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2005 on the SPE's OnePetro The papers relating to reservoir engineering have been catergorised for inclusion on the reservoirengineering.org.uk website The affiiations searched were; Total No Papers 551 575 482 191 55 255 1130 95 235 3569 Reservoir Engineering Related 175 279 238 68 37 129 563 53 175 1717
BP Shell Chevron ConocoPhillips Marathon Total Schlumberger Imperial College, London Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh (Anywhere in Article) Total
Total number of papers published post 2005 =
35% of papers published categorised
BP SCHLUMBERGER CHEVRON Heriot Watt University SHELL SHELL
Paper Source No.
SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE 90680 109860 110272 110272 102304 98098
Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing
Analysis Analysis - Closed Chamber Tests Analysis - Fluivial Reservoir Analysis - Fluivial Reservoir Analysis - Fractured Water Injector Analysis - Fractured Well
CHEVRON SCHLUMBERGER SHELL BP SCHLUMBERGER BP SCHLUMBERGER CHEVRON SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SHELL BP BP TOTAL SHELL BP SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER CONOCO SHELL SHELL BP Imperial College SCHLUMBERGER SHELL SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER TOTAL SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER Heriot Watt University
SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE IPTC SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE IPTC SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE
105134 105134 104480 100836 110576 104581 116969 113903 104059 120515 123115 109053 11691 102483 102483 115720 102484 102575 123555 114594 117435 88735 108665 11672 100993 109279 109279 113650 118148 118148 110873 116003 114127 115478 90992 101475 103223 121949
Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing
Analysis - Horizontal Wells Analysis - Horizontal Wells Analysis - Horizontal Wells Analysis - Low Permeability Analysis - Multi-Fractured Wells Analysis - Multilaterals Analysis - Multilayer Reservoir Analysis - Multiphase Analysis - Naturally Fractured Reservoir Analysis - Radius of Investigation Analysis - Real Time Evaluation Connected Volume Estimation Connected Volume Estimation Connected Volume Estimation Connected Volume Estimation Connected Volume Estimation Deconvolution Deconvolution Exploration Wells Fracture Diagnostics Horizontal WElls HP/HT HP/HT Interference testing Lean gas Condensate Mini-DST Mini-DST MiniDST Interpretation Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multiphase Metering Multi-well Decovolution
Heriot Watt University Heriot Watt University SCHLUMBERGER SCHLUMBERGER SHELL Heriot Watt University TOTAL Heriot Watt University Imperial College Imperial College Imperial College Heriot Watt University Heriot Watt University Heriot Watt University TOTAL Heriot Watt University
SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE
122409 100951 105271 107967 99971 128359 128359 100993 89904 89905 94018 120893 113323 107521 110820 107209
Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well testing Well Testing
Numercial Analysis Numerical Analysis Numerical Modelling Production Analysis Production Monitoring PTA PTA PTA PTA PTA PTA PTA PTA Interpretation PTA Interpretation Real gas Flow Analysis Rel Perm Determination
CHEVRON SCHLUMBERGER Imperial College Imperial College SCHLUMBERGER TOTAL BP MARATHON TOTAL TOTAL
SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE SPE
112732 103040 100136 102079 102106 115820 113888 124271 105685 103216
Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well testing Well Testing Well Testing Well Testing Well testing
Sand Prediction State of the Nation State of the Nation State of the Nation Streaming Potential Measurement Testing by Production Logging Uncertainty Value of Information Vertical Interference Test Wellbore Storage Analysis
Subject Deconvolution amber Tests PTA/Seismic Attribute PTA/Seismic Attribute PFO SRT Carbonate Reservoir Carbonate Reservoir PTA Rate Dependent Transient Flow Stacked Reservoirs Layer Properties 2 Phase Partial Penetration Reserve Estimation PTA Design and Interpretation Image Log Thermal Transient Analysis Annular Pressure Buildup Behaviour Gas Condensate Temperature Data Analysis Deepwater Deepwater Gas Challenging Conditions Challenging Conditions Gas Condensate Heavy Oil Reliability Validation .
Streamline Heterogeneity Full Field Simulations Integral Derivative Function Optmisation/Automation Flow Regime Identification Flow Regime Identification Gas Condensate Gas Condensate Gas Condensate Gas Condensate Challenging Conditions Deconvolution/Decline Curve Wavelet Method Average Pressure Approximation Pre Drill DST Prediction Advances in Interpretation and Measurement Analysis Approaches Evolution of Deconvolution Technology Application Test Interpretation West Brae Field Permeability Anisotropy Deconvolution .
Title Practical Considerations for Pressure-Rate Deconvolution of Well-Test Data A New Approach for Interpreting Pressure Data To Estimate Key Reservoir Parameters From Closed-Chamber Tests Integrating Pressure Transient Test Data With Seismic Attribute Analysis to Characterize an Offshore Fluvial Reservoir Integrating Pressure Transient Test Data With Seismic Attribute Analysis to Characterize an Offshore Fluvial Reservoir Application of New Fall-Off Test Interpretation Methodology to Fractured Water Injection Wells Offshore Sakhalin New Analysis of Step-Rate Injection Tests for Improved Fracture Stimulation Design Challenges Encountered During a Comprehensive Test Analysis for a Horizontal Well in a Thin. Analysis of Transient Pressure With Interference From Permanent Dow . an Offshore North Sea New The Use of Well Testing for Evaluation of Connected Reservoir Volume The Use of Well Testing for Evaluation of Connected Reservoir Volume Magnetic Resonance in Chalk Horizontal Well Logged With LWD Deconvolution of Multiwell Test Data An Investigation of Recent Deconvolution Methods for Well-Test Data Analysis Advanced Methods to Design and Interpret Exploration Well Tests---Two Case Studies Estimating Fracture Permeability and Shape Factor by Use of Image Log Data in Welltest Analysis Thermal Transient Analysis Applied to Horizontal Wells Transient Behavior of Annular Pressure Buildup in HP/HT Wells HP/HT Gas-Condensate Well Testing for Shell's Onyx SW Prospect The New Interference Test: Reservoir Connectivity Information from Downhole Temperature Data Well Test Analysis in Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Theory and Practice Mini-DST Applications for Shell Deepwater Malaysia Mini-DST Applications for Shell Deepwater Malaysia A New Method for Gas Well Deliverability Potential Estimation Using MiniDST and Single Well Modeling: Theory and Example Extending the Range of Multiphase Metering to Challenging High Water Cut Gas-Lifted Wells: TOTAL ABK Field Application Extending the Range of Multiphase Metering to Challenging High Water Cut Gas-Lifted Wells: TOTAL ABK Field Application Testing Gas Condensate Wells in Northern Siberia With Multiphase Flowmeters Improving Reservoir Characterization Using Accurate Flow-Rate History Reliability of Multiphase Flowmeters and Test Separators at High Water Cut Field Validation Processes for Multiphase Wet Gas Surface Well Testing Solutions: Example From the Yamburgskoe Arctic Ga High-Accuracy Wet-Gas Multiphase Well Testing and Production Metering Production Well Testing Optimization Using Multiphase Flow Meters (MPFM) Field Experience in Multiphase Gas-Well Testing: The Benefit of the Combination of Venturi and Gamma Ray Fraction Meter Multi-Well Deconvolution Algorithm for the Diagnostic. Kuwait Challenges Encountered During a Comprehensive Test Analysis for a Horizontal Well in a Thin. Carbonate Reservoir of the Gr Horizontal Well" Pressure Transient Analysis for Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs (Adapting the Slant Well Solution to Layered Media Analysis of Rate Dependence in Transient Linear Flow in Tight Gas Wells A Unique Methodology for Evaluation of Multi-Fractured Wells in Stacked-Pay Reservoirs Using Commingled Production and R Transient Behavior of Multilateral Wells in Numerical Models: A Hybrid Analytical-Numerical Approach Identifying Layer Permeabilities and Skin Using a Multi-Layer Transient Testing Approach in a Complex Reservoir Environmen Use of Transient Testing Data To Calculate Absolute Permeability and Average Fluid Saturations Pressure Transient Analysis of Partially Penetrating Wells in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir Radius of Investigation for Reserve Estimation From Pressure Transient Well Tests Real-Time Evaluation of Pressure Transients: Advances in Dynamic Reservoir Monitoring Use of Advanced Pressure Transient Analysis Techniques To Improve Drainage Area Calculations and Reservoir Characterisa Evaluating Connected Reservoir Volume for Optimizing Reservoir Management in Farragon Field. Carbonate Reservoir of the Greater Burgan Field.
New Advance in Numerical Well Testing Through Streamline Simulation Fighting Against Nonunique-Solution Problems in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Through Numerical Well Testing Linking Well-Test Interpretations to Full Field Simulations Application of the Î²-Integral Derivative Function to Production Analysis Well-Test Optimization and Automation Statistical Diagnosis (VEMST) of Flow Regime: Alternative to Pressure Derivative Approach in Pressure Transient Analysisâ€” Statistical Diagnosis (VEMST) of Flow Regime: Alternative to Pressure Derivative Approach in Pressure Transient Analysisâ€” Well Test Analysis in Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Theory and Practice Condensate-Bank Characterization From Well-Test Data and Fluid PVT Properties Well Test Analysis of Horizontal Wells in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs Estimating Productivity-Controlling Parameters in Gas/Condensate Wells From Transient Pressure Data Pressure Transient Well Testing Encountered Complexities: A Case Study Application of Deconvolution and Decline-Curve Analysis Methods for Transient Pressure Analysis Analyzing Transient Pressure From Permanent Downhole Gauges (PDG) Using Wavelet Method Application of Convolution and Average Pressure Approximation for Solving Nonlinear Flow Problems--Constant Wellbore Pre Using Drillstem and Production Tests To Model Reservoir Relative Permeabilities Deepwater Exploration Well Pre-Drill DST Sanding Potential Prediction Using Probabilistic and Deterministic Approaches A Digital Pressure Derivative Technique for Pressure Transient Well Testing and Reservoir Characterization New Approaches in Well Testing From Straight Lines to Deconvolution: The Evolution of the State of the Art in Well Test Analysis Streaming Potential Applications in Oil Fields Method and Application of Cyclic Well Testing with Production Logging Evaluation of Confidence Intervals in Well Test Interpretation Results The Value of Well Testingâ€”Optimisation of the West Brae Field A New Technique To Determine Horizontal and Vertical Permeabilities From the Time-Delayed Response of a Vertical Interfer Explicit Deconvolution of Wellbore Storage Distorted Well Test Data .
J. SPE. SPE. and M.A. Akinsanmi and J. SPE. Total S. SPE. Harfoushian. SPE. H. Gary E. K. SPE.. SPE. Duong. SPE. Warlick. SPE. Derek MacKenzie. and A. H. G.J. P. Manrique. and B. SPE. ConocoPhillips Canada Abstract The effectiveness of heat injection into a P. Odd Steinveg and Eric Henderson. Schlumberger. and K. F. Petroleum Development Oman. E&P B. Chevron Corp. Florian Hollaender. and O.G. A. Husky Energy Canada. SPE. Atkinson. Norske Shell. Shell International Exploration and Production Inc. and A. Levitan. SPE Abstract It is well established within the Industry th K. SPE.H. Ken Kelsch. Pardo. M. and R. SPE. and Kamaljeet Singh. Schlu P. SPE. Mattar. SPE.P Valko. Shell Int. Schlumberger. SPE. van den Hoek. Schlumberger performed in Yam Abstract A number of tests were E. Schlumberger.S. and I.S. Introduction There are three objectives of this pap M. Sharif University of Technology. Florian Hollaender. Schlumberger (DST) were conducte Abstract Two Drill stem tests Vietnam. Lizak. and P. SPE. Slimani. Day. SPE. Ozkan. Aftab. Jean-Paul Couput. Sheydayev. Kosmala. Smith.R. and B. Yamburggazdobycha Gazprom. and Chalatpon Abstract InterpretingSPE. SPE. SPE and Raj Banerjee. and R. I.A.. WTS. SPE.M. and P. Pinguet. SPE. and This paper describes geological andSPE. Well-Test So Abstract In its search for new oil and gas reserves Arve K. and M.A. Burgos. Abstract Paal Fristad and Stephen Williams. Suez Canal U. Chevron Abstract Interpreting pressure transient tests in co Akshay Sahni. and B. Harfoushian. Saudi Aramco. and Holger Thern. and M. SPE. Schlumberger We present a unique methodology desig Abstract C. Hutchinson. L. Bodwadkar. Daungkaew. Akinsanmi and J. Sameer Joshi. petro Michael M. GNPOC Abstract Conventional pressure transient testing u Medhat M. ï¿½. Well-Test So Abstract In its search for new oil and gas reserves M. BP plc deconvolution provides e Summary Pressure-rate N. SPE.Sundaram. Hashemi. Premier Oil Vietnam. and M.F. and Chalatpon Boonmeelapprasert. D. and John Edwards. Crawford. Kerem. and David Two Case Studies Hassan Bahrami. Ha Abstract This Expro. Schlumberger use of multiphase flowmeters (MPFM Abstract The B. Ward. this work we present an investigation Summary In SPE. SPE. Self.G. Soodabeh Esmaili and Mohammad Abstract The identification of fractures is essential Anh N. Abstract Many tight gas wells (permeability less th J. Tor Eiane. Levitan. Al-Mumen. Shell Int.N. Sameer Joshi. Chevron Boonmeelapprasert. Bruno PinguetFlow Thomas Koshy. Zhandin. Te A. Shell. Pierre-David Maizeret. Gandhi. SPE. Shumakov. SPE. SPE.J. Total ABK. BP plc. C. Jamal Siavoshi. SPE. and Andrew Hardwick. SPE. Chevron Energy Technology Company Abstract A new well testing analysis method is pre K.V. Wilson. Shumakov. E&P.. SPE. Chevron Corp. SPE. BP Abstract The Chirag Field located offshore in the C A. Poe Jr. SPE. Cheong.A. Wilson. Anderson. Bartko. BP Alaska. Hathaiporn Samorn. and E. Schlumberger. Total S.* SPE. Kamal and Yan Pan.M. Santo S. SPE. S. and M. SPE. and Y. Blasingame. and M. Maizeret.conventional separa Abstract and metering using Schlumberger David Costa. Aguilar. Levitan. and M. BP plc.Author Abstract Michael M. Stephen Ball. appraisal campaigns for Abstract Exploration and and S.paper covers the van den Bosch.I. Toulekima. pressure transient tests in co P. SPE. M. H. and N. Y. Texas A&M U. Expro.A. SPE. SPE. Ilk. Boutaud de la Combe. and O. Munawar Usman. SPE. Volchkov.-L.-L. Oudeman. Levitan. G. M. Schlumberger.conventional separa Abstract and metering using Schlumberger B. Fair. Jean-Paul Couput. Ibrahim. J. Theuveny. Sakhalin Energy. Heriot-Watt University Abstract Permanent Down-hole Gauge (PDG) has . Total ABK..J. ADCO. and G. SPE. BP plc. SPE. technique for analyzing and model Abstract A new Akshay Sahni. Masfry.A. Schlumberger Abstract Although it is often used in pressure tran C. Thorsen. Hathaiporn Samorn. Ward. J. and M.A. Kuchuk. A. and B. Y.. Saudi Aramco. Ambastha. Shell. SPE. S. Istanbul Technical University. N.K. Hopman.H. and M. Reksten. Santo and L.extension of tran Abstract This paper presents an Colorado Schoo Moustafa Eissa. Gandhi. U. Schlumberger Abstract Using multiphase flowmeters in field ope Zheng Shi-Yi. Izquierdo. SPE. Tiab. S.. BP Exploration Farragon field discovered in April 20 Abstract The Operating Company Limited M. Schlumberger Production testing using portable Multipha Abstract B. Shell Intl. Schlumberger.M..K. D. Onur. BP plc Summary The deconvolution analysis technique th M. Total. SPE. Rahman. J. G. Khan.. Shell. Al-Kobaisi. and H Summary Dedicated wet-gas flowmeters are now M. SPE. SPE. and Bart HPHT Gas-Conde D. Metwalli Hassan and M.Karthik Kumar. an Abstract Well testing is one of the most effective m Kelechi Isaac Ojukwu. Al-Shobaili. Bozorgzadeh. SPE. and A. SPE. Kuwait Oil Co.M.D. SPE. SPE. Occidental Oil and Gas Corporation. SPE. Ronnie Parr and Jordy Buter. SPE.Yeo. Zinchenko.. Sonatrach.M. Imperial College. SPE. and M. E&P Summary Pressure buildup caused by fluid therm Arild Fossï¿½. and T. Wattenbarger. 3-Phase Measurements A/S. Fekete Assocs.J.. Schlumberger Abstract Reservoir engineers operating in mature Kui-Fu Du. K. ONGC Abstract This paper presents techniques for interp David Costa. Baker Hughes. Schlumberger. and Wang Fei. Schlumberger Abstract Often and for many reasons the wellbore Fikri J. of Oklahoma. Carnegie. Ambastha. Zinchenko.in the Greater Burgan Abstract Mauddud reservoir Maizeret.C. Gazprom Abstract Surface welltesting of Gas-Condensate w D. Kuwait Oil Co. Daungkaew. NAM. and Ajay Bahuguna and Mohamed Elbadri. Bekkoucha. Ken Kelsch. Cheong. Boutaud de la Combe. Santo N. London reservoirs exhibit a com Abstract Gas condensate S. Daungkaew. Ramirez. J. Schlumberger. Bruno PinguetFlow Thomas Koshy. Gringarten. and M. Schlumberger Cambridge Research. The Netherlands Abstract This paper presents several field exampl Julio Herbas. appraisal campaigns for Abstract Exploration and and S.-D.-D. Anderson.H. D. Halliburton Abstract Prehydraulic fracture diagnostic pumping A. Cinar. Roux. SPE. Theuveny. SPE. Contreras.A. Moncada. Total.M..Yeo. SPE. Pinilla. Abukhader. Schlumberger Abstract Mauddud reservoir in the Greater Burgan A. SPE. Toulekima. Kazemi. SPE.R. Kuramshina. Schlumberger. SPE.
