and Profiles The ASN performs the following functions: • IEEE 802. The NRM identifies the functional entities in the architecture and the reference points between the functional entities over which interoperability is achieved. the home NSP is where the subscriber belongs. which is a logical representation of the network architecture. Rather.9 Network reference model 1. Decompositions. which is owned by an NSP.ASN Functions. (2) the access service network (ASN) which is owned by a NAP and comprises one or more base stations and one or more ASN gateways that form the radio access network. the network architecture framework that deals with the end-to-end service aspects is needed. and provides IP connectivity and all the IP core network functions. and (3) the connectivity service network (CSN).WiMAX Fig 9 shows the WiMAX network reference model (NRM).16e–based layer 2 connectivity with the MS • Network discovery and selection of the subscriber‘s preferred CSN/NSP • AAA proxy: transfer of device. The NRM divides the end-to-end system into three logical parts: (1) mobile stations used by the subscriber to access the work. Fig. a.

and paging within the ASN. and managing multicast group association via Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) proxy. acts as a server for network session and mobility management. and service flow management (SFM) by acting as the QoS policy enforcement point (PEP) for traffic via the air interface. providing DHCP proxy functionality. acts as an authenticator and AAA. session/mobility management (client). traffic classification. serving as RSVP proxy for session management. acts as a client for session/mobility management. QoS and policy enforcement. such as handover. When decomposed in such a way. . performs service flow authorization (SFA). including support for mobile IP with foreign-agent functionality The ASN may be decomposed into one or more base stations (BSs) and one or more ASN Gateways (ASN-GW) as shown in Fig. regional radio resource control and admission control. as per the ASN profiles defined by the WiMAX Forum. A BS may be connected to more than one ASN-GW for load balancing or redundancy purposes. location management. idle) status. Examples of DP functions include intra-ASN location management and paging. Additional functions handled by the BS in both profiles include scheduling for the uplink and the downlink. network session/mobility management (server).9. each calling for a different decomposition of functions within the ASN. The BS is defined as representing one sector with one frequency assignment implementing the IEEE 802. and AAA client/proxy. temporary caching of subscriber profile and encryption keys.16e interface to the MS. reception and delivery of the traffic encryption key (TEK) and the key encryption key (KEK) to the MS. Examples of EP functions include mobility tunneling establishment and management with BSs. The ASN-GW provides ASN location management and paging. and performs routing (IPv4 and IPv6) to selected CSNs. the DP functions may be shared across multiple ASN Gateways. Table 2. providing terminal activity (active. It should be noted that the ASN gateway may optionally be decomposed into two groups of functions: decision point (DP) functions and enforcement point (EP) functions. provides mobility tunnel establishment and management with BSs. based on the user profile and QoS policy.• Mobility-related functions. radio load balancing for handover decisions. provides foreign agent functionality. and routing to selected CSN.1 lists the split of the various functional entities within an ASN between the BS and the ASN-GW. The WiMAX NRM defines multiple profiles for the ASN. foreign agent. relaying authentication messages between the MS and the ASNGW.

VPN. authorization.1 Functional Decomposition of the ASN in Various Release 1 Profiles 2.Reference Points The WiMAX NWG defines a reference point (RP) as a conceptual link that connects two groups of functions that reside in different functional entities of the ASN. The CSN of the home NSP distributes the subscriber profile to the NAP directly or via the visited NSP. • Inter-ASN mobility management and mobile IP home agent functionality. access to other IP networks. • Subscriber billing and interoperator settlement. CSN. • Policy and QoS management based on the SLA/contract with the user. locationbased services. and accounting (AAA). ASPs. • Connectivity infrastructure and policy control for such services as Internet access. device and services authentication.CSN Functions The CSN provides the following functions: • IP address allocation to the MS for user sessions. except when . Reference points are not necessarily a physical interface. 3. • Inter-CSN tunneling to support roaming between NSPs. or MS. IP multimedia services. law enforcement. • AAA proxy or server for user. and messaging. peer-to-peer.Table 2.