and Zheng Shiyi. Sabolcik. Imperial College.C. Matthews.I. and Alain C. Total E&P Nigeria. Abstract Real gas" flow problems (i. Imperial CollegeSummary Published well-test analyses in gas/con London A. Heriot-Watt U. C. SPE. SPE. Hashemi . M. SPE. SPE. Ilk. Walton. Shell Global Solutions B. and T. Blasingame. Tarasov. Zimmerman. Imperial C. Abstract Well test analysis has been used for man M. Inst.A. Sheng. R. SPE. Gaz de France. and Brent W. SPE.C. S. Laseridentification of Abstract Before the early eighties Engineering C A.S. Goodman. Ilk. Robert W. Texas A&MAbstract In this work we present the application of U. Jonathan N. and Wang Fei. Chen. S. Carter. Total S. Gringarten. of the Russian Academ Abstract Modern methodology of well testing is th A. Onyekonwu. Imperial College. Nicolas . Liu.resultsSP Abstract Uncertainty in well test analysis A. SPE. Imperial College Summary Gas/condensate reservoirs usually exhi Manijeh Bozorgzadeh. John D. Laseridentification of Abstract Before the early eighties Engineering C Victor T. Bozorgzadeh. Spath. and J. Chevron Energy Technology Company.N. SPE.M.P. N. Heriot-Watt University. SPE.-Y. Biu. and M. N. Chevron International Exploration & Production Company Abstract Sand control decisions are often made ba A. and Alain C.C. V. Imperial CollegeSummary The ability to predict well deliverability is Pooyan Karami and Abolfazl Hashemi Petropars Oil and Gas Company National Iranian Oil Company testing is one of the m Abstract Pressure transient Zheng Shiyi.Yao Jun. Supp. be done to improve the Well T Abstract Much can Shell Global Solutions Victor T. SPE. and A. Gringarten . I.Abstract TheU. Schlumberger Abstract Two successful field tests of streaming p J. Zhakupov. Baker Atlas and Gringarten. Moncur. Daungkaew. and Jim S. and Dominic this study was to investig Abstract The objective of Agyapong. SPE. SPE. SPE. Gbo. Schlum D. London Summary Relative permeabilities are fundamenta Xianjie Yi. Amini. SPE. SPE.we Abstract One of the Production. Onyekonwu.A. Bradulina. SPE. and T. Biu.. Blasingame. SPE.C..V. Gringarten. M. and Harvey E. Berendschot. D. SPE. Imperial College London. C. and Raj Banerjee. Jaffrezic. Saudi Aramco. Boutaud de La Combe. SPE. Baker Hughes Abstract Vertical and horizontal permeabilities are O. Zakirov. A. and D. SPE. SPE. Emmanuel O.A.A. and Mike O. and J. E. Heriot-Watt U.F. Anikeev. Schlumberger Abstract The pressure derivative has become the S.. Zakirov. Biu. Texas A&M analysis/interpretation of wellbore st .***. and O. University of Port Harcourt.L. Ilk. Abstract Reservoir pressure monitoring during its p M. Hosseinpour-Zonoozi. Heriot-Watt Abstract Numerical well testing technique has bee University Zheng Shi-Yi. Emmanuel O. and A. Scotland Abstract Traditionally well testing is completed by a Zheng Shi-Yi and Li Xiao-Gang.V. China University of Petroleum. and L. London reservoirs exhibit a com Abstract Gas condensate Manijeh Bozorgzadeh. and Mike O. SPE S. SPE.**. Shell Global Solutions. SPE. Cramer. Total E&P Nigeria. Imperial College. Bahabanian. Hashemi.e. University of Port Harcourt. SPE. Indrupskiy.*. SPE. fro Mike Tharagonnet. A. SPE.M. Azi. SPE. Veneruso. SPE. Abstract Numerical well testing started in about a Faisal M. Azari. Whittle. I. TOTAL Exploration & predicaments of traditional . Imperial College. and T. Gringarten. Rochon. problems w Texas A&M U. SPE. Blasingame. Edinburgh. Al-Thawad. D. Gringarten. James E. Hosseinpour-Zonoozi. T. Raghuraman. Marathon Oil Corporation Abstract The purpose of this paper is to increase t James J. SPE. SPE. SPE. SPE. A. L. SPE. B. Biu. Bryant.
pressure transient tests in complex faulted and stratigraphic environments can be difficult. This approach uses an al pressure transient testing using a pressure gauge positioned at a fixed depth in a well has historically been the main source of permeab esting analysis method is presented.ï¿½ Ma re three objectives of this paper. Data acquisition in such enviro presents techniques for interpretation of Mini-Drill Stem Test (MiniDST) for establishing commingled Absolute Openhole Flow Potential (AO ng using conventional separation-based technologies in low-pressure high gas rate environments typical of gas-lifted wells is a very difficult ng using conventional separation-based technologies in low-pressure high gas rate environments typical of gas-lifted wells is a very difficult f tests were performed in Yamburggasdobycha Gazprom's fields in Northern Siberia area to evaluate the performance of multiphase flowm is one of the most effective means to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs under dynamic conditions. Some of t s often used in pressure transient testing radius of investigation still is an ambiguous concept and there is no standard definition in the pe ngineers operating in mature fields across the world struggle to get necessary reservoir data to make their exploitation plans more realistic. (2004) Levitan (2005) a k we present an investigation of recent deconvolution methods proposed by von Schroeter et al. presents several field examples of applying two independent methods of increasing tested area estimation and improving reservoir characte n field discovered in April 2003 is a low relief pancake shaped reservoir located in the UK sector of the North Sea.9ï¿½ as wells (permeability less than 0. Traditional means of well tes wet-gas flowmeters are now commercially available for the measurement of gas and liquid flow rates and offer a more compact measurem esting using portable Multiphase Flow Meters (MPFM) was implemented in ADCO Field â€œB with objectives to quantify the water and gas phase flowmeters in field operations has now become a widely accepted practice especially in the range of Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) of 0 Down-hole Gauge (PDG) has been widely installed in the oilfield around the world in recent years. The first objective is to present a generalized geometric skin for deviated wells for all angles up to 89.ate deconvolution provides equivalent representation of variable-rate well-test data in the form of characteristic constant rate drawdown sys ique for analyzing and modeling the pressure data from both flow and buildup periods in closed chamber tests (CCT) has been developed. Data acquisition in such enviro and appraisal campaigns for deepwater environments are a continuous challenge in todayâ€™s operations.1 md) exhibit linear flow through their transient period.ï¿½ Ma eservoir in the Greater Burgan field is a thin carbonate reservoir containing light oil in a 10-20 ft target zone with â€œgood porosity. In fluvial depositional environments where sand ablished within the Industry that injection of (produced) water almost always takes place under fracturing conditions. (2002 2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan ation of fractures is essential during exploration drilling and well completion of naturally fractured reservoirs since they have a significant im eness of heat injection into a target formation has a great impact on the efficiency of bitumen and heavy oil recovery and energy savings un buildup caused by fluid thermal expansion in sealed annuli of high-presure/high-temperature (HP/HT) wells can have serious consequence covers the HPHT Gas-Condensate Exploration Well 6406/9-1 on the Onyx SW prospect of the Norway Sea in the late spring of 2005 (Figu Field located offshore in the Caspian Sea of Azerbaijan uses permanent downhole gauges to record continuous pressure and temperature nsate reservoirs exhibit a complex behavior when wells are produced below the dew point due to the existence of a two-fluid system reserv and appraisal campaigns for deepwater environments are a continuous challenge in todayâ€™s operations. This relatively small of h for new oil and gas reserves the oil industry moves to more and more remote areas of the world and to technically challenging areas of de h for new oil and gas reserves the oil industry moves to more and more remote areas of the world and to technically challenging areas of de escribes geological and petrophysical evaluation of a new structure of a mature field to evaluate the reservoir potential in un-produced rese volution analysis technique that evolved with development of the deconvolution algorithms by von Schroeter et al. This transient period may last for years in some ca a unique methodology designed for evaluation and optimization of multi-fractured wells in stacked pay reservoirs using commingled produc presents an extension of transient well index approach to simulate pressure transient behavior of multilateral wells. In fluvial depositional environments where sand pressure transient tests in complex faulted and stratigraphic environments can be difficult. Such characterization of reservoirs is multiphase flowmeters (MPFM) for well test measurements is increasingly becoming a standard practice replacing conventional test separa ltesting of Gas-Condensate with multiphase flowmeters is still considered a challenge for production metering. Particularly when large ic fracture diagnostic pumping analysis has recently improved with the use of new analysis techniques such as G-Function derivative plots eservoir in the Greater Burgan field is a thin carbonate reservoir containing light oil in a 10-20 ft target zone with â€œgood porosity. One of the challenges in analyzing long- . The method allows for calculating the absolute permeability of the formation in the area influenced by or many reasons the wellbore does not completely penetrate the entire formation yielding a unique early-time pressure behavior.
Th early eighties identification of flow regime has been a difficult task for reservoir engineer and welltest analyst until the emergence of the der early eighties identification of flow regime has been a difficult task for reservoir engineer and welltest analyst until the emergence of the der nsate reservoirs exhibit a complex behavior when wells are produced below the dew point due to the existence of a two-fluid system reserv well-test analyses in gas/condensate reservoirs in which the pressure has dropped below the dewpoint are usually based on a two. In many situations however the derivati ethodology of well testing is the result of efforts of many scientists for more than 50 years.e. It provides valuable information about the reservoir/well-bore charact well testing is completed by analysing transient pressure due to constant production rate. The technique was developed to tackle well testing problems in heterogeneous reservoirs. from e of this paper is to increase the data in circulation regarding the value of well testing on established fields. The Î²-derivative functi be done to improve the Well Testing through effective use of minimal electronic instrumentation on the well head and the test separator. We show in this paper that well deliverability d nsient testing is one of the most useful reservoir description methods.ï¿½ The results of five phases o horizontal permeabilities are important parameters for designing well completion and predicting well performance. However in the oil industry practice engineer of essure monitoring during its production life is to evaluate its performance to ensure the effective extraction of hydrocarbon from the reservo ow problems (i. Finite well testing started in about a decade ago. Early interpretation methods (using straight sful field tests of streaming potential measurements in oil fields have been carried out: one in a horizontal oil production well and one in a v redicaments of traditional well testing is the requirement of shutting-in a well to conduct a pressure buildup test for the purpose of obtaining n well test analysis results from errors in pressure and rate measurements from uncertainties in basic well and reservoir parameters. It is mainly based on the theory of single-phase f alysis has been used for many years to assess well condition and obtain reservoir parameters.or thre ensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors owing to the buildup of condensate banks around the wells when the bottomhole p to predict well deliverability is a key issue for the development of gas/condensate reservoirs. problems where the gas properties are specifically taken as implicit functions of pressure temperature and composition) ermeabilities are fundamental to any assessment of reserves and reservoir management. Integr ve of this study was to investigate a workflow where well test data could be used more effectively in history matching of full-field reservoir si we present the application of the Î²-integral derivative function for the interpretation and analysis of production data.well testing technique has been regarded as the future of well testing in tackling non-linear heterogeneous reservoir testing problems. When measurements on core samples are availa l decisions are often made based on a deterministically predicted Safe Drawdown Pressure (SDP) without proper regard to the amount of u re derivative has become the primary interpretation tool for diagnosing well and reservoir behavior. In the past to determine s/interpretation of wellbore storage distorted pressure transient test data remains one of the most significant challenges in well test analysis .
However if a well is completed as a multi-layer commingled producer then in the area influenced by the test and the average saturations in this area. Initially the light 3 lly challenging areas of deep water.ï¿½ Thus this reservoir must b or all angles up to 89. It is therefore essential to have accurate measurements of both OnePetro g conventional test separators. The method applies to two-phase flow in the reservoir (oil and w ssure behavior. (2006a b). Bottom-hole pressure data is used extensively to understand interwell communication an a two-fluid system reservoir gas and liquid condensate. These MPFMs are usually tested and calibrated in laboratory controlled flow loops using idealized fluids in s aditional means of well testing have been deployed for years and used consistently for reservoir and production management. The remoteness of the operation and the roughness of winter wea cterization of reservoirs is as accurate as the data used for interpretation. The use e main source of permeability and skin estimation in formations. Some of the main reasons for partial penetration in both fractured and unfractured formations are to prevent or delay the andard definition in the petroleum literature. Different mobility zones develop around the wellbore corresponding respectively t a acquisition in such environments requires reservoir information of the highest quality before expensive development plans can be put in p a acquisition in such environments requires reservoir information of the highest quality before expensive development plans can be put in p enhole Flow Potential (AOFP) in deep water exploration wells in India.ï¿½ Pressure transients are the most effective way to understand the dynamic behavior of the reservoir.9ï¿½ extending Cincoâ€™s slant well solution to smaller bed sizes where the line source approximation is not a valid y last for years in some cases.OnePetro OnePetro various types and combinations of step-rate inje This paper analyzes â€œgood porosity. There are different methods to characterize these systems based on formation properti ery and energy savings under many steam heating processes such as the startup phase of SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) (Butle have serious consequences such as casing failure or tubing collapse.ï¿½ Matrix permeability is low and natural fracture density can be variable in this reservoir. This relatively small offshore field was developed with two sub-sea horizontal wells tied to existing production facilities. up front planning job design pressure and temperature in the active producers. Particularly when large volumes of very contaminated water are injected â€“either for voidage replacement or disposal. It has been learned that this behavior differs in many ways from radial flow behavior. Owing to low retention times of the gas the quality of separation and existing instrumentation is often ted wells is a very difficult operation. (2006) and Ilk et al.ï¿½ To be e ential in un-produced reservoir zones. These works offer new solution methods to the long-standing deconvolution they have a significant impact on flow contribution.large fractures m G-Function derivative plots after-closure analysis and step-rate tests.ï¿½Deconvolution allows one to develop additional insights into pressure transient behavior and e CT) has been developed. The well was drilled in a carbonate with variations in rock quality and with minor sub-faulting occurrin (2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan et al. The specialized diagnostic procedures are based on rate-transient analyses and uses historical production s.ï¿½ Thus this reservoir must b â€œgood porosity.ï¿½ To be e lly challenging areas of deep water.ï¿½ Development of hydrocarbon resources in these environments is extremely expensive. Owing to low retention times of the gas the quality of separation and existing instrumentation is often ance of multiphase flowmeters in gas-condensate reservoir applications.ï¿½ Loss mproving reservoir characterisation based on utilising the entire well test history rather than just a single pressure build-up (PBU) or drawdo OnePetro ea. This paper reports ano using commingled production. The well test design and execution is presented in the paper including. To determine whether mitigation was required for a HP/HT developm e late spring of 2005 (Figure 1 and 2). However it c more compact measurement solution than does the traditional separator approach.onstant rate drawdown system response. (2006) became a useful addition to the suite of techniques used in well-test analysis. These gas bearing reservoirs are vertically heterogeneous with high ted wells is a very difficult operation. The interpretation models of traditional multiphase flow quantify the water and gas production evaluate the performance of slugging/intermittent wells for procurement actions evaluate the produc olume Fraction (GVF) of 0 to 85%. The environments where sand continuity is a significant uncertainty pressure transient test interpretation can generate several non-unique solu environments where sand continuity is a significant uncertainty pressure transient test interpretation can generate several non-unique solu ns. There is still some doubt about the performance of this type of device especially in the High (92-96%) or allenges in analyzing long-term real-time dynamic data such as transient pressure from PDG is the diagnostic and analysis of data with inte OnePetro . It can be used for estimating the key reservoir parameters such as reservoir pressure permeability and skin.ï¿½ Matrix permeability is low and natural fracture density can be variable in this reservoir.ï¿½ Development of hydrocarbon resources in these environments is extremely expensive. The pressure diffusion corresponds to an instantaneous propagation of the pressure signal in th ation plans more realistic. This decon evitan (2005) and Levitan et al. This approach uses an analytical solution for the well index at early times and switches to the numerical well index at late times.
Finite difference and finite element methods were used before in the construction of the well testing model which was geneous reservoirs.e. This approach has helped to reduce the uncertainties of the interpretation of welltest result bec a two-fluid system reservoir gas and liquid condensate. from the quality of the match with the interpretation model.) and ustry practice engineer often has to deal with the transient pressure resulted from variable flowing rate history. and from the non-uniqueness of the interpretation model. These uncertainties can be large when planning a Drillstem Test (DS OnePetro ions however the derivative of the measured pressure data is uninterpretable or worse misinterpreted because of various artifacts collecti he theory of single-phase flow. homogeneity heterogeneities phase segregation stimulation effectiveness interventions etc. Integration of geoscience and well testing for improved fluvial reservoir characterisation was the first project of this kind ng of full-field reservoir simulation models and also in situations where existing simulation models could be used in well test interpretation.ï¿½ n core samples are available however they often predict initial water production that is not experienced by individual wells. The formation of this liquid saturation can lead to a severe loss of we per that well deliverability depends mainly on the gas relative permeabilities at both the endpoint and the near-wellbore saturations as well eservoir/well-bore characteristics (e.or three-region radial composite well-test interpretation model to represent condensate dropout around the wellbore and lls when the bottomhole pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. the conversion" of a variable-rate distorted pressure profile into the pressure profile for a . This is particularly true in the rocarbon from the reservoir. This approach has helped to reduce the uncertainties of the interpretation of welltest result bec the emergence of the derivative approach. This deterrent factor is more prominent in prolific wells due to loss of revenue and eservoir parameters. For example d regard to the amount of uncertainty associated with the value of SDP. In the past to determine the permeabilities from a vertical interference test some investigators proposed correlations or type curves base enges in well test analysis.oir testing problems. ta. Few publications consider two-phase flow. With the introduction of pressu duction well and one in a vertical water injection well. The purpose of this paper is to describe Shell tools and experiences using the resulting real time data to enable w the emergence of the derivative approach. Different mobility zones develop around the wellbore corresponding respectively t OnePetro ly based on a two. Pressure transients were created and the streaming potentials generated by these tra r the purpose of obtaining well and reservoir properties. Continuous reservoir monitoring offers a window of prospects to increase well productivity while reducing oper erature and composition) are particularly challenging because the diffusivity equation for the "real gas" flow case is strongly non-linear.g. However they were also generally reduced to single-phase inve n methods (using straight-lines or log-log pressure plots) were limited to the estimation of well performance.ï¿½ Deconvolution (i. The Î²-derivative function was recently proposed for the analysis and interpretation of pressure transient data [Hosseinpour-Zonoozi et and the test separator. Y he results of five phases of optimisation resulting in a 17% increase in field production following the change out of the multiphase flow mete e.
An aggravating factor is that such wells are often producing g instrumentation is often doubtful leading to an under-estimate of liquid rates. The second objective of this paper is to extend the slant well solution to layered reservoirs without re or.e transient behavior and extract more information from well-test data than is possible by using conventional analysis methods.large fractures may be induced over time. Multiphase flow meters have b raditional multiphase flowmeters emphasize the liquid rate measurements and have been used to well test and meter mostly liquid-rich flow tions evaluate the production test data measured by the conventional test separators and improve the testing duration and strategy. New technology real time monitoring and integrated reservoir data are essential to understand such reservo heterogeneous with high permeability. Most of the purchasers put a cut off in the GVF range of 85-92% following the . Pressure-transient testing has long been recognized as a d Gravity Drainage) (Butler 1991). 1) determine the flow rates for each individua dex at late times. T minor sub-faulting occurring. Unfortunately not much work has been carried out to date to provide methodologies f Thus this reservoir must be exploited using horizontal wells. Greater M in the reservoir (oil and water or oil and gas). However there exists ased on formation properties and fluid flow behaviour such as logging and testing. Initially the light 34ï¿½API oil was produced by natural flow and subsequently gas-lift has been used for artificial lift. There are two aspects of the proposed approach .e. The use of the transient well index eliminates the need for excessive grid refinement around the well.straight-line analysis and modeling. However we now find that flowing b rresponding respectively to the original gas in place (away from the well) the condensate drop-out and capillarity number effects (close to ment plans can be put in place.ï¿½In some c permeability and skin. water coning.ï¿½ Recently a 2 270 ft long horizontal well has been drilled in an area interpr proximation is not a valid assumption. Future expansion to three-phase flow is possible. A novel approach is taken to d e several non-unique solutions all of which may match test data. This deconvolution algorithm however is limited to the pressure and rate data that originate from a single active well on the ng-standing deconvolution problem and make deconvolution a viable tool for well-test and production-data analysis. An aggravating factor is that such wells are often producing e roughness of winter weather conditions combined with the complexity of the fluid compositions create unique challenges to the successfu using idealized fluids in steady state conditions. T ly expensive.ï¿½ Loss of production and cost of acquiring data versus the benefits has always been a classical management dilemma. New technology real time monitoring and integrated reservoir data are essential to understand such reservo ment plans can be put in place. A few months ly expensive. However for high water-cut high gas-volume-fraction and low pressure unstable flow thes management.ï¿½ A similar early-time pressure behavior may be of the pressure signal in the entire spatial domain when a flow rate or pressure pulse is applied to the sandface (beginning of a drawdown o of the reservoir. However it can be difficult to compare data sets obtained with different measurement devices. MiniDSTâ€™s are conducted using the inflatable straddle packer system of wireline formation teste g instrumentation is often doubtful leading to an under-estimate of liquid rates. Using seismic attribute analysis to constrain pressure transient test interp e several non-unique solutions all of which may match test data. The paper also addresses nterwell communication and reservoir properties but bottom-hole temperature data had seen little use. However this parameter is hard to calculate due to many unknown variables such as variations in opera ed for a HP/HT development annular pressures in an appraisal well were studied with a dedicated field test which consisted of running a p front planning job design technology selection and review of the test results vs.ï¿½ To be economically viable the newly discovered fields must be developed and effectively exploited with very few wells. In this paper we ha ommingled producer then this conventional approach makes it difficult to measure the permeability and skin of individual layers. The p lly in the High (92-96%) or Very High GVF (96-98%) ranges.ï¿½ Recently a 2 270 ft long horizontal well has been drilled in an area interpr Thus this reservoir must be exploited using horizontal wells.ï facilities. Current analysis methods yield only the eff re to prevent or delay the intrusion of unwanted fluids into the wellbore i. the objectives for the well test. Using seismic attribute analysis to constrain pressure transient test interp disposal. It has been shown and accepted for uses historical production data (rates and cumulative) and the results from production logs to. Gamma Resistivity Density Neutron and Image services were used in the horizontal part of the well in additi -test analysis.ï¿½ To be economically viable the newly discovered fields must be developed and effectively exploited with very few wells. This paper reports another import difference between linear flow and radial flow â€“ rate sensitivity.
While various noise-smoothing techniques have been used there are valid concerns that smo uced to single-phase inverse problems. 1. Yet well test analysis results are usually reported as unique values often with unrealistic precision. The need to effectively use information available from well test analysis in full-field simulation has long been reco Hosseinpour-Zonoozi et al (2006)] and we demonstrate that the Î²-integral derivative and its auxiliary functions can be used to provide the eal time data to enable well test optimization and automation. When approaching non-unique solution problems in heterogeneous reser in well test interpretation.ï¿½ Whereas different methods exist which allow us to approximate the solution of the real gas diffusivity equation a dual wells. Moreover in case of commingled he interpretation model. During the last several years authors have been developing an alternative trend in well testing.ï¿½ Background on the West Brae field and the uses of the original MPFM will be discu ations or type curves based on simplified point source solutions. I the introduction of pressure derivative analysis in 1983 and the development of complex interpretation models that are able to account for d als generated by these transients were measured by arrays of permanent electrodes placed in the boreholes. These are achieved through analyzing the is strongly non-linear. Several studies have examined various ways to minimize the p lbore saturations as well as on the reservoir permeability. However it is impossible for these correlations or type curves to cover the o the pressure profile for an equivalent constant rate production sequence) has been in limited use as a "conversion" mechanism for the las . permeability fracture length average reservoir pressu his is particularly true in the case when transient pressure data is from a PDG over a relatively long period of production time. Another well ctivity while reducing operating costs through an improved and more accurate well performance. Gas/condensate-specific results from well-test analysis are the mobility an ead to a severe loss of well productivity and therefore lower gas recovery. We then demonstrate how these parameters and the base capillary number can ss interventions etc.) and quantitative information about reservoir parameters (e. In this study streamline simulation techniques was further deve he first project of this kind supported by the oil industry that time.testing model which was proved worked well for the most practical cases.g. For example dry oil production occurs from portions of reservoirs where the local water saturation is relatively high even though of various artifacts collectively termed noise.0 Introduction The purpose of well testing is to periodically determine oi ation of welltest result because key regions of radial flow and boundary features required for reservoir characterization description and eval ation of welltest result because key regions of radial flow and boundary features required for reservoir characterization description and eval t around the wellbore and initial gas in place away from the well. Most well test of the multiphase flow meter (MPFM) are presented.ï¿½The electrodes are partiall ue to loss of revenue and problems associated with crossflow or when bringing a well back on production.
This forces the oil companies to concentrate on high quality reservoirs that yield highly productive wells with large ited with very few wells. no significant vertical permeability between individual layers within the reservoir. However the initial pressure propagation is not diffusive but it propagates like a wave with a al management dilemma. Another challenge presented by thinly bedded reservoirs is the presence of vertical heterogeneity and varying of wireline formation tester.sis methods. The third ob n shown and accepted for years that real gas pseudo-pressure can be used to apply analytical solutions to transient radial flow.ï¿½ A comprehensive test program including flowing and static pressure surve ered reservoirs without reservoir crossflow i.ï¿½ There are a numb ovel approach is taken to develop the analytical solutions and procedures for both liquid and gas wells. Greater Munga field of the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) in Sudan has several wells that comming methods yield only the effective permeability for the dominant flowing phase and the â€œtotal mobility of all phases.e. These criteria are often based on past experience or special cases which could be several ye . Although welltest analysis is a recommended technique for fracture evaluation b uch as variations in operational conditions and steam saturation along the horizontal wellbores heat return rates and losses to the vertical h consisted of running a pressure/temperature memory gauge in a casing/casing annulus of a well and testing the well several times durin he paper also addresses how health safety and environmental considerations were handled.ï¿½ With the advent of digital oilfield technology the pressure and hence the deterioration in well deliverability can artificial lift.ï¿½In some cases it is possible to interpret the same test data in terms of larger radius of investigation. A MiniDST transient sequence consists of a single or multiple flow periods induced using a downhole pump fo wells are often producing at high water-cuts thus leading to significant uncertainty on oil rates. However i ow rates for each individual stage in a multi-fractured well 2) apply rate-transient solutions that use rate-normalized-pressures and superpo well.ï¿½ A comprehensive test program including flowing and static pressure surve n drilled in an area interpreted to have high fracture density. The new method uses pressure behavior may be due to the presence of plugged perforations. The program included in addition a set of elements to qualify the multiphase meters results before use and considered e of 85-92% following the type of technology. However in artic envir meter mostly liquid-rich flow streams. Drilling problems associated with high mud losses when the well en beginning of a drawdown or injection) of a well. To achieve the best possible real-time wellbore placement reservoir navigation and c a single active well on the structure. This forces the oil companies to concentrate on high quality reservoirs that yield highly productive wells with large al part of the well in addition to Magnetic Resonance. To solve such metering challenges with a la wells are often producing at high water-cuts thus leading to significant uncertainty on oil rates. However there exists no study presenting an independent assessment of all these methods revealing and discussing specific features ong been recognized as a reservoir characterization tool. A few months after first oil the field was consistently achieving production rates higher than predicted which led to a decision to ited with very few wells. Condensate drop-out causes a non-reversible reduction in well productivity which is compensated in pa o understand such reservoirs. The paper discusses the challenges and potential benefits of deployment in line mu essure unstable flow these controlled conditions are far from reality which can lead to unforeseen errors in the field. Approximate solutions for the early- ssure transient test interpretation leads to better understanding of reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries and is the central theme of thi ssure transient test interpretation leads to better understanding of reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries and is the central theme of thi o provide methodologies for predicting and measurement of the size of waterflood-induced fractures. Traditional well testing methods and equipm we now find that flowing bottom-hole temperature detects interwell communication â€“ with interference delay times consistent with pressu number effects (close to the well). To solve such metering challenges with a la hallenges to the successful acquisition of well test data. The previously men is. It is ideally suited for analysis of the data from exploration and appraisal well tests. In this paper we have improved the accuracy of the transient well index approach and have provided for a flexible and easily impleme dividual layers. These models were not developed for the measurement of gas flow rates particularly those of wet gas ration and strategy. Recent experience sho iphase flow meters have been proved for multiphase production metering by many operation companies worldwide. Another challenge presented by thinly bedded reservoirs is the presence of vertical heterogeneity and varying o understand such reservoirs. This contrasts to the vast amount of w n drilled in an area interpreted to have high fracture density.
Th er in case of commingled reservoirs conventional buildup provides only average values of permeability skin and pressure. One solution implemented over the past deca ase capillary number can be obtained from pressure-buildup data by using single-phase and two-phase pseudopressures simultaneously. However the approach is complex for non-mathematician and an alterna nalysis are the mobility and storativity ratios between the regions and the condensate-bank radius. The study of pressure transient testing in one of the Iranian giant oilfields was init uction time. For a given region however well-test a us ways to minimize the pressure drop in order to reduce liquid dropout and related problems. average reservoir pressure skin wellbore storage etc). T ved through analyzing the long term real time dynamic transient pressure obtained from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) which will gas diffusivity equation all of these approximate methods have limitations (including numerical models).chniques was further developed for numerical well testing purpose in which production history reservoir heterogeneity multi-well interferen ms in heterogeneous reservoirs the traditional analytical approach based on the ideal reservoir conditions failed. Most well test interpretation software programmes use non-linear regression to determine the reservoir parameters that provide original MPFM will be discussed. Its distinctive features are: creation of bi-directional two-phase flow in the near-wellbore region or forced creatio at are able to account for detailed geological features well test analysis has become a very powerful tool for reservoir characterization. Hydrocarbon allocation provides offic ation description and evaluation have been adequately diagnose. However only limited benefit could be obtained by reconciliation of the analytical well test model with the an be used to provide the characteristic signatures for unfractured and fractured wells. This lack of agreement means e valid concerns that smoothing procedures may adversely affect the well-test interpretation. An option to get an approx ulation has long been recognized.ï¿½ The challenges of monitoring and optimising a subsea field without any measurement at a well level a r type curves to cover the variety of scenarios found in the real world. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ap o periodically determine oil gas and water flows for accounting reporting and surveillance purposes. An innovative precision.ï¿½ Unfortunately standard deconvolution techniques require accu-rate measurements of flowrate an . In the recent years people start to use regression analysis to match ion" mechanism for the last 25 years. A ne The electrodes are partially insulated from the other completion components but nonetheless record high signal-to-noise ratio responses. In contrast measurements from new pressure ive trend in well testing. Another well testing method is to analyse transient flowing rate as a result of the constant well bottom hole flowing pressure. However the approach is complex for non-mathematician and an alterna ation description and evaluation have been adequately diagnose. The purpose of this work is to pro elatively high even though the relative permeability data would predict a water cut in the range of 30 to 60%.
First of all comparison of t ting methods and equipment have evolved over the years adapting to changing requirements.g. Injection Fall-Off (IFO) test analysis offers a chea and static pressure surveys modified isochronal test two buildup tests and FloScan Imager (FSI) log has been carried out to evaluate th and static pressure surveys modified isochronal test two buildup tests and FloScan Imager (FSI) log has been carried out to evaluate th the reservoir. The previously mentioned deconvolution algorithm can not be used with the data that are acquired during startup and early field deve scussing specific features associated with the use of each method in a unified manner. Wireline formation testers have been commonly used to acquire formation pressures pres using a downhole pump followed by a pressure buildup.ï¿½In this paper we ate solutions for the early-time and late-time pressure behavior are derived from the rigorous solution and are used for developing the basis is the central theme of this paper.on. For the first time a low grad tests. Analysis of pressure transient data provides dynamic reservoir properties su and losses to the vertical section above the target formation. This has resulted in requirements for more c es consistent with pressure transient analysis â€“ and can be used to estimate interwell permeability. Wireline formation testers have been commonly used to acquire formation pressures pres heterogeneity and varying layer flow properties. All these effects can be identified and quantified from well test data.ï¿½ Additionally seismic data can guide the design of pressure transient tests especially the test duratio is the central theme of this paper.ï¿½ Additionally seismic data can guide the design of pressure transient tests especially the test duratio ts to the vast amount of work that has been done for stimulation (e. This paper proposes a new technique to estimate cooling time and formation e well several times during a 3-month period after which the gauge was retrieved and the data were read out. Introduction Pressure-tr everal wells that commingle production from the Aradabia Bentiu-2 and Bentiu-3 formations. However it has been noticed that analytical solutions can be in serious error when applied to transient linear flow. To explain our observations we propo hich is compensated in part by capillarity number effects.ï¿½ High costs prohibit extensive appraisal activity and drive development decisions based on v reservoir navigation and continuous follow-up on the horizontal log interpretation was performed during drilling. This ent radial flow. The new method uses the surface flow rates and fluid properties of the flowing phases and the same relative permeability relations use d losses when the well encounters fractures often prevent well penetration of the total formation thickness. More than 50 wells were tested d which could be several years old. The reduced logistics and the abili ld. propped) fractures.ï¿½ This paper illustrates how real-time data can be used to mak d which led to a decision to enhance the application of early extensive reservoir engineering studies aiming to better understand the reservo roductive wells with large reserves per well. If we have a pressure gauge at a distance we will only start to detect a pressure change (drop or in on in well deliverability can be continuously and cost effectively monitored.ï¿½ High costs prohibit extensive appraisal activity and drive development decisions based on v roductive wells with large reserves per well.ï¿½ There are a number of specific issues of which one has to be aware when using pressure-rate deconvolution. A split in terms of naming is even commonly accepted in the multiphase business between Multiphase F . The third objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the analysis of high angle well pressure transient tests. Penetration in naturally fracture pagates like a wave with a finite speed. Recent experience shows that in certain conditions the various types of multiphase flowmeters react quite differently to the measureme de. The objectives of a MiniDST are sampling estimation of reservoir properties such a tering challenges with a large majority of their wells operating above 95% gas fraction under metering conditions and water cuts often highe tering challenges with a large majority of their wells operating above 95% gas fraction under metering conditions and water cuts often highe s of deployment in line multiphase flowmeters in the difficult operating environment of Northern Siberia. The algorithms used in this study for evaluating the e for fracture evaluation but its use is still not well understood. These formations are highly variable in terms es. However in artic environmental conditions like those of Yamburgskoe gas-condensate field with low ambient temperature and producti articularly those of wet gas. A new interpretation is described that allows a traditional multiphase flowmeter to operate in a dual mode either efore use and considered parallel testing with conventional separators to allow fair comparison of results. Tests in con heterogeneity and varying layer flow properties. Specifical d-pressures and superposition-in-time to evaluate response accordingly to the fracture flow periods 3) estimate reservoir and fracture effec lexible and easily implementable approach to place multilaterals in conventional Cartesian-grid reservoir models.