These reference points are listed in Table 2. It is assumed that an MS will operate in an environment in which multiple networks are available for it to connect to and multiple service providers are offering services over the available networks. Fig. The solution consists of four procedures: . based on user preference. To facilitate such operation.2. the WiMAX standard offers a solution for network discovery and selection.the functional entities on either side of it are implemented on different physical devices. shows a number of reference points defined by the WiMAX NWG.Network Discovery and Selection WiMAX networks are required to support either manual or automatic selection of the appropriate network.9 Table 2.2 WiMAX Reference Points 4.

NSP selection may be automatic or manual. Table 2. The MS scans and decodes the DL MAP of ASNs on all detected channels.3 PoA IP address scheme (IPv6) Static or stateful autoconfiguration Stateful or stateless autoconfiguration Stateful or stateless authconfiguration PoA IP address scheme (IPv4) Static or dynamic Dynamic DHCP for P-MIP terminals MIP based for C-MIP terminals P-MIP=Proxy-Mobile IP mode. 5. depending on roaming agreements and the user subscription profile and policy.IP Address Assignment The Dynamic Host Control Protocol (DHCP) is used as the primary mechanism to allocate a dynamic point-of-attachment (PoA) IP address to the MS. dynamic allocation from either the home or the visited CSN is allowed. The 24-bit value of the ―operator ID‖ within the base station ID parameter in DL MAP as defined in IEEE 802. using an SBC-REQ message. NSP enumeration and selection.16 serves as the NAP identifier.3 PoA IP address method according to the WiMAX access services and IP version 6. Service type Fixed access Nomadic access Mobile access NSP enumeration and selection: The MS may make a selection from the list of available NSPs by using an appropriate algorithm. The MS can dynamically discover the NSPs during initial scan or network entry by listening to the NSP IDs broadcast by the ASN as part of the system identity information advertisement (SII-ADV) MAC management message. or 32-byte NAI (network access identifier). NSP discovery. C-MIP=Client-Mobile IP mode. the MS indicates its selection by attaching to an ASN associated with the selected NSP and by providing its identity and home NSP domain in the form of a network access identifier. The NSPs are identified by a unique 24-bit NSP identifier. ASN attachment: Once an NSP is selected. the home CSN may allocate IP addresses to an ASN via AAA. which in turn is delivered to the MS via DHCP. portable and mobile access.Mobility The mobility procedures are divided into two mobility levels: ASN anchored mobility procedures. See table 2. NSP-IDs may also be transmitted by the BS in response to a specific request by MS. Alternatively. and ASN attachment. This refers to MS mobility where no CoA . NAP discovery: This process enables the MS to discover all available NAPs within a coverage area. For nomadic. NSP discovery: This process enables the MS to discover all NSPs that provide service over a given ASN.NAP discovery.

It aims to provide seamless Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity between User Equipment (UE) and the Packet Data Network (PDN). • Serving Gateway (S-GW). Fig. While the CN consists of many logical nodes. Client MIP (CMIPv4).LTE LTE has been designed to support only packet switched services. which connects to the UEs.address update is needed. The macromobility between the ASN and CSN is based on mobile IP protocols running across the R3 interface. the MS is unaware of CSN mobility management activities and there is no additional signalling/overhead over the air to complete the CSN mobility.The Core Network The CN (called EPC in SAE) is responsible for the overall control of the UE and establishment of the bearers. the evolved NodeB (eNodeB). as well as for running services such as Voice over IP (VoIP). The EPC and E-UTRAN network elements are described in more detail below. the network is comprised of the CN (EPC) and the access network (E-UTRAN). CSN anchored mobility implies that. the MS changes to a new anchor FA (Foreign Agent). it is accompanied by an evolution of the non-radio aspects under the term ‗System Architecture Evolution‘ (SAE) which includes the Evolved Packet Core . the access network is made up of essentially just one node. WiMAX systems must support at least one of the following mobile IP schemes: Proxy-MIP. The main logical nodes of the EPC are: • PDN Gateway (P-GW). In this case. At a high level. This is achieved by means of several EPS network elements which have different roles. A bearer is an IP packet flow with a defined Quality of Service (QoS) between the gateway and the UE. Together LTE and SAE comprise the Evolved Packet System (EPS). the MIP client in the MS participates in inter-ASN mobility. b. (EPC) network. EPS uses the concept of EPS bearers to route IP traffic from a gateway in the PDN to the UE. also known as micromobility. 1. • Mobility Management Entity (MME). 10 shows the overall network architecture including the network elements and the standardized interfaces. in the case of IPv4. a. without any disruption to the end users‘ applications during mobility. CSN anchored mobility procedures. While the term ‗LTE‘ encompasses the evolution of the radio access through the Evolved-UTRAN (E-UTRAN). In this case.Overall Architectural Overview EPS provides the user with IP connectivity to a PDN for accessing the Internet.