These field experiments have demonstrated that the streaming potentials arising from pressure transients can be m d pressure. the Î²-integral derivative) for the purp n allocation provides official reports of well and reservoir production for lease owners petroleum revenue tax purposes and management hematician and an alternative method for improving its interpretation and reducing the difficulty of its practical application havenâ€™t been d hematician and an alternative method for improving its interpretation and reducing the difficulty of its practical application havenâ€™t been d gion however well-test analysis cannot uncouple the storativity ratio from the region radius and the storativity ratio must be estimated inde mented over the past decade is the use of horizontal wells. The method is so-called decline curve analysis. We present a more complete approach where a more integrated approach using a com r is to demonstrate the application of the production data" formulation of the Î²-derivative function (i. With regression analysis we face the problem of n asurements of flowrate and pressure â€” at downhole (or sandface) conditions. Deconvolution is a process which o-noise ratio responses.e. interpretation of well test results based on 1D 2D or 3D multiphase optimiz rvoir characterization. These parameters can in turn be used to estimate gas relative permeability curves. The non-linear regressio surement at a well level and the benefits associated with well testing are presented.or three-phase fluid flow.ï¿½ While accurate pressure measurements are commonpla . However in reality because of production constraints or changes i Gauges (PDG) which will provide input and vital information for improving the existing reservoir model for flow simulation. An innovative periodic well testing technique named WTPL (Well Testing by Production Logging) has been developed in which r parameters that provide the best match between actual rate and pressure data and a given interpretation model. Finally we illustrate this appro nian giant oilfields was initially undertaken to estimate important well and reservoir flow parameters and characterize heterogeneities in the m hole flowing pressure.eneity multi-well interference as well as oil-water two phase flow problems were all considered. A new milestone has been reached recently with the introduction of deconvolution. Streamline well testing model was develope An option to get an approximate solution for the problem is to solve the non-linear pressure diffusivity equation through well test numerical m al well test model with the numerical full-field model. Reservoir monit rpose of this work is to provide a direct solution mechanism for the case of time-dependent real gas flow which uses an approach that comb lack of agreement means that effective reservoir management is hampered because it is difficult for simulation models to mimic the observ ements from new pressure gauge systems can now provide the stability and resolution required to characterize/quantify complexities of the re region or forced creation of two. There is a lack of published knowledge on the flow behavior of horizontal wells ressures simultaneously.ï¿½ The five phases used to optimise this six producer ression analysis to match the responses at the source interval and the observation point.
Tests in condensate reservoirs however tend to be difficult to interpret. The field examples presented in the paper demonstra Introduction Pressure-transient responses of wells are conventionally analyzed and interpreted by using analytical solutions of diffusion e e highly variable in terms of the reservoir properties oil types and pressure regimes. The material discussed in this paper provides a good basis for evaluating long-term production potential o carried out to evaluate this well. The principal result is a change in the producing GOR well test data.ï¿½In this paper we identify and discuss these issues and provide practical considerations and recommendations on how to produce c d for developing the basis for the straight-line analysis. and Levitan methods represent our independent implementations of their methods based on mic reservoir properties such as average permeability fracture storativity and fracture conductivity. An infusion of geological knowledge help cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using thermal transient analysis (TTA) along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating First of all comparison of the magnitude of the observed annular pressures with the burst and collapse ratings of the casings shows that ann in requirements for more complex data gathering over a shorter time with much stricter environmental and safety constraints. Data from permanent pressure ga ment decisions based on very few wells.ï¿½ Whilst these limited penetrations are often logged extensively using modern formation evaluati For the first time a low gradient Magnetic Resonance (MR) while drilling technology was deployed in a virgin carbonate horizontal well on th tartup and early field development that normally involve several producing wells. The paper describes a generalization of deconvolution to m s study for evaluating the von Schroeter et al. With the recent dedicated Gas Mode developed by Schlumberger it is now possi . The new interpretation model was developed fo han 50 wells were tested during this campaign. Specifically the slope of the departs from the analytical value as the flow rates or degree of drawdown become higher. Many hardware technologies and interpretation metho reservoir properties such as permeability (k) skin(s) radial extrapolated pressure (p*) and estimating AOFP.ï¿½ Other data such as production history core data formation evaluation fr especially the test duration to evaluate key seismic anomalies. Build-up and/or drawdown data are usually dominate formation pressures pressure and reservoir fluid samples for a number of decades. AOFP is an important gas wel and water cuts often higher than 90 % TOTAL ABK has evaluated different well testing & monitoring strategies based on multiphase meter and water cuts often higher than 90 % TOTAL ABK has evaluated different well testing & monitoring strategies based on multiphase meter uced logistics and the ability to monitor in real time the true evolution of the gas and condensate wells provide an in-depth view of the actua erently to the measurement challenges of transient flows in high water cut and high gas volume fractions (GVF). A selective inflow performance (SIP) test was carried permeability relations used in characterizing the reservoir and predicting its future performance.ï¿½ Some meters can be u temperature and production rate regulation restrictions this process had to be revalidated and the operational capabilities confirmed with a rate in a dual mode either as a multiphase meter or as a wet-gas meter in 90 to 100% gas.0 psi resolution.ï er understand the reservoir mechanism volumes in place and their implications for field depletion plans. Many hardware technologies and interpretation metho formation pressures pressure and reservoir fluid samples for a number of decades. All these wells were selected carefully to represent anomalies that need to be investigated fo ess between Multiphase Flow Meter and Wet Gas Meter. A derivative function is utilized to ascertain if the data contains any portion of reserv especially the test duration to evaluate key seismic anomalies. This paper compares the high angle and horizontal well solutions showing Cincoâ€™s slant well solution is valid prov sient linear flow. After th e data can be used to make decisions on when to invest in pressure transient tests and when a test is run how to minimize the downtime.ï¿½ Whilst these limited penetrations are often logged extensively using modern formation evaluati ment decisions based on very few wells.ï¿½ This paper presents a new methodology fo carried out to evaluate this well.tion. The material discussed in this paper provides a good basis for evaluating long-term production potential o ssure transient tests. The method has been verified by comparin tration in naturally fractured reservoirs is usually minimal (10 to 20%) but with the right mud it can reach 50% and in some cases 100%.ï¿½ ressure change (drop or increase) after a few seconds or minutes even if we have a perfect pressure gauge with 0. Th eservoir and fracture effective properties and 4) evaluate the completion efficiency. Coupled with our observations we propose that FBHT responds to the impact of pressure changes.ï¿½ Other data such as production history core data formation evaluation fr test analysis offers a cheap way to infer the dimensions of induced fractures from welltests.
Obviously in this case well testing techniques are rather more complicated. As such the "deconvolu . This however only estimates t optimise this six producer well system are detailed along with the economic benefits seen. . Dehane et al. The non-linear regression evaluates the match quality as a standard correlation between each parameter. Reservoir monitoring during field development can amplify the understanding of the reservoir depletion compartmentalization an es an approach that combines the so-called average pressure approximation (a convolution for the right-hand-side nonï¿½linearity) and th models to mimic the observed reservoir production without use of data that may bear little resemblance to measurements. However during the course of interpretation numerous engineering complexities were en n constraints or changes in operating procedures the down-hole flowing pressure seldom remains at a constant level over a long period of mulation. The benefits of such a workflow can be summarized as follows: â€¢ï¿½ï¿½ Improve ral derivative) for the purpose of estimating reservoir properties contacted in-place fluid and reserves. 2000. Sometimes an estimated permeability is outside a reasonable range when analyzing noisy surements are commonplace the measurement of sandface flowrates is rare essentially non-existent in practice. In the developed well testing mathem ough well test numerical modelling and simulation. The statistical approach (VEMST) utiliz tio must be estimated independently to obtain the correct bank radius. In most cases the storativity ratio is calculated incorrectly which exp ehavior of horizontal wells in gas/condensate reservoirs.ï¿½ These economic benefits are compared to t s we face the problem of non-unique solutions.sting model was developed to analyze pressure draw down and build up under these field conditions. The statistical approach (VEMST) utiliz ication havenâ€™t been discovered most especially where there is inconsistency in data sampling. After a brief discu uantify complexities of the well/reservoir system which may otherwise have gone unnoticed. The analysis of the acquired rate fu . Well test analysis and interpretation conducted on this basis is called numerical well test ated approach using a common model is advocated.ï¿½Numerical methods have been developed to interpret these m s been developed in which a cyclic wave function is imposed in the wellbore by modulating the flowrate. In this paper we endeavor to reconcile the adv or 3D multiphase optimization problems. Introduction and Background In gas/con ize heterogeneities in the Fn limestone formation. ally we illustrate this approach with both simulated pressure-buildup data and an actual field case. Our main objective is to introduce a rposes and management reports as well as feeding into hydrocarbon reserve figures and reservoir simulations which are used for major fie ication havenâ€™t been discovered most especially where there is inconsistency in data sampling. They become scie olution is a process which converts pressure data at variable rate into a single drawdown at constant rate thus making more data available essure transients can be measured accurately under borehole conditions. The limited studies in this area (Muladi and Pinczewski 1999.
ations on how to produce correct deconvolution results.ï¿½We also demonstrate reliable use of deconvolution on a number of real test exam tains any portion of reservoir-dominated flow. Two synthetic data examples are presented to illustrate the process. ï¿½Important contributi
ata formation evaluation from well logs analog information on channel geometry etc. is also important in getting a better understanding of r ata formation evaluation from well logs analog information on channel geometry etc. is also important in getting a better understanding of r nts a new methodology for IFO test analysis of fractured waterflood wells. This methodology derives the dimensions of induced fractures a
erm production potential of horizontal wells exploiting tight and thin reservoirs with reservoir pressures close to the bubble-point pressure. erm production potential of horizontal wells exploiting tight and thin reservoirs with reservoir pressures close to the bubble-point pressure. t well solution is valid provided the bed is sufficiently thick. As a practical matter the standard horizontal well is rare. Most of the horizontal w down become higher. This paper demonstrates the rate/drawdown sensitivity of transient linear flow. Then a correction factor is presented d in the paper demonstrates the application of the production optimization methodology in practice. The approach permits quantification of cal solutions of diffusion equation for relatively simpler reservoir architectures. For more complex reservoir situations involving multi-phase ce (SIP) test was carried out during production logging (PL) jobs in some of these wells and it indicated that the productivity index (P.I.) of t
been verified by comparing the results from analyzing several synthetic tests that were produced by a numerical simulator with the input va d in some cases 100%.ï¿½ Such well completions are referred to as limited-entry restricted-entry or partially penetrating wells. The transie 0.0 psi resolution. After the initial propagation pressure starts to diffuse or propagates as diffusion and we start to observe pressure chang o minimize the downtime.ï¿½ The case studies presented here are for wells on electrical submersible pumps in various types of reservoirs a
om permanent pressure gauges installed in the two open-hole gravel-packed horizontal producers was analysed to improve understanding modern formation evaluation tools the acquired static data cannot confirm that the wells will drain sufficient reserves. Evaluation of reservoi modern formation evaluation tools the acquired static data cannot confirm that the wells will drain sufficient reserves. Evaluation of reservoi onate horizontal well on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The MR Service was run to obtain porosities (incl. partitioning of movable and bou ation of deconvolution to multiwell pressure and rate data. Several approaches and ideas for multiwell deconvolution are investigated and e f their methods based on the material presented in their papers not the original algorithms implemented by von Schroeter et al. and Levita
geological knowledge helps reducing uncertainty associated with any well-test interpretation. The static properties of naturally fractured res ore under a steam heating process. A novel concept of a heating ring is also introduced to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen he casings shows that annular pressure buildup is a serious consideration in casing design. Such design is to be based on theoretical mod constraints. Coupled with increased needs for more accurate reservoir data for prospect evaluation this has put a higher emphasis on upfr nge in the producing GOR which in turn depends on the speed and magnitude at which a pressure change is transmitted through the rese data are usually dominated by wellbore phase redistribution effects and the main analysis challenge is to distinguish between reservoir effe s and interpretation methods have been developed to acquire better quality reservoir information. Dual packer wireline formation testers offe s and interpretation methods have been developed to acquire better quality reservoir information. Dual packer wireline formation testers offe FP is an important gas well flow parameter and is used to determine the commerciality of discovered prospects. We use a two step approac ased on multiphase metering use. A compact dual-energy gamma-ray Venturi multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was selected and placed und ased on multiphase metering use. A compact dual-energy gamma-ray Venturi multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was selected and placed und n-depth view of the actual well performance. The evolution of the real dynamics of the wells stabilization after a change of choke can be ob
¿½ Some meters can be unreliable in measuring oil rates in certain conditions which leads to inaccurate estimation of the wells' potential an pabilities confirmed with all of the logistical challenge of this environment. A number of recommendations to prevent and mitigate the impac n model was developed for a commercially available multiphase flowmeter consisting of a venturi and a dual-energy composition meter. Th need to be investigated for possible proactive actions. Some of these wells were tested more than once to qualify and validate the product lumberger it is now possible to test both gas and oil wells with the same hardware. The focus put in the past few years on a combination o
eloped well testing mathematical models along each streamline equations were solved all together numerically to derive transient pressure called numerical well testing. This technique has been proved through study and research in the past few years to be an effective way to ows: â€¢ï¿½ï¿½ Improved well test interpretation by using simulation models that have been built using geological geophysical petro-phy objective is to introduce a new practical tool for the analysis/interpretation of the production data using a new diagnostic rate and pressure d hich are used for major field decisions e.g. where to drill the next out-step well. Surveillance is key to determining well and reservoir behav al approach (VEMST) utilized simple statistical tools such as StatDiff StatDev and StatExp derived from time series analysis to identify pos al approach (VEMST) utilized simple statistical tools such as StatDiff StatDev and StatExp derived from time series analysis to identify pos
ated incorrectly which explains why condensate bank radii from well-test analysis often differ greatly from those obtained by numerical com 999; Dehane et al. 2000; Harisch et al. 2001) focused on well performance rather than on well-test behavior. There has been no evidence o
nd Background In gas/condensate reservoirs a condensate bank forms around the wellbore when the bottomhole pressure (BHP) falls bel ering complexities were encountered due to the nature of well behavior and reservoir conditions led to the masking of the actual reservoir re evel over a long period of time. Deconvolution is a technique which can be used to convert measured transient pressure due to variable s compartmentalization and efficiency of water injection also the presence of any flow barriers (such as activated fault). On this basis reser de nonï¿½linearity) and the Laplace transformation.ï¿½ For reference Mireles and Blasingame used a similar scheme to solve the real gas ements. After a brief discussion of relative permeability the focus of this paper is first to examine the uncertainties in the data that are used
eavor to reconcile the advances in well-test interpretation and in measurement technology. Specifically we describe a new technique for d icated. They become science-intensive. On the other hand they firstly extend the list of parameters and relations determined - those requ
aking more data available for interpretation than in the original data set where only periods at constant rate can be analyzed. Consequently loped to interpret these measurements to offer distributed characterization of matrix permeability at various depths of investigation and effe ysis of the acquired rate function and the resulting pressure wave then provides formation characteristics such as permeability and skin in th however only estimates the match errors and does not incorporate the other errors that must be accounted for to understand the overall u benefits are compared to the economic case used to justify the replacement of the original MPFM. Introduction Subsea fields tied back to e nge when analyzing noisy data from real tests. In a wireline vertical interference test we perform a drawdown test followed by a buildup tes As such the "deconvolution" of wellbore storage distorted pressure test data is problematic â€” in theory this process is possible but in p
a number of real test examples. Introduction Evaluation and assessment of pressure transient behavior in well-test data normally begins w . ï¿½Important contributions made in this study are as follows: The analysis procedure is simple enough to implement in a spreadsheet
better understanding of reservoir description. While we briefly discuss all relevant data the focus of this paper is primarily on integrating se better understanding of reservoir description. While we briefly discuss all relevant data the focus of this paper is primarily on integrating se ns of induced fractures and the extent to which these are contained to the target injection layer. Furthermore the paper focuses on the app
e bubble-point pressure. Test data interpretation highlights successful development of inflow and tubing performance relationships bubble e bubble-point pressure. Test data interpretation highlights successful development of inflow and tubing performance relationships bubble re. Most of the horizontal wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) are better approximated by the deviated well model because they transec ection factor is presented which corrects the slope of the plot and improves the accuracy of and OGIP as calculated from production/press h permits quantification of the reservoir and fracture properties on a layer-by-layer or frac stage-by-stage by evaluating the production well ons involving multi-phase flow and reservoir heterogeneity numerical simulation is usually the only resort. Numerical simulators generally f roductivity index (P.I.) of the individual layers varies widely ranging from 1.5 to 15 b/d/psi. This illustrated the need for a method to estimat
simulator with the input values. Use of the method with field data is also described. The new method could be applied wherever values of a etrating wells. The transient flow behavior in these types of completions is different and more complex compared to that of a fully penetratin o observe pressure change at a given space and time above the pressure gauge resolution and natural background noise which could be a arious types of reservoirs across Latin America. The paper briefly discusses the three pillars of digital oilfield; technology processes and pe
o improve understanding of the reservoir. Average reservoir pressure productivity index and connected volume were interpreted from build ves. Evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well requires relatively long and expensive well tests. In this paper w ves. Evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well requires relatively long and expensive well tests. In this paper w oning of movable and bound fluids) HC saturations and permeability estimates. Fluid saturations based on traditional methods and the MR tion are investigated and evaluated. The paper presents the results of this investigation and demonstrates performance of the deconvolutio Schroeter et al. and Levitan. Three synthetic cases and one field case are considered for the investigation. Our results identify the key issue
s of naturally fractured reservoirs such as fracture distribution fracture aperture matrix block size and fracture porosity can be obtained from ge in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Heating ring can be considered analogous to a drainage area in a conventional pressure tra based on theoretical models for annular pressure buildup. The data acquired with the test serve to validate these models. The data demon a higher emphasis on upfront planning and improved technical performance together with extensive use of advanced fluid data gathering m nsmitted through the reservoir. The effect is pronounced when flowing pressures are below bubble-point and compounded by Chiragâ€™s ish between reservoir effects boundary effects fluid behavior and wellbore phase redistribution perturbations. The paper compares theore eline formation testers offer an alternative an additional way to selectively straddle a section of a reservoir and provide the capability to cond eline formation testers offer an alternative an additional way to selectively straddle a section of a reservoir and provide the capability to cond e use a two step approach in establishing commingled AOFP of gas wells. First we conduct a multiple station MiniDST run and interpret th s selected and placed under field trial to assess whether this technology could reduce the uncertainty on oil production by removing any im s selected and placed under field trial to assess whether this technology could reduce the uncertainty on oil production by removing any im change of choke can be observed and monitored accurately with the in-line Venturi â€“ Dual Energy gamma ray multiphase flowmeter. The
n of the wells' potential and associated uncertainty in plans for production optimization. For example the inaccuracies in measured oil rates ent and mitigate the impact of the hydrate and document major benefits of multiphase well testing are based on the accumulated operationa gy composition meter. This combination results in excellent predictions of the gas flow rate; the liquid rate prediction is made with acceptab y and validate the production test results by the MPFM. Production test results were carefully analized and compared with the results of tes years on a combination of robust and simple measurements (Venturi and gamma ray) in multiphase flow-metering solutions for any type of
Close to the wellbore hig g of the actual reservoir response: 1) a high permeable reservoir with high degree of heterogeneities with high skin and high wellbore stora pressure due to variable sand-face rate into the transient pressure response as a result of equivalent constant flowing rate. Added features include relative permeabilities for oil gas and water cap e analyzed. This approach produces the most a s determined . This then provides a numerically structured approach to adjustments that need to be made to ibe a new technique for differentiating well-test-pressure data the digital pressure derivative technique. Consequently it is possible to see boundaries in deconvolved data a considerable advantage compared to conventional analy s of investigation and effective fracture transmissibility. This technique c fault). Wells es analysis to identify possible unseen features diagnose key flow regime for reservoir description and act as checkmate/alternative to the es analysis to identify possible unseen features diagnose key flow regime for reservoir description and act as checkmate/alternative to the obtained by numerical compositional simulation. On this basis reservoir management can be more accurate and realistic. This technique eliminates the disadvantage of shutting-in a well and maintains the productio o understand the overall uncertainty on the analysis. This paper presents preliminary results from e pressure (BHP) falls below the dewpoint pressure. In this work we provide a direct solution s in the data that are used for the predictions.derive transient pressure solutions for draw downs and build ups.those required for up-to-date 3D flow simulations. Routine well testing is an established procedure. In contrast to the data obtained from the traditional well tes eme to solve the real gas flow problem conditioned by the constant rate inner boundary condition. The paper presents a practical methodology for the determination of error bounds in w ubsea fields tied back to existing infrastructure are a cost-effective way of accessing reserves that could not support the cost associated wi t followed by a buildup test.ï¿½ In this work we provi . While streaming potentials have been observed in many laboratory rock experimen permeability and skin in the vicinity of the well. This paper provides the following contributions for the analysis and interpretation of gas g well and reservoir behaviour and ensuring optimal well productivity and integrity. Because of the delay of response the pressure at the observation probe continues to drop for some time durin ocess is possible but in practice without accurate measurements of flowrates this process can not be employed. This creates three different saturation zones around the well. â€¢ï¿½ï¿½ Improved history matching of simulation models by incorporating transient p gnostic rate and pressure drop diagnostic function. Results such as pressure distributions field saturation maps and the dis to be an effective way to solve the problems not only for single phase flow in heterogeneous formation but also for multi-phase (heterogen al geophysical petro-physical and dynamic data. In this study a new method is introduced to estimate the storativity ratios between the diffe re has been no evidence of condensate dropout effects in published horizontal-well-test data.
Simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs needs defining fracture permeability conventional pressure transient analysis. The proposed cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity calculated along the horizontal wellb models. Introduction Pressure-rate deconvolution is a way of reconstructing th sults identify the key issues regarding the successful and practical application of each method.ï¿½ The key here is to ens well tests.g. Formation pe ovide the capability to conduct controlled local production and interference as well as to enable the capture of reservoir fluids. Probably the majo to that of a fully penetrating well. Formation pe niDST run and interpret the data to estimate reservoir parameters (k s and p*). In addition we show that with proper care a rosity can be obtained from processing of Image Log data. In this work we present ne hnology processes and people and how they work together to achieve continuous reservoir and production optimization. Most of the gas condensate wells on is made with acceptable accuracy and no additional measurements. This overprediction w ced fluid data gathering methodologies. a Bourdet (1983 1989) derivative plot a superpositio plement in a spreadsheet but is more accurate than the currently available methods.ï¿½ This paper describes unique chal odel because they transect all beds within the reservoir to ensure complete drainage of the reservoir.ï¿½ The interpretation of the pressure trans primarily on integrating seismic amplitude response with pressure transient test interpretation.est data normally begins with examination of test data on different analysis plots [e. One of the constant background noises is the effect of tidal forces. The methodology is based ance relationships bubble-point pressure estimation as well as quantification of reservoir parameters.ï¿½ Reservoir ana were interpreted from build-up & drawdown tests. In this paper we review a number of critical points associated with design and execution of such tests.1 psi. We also compute non-Darcy flow coefficient (D) using Swif uction by removing any impact of imperfect separation.ï¿½ The key here is to ens tional methods and the MR were evaluated and compared by core data enhancing the understanding of the measurement and the reservo mance of the deconvolution algorithm on synthetic multiwell test data. The importance of the hydrate detection and mitigation processes is essential in the performance of successful tests i cies in measured oil rates could be greater than the gain expected from a stimulation or restoration.ï¿½ The interpretation of the pressure trans e paper focuses on the application of this methodology to a waterflood offshore Sakhalin in the Russian far East. The data demonstrate that in general the theoretical models overpredicted pressure buildup in the annulus. An inaccurate measure of oil rate also e accumulated operational experience from the operations of various multiphase flowmeters in the area. Calculating influx rates during the drawdown period i primarily on integrating seismic amplitude response with pressure transient test interpretation. In this paper we review a number of critical points associated with design and execution of such tests. Introduction Many wells in tight gas reservoirs have long-term performance which exhibit only uating the production well history as an extended drawdown and in combination with direct physical measurements of the flow rates and flo ical simulators generally focus on the long-term performance of reservoirs. The comparison indicated that the multip g solutions for any type of well based on the advantages and benefits of theï¿½ industry recognized Vx* Technology. This information was needed for reservoir model calibration well produc plied wherever values of absolute permeability or fluids saturations are used in predicting well and reservoir performance.ï¿½ In this paper we . 20 tests were performed considering 15 wells over a period of 10 days to assess MP uction by removing any impact of imperfect separation. This paper proposes a method for identifying on the pressure and pressure derivative curves the unique nd noise which could be as high as 0. 20 tests were performed considering 15 wells over a period of 10 days to assess MP multiphase flowmeter. These simulators are not very sensitive to the short-term charac ed for a method to estimate the permeability and skin of each layer.ï¿½ This paper describes unique chal ance relationships bubble-point pressure estimation as well as quantification of reservoir parameters. The wet gas and low-liquid-volume-fraction interpretation model is ared with the results of test separators for fair evaluation and interpretation of wellâ€™s behaviour. Since shales dividing the reservoir int ted from production/pressure performance. The calculated oil in place volumes were history matched with multiple Material Balance ru well tests. This paper demonstrates how the above was addressed for the Onyx SW and how the results com mpounded by Chiragâ€™s steeply dipping reservoir having gradients versus depth in saturation temperature bubble-point and solution-GO he paper compares theoretical well test behaviors in vertical and horizontal wells as obtained from compositional simulation with actual beh ovide the capability to conduct controlled local production and interference as well as to enable the capture of reservoir fluids.
ï¿½ In this work we provide explicit (direct) deconvolution of wellbore storage distorted pressure test data using only those pressure data.ï¿½This has a significant impact on the ability to c aboratory rock experiments we believe these are the first streaming potential transients to be measured in an oil field. Result from channel sand low and high permeability reservoir eckmate/alternative to the derivative approach to interpret complex features. This technique can also be used to derive the transient flowing rate due to equivalent constantpressure of a reservoir system from rom the traditional well test such as DST pressure data from PDG is large in quantity (long term up to six years) noisy multiple phase flow e provide a direct solution scheme to solve the constant pressure inner boundary condition problem. The maximum pressure drop at the observation probe with regard to th . Wells are for the most part manually diverted to a gravity separator or multi-phase meter and oil water and gas phase eckmate/alternative to the derivative approach to interpret complex features. The relative permeabilities rather than satu oach produces the most accurate and representative dp/dt curve by incorporating knowledge of both reservoir and pressure-gauge physics or oil gas and water capillary pressures and full tensor permeability. Close to the wellbore high condensate saturation reduces the effective permeability to gas resulting in severe well productivity decline (K in and high wellbore storage 2) Partial penetration behavior due to asphaltene plugging on the sand-face/left fish in hole 3) an obvious hu wing rate. This paper will present study result and new developmen y incorporating transient pressure data. â€¢ï¿½ï¿½ Use common data models like fluid (PVT) and SCAL data. The field experimen nd maintains the production with a modulating periodic pattern. Application of the m s preliminary results from a study aimed at establishing an understanding of the near-wellbore well-test behavior in horizontal wells in gas/c . Result from channel sand low and high permeability reservoir ity ratios between the different zones from buildup data when the saturation profile does not change during the buildup.turation maps and the distribution of streamlines can all be produced through the developed simulator and visualized.ï¿½ A specific challenge with subsea developments is the repair following a failur o drop for some time during the buildup period at the source interval. Our new semi-analytical solution was d s that need to be made to data so that history matching of simulation models can be achieved. Existing commercial well te s and interpretation of gas production data using the Î²-integral derivative function: Schematic diagrams of various production data function ablished procedure. . In addition the WTPL can be easily applied to commingled reservoirs to est nation of error bounds in well test analysis and illustrates its application with well tests from an oil reservoir and a gas condensate reservoir port the cost associated with a new platform development. It was proved throug for multi-phase (heterogeneous fluid properties) flow in heterogeneous formation. Secondly these parameters and relations characterize the effective ared to conventional analysis where boundaries are often not seen and must be inferred.
Wells have been observed which stay in the transient linea ts of the flow rates and flowing pressures.ï¿½Each of these plots provides a different view of the pressure transient be ng the drawdown period is not an essential part of the analysis or modeling. Probably the major impact would be in reservoir simulation studies where the need to transform well testing permeability to simulat rivative curves the unique characteristics of the different flow regimes resulting from these types of completions and to obtain various reser n this work we present new formulae for radius of investigation in radial-cylindrical reservoirs and new techniques for general systems.rivative plot a superposition (semilog) plot or a Cartesian plot]. Such a unique procedure provides a great advantage since parameters such as. However in most simulation studies due to high uncerta along the horizontal wellbore can be used to assess the effectiveness of the conduction heating. In most cases it was found that the meterâ€™s mance of successful tests in the Siberian gas well environment.ï¿½ Reservoir analysis for wells on electrical submersible pumps (ESP) is challenging due to the restrictions imposed by the downh ultiple Material Balance runs which used BPâ€™s TDRM Top Down Reservoir Modelling1 process. Thus any noise in the data would not aggravate the accuracy ation of the pressure transient test is done numerically guided by an initial interpretation of point bar and channel system geometry from sei ation of the pressure transient test is done numerically guided by an initial interpretation of point bar and channel system geometry from sei The methodology is based on an exact solution to the fully transient elliptical fluid flow equation around a closing fracture with changing con per describes unique challenges encountered in interpreting transient pressure data from this horizontal well due to multi-phase flow and sh per describes unique challenges encountered in interpreting transient pressure data from this horizontal well due to multi-phase flow and sh s dividing the reservoir into multiple vertical compartments provide the impetus for drilling a high angle transect instead of a horizontal well mance which exhibit only linear flow not radial flow during the transient period.ï¿½ In this paper we will review the benefit of the combination of Venturi and gamma ray fraction meter and its application to gas well . An interpretation methodology is desc ervoir fluids. Formation permeability anisotropy skin factor vertical connectivity and zonal productivity index are additional reservoir inform w coefficient (D) using Swift & Kiel expression and then use an analytical pseudo-steady state equation to establish single point AOFP for ea d of 10 days to assess MPFM performance and repeatability in a wide range of conditions. In most cases it was found that the meterâ€™s d of 10 days to assess MPFM performance and repeatability in a wide range of conditions. This powerful tool is designed to evalu ¿½ The key here is to ensure that the data acquired during the test will contain sufficient information to draw conclusions about the reservo ¿½ The key here is to ensure that the data acquired during the test will contain sufficient information to draw conclusions about the reservo surement and the reservoir. This overprediction was more pronounced at higher temperatures (and pressures) than at lower temperatures which could not be exp W and how the results compared with the set goals. permeability (ke e to the short-term characteristics of flow in the near-wellbore region which is the focus of the short-term pressure-transient tests. The application of the latest technologies in Gas-Condensate well testing was used on ble-point and solution-GOR. Cooling time in this paper is defined as th ulus. The paper details the methodology of the comparison of the well test rates e measure of oil rate also leads to a poor reconciliation factor and poor estimation of reserves. By resolving these inaccuracies and allocatin the gas condensate wells in the Yamburgskoe gas-condensate field are flowing with liquid unloading issues in a slug flow regime that can on interpretation model is described together with the multiphase flowmeter. Field examples highlight the strong cause-effect relationship between producer-injector and producer-produce simulation with actual behaviors selected from more than twenty different gas condensate reservoirs. In conclusions the water cut measured by MPFM was almost thre ogy. For post-processing the MR data were integrated and interpreted together with the other measurements perfor a way of reconstructing the characteristic pressure transient behavior of a reservoir-well system hidden in the test data by well-rate variatio ow that with proper care and attention in applying these methods deconvolution can be an important tool for the analysis and interpretation ning fracture permeability shape factor and fracture porosity in the fracture model. Two solutions were proposed to GNPO rmance. Formation permeability anisotropy skin factor vertical connectivity and zonal productivity index are additional reservoir inform ervoir fluids. For exa del calibration well productivity prediction low productivity diagnosis and remedial action selection. The ization. Examples of applying this model to data collected on flow loop on indicated that the multiphase meter results were relevant and accurate.
Once having these tasks completed the traditional well test analysis methods incl noisy multiple phase flow and multiple rate. The du high permeability reservoir infinite conductivity fractures dual porosity and/or permeability reservoir show same trend as the derivative appr high permeability reservoir infinite conductivity fractures dual porosity and/or permeability reservoir show same trend as the derivative appr uildup. It was proved through both theoretical study and a practical field example that the developed streamline well testing algorithm is faste esult and new development in numerical well testing in recent years. The a in horizontal wells in gas/condensate reservoirs with a focus on the existence of different mobility zones caused by condensate dropout. Application of the method is illustrated with the analysis of a transient-pressure test in a gas/condensate field in the North Sea. The field experiment results together with forward and inverse modeling studies indicate many possible applications of transient stre mmingled reservoirs to estimate the individual permeability and skin for each layer. This in hole 3) an obvious hump effect due to phase segregation inside the well 4)Pre and Post acid pressure transient response behaviors in of a reservoir system from measured variable pressure. This effort has also resulted in the development of a dow gas condensate reservoir in the North Sea in order to evaluate typical error bounds for the most common parameters such as permeabilityhe repair following a failure in later life. It is the effective not absolute pore space where the real reservoir flow processes take pl nt impact on the ability to certify reserves. Lee and Chaverra 1998.Sc. Briones et al. The paper reviews the evolution of analysis techniques over the last half-century and shows how field.ï¿½ The increased cost associated with intervening to repair either wells or subsea infrastructure is o ion probe with regard to the maximum pressure drop in the source interval is time-delayed.zed. Analysis/interpretation of production data using the Î² d oil water and gas phases are measured discreetly. Using this time delay and the maximum pressur only those pressure data. W well productivity decline (Kniazeff and Nvaille 1965. Afidick et al. 2001. Jutila et al. The key for the analysis of such data set to extract reservoir information is to develop a techniq mi-analytical solution was developed and implemented in the form of a direct (non-iterative) numerical procedure and successfully verified a eabilities rather than saturations and fluid properties are shown to be the least certain of the relevant data. 1994. These are based on research and studies from a number of M. The value of this work is that we provide explicit tools for the analysis of wellbore storage distorted pressure data . The second focus in the paper d pressure-gauge physics. and Existing commercial well test and near wellbore modeling software packages were used to carry out this task. Tests are periodically conducted for example once a month or once a week. These packages provide eng s production data functions using the Î²-integral derivative formulation (type curves). 2002). This technique is efficient and straightforward to implement and may be used on both real-time and recorded da characterize the effective (realistic) pore space.