the S-GW performs some administrative functions in the visited network such as collecting . provides the QoS authorization (QoS class identifier and bitrates) that decides how a certain data flow will be treated and ensures that this is in accordance with the user‘s subscription profile. It also retains the information about the bearers when the UE is in idle state (known as ECM-IDLE) and temporarily buffers downlink data while the MME initiates paging of the UE to reestablish the bearers. The P-GW is responsible for IP address allocation for the UE. The HLR may also integrate the Authentication Centre (AuC) which generates the vectors for authentication and security keys. All user IP packets are transferred through the S-GW. It also serves as the mobility anchor for inter-working with non3GPP technologies such as CDMA2000 and WiMAX networks. The P-GW is responsible for the filtering of downlink user IP packets into the different QoS based bearers. • Home Location Register (HLR). The HLR contains users‘ subscription data such as the EPS-subscribed QoS profile and any access restrictions for roaming. In addition. 10 The EPS network elements. In addition the HLR holds dynamic information such as the identity of the MME to which the user is currently attached or registered. EPC also includes other logical nodes and functions such as the Home Subscriber Server (HSS) and the Policy Control and Charging Rules Function (PCRF). • P-GW.Fig. 10 and discussed in more detail in the following. • PCRF. It also holds information about the PDNs to which the user can connect. which serves as the local mobility anchor for the data bearers when the UE moves between eNodeBs. control of multimedia applications such as VoIP is provided by the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) which is considered to be outside the EPS itself. • S-GW. Since the EPS only provides a bearer path of a certain QoS. The logical CN nodes are shown in Fig. In addition to these nodes. as well as QoS enforcement and flow-based charging according to rules from the PCRF.

the MME sends a paging message to all the eNodeBs in its current TA. This transition between the UE states is called an idle-to-active transition. The protocols running between the UE and the CN are known as the NonAccess Stratum (NAS) protocols. b. It also serves as the mobility anchor for interworking with other 3GPP technologies such as GPRS and UMTS. the UE performs a service request procedure which results in moving the UE to ECMCONNECTED state. EUTRAN. The MME is responsible for keeping track of the user location while the UE is in ECM-IDLE. this procedure is called a ‗Tracking Area Update‘.information for charging (e. This state is called EPS Connection Management IDLE (ECMIDLE). simply consists of a network of .g. and the bearers are re-established. To allow the network to contact an ECM-IDLE UE.Non-Access Stratum (NAS) Procedures The NAS procedures. When there is a need to deliver downlink data to an ECM-IDLE UE. all UErelated information in the access network can be released during long periods of data inactivity. The MME retains the UE context and the information about the established bearers during these idle periods. maintenance and release of the bearers. The MME creates a UE context when a UE is turned on and attaches to the network. c. To reduce the overhead in the EUTRAN and processing in the UE. is the control node which processes the signaling between the UE and the CN. are fundamentally similar to UMTS. and the eNodeBs page the UE over the radio interface.The Access Network The Access Network of LTE. the volume of data sent to or received from the user. It assigns a unique short temporary identity termed the SAE-Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (S-TMSI) to the UE which identifies the UE context in the MME. Connection management Functions: This includes the establishment of the connection and security between the network and UE. The MME is responsible for the re-establishment of the radio bearers and updating the UE context in the eNodeB. •MME. On receipt of a paging message. especially the connection management procedures. This UE context holds user subscription information downloaded from the HSS. The main functions supported by the MME are classified as: Bearer management Functions: This includes the establishment. The local storage of subscription data in the MME allows faster execution of procedures such as bearer establishment since it removes the need to consult the HSS every time. NAS control procedures are discussed in more detail in the following section. the UE updates the network as to its new location whenever it moves out of its current Tracking Area (TA). UE-related information is thereby created in the E-UTRAN.