ï¿½Integration of these several views into one c ot aggravate the accuracy of calculations. A longer cooling time es which could not be explained by mechanical factors such as casing ballooning.ï¿½ Our work presented here focuses on developing workflows and interpretation techniques for th ul tool is designed to evaluate reservoir engineering uncertainties in a wide range of scenarios considering multiple variables providing much clusions about the reservoir connectivity and to estimate the reservoir volume that is in communication with the well. Both n for general systems. Some of these wells have hydraulic fractures and some do not. It is usually not pr s such as. Second we extend routine forward modeling and incorporate features such as scaled pe found that the meterâ€™s performance compares favorably with that of the test separator located in line. The deconvolution analysis technique that evolved with development of the deconvolution algorith analysis and interpretation of variable rate/pressure reservoir performance data. Furthermore the high-frequency found that the meterâ€™s performance compares favorably with that of the test separator located in line. use the conventional technique of isolating each layer and testing it separately or carry out a commingled mul ng permeability to simulator input values is eliminated and an additional parameter (fluids saturations) becomes available to help history ma nd to obtain various reservoir parameters such as vertical and horizontal permeability fracture properties and various skin factors. The importance of slug flow regime identifica data collected on flow loops are presented with comparison to reference flow rates. First part of the horizontal part of the st data by well-rate variation during a test. It is based on a r inaccuracies and allocating oil correctly to wells it is possible to invest in right opportunities thereby saving unnecessary expenditure. This ratio is matched well with the actual field water volum its application to gas well testing.ï¿½ The effects of analy to multi-phase flow and short production time. For example the conventional transmissibility and well indices used in numerical simulation may adequately represent flu s were proposed to GNPOC. The f slug flow regime that can be observed and monitored accurately with multiphase flow meters. Furthermore the high-frequency ison of the well test rates of gas and condensate against traditional means of measurement presently deployed in Siberia. permeability (keffective) fracture length (Xf effective) conductivity (kfbf)effective and dimensionless conductivity (CfDï¿½ or FCD re-transient tests. Today the use of the entire information of a gamma ray spectrum gamma ray (more than 2 rays) allows . It also captures the case that during closure the fractur to multi-phase flow and short production time. The analysis of the build-up pressure derivative clearly shows the impact of point bar bou system geometry from seismic attribute analysis.ï¿½ Impact of derivative shape on model selection is also discussed. Pressure additional reservoir information that can be obtained from a mini-Drill Stem Test (mini-DST) and a Vertical Interference Test (VIT). The new formulation takes into account the production rate from the system formation thickness and gauge resolutio ns imposed by the downhole equipment.ï¿½ Impact of derivative shape on model selection is also discussed. Pressure h single point AOFP for each of the tested zones. The analysis of the build-up pressure derivative clearly shows the impact of point bar bou fracture with changing conductivity face skin and multiple reservoir mobility zones. The influence of these factors was quantified by analyzi well testing was used on this job. Experiences from this were later used as the basis for other gas-condensate prospects including those in ctor and producer-producer pairs giving evidence of a new interference testing method with wide potential application.ï¿½ We discuss the we clusions about the reservoir connectivity and to estimate the reservoir volume that is in communication with the well. The data from the Sintef and NEL flow loops show an e by MPFM was almost three times more than those measured by test separators.ï¿½ The effects of analy stead of a horizontal well penetrating a single compartment this paper provides insight into the impact of shales dividing the reservoir into n stay in the transient linear flow regime for several years. Chirag Field The Ch ation methodology is described which uses time-lapse analyses deconvolution and different analytical and numerical tools to identify the p additional reservoir information that can be obtained from a mini-Drill Stem Test (mini-DST) and a Vertical Interference Test (VIT).f the pressure transient behavior hidden in the test data by well-rate variation during a test. Introduction Applying deconvolution for well-test and prod tudies due to high uncertainties in estimating fracture permeability and shape factor values these parameters are initially assumed in the m this paper is defined as the theoretical time required to cool the heated formation to the initial formation temperature. The complete analytical solution for modeling the entire CCT data will allow one to investigate po system geometry from seismic attribute analysis.ï¿½ We discuss the we ther measurements performed in the well delivering an accurate and consistent reservoir description.
The technique enables analysts to customize th oir flow processes take place. No modifications to gauges or other hardware are necessary. projects at Heriot-Watt University. est analysis methods including decline-curve analysis can be applied to analyse the field data. Introduction Mireles and Blasingame [Mireles and Blasingame (2003)] developed a second focus in the paper is to explore the reasons why the relative permeability data are so uncertain. The analysis uses single-phase pseudopressures and two. Turning to the effective pore space improves the degree of certainty in 3D modeling and enables proper use alf-century and shows how improvements have come in a series of step changes twenty years apart. This paper presents study results based on tion is to develop a technique in handling the data i. Introduction The classic well test interpretat om a number of M. Differences in e r subsea infrastructure is often a challenge to justify. However there were a number of oduction data using the Î²-integral derivative formulation. Streaming Potential the development of a downhole flow modulation tool capable of creating the cyclic flow patterns needed for the new testing method. Each one has increased the ability to d pplications of transient streaming potentials in oil and gas fields for reservoir characterization and reservoir monitoring. Due to the continuous support from the oil industry since the fluvial res ese packages provide engineering interfaces to the simulator that make their respective workflows easy. and M. Introduction This work introduces the new Î²-integral derivative functions (Î²[qBD h or once a week. The evidence points to the fact that real-time and recorded data. to make the data analyzable but not losing the true information contained in the data and successfully verified against numerical simulation.Phil. Introd ters such as permeability-thickness permeability skin effect fracture horizontal well lengths and distances to boundaries.ï¿½ A lack of industry data on the benefits of interventions to repair for example failed and the maximum pressure drop at the observation probe we developed a new technique to estimate vertical and horizontal permeabilities ge distorted pressure data â€” specifically we utilize the following techniques: â€”ï¿½ Russell method (1965) (very approximate approach) . 2002).Sc.and three-zone radial composite well-test interpretation mo by condensate dropout.l testing algorithm is faster robust and reliable to use for complicated well test interpretations. The duration of purge and test periods are usually fixed for example 30 minutes to purge the test separator and eight end as the derivative approach and also diagnose unseen features such as dual permeability geologically interpreted as layered reservoir end as the derivative approach and also diagnose unseen features such as dual permeability geologically interpreted as layered reservoir eld in the North Sea.e. This decline is reduced at high gas rates and/or low capillary forces which lower condensate saturation in the immedi ent response behaviors in a successful diversion acidizing operation 5)An interference response behavior due to a nearby well bore shut in. We used a 3D fully compositional model to develop derivative shapes to be expected from horizontal-well-test data Briones et al.
ï¿½ The effects of analysis methodologies based on specific flow regimes vs. Chirag Field The Chirag Field in Azerbaijan (Fig-1 and 2) is located offshore in the Caspian Sea. (2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan et al. multi-phase production treatm d. For the reservoir evaluated there was fluid and pressure communicat during closure the fracture generally shrinks from adjacent geological layers. In an MLT test in addition to the normal PL runs individual pressure tr vailable to help history match the reservoir performance. It is usually not practical to analyze tight gas wells with build-up tests but long term production and pressure data can be used for a nductivity (CfDï¿½ or FCD) can now be obtained for each individual fracture stage. Both naturally fractured and unfractured (homogeneous) reservoirs have been investigated.ï¿½ We discuss the well test sequences used for this purpose the tools and operational aspects of well test execution the data acquisiti ell. Neither could permanent leakoff of completion fluids explain th ospects including those in the Russian sector of the Barents Sea. For unfractured and homog kness and gauge resolution. The GOR measurements were varying from one well to another but majority of wells showed more gas produ (more than 2 rays) allows a real-time or an a posteriori quality control and improvement of the overall performance of the meter in any type . This paper focuses in particular on Fluid Sampling Surface Well Testing ation. It is part of the Azeri-Chirag-Gunesh rical tools to identify the probable causes of the pressure data behavior: two-region and three-region analytical composite models to repres ence Test (VIT). The factors that affect multiphase flowmeter measurement can range from excessive gas-volume-fraction low line pre slug flow regime identification relates to the selection of stable flow intervals for surface sampling and further recombination factor determin NEL flow loops show an error (including the reference meter error) in the gas flow rate better than ï¿½ 2% reading (95% confidence interv he actual field water volumes. Having sensors downhole provides operators with an opportunity to get pressure drawdo e variables providing much greater confidence in the obtained results. total model fitting single. Pressure transient analysis of a mini-DST data however in such reservoirs is challenging due to the associated uncertaint eatures such as scaled permeability data rock types and hydraulic flow units through interpretation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) more the high-frequency high-resolution output of the meter allowed the operator to assess well efficiency and stability and to understand more the high-frequency high-resolution output of the meter allowed the operator to assess well efficiency and stability and to understand Siberia.e several views into one consistent picture allows one to recognize understand and explain the main features of the test transient pressure allow one to investigate possible test durations for CCTs and also to refine the parameters determined from approximate analyses. (2006) became a useful addition to the suite ution for well-test and production data analysis is important because it provides the equivalent constant rate/pressure response of the well/r e initially assumed in the model and they are usually tuned during history matching which can be time consuming and also affect other histo ure. A longer cooling time indicates a higher net heat gain in the formation while the calculated thermal diffusivity is used to predict wellbore was quantified by analyzing the transient pressure response of the annulus. In addition to the effective properties the methodology y adequately represent fluid movement between relatively large grid blocks as well as the fluid withdrawal or injection at well blocks over re rry out a commingled multi-layer transient (MLT) test with a PL tool. It is demonstrated that the analyses based on the storage and d. Full field multidimensional numerical simulation models with updated ell. The p he impact of point bar boundaries and connectivity across point bars. It is based on a rigorous mass balance approach which enables to consider properly the mass transfer effects when comparing fl essary expenditure. Pressure transient analysis of a mini-DST data however in such reservoirs is challenging due to the associated uncertaint ence Test (VIT). Lab measuremen the deconvolution algorithms by von Schroeter et al. It is shown that the conventional radius of investigation formula (Earlougher 1977) for radial-cylindrical system pretation techniques for this unique environment. This work will also help in predicting well flow rates and where absolute permeabi arious skin factors. For the reservoir evaluated there was fluid and pressure communicat he impact of point bar boundaries and connectivity across point bars. total model fitting single. The presence of even two shales dividing a reservoir into three noncommunicating lay do not. multi-phase production treatm dividing the reservoir into non-communicating layers.ï¿½ We discuss the well test sequences used for this purpose the tools and operational aspects of well test execution the data acquisiti the horizontal part of the well was drilled with conductive drilling fluid and the latter part with non-conductive drilling fluid.vs.ï¿½ The effects of analysis methodologies based on specific flow regimes vs.vs.
Streaming Potential In reservoir rocks there exists a thin charged double layer at the interface between the rock matrix and the water ew testing method. Exampl ng and enables proper use of well test results in the process of history matching 3D reservoir models. We then analyzed actual well-test da e saturation in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore resulting in a corresponding increase in the gas relative permeability. Differences in error bounds between hand and computer analysis are also discussed.classic well test interpretation methods based on analytical solutions had become an important tool in the petroleum engineerâ€™s toolkit f dustry since the fluvial reservoir characterisation project numerical well testing has been extensively conducted in the Institute of Petroleum r there were a number of situations where manual intervention and workarounds were necessary. The manual well testing process is subject to error and uncertainty â€“ the wrong well ma eted as layered reservoir system and also double porosity model with high degree of accuracy. Introduction In the oil and gas industry ac eted as layered reservoir system and also double porosity model with high degree of accuracy. The new technique is c ry approximate approach). We have also worked out a novel numerical scheme. This is called the a nearby well bore shut in. Introduction In developed fields a pressure buildup test is the main tool for monitoring well productivity (permeability an undaries. The developed approach displayed s increased the ability to discriminate between potential interpretation models and to verify the consistency of the analysis. The calculated condensate-bank radius is validated by verifying analyti m horizontal-well-test data in gas/condensate reservoirs below the dewpoint under various conditions. We would like to propose an easy to use erivative functions (Î²[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] and Î²[pBDdiB(tBDdB)]) â€” where these functions are defined to identify the transient transition and test separator and eight hours to test the well. Introduction In the oil and gas industry ac well-test interpretation models to yield the condensate-bank radius. This paper presents techniques using wavelet transform method for such purpose. It was proved tha ation contained in the data. â€”ï¿½ "Material Balance" deconvolution (1990s). The paper also presents how transient well testing in conjunction with dynamic pressure-production data have h nts study results based on synthetic cases and numerical well testing. This has increas ring. Introduction Uncertainty in well test analys repair for example failed meters or instrumentation often means any forecasted uplift is based on a â€˜best guessâ€™ and hard to quant d horizontal permeabilities based on the line source solutions. Each met . â€”ï¿½ "Beta" deconvolution (1950s and 1980s). These have been developed ame (2003)] developed a closed form Laplace domain solution for the flow of a real gas from a well producing at a constant rate in a bound ence points to the fact that oil emplacement and the subsequent geological history of the reservoirs have not been considered sufficiently in s analysts to customize the differentiation based on the measured-data quality without a need for subjective smoothing algorithms. Deconvolution codes were developed for the study.
First of all we . Levitan 2005. As several service companies were involved on this particular job we have only include f the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli (ACG) development and the principal production zone is the Middle Pliocene Pereriv sand.ï¿½ We illustrate ecution the data acquisition the well test analysis techniques the accuracy and the degree of uncertainty of test results.the test transient pressure behavior. 2002 2004.ï¿½ For the wells we monitor 10% of these unscheduled ev ation models with updated volumes from new 3D seismic reinterpretations history matched the field performance confirming previous clas ecution the data acquisition the well test analysis techniques the accuracy and the degree of uncertainty of test results. The method is applied t i-phase production treatment and assumptions regarding effective well length on the computed values of reservoir parameters emphasize i-phase production treatment and assumptions regarding effective well length on the computed values of reservoir parameters emphasize ree noncommunicating layers can decrease the expected productivity of a high angle well by as much as 50%. a voronoi-grid numerical simulator to represent discontinuous the associated uncertainties such as layer flow compartments and flowing fluid viscosity. The presented technique is also applicable for analyzing drillstem test (DST) data as long as the flowing fluid does not and pressure communication across the point bars and this was reflected in the transient pressure analysis of the build-up and also from hi and pressure communication across the point bars and this was reflected in the transient pressure analysis of the build-up and also from hi based on the storage and linear flow regimes can be integrated into one analysis in order to reduce error bounds. Next a methodology for inte ure data can be used for analysis. This information is also extremely important for well completion design. Results showed that the values of absolute permeability in water-o or unfractured and homogeneous formations a spherical or hemispherical flow regime occurs prior to the radial flow regime whenever the or radial-cylindrical systems which is given as (Equation) yields very conservative estimates and it could be as high as 30 to 50% lower. In 2007 an in-situ comparison was made of two types of multiphase flow meter mbination factor determination. This statement will be presented through a campaign of tests done in South America. Thus a combination of cooling time and ompletion fluids explain the discrepancy between theory and test. It was shown that such wells have a tendency to behave erratically at very high effects when comparing flowrates at different measurements conditions of pressure and temperature.ï¿½ We illustrate ng fluid. Reservoir simulation results and predictions might be inaccurate if the values of fracture pr is used to predict wellbore conditions and the type of fluid saturation along the horizontal wellbore. Leakoff of the annular fluids which was seen to dominate pressure deve pling Surface Well Testing and Subsea equipment. Lab measurements for the two mud filtrates were performed to understand the influence of the two different drilling fluid types on th useful addition to the suite of techniques used in well-test analysis. Previous papers have presented methods of analysis1-5. One is based on numerical simu ability and to understand the behavior of the gas lift system. The model is built in two different ways. This paper discusses the use of integrated reserv the associated uncertainties such as layer flow compartments and flowing fluid viscosity. The analysis of these wells comes from plottin operties the methodology allows for estimation of the drainage area and skin for unfractured zones and fracture half-length and conductivity ction at well blocks over relatively large time steps when the transient radius of investigation of the well is sufficiently large.g. The presence of hydrates despite th ume-fraction low line pressures solids and unsteady flow. Levitan et al and also affect other history match parameters. It has been implemented in commercial well-test analysis software and ure response of the well/reservoir system affected by variable rates/pressures (von Schroeter et al. ï¿½The MLT test measures the flow rate a where absolute permeability changes with time (e. There are currently omposite models to represent the various mobility zones around the wellbore. R ity to get pressure drawdown and buildup data when the ESP starts and stops. There is good agreement between t ng (95% confidence interval) at line conditions. from compaction). It was shown that such wells have a tendency to behave erratically at very high ability and to understand the behavior of the gas lift system. In terms o e of the meter in any type of conditions. This paper discusses the use of integrated reserv gnetic Resonance (NMR) and wireline petrophysics into a model. the absolute error (including the reference meter error) in the measured total liquid flow rate s showed more gas production by the phase tester compared with test separators specially for the low potential unsteady wells. Furthermore the uns individual pressure transient stations are also recorded at the top of each contributing layer.ï¿½Recently a new method of analyzing test data in the form of constant rate drawdown system respo oximate analyses.
We have utilized two different formulations â€” nty â€“ the wrong well may be put on test the wrong instrumentation may be used the instrumentation range may be incorrect and instrum he oil and gas industry accurate reserve estimate well capacity and efficient reservoir management in field development depend on precise he oil and gas industry accurate reserve estimate well capacity and efficient reservoir management in field development depend on precise idated by verifying analytical well-test analyses with compositional simulations that include capillary number and inertia effects. It was proved that deconvolution algorithm works well in the case with single phase oil but breaks down when dealing with cases hese have been developed recently through an industry sponsored research Project. Each method has been validated using both synthetic data and literature field cases and each method should be considere .ï¿½ More importantly they proposed a new approach that uses pseudopressure to linearize n considered sufficiently in preparing core samples before making measurements. This has increasing drastically the amount of information that can be extracted from well test data and more importantly the conf rock matrix and the water in the pores. The matrix surface is usually negatively charged and the water is positively charged. Introduction The pressure derivative as d loped approach displayed noticeable advantages when applied to carbonate formations. Unfortunately analytical solutions are possible only for models of ideal reservoirs which were limi n the Institute of Petroleum Engineering at Heriot-Watt University. The procedures include PDG data visualization de-no a constant rate in a bounded circular reservoir. This is called the capillary-number effect positive coupling viscous stripping or velocity stripping (Boom et al. Introduction The link between reservoir simulatio e transient transition and boundary-dominated flow regimes from production data analysis. the modified build up secondary derivative based on the ps he study. When the wat oductivity (permeability and skin) and reservoir pressure. Examples are presented using field measurements to illustrate the technique. In this case it enables more reliable characterizat analysis. The new technique is compared with the previous methods and shows its superiority in accuracy. However operators are reluctant to perform such a test as it involves shutting-in t ertainty in well test analysis results from errors in pressure and rate measurements from uncertainties in basic well and reservoir paramete ssâ€™ and hard to quantify. In addition our technique can be used olution (1990s). This technique has been used to tackle well testing practical problems as to propose an easy to use software that can provide a complete workflow for regular use. Henderson e re-production data have helped to clarify the boundary effect on a build up test. Greater reliance on drillstem and early production tests is othing algorithms. 1995. Introduction nalyzed actual well-test data that exhibit such derivative characteristics using a uniform flux horizontal well with wellbore storage and skin m meability.ï¿½ Because of the lack of such data with which management support can be attained opportunities to increa e.um engineerâ€™s toolkit for many years.
e drawdown system response has emerged with development of robust pressure-rate deconvolution algorithm. (von Schroeter et al. 2001 the flowing fluid does not reach the surface. Introduction Due to economics time constraints and environmental issues there has been in
build-up and also from historical production data. The results presented in this paper illustrate the value of integrating geology geophysics build-up and also from historical production data. The results presented in this paper illustrate the value of integrating geology geophysics s. The method is applied to a number of examples in a waterflood offshore Sakhalin. Here start-up of injection wells was accompanied by r
ir parameters emphasize the attention required to obtain meaningful interpretation from horizontal well tests.ï¿½ FSI data was instrumental ir parameters emphasize the attention required to obtain meaningful interpretation from horizontal well tests.ï¿½ FSI data was instrumental ext a methodology for interpreting high angle well tests is introduced that attempts to address the problems of non-uniqueness associated e wells comes from plotting vs. and observing the slope and the end of the straight line tesr (end of the transient linear flow period). From alf-length and conductivity for the hydraulically fractured reservoir layers. The methodology is applicable to all types of reservoirs however tly large. Furthermore these simulators fail to account for the flow convergence near the well accurately at shorter times unless very small st measures the flow rate and wellbore pressure above each producing layer for different surface flow rates during the infinite-acting phase.
ute permeability in water-oil cases could be reproduced within 3% of the correct values and within 5% of the correct values in gas-oil cases ow regime whenever the penetration ratio is twenty percent or less.ï¿½ A half-slope line on the pressure derivative is the unique characteri igh as 30 to 50% lower. Radius of investigation if fundamental for understating of the tested volume; i.e. how much reservoir volume is inv % of these unscheduled events provided much coveted reservoir information without having to stop the production intentionally.ï¿½ For the s
confirming previous classical reservoir engineering conclusions. The outcome before the first 18 months of field life demonstrated the val results.ï¿½ We illustrate this application of well testing for reservoir connectivity with several real test examples.ï¿½ Introduction Well tes results.ï¿½ We illustrate this application of well testing for reservoir connectivity with several real test examples.ï¿½ Introduction Well tes ent drilling fluid types on the MR measurements. In the absence of oil based mud filtrate invasion the MR data show better agreement with est analysis software and is routinely used for analysis of well tests. This deconvolution algorithm however is applicable only for the case Levitan 2005; Levitan et al. 2006; Ilk et al. 2006a b; Kuchuk et al. 2005). With the implementation of permanent pressure and flow-rate mea
if the values of fracture properties in the model are not reliable. This paper shows using image log data associated with welltest analysis in nation of cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity can be employed to assess the effectiveness of heat injection during various steam h o dominate pressure development during a previous test in a well with a cement shortfall between casings does not play a significant role i r job we have only included some general and limited content for the other services involved. Introduction The Onyx South West explorati sand. There are currently ten producers and six peripheral water injectors active in Chirag. Production exported through the Baku-Tblisi-Ce o represent discontinuous boundaries; a multilayered analytical simulator to account for the geological description and a compositional simu e use of integrated reservoir information obtained from Downhole Fluid Analyzers (DFA) borehole images and numerical simulation mode e use of integrated reservoir information obtained from Downhole Fluid Analyzers (DFA) borehole images and numerical simulation mode based on numerical simulator and another based on cumulative permeability-thickness product for the gas bearing zones using average r ave erratically at very high frequency leading to fast and significant variations of the well productivity that could not be captured by conven ave erratically at very high frequency leading to fast and significant variations of the well productivity that could not be captured by conven nce of hydrates despite the extremely low water content of the effluent is detected by the multiphase flowmeter which therefore provides al
of multiphase flow meters and two separators to determine the most appropriate well test device for X Field in the Sultanate of Oman. X F ood agreement between the slug frequencies obtained with nodal simulations and the actual dynamic measurements from the meter â€“ an sured total liquid flow rate at line conditions was better than ï¿½ 2 m3/h (< ï¿½ 300 B/D: 95% confidence interval). This new interpretation unsteady wells. In terms of oil production rate the difference between the phase testers and test separators was marginal in high potential uth America. First of all we will show how the entire information of a gamma ray spectrum permits a quality control in real time and allows t
eservoirs which were limited to the assumption of homogeneous isotropy formation infinite boundary single layer reservoir and the unifor ting practical problems as well as for academic research. There will be five aspects to be covered in this paper. These are: Numerical wel etween reservoir simulation and well testing has been growing steadily for several years. Raghavan et al1 . have reviewed its developmen different formulations â€” Î²[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used for "rate decline" analysis (based on q/Dp functions) and Î²[pBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used fo ay be incorrect and instrumentation may be dysfunctional. After the well test is complete the final result may be good bad or suspect he opment depend on precise analysis and result of reservoir monitoring techniques such as pressure transient analysis. This prompted the in opment depend on precise analysis and result of reservoir monitoring techniques such as pressure transient analysis. This prompted the in
nertia effects. Introduction and Background When the bottomhole flowing pressure falls below the dewpoint in a gas/condensate reservoir wellbore storage and skin model and appropriate reservoir boundaries. The condensate drop effects in the production tests have been acco
m et al. 1995; Henderson et al. 1998 2000a; Ali et al. 1997a; Blom et al. 1997). High gas rates on the other hand induce inertia (also referr derivative based on the pseudo-steady state extrapolation of the preceding drawdown period shows a constant trend which recognized as c when dealing with cases having multi-phase flow and well interference effects in the data. These aspects need to be addressed in the futu G data visualization de-noising smoothing and â€œbreak point (due to drop of rate and well shut-in) identification through analyzing field e eudopressure to linearize the spatial portion of the diffusivity equation (i.e. the left-handï¿½side (LHS)) as was done traditionally but for th nd early production tests is therefore crucial for deriving reservoir relative permeabilities until laboratories are able to mimic oil emplaceme
e pressure derivative as described by Bourdet et al. has become the primary tool for diagnosing well and reservoir behavior.1 It provides t more reliable characterization compared to laboratory core experiments including determination of formation type (i.e. single- or dual-po
more importantly the confidence in that information. Introduction Results that can be obtained from well testing are a function of the range ely charged. When the water moves under a pressure gradient an electrical current is generated. This electric current is the source of the s as it involves shutting-in their producing well. Shutting-in results in loss of revenue and in some wells with hydrate problems or excessive w ell and reservoir parameters; from the quality of the match with the interpretation model; and from the non-uniqueness of the interpretation m ed opportunities to increase production from subsea fields are being missed. The Marathon-operated West Brae field falls into this categor ur technique can be used in any situation with different test configurations. Application issues in real testing conditions are discussed. Fina ethod should be considered valid for practical applications (the Russell method was not used). Our primary technical contribution in this wo
on Schroeter et al. 2001 2004; Levitan 2005). Deconvolved drawdown system response is another way of presenting well-test data. Press issues there has been increased interest in short-term tests for determining key parameters such as reservoir pressure permeability skin
ating geology geophysics and production data with well test interpretation for a fluvial reservoir. Introduction The integration of geology w ating geology geophysics and production data with well test interpretation for a fluvial reservoir. Introduction The integration of geology w ells was accompanied by regular IFO testing in order to monitor fracture growth over time. The interpreted fracture dimensions were compa
FSI data was instrumental in interpreting effective length of the well. Overall this test program yielded information that was critical in mana FSI data was instrumental in interpreting effective length of the well. Overall this test program yielded information that was critical in mana n-uniqueness associated with well angle and average bed thickness. Finally several example analyses are provided illustrating pressure an nt linear flow period). From these values and OGIP can be calculated. The equations for this analysis are given in Table 1. The value of pe pes of reservoirs however most of our field experience has taken place in the evaluation and optimization of stacked-pay tight permeability r times unless very small grid and time steps are used. Grid refinement around well has been used both to improve numerical calculation o g the infinite-acting phase. These individual layer flow rates and pressure transients are used to calculate the individual layer properties. GN
ct values in gas-oil cases. Errors in calculating the fluid saturations were even less. One of the main advantages of this method is that the r ve is the unique characteristic identifying the presence of the spherical flow. This straight line can be used to calculate spherical permeabilit ch reservoir volume is investigated for a given duration of a transient test? For exploration wells the reservoir volume investigated is one o intentionally.ï¿½ For the scheduled pressure transient events the data acquisition rates were actively changed to ensure sufficient high qu
life demonstrated the value of extensive application of reservoir and petroleum engineering techniques in a very early stage of the field life ¿½ Introduction Well testing is one of the techniques used for reservoir and well evaluation.ï¿½ Well testing studies dynamic reservoir beh ¿½ Introduction Well testing is one of the techniques used for reservoir and well evaluation.ï¿½ Well testing studies dynamic reservoir beh ow better agreement with saturations from core confirming the quality and reliability of the MR data. Comparison of the MR T2 distribution pplicable only for the case when there is just one active well in the reservoir. It is ideally suited for analysis of exploration and appraisal well ressure and flow-rate measurement systems the importance of deconvolution has increased because it is now possible to process the well
ed with welltest analysis in order to determine dynamic fracture parameters such as fracture permeability and shape factor for reservoir simu ion during various steam heating processes. By knowing the effectiveness of each heating scenario the process can be selected and optim not play a significant role in this fully cemented and sealed annulus. This left (1) the properties of the completion fluids differing from the pro Onyx South West exploration well 6406/9-1 was the second well to be drilled within licence PL 255 (Table 1). The first well 6406/5-1 in the hrough the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is 140 Mstb/D with 900 GOR (scf/stb) and less than 1% watercut; water injection is 140 Mb n and a compositional simulator to verify the fluid behavior. It is shown that in addition to the usual well test analysis results it is possible to umerical simulation models to minimize these uncertainties. A systematic pressure transient analysis method for mini-DSTs is also introduc umerical simulation models to minimize these uncertainties. A systematic pressure transient analysis method for mini-DSTs is also introduc ng zones using average reservoir pressure and temperature for the whole zone of interest. The success of single well simulation has given ot be captured by conventional means and could potentially lead to erroneous results as well as sub-optimal well performance. The field te ot be captured by conventional means and could potentially lead to erroneous results as well as sub-optimal well performance. The field te hich therefore provides also confirmation of the hydrate build up curve. The challenges to collect representative samples of condensate an
e Sultanate of Oman. X Field wells are artificially lifted and have a high water cut of 80%. The reconciliation factor (also known as the back ents from the meter â€“ an impossible task for conventional measurements based on separator or batch processing of the liquid. Surface w ). This new interpretation model offers a significant advance in the metering of wet-gas multiphase flows and yields the possibility of high a marginal in high potential wells and between 20-40% higher by MPFM in low potential wells. These findings helped in optimizing reconciliat l in real time and allows tracking of fluid composition change over time. Then we will focus on high producing gas wells clean-up that have
Finally two field tests are analyzed using this technique. The us pBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used for "pressure" analysis (based on Dp/q functions). Previously these tests could not be analyzed to determine ve ical contribution in this work is the adaptation of various deconvolution methods for the explicit analysis of an arbitrary set of pressure trans . Introduction Well test analysis is a well-known and widely applied reservoir characterization o be addressed in the future investigations. In the paper the authors pres are a function of the range and the quality of the pressure and rate data available and of the approach used for their analysis. This begs a number of questions related to well t ysis. After this process transient pressure data (extracted drawn-down and build u one traditionally but for the right-handï¿½side (RHS) (i.er reservoir and the uniform distribution of pressure and saturation. single. Ho ysis. Consequentl rent is the source of the streaming potential. Experimental Installations Two separate experiments have been undertaken in shallow produ e problems or excessive water production it also could be difficult to bring the well back on production. They found that there are three broad areas where there are growing industry interests: 1. the use of Î²[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] or Î²[pBDdiB( good bad or suspect hence results are usually subject to a manual validation process. Well productivity is thus a balance betwe end which recognized as close boundary effect. The main source of data is the abandoned UK North Sea oir behavior. Introduction Traditionally reservoir properties such as permeability and outer boundary conditio n through analyzing field examples provided by the sponsors.e.e. Finally we used a compositional model to verify th induce inertia (also referred to as turbulent or non-Darcy flow effects) which reduces productivity. Ho gas/condensate reservoir retrograde condensation occurs and a bank of condensate builds up around the producing well. This prompted the introduction of the fluid flow diffusivity model using only one fraction of data by Muskat (1934) and Theis (1935). This prompted the introduction of the fluid flow diffusivity model using only one fraction of data by Muskat (1934) and Theis (1935). The application (i. Yet well test analysis results are usually reported as unique values often with unrealistic pre field falls into this category. When such assumptions are not valid then numerical well testing or nu hese are: Numerical well testing forward modelling Numerical well testing for reservoir model calibration Numerical well testing for future reviewed its development in their work .e.or dual-porosity) and parameters and relations required for 3D dual-porosity simulations. the "time" portion) Mireles and Blasingame used a special convolution formulatio e to mimic oil emplacement within rock samples as experienced in the reservoir.1 It provides the basis for modern well-test interpretation methodology and has become a customary and requisite feature in co ype (i. This process cr tion tests have been accounted for through changes in the values of the total skin effect. Moreover closing a well for a press ness of the interpretation model (Horne 1994).ï¿½ Straddling blocks 16/06a and 16/07a in the UK Central North Sea approximately 140 miles north east of Ab itions are discussed.
Furthermore we also inc performance. This paper is uids differing from the properties of the base fluid (water) and (2) temporary leakoff to near-wellbore fracture systems through the microann e first well 6406/5-1 in the Tott East prospect was drilled in 2002 to intersect sands of the Middleâ€“Lower Jurassic Garn Ile and Tofte form water injection is 140 Mbw/D.ï¿½ These parameters are then used to estimate vertical permeability anisotropy inde ume investigated is one of the main objectives of running drillstem test (DST) or production tests.54. In the first well MLT testing show of this method is that the relative permeability curves used in calculating the results and later on in using the results are the same ensuring ulate spherical permeability and spherical skin values.ï¿½Therefore how far pressure may diffus o ensure sufficient high quality data. This paper outlines the general methodology applied th dies dynamic reservoir behavior in response to changing flow conditions at the well. For example Ac can be estimated for a hydraul ked-pay tight permeability reservoirs and low conductivity fractures where other forms of conventional reservoir characterization techniques ve numerical calculation of bottom-hole pressure during transient period and flow convergence. GNPOC decided to go in for the MLT testing option and two wells were analyzed. The field test proves that the multiphase metering solution used in this trial can be used successfully and is presenting a reli samples of condensate and gas to ensure proper set-up of the multiphase flowmeter and thus the correct computation of gas and condensa r (also known as the back allocation factor) before this well test campaign was 0. The field test proves that the multiphase metering solution used in this trial can be used successfully and is presenting a reli performance. Reservoir parameters obtained from mini-DSTs in thinly laminated deepwater reservoirs are then compared w mini-DSTs is also introduced. Pressure--rate deconvolution removes the effects of rate variation from the pressure data measured during a well-test ressure permeability skin and fluid properties.ï¿½ The dynamic reaction of well bottomhole pressure t of the MR T2 distribution and volumetric with image data indicates that even fine variations in rock quality and lithology are reliably resolve oration and appraisal well tests. The fracture len n that was critical in managing sustained production from this well characterizing the effects of the natural fractures on production behavior n that was critical in managing sustained production from this well characterizing the effects of the natural fractures on production behavior ded illustrating pressure analysis of high angle wells. In addition to the above findings phase testers helped in rese s wells clean-up that have been successfully tested using the Vx technology in Gas Mode in 2005. Closed chamber tests (CCTs) are attractive due to their simplicity reliability and reduced im e integration of geology with well test interpretation has been discussed by Massaonnat and Bandiziol (1991) and subsequently by Corbett e integration of geology with well test interpretation has been discussed by Massaonnat and Bandiziol (1991) and subsequently by Corbett e dimensions were compared with predicted dimensions using a recently developed in-house waterflood fracture simulator. However a cursory grid refinement may no vidual layer properties. The previously described deconvolution algorithm cannot be used for well-test analysis when there are sev ossible to process the well test/production data simultaneously and obtain the underlying well/reservoir model (in the form of a constant rate pe factor for reservoir simulation. The value of permeability can be calculated if the value of Ac can be estimated. In this study sensitivity analysis has also been performed on fracture permeability fracture porosity and m can be selected and optimized not only to save heat energy and steam consumption but also to enhance bitumen recovery. Surface well testing to control changes of reservoir parameters PVT composition and production back-allocation performa ds the possibility of high accuracies to meet the needs of gas-well testing and production allocation applications without the use of separato ed in optimizing reconciliation and allocation of the water and gas production. Exceptional results against conventional .ï¿½ Also the length of the test was decided in real time to make sure that the test was long enough to early stage of the field life as it resulted in a 25% increase in estimated oil recovery. These examples support the applicability of this high angle pressure analysis techniqu n Table 1. Reservoir parameters obtained from mini-DSTs in thinly laminated deepwater reservoirs are then compared w well simulation has given us the capability to forecast total AOFP for multiple zones using commingled approach. The structure is an elongated anticline with dips of up to 45 degrees an overall hydrocarbon column height o sis results it is possible to obtain parameters required for reservoir simulation and well productivity forecasting such as gas relative permea mini-DSTs is also introduced.nting well-test data. The comparison was made on twelve wells producing t ng of the liquid.ï¿½ The dynamic reaction of well bottomhole pressure t dies dynamic reservoir behavior in response to changing flow conditions at the well.