such as radio bearer control. All data sent over the radio interface is encrypted Connectivity to the EPC. there is no centralized controller in E-UTRAN. The eNodeBs are normally interconnected with each other by means of an interface known as X2. Security. as illustrated in Fig. to the MME by means of the S1-MME interface and to the S-GW by means of the S1-U interface. radio mobility control. The protocols which run between the eNodeBs and the UE are known as the Access Stratum (AS) protocols. . This helps to ensure efficient use of the radio interface by compressing the IP packet headers which could otherwise represent a significant overhead. Fig. radio admission control. which can be summarized briefly as: Radio Resource Management.eNodeBs. hence the EUTRAN architecture is said to be flat. E-UTRAN architecture. scheduling and dynamic allocation of resources to UEs in both uplink and downlink Header Compression. The E-UTRAN is responsible for all radio-related functions. 11. For normal user traffic . and to the EPC by means of the S1 interface – more specifically. This consists of the signaling towards the MME and the bearer path towards the S-GW. 11. This covers all functions related to the radio bearers. especially for small packets such as VoIP.

whereas most CDMA2000 providers. The parameters presented in Table 8 show that the Mobile WiMAX and 3GPPLTE standards are technically similar. as well as GSM/EDGE providers in the developing world. The comparison focuses mainly on the physical layer aspects of the radio access technology of these two standards. i. each of which can be responsible for managing multiple cells. from one eNodeB to another. as is the case for eNodeB#2 in Fig.e. mechanisms are therefore needed to avoid data loss during handover. 11. the network must transfer all information related to a UE. Mobile WiMAX . Such distributed control eliminates the need for a highavailability. will select Mobile WiMAX for mobile broadband wireless access while providing service continuity over their legacy networks.and third generation technologies. thus reducing latency and improving efficiency. whereas LTE has been only recently standardized. was first to market. processing-intensive controller. One consequence of the lack of a centralized controller node is that. which in turn has the potential to reduce costs and avoid ‗single points of failure‘. in terms of market perspective the two standards differ in terms of expected time to market and legacy. We may also conclude that in the developed world major UMTS/HSPA service providers will naturally evolve to 3GPP-LTE. and the area covered by such a pool of MME/S-GWs is called a pool area. However. The set of MME/S-GW nodes which serves a common area is called an MME/SGW pool. Unlike some of the previous second. Following this observation.On the network side. we may conclude that due to timeline benefits new service providers as well as existing cable and DSL providers wishing to offer mobile services are likely to select Mobile WiMAX as their technology for mobile broadband access. LTE integrates the radio controller function into the eNodeB. An eNodeB may be served by multiple MME/SGWs. the UE context. together with any buffered data. V. all of these functions reside in the eNodeBs. as the UE moves. Conclusions Table 8 below presents the key elements of a comparison between the Mobile WiMAX and 3GPP-LTE standards as they converge to 4G broadband wireless access systems.

Academic Press [4] Jacob Scheim. "Fundamentals of WiMAX: Understanding Broadband Wireless Networking". "3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband". Dr. Issam Toufik and Matthew Baker. 2008. [5] "Advanced Technologies in Wireless Communication Systems with Mobile WiMAX System Simulation and Implementation". Johan Sköld and Per Beming. Communication & Signal Processing Ltd. [3] Erik Dahlman. Arunabha Ghosh and Rias Muhamed. Stefan Parkvall.16e REFERENCES [1] Jeffrey G. Andrews. Ltd.Table 8. Second edition 2008. "LTE: The UMTS LongTerm Evolution". Prentice Hall Communications Engineering and Emerging Technologies Series [2] Stefania Sesia. "A Comparison of Two Fourth Generation Technologies: WiMAX and 3GPP-LTE". 2009 John Wiley & Sons. Ibrahim Ghaleb's gradution project's book . December 2006 White Paper. Comparison of 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.

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