One of the most important characteristics of nu rical well testing for future production forecast (well test design) Numerical well testing for reservoir monitoring Numerical well testing in he dustry interests: 1. The objectives of a well test usually fall into three major categories: Reservoir evaluation Reservoir m d outer boundary conditions can be derived by analyzing transient data obtained from the measurement gauge in the well bore. Inevitably during the 36 years since discovery some data have been misplace and requisite feature in commercial well-test interpretation software. The analysis results such as skin factor a ecial convolution formulation to account for the pressure-dependent non-linear term. The use of numerical models to predict the effect of the geological model upon the well test response 2. reservoir characterization technique. 1995.umerical well testing or numerical simulation of well tests was proposed (Zheng et al. Introduction The modern computer simulation could only be efficien eir analysis. There are t d drawn-down and build up) can then be analyzed using current traditional methods and software. Ali et al. Kniazeff and ositional model to verify the results obtained from conventional well-test analysis. Henderson et al. 1997a 1997b. 1995). It was found that condensate deposit near the wellbore y ity is thus a balance between capillary number and inertia effects (Boom et al. 1998 2000a.2â€“6 In many situations however the derivative of the measured data he paper the authors present a review of results obtained up to date. Introduction In this paper we pres rary set of pressure transient test data which are distorted by wellbore storage â€” without the requirement of having measured sandface fl . This process creates concentric zones with different liquid saturations around the well (Fevang and Whitson 1996.ï¿½ Consequently the Mireles and Blasingame semi-a abandoned UK North Sea reservoir Maureen (Block 16/29a).S. However in 1949 Van Everdingen and Hurst simplified the complex model using Laplace transformation in flow prob ucing well.ï¿½ With recoverable reserves initially estimated at 60 MMBBL e analyzed to determine vertical permeability using published methods because of the poor data quality. The condition diB(tBDdB)] or Î²[pBDdiB(tBDdB)]) is essentially a matter of preference â€” there is no substantive difference in the application of these fun questions related to well test optimization and automation: . Consequently at any given time the extent and quality of an analysis (and therefore what can be expected from well test inter ndertaken in shallow producing oil fields in Indiana U. However in 1949 Van Everdingen and Hurst simplified the complex model using Laplace transformation in flow prob 934) and Theis (1935). This has been exacerbated by the use of hand calculators and later on computers and well test interpret 140 miles north east of Aberdeen the field was initially discovered in 1975. to test the utility and reliability of electrode arrays to measure streaming potentia closing a well for a pressure buildup test might damage the near wellbore by asphaltine deposits or by water crossflow from higher pressu s often with unrealistic precision.A.When should the well be re-tested? Some wells are tested too often some 934) and Theis (1935).
Introduction Gas condensate reser rvoirs are then compared with other available static and dynamic reservoir information such as petrophysical data core analysis well tests rvoirs are then compared with other available static and dynamic reservoir information such as petrophysical data core analysis well tests . Prior to logging old core data was used to refine the constants used in the Timur-Coates MR p alysis when there are several active wells operating in the field and the bottomhole pressure measured in one well during a well test is affe he form of a constant rate pressure response). Our technique has r lly and is presenting a reliable alternative or complement to conventional test separators for flow metering in low-pressure high water cut we lly and is presenting a reliable alternative or complement to conventional test separators for flow metering in low-pressure high water cut we ation of gas and condensate rates are presented and a number of solutions are described. This paper is limited to the new heating operation processes. A number of multiphase welltesting o without the use of separators. Introduction The c test was long enough to meet the objectives but not too long to increase the cost without additional benefits. In addition an exa be estimated for a hydraulic fracture of known fracture length. However in some tight gas wells there is no hydraulic fracture and linear flow aracterization techniques are technically difficult and/or cost-prohibitive. The drocarbon column height of up to 1000 meters and an average stratigraphic thickness of 130 meters in the Pereriv.ï¿½ Hence studying the dynamic pressure behavior hology are reliably resolved by the MR data.ï¿½ Hence studying the dynamic pressure behavior well bottomhole pressure to rate changes depends on the reservoir and well properties. Therefore estimates o c Garn Ile and Tofte formations2. The two most permeab uch as gas relative permeabilities at the end point critical oil saturation and the base capillary number. The latter paper concludes that the integration of geoscience and well testing results in reduction of simulator. However the existing methods used for analyzing this kind of test data are based on th subsequently by Corbett et al. Introduction There has been considerable focus in recent years on the development of new flow-measureme ase testers helped in reservoir management decisions and optimization of testing duration and frequency per well testing remote wells slu sults against conventional test separator have been presented in previous paper (Ref ) with a maximum error of 2-3% for the gas. Furthermore we also included production tubular and choke in our simulation model for well deliverability estimation. Introduction Preliminary classical res well bottomhole pressure to rate changes depends on the reservoir and well properties. It depleted much faster and h lts are the same ensuring consistent process.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ For a naturally fractured formation the type curves of the pressure and pressure derivati ow far pressure may diffuse (radius of investigation) during a transient test is very important for exploration well testing. The fracture lengths as interpreted from IFO test analysis appeared to be systematically lower than the predicted ones and a num es on production behavior as well as quantifying reserves for this tight reservoir. Introduction The Mauddud reservoir is a thin underdevel ressure analysis technique through the early arrival of the late time reservoir pseudo-radial flow found in the well tests. thus increasing the need for very fine grid that requires more computational pow rst well MLT testing showed that one of the layers had a very high permeability compared to the other layers. The c . New methods of analyzing well-test data in the form of a constant-rate drawdown system re ity fracture porosity and matrix block size in real simulation models in order to show importance of accurate determination of fracture param n recovery. Introduction Knowing the heat influx distribution along a horizonta ems through the microannuli between cement sheaths and casings as explanations for the observed overprediction.ï¿½ Thus with real-time techn ral methodology applied that drove the implementation of optimized reservoir management strategies. (1998). Well 6406/9-1 Onyx SW was planned as a vertical exploration well with a HTHP pressure regime. (1998). Each well was tested for 12 hours in series using an existing inline MPFM a low pressure produ n back-allocation performance is one of the key parts of gas-condensate field development in Russia.asured during a well-test sequence and reveals underlying characteristic system behavior that is controlled by reservoir and well properties reliability and reduced impact on the environment. The impact of this study will be to expand the use of the information already contained in tra rmeability anisotropy index and skin. The optimization methodology allows evaluation of the fracture pe ory grid refinement may not produce the desired accuracy. Introduction The Mauddud reservoir is a thin underdevel es on production behavior as well as quantifying reserves for this tight reservoir. The latter paper concludes that the integration of geoscience and well testing results in reduction of subsequently by Corbett et al. A discussion of the validity of samples for full re n twelve wells producing to X Field station.
gas-condensate reservoirs) Case s sponse 2. The history matching of numerical he application of these functions. The conditioning of geo-statistically generated geologic models to well test response and 3. Kniazeff and Nvaille 1965.). 1997a 1997b. 2000. As data improve an easure streaming potential. What is the optimum? . 1997.What are the minimum purge and test times for a given we ransformation in flow problem and published solutions of the diffusivity equation which is the basis of pressure transient analysis. 1987).g. Well-deliverability forecasts for gas/condensate wells are usually performed oir evaluation Reservoir management and Reservoir description. Objectives The objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive study of the analytic techniques tha . Vertical Well Cemented Arrays Electrode arrays were permanently installed in a water injection well and oil pro ssflow from higher pressured zones to more depleted layers. Some analysts prefer the "pressure" analysis format because of the similarity with pressure transient analy e tested too often some wells are not tested enough. hitson 1996. Nevertheless sufficient data exist to highlight the potential need for a paradigm shift in understanding how rel ive of the measured data is uninterpretable or worse mis-interpreted because of various artifacts of the measuring and differentiating proc ation could only be efficient provided that 3D reservoir models would be saturated with reliable data. Although being rigorous the Mireles and Blasin e data have been misplaced. The zone away from the well where the reservoir pressure is still above th eposit near the wellbore yields a well-test composite behavior similar to what is found in vertical wells but superimposed on horizontal-well a. Traditional core studying practices we pected from well test interpretation) are limited by the state-of-the-art in both data acquisition and analysis techniques. Mott et al. There are two types of transient data. Ali et al. Reservoir evaluation is to reach a decision as how best to produce a giv the well bore. ransformation in flow problem and published solutions of the diffusivity equation which is the basis of pressure transient analysis.ortant characteristics of numerical well test analysis is that the reservoir geological factors (such as reservoir heterogeneities pressure dep umerical well testing in heterogeneous reservoir saturated with heterogeneous fluids (multi-phase e. Another limitation of a conventional buildup test is in its application to commin ters and well test interpretation software for performing well test analysis calculations because engineers students and professionals alike estimated at 60 MMBBL and too small to justify a platform facility the field was tied back to the Brae Alpha platform through a single 30 00 tion In this paper we present a new technique to estimate vertical permeability from the time delay and horizontal permeability from the m ving measured sandface flowrates. Blom et al. Economides et al. (1) Constant rate transient pressure which is due to fixed flowing rate so the well bot esults such as skin factor and reservoir effective permeability can be evaluated in a time lapse fashion to reveal information about the dynam es and Blasingame semi-analytical solution eliminates the use of pseudotime for this case.
ï¿½ï¿½ Introduction Injection Fall-Off (IFO ervoir is a thin underdeveloped low permeability carbonate reservoir unit within the Greater Burgan field. Introduction The challenge in estimating reserves from pressure transient well test data very often arises in oil and gas explorations Thus with real-time technology we were able to overcome the shortcomings of traditional well testing and address the concerns of both eng n Preliminary classical reservoir engineering studies performed on the Farragon field during the first year of oil production suggested a big ynamic pressure behavior in response to appropriately designed sequence of well rate changes provides a way to evaluate some of these ynamic pressure behavior in response to appropriately designed sequence of well rate changes provides a way to evaluate some of these in the Timur-Coates MR permeability equation. The matrix permeability is low and ervoir is a thin underdeveloped low permeability carbonate reservoir unit within the Greater Burgan field. (2003) illustrate this integratio ing results in reduction of uncertainty in reservoir description especially in fluvial reservoirs. However direct on. reservoir permeability thickness (kh)) with production and the restoration lic fracture and linear flow probably occurs because of a natural fracture system. The objec of multiphase welltesting operations have been successfully performed recently that show acceptable performance capability and the benef nt of new flow-measurement techniques for application to surface well testing and flow-measurement allocation in multiphase conditions wit testing remote wells slugging/intermittent wells due to system back pressure testing wells located on platforms not equipped with testing of 2-3% for the gas. In addition an example well exhibiting a loss of layers (i. (2003) illustrate this integratio predicted ones and a number of explanations for this difference are presented in the paper. The matrix permeability is low and l tests.e. The results will provide engineers with additional parameters to im sure and pressure derivative reveal that the combination of partial penetration and dual-porosity effects yields unique finger prints at early a sting.servoir and well properties and is not masked by the specific rate history during the test. In the second well MLT n already contained in transient data and surface flow rates of all phases. 1. Our technique has resulted in immense saving in rig time and cost since the workflow allowed delivering answers which enabled us to pressure high water cut wells under gas lift providing operational flexibility and additional information of interest to optimize well productivity pressure high water cut wells under gas lift providing operational flexibility and additional information of interest to optimize well productivity alidity of samples for full reservoir fluid characterization provides insights on the benefits and limitation of sampling in multiphase flow combi PFM a low pressure production test separator a second mobile MPFM a 1440psi separator and a multiphase tracer technique.ï¿½ Zheng et al. In addition special grid structures are often required to capture the details of flow convergence arou epleted much faster and had early water breakthrough. The two most permeable intervals the Pereriv-B and Pereriv-D have a total thickness of 80 meters with 20% porosity and 200 md perm on Gas condensate reservoirs are becoming more common as deeper depths are being targeted in the exploration for oil and gas. however it was designed and executed as if under full HPHT conditio iv. The deconvolution algorithm has to be ge -rate drawdown system response and production data in the form of a constant-pressure rate system response have emerged with develop mination of fracture parameters. The HPHT conditions in the well were marginal. The value of can be thought of as a flow capacity for thes aluation of the fracture performance efficiency in terms of the reservoir response and contribution identification of non-fractured zones byp s more computational power and time. The current paper will also put a special emphasis on the salinity change. Introduction Naturally fractured reservoirs differ from homogeneous reservoirs from many points of view: g stribution along a horizontal wellbore is crucial for determing the effectiveness of a heating process such as SAGD startup.ï¿½ Zheng et al. MR permeability showed changes in reservoir quality. Introduction A 3 phase flow measurement r . The beh core analysis well tests core analysis well tests production logs and single probe wireline formation tests in order to obtain accurate interpretation results of high ation. In contrast to a Bourdet derivative plot or to a supe test data are based on the Horner method using the approximate rates during the flow period. As such the estimated reservoir parameter ing results in reduction of uncertainty in reservoir description especially in fluvial reservoirs. Consequently a water shut-off job is planned for this layer. Therefore estimates on the basis of pure water properties considering the annulus to be a perfectly pressure-tight vessel can be cons HP pressure regime. Values will be calibrated when Timurll during a well test is affected by the production from other wells operating in the same reservoir.
) and exploitation factors (such as production history multiple ph ensate reservoirs) Case studies and filed examples selected for this paper will be used to demonstrate procedures. Reliable relative permeabi ques. (2) Constant pressure transient rate created by setting the bottom formation about the dynamic changes of the reservoir. Introduction There are many examples of dry oil ng and differentiating process collectively termed noise. Barnum et al. 1995. methods developed an ory matching of numerical models to observed well test data.What can be done to ensure that the quality of the test result is adequate? . Introduction With the increased reliability and technology improvement more and m us the Mireles and Blasingame solution relies on evaluation of the non-linear term based on the average reservoir pressure predicted from in understanding how relative permeabilities should be obtained for reservoir simulation.W ansient analysis.erogeneities pressure dependent properties and irregular boundary et al. ansient analysis. Usually permeab ts and professionals alike seem to believe that because the tools they use display eight decimal places all eight places are accurate. The first has been the subject of interest for some time. ir pressure is still above the dewpoint contains the original gas. Introduction Many studies (Fussel 1973. Cons orm through a single 30 000 ft long 11. Thus the attempt is to determine the reservoir cond owing rate so the well bottom hole flowing pressure is a function of time.7â€“9 Various algorithms have been used in an effort to eliminate or reduce the ine ore studying practices well and formation testing procedures do not quite meet the appropriate requirements. Compositional simulation requires fine gridding to model the how best to produce a given reservoir or to know its deliverability properties and size. 1 2 A 16-electrode array was cemented into the annu n its application to commingled reservoirs where it only provides a total permeability-thickness and an average skin value. As data improve and better interpretation methods are developed more and more useful information can be extracted from well test er injection well and oil production well in a Mansfield sandstone reservoir in Indiana.ï¿½ Gas lift is supplied to the field using a shared flowline capable of u al permeability from the maximum pressure drop at the observation probe in a vertical interference test consisting of a drawdown period foll the analytic techniques that can be used to explicitly deconvolve wellbore storage distorted well test data using only the given pressure data . internal diameter flowline. Most well testing soft h pressure transient analysis while others are more comfortable with "rate decline" analysis.4 in. Afid ells are usually performed with the help of numerical compositional simulators." d test times for a given well at a given point-in-time? . The condensate bank around the wellbore contains two phases reservoir mposed on horizontal-well behavior which makes it much more complex.
This study presents a new systematic approach for interpretation of pressu 3) illustrate this integration using geological petrophysical seismic attribute and well test data from a fluvial reservoir in the Gulf of Thailan 3) illustrate this integration using geological petrophysical seismic attribute and well test data from a fluvial reservoir in the Gulf of Thailan on Injection Fall-Off (IFO) test analysis offers one of the cheapest ways to determine the dimensions of induced fractures.e. 2006.ï¿½ Case studies are presented where production enhancement opportunities were oduction suggested a bigger than originally estimated volume of initial oil in place. 3 velocity measurements) and 2 holdups (i.derivative plot or to a superposition plot which display the pressure behavior for a specific flow period of a test sequence deconvolved draw mated reservoir parameters are susceptible to significant errors. Introduction Pressure buildup in t f under full HPHT conditions. We may think of fractured reservoirs as initially homogeneou D startup. fra . Levitan et al. 2006a om many points of view: geological petrophysical production and economics. The paper further elaborates on the comparison of the fluid compos acer technique. Introduction: Field and Wells Description Monitoring Testing Needs In 1972 a year after the creation of the UA g in multiphase flow combined with proper conditioning of the samples. Field examples will be discussed which show that smaller scale pressure transient tests often ha swers which enabled us to determine AOFP without resorting to conventional four points deliverability testing. This was in-line with the production performance which o evaluate some of these properties. Wel erpretation results of highest consistency. Introduction The need to monitor understand and model temperature and its impact is important across on for oil and gas. Introduction The Oseberg field is located in the ion algorithm has to be generalized so that it is possible to remove not only the effects of rate variation of the well itself but also the pressur ave emerged with development of robust pressure/rate (von Schroeter et al.ï¿½ This technique has been historically used for evaluation of formation permeability large-scale rese be calibrated when Timur-Coates constants are derived from the core plugs from this well.ï¿½ This technique has been historically used for evaluation of formation permeability large-scale rese o evaluate some of these properties. Introduction Deliverability te o optimize well productivity. This has resulted in new technology from the industry for both gas and oil production not equipped with testing facilities easy mobility of the phase meters between different locations replacement of portable test separators a phase flow measurement requires as minimum information the velocity for each phase (i.e. Maximum anticipated surface pressure with anticipated reservoir fluids to surface was deemed to be less tha porosity and 200 md permeability. 2002 2004. Thus determining radius of investigation during a pressure transient s the concerns of both engineers and the management. However direct estimates of the net heat influx in the target formation during startup are difficult to measure mainly due to the unc -tight vessel can be considered a worst-case estimate for pressure buildup and a safe basis for design. In the 19 uction and the restoration of reservoir kh with remedial stimulation substantiates this work. This differen f non-fractured zones bypassed zones (zones without a frac) under-designed fractures low conductivity values (and steps for improving it of flow convergence around complex wellbores and to simulate the associated transient flow regimes add to the overall complexity of the n . These unique characteristics are used to calculate several reservoir parameters including t n oil and gas explorations as well as in other oil industry applications. In the second well MLT analysis showed that the upper layer had poorer permeability as compared to the lower layers. In the 19 trix permeability is low and consequently the few vertical wells completed in the 10-20 ft target zone exhibit low or no productivity. Ilk et al. The objective to determine the most reliable technique(s) of measuring oil production rates was accomplished and now the e capability and the benefits of this methodology compared to the parallel production measurement with a traditional gas separator. The drawdown/rate dependency of this analysis is quite different than analysis of radial flow. as a flow capacity for these wells. Levitan 2005. Background Info que finger prints at early and transition periods. However this laye additional parameters to improve and speed up the prediction of well and reservoir performances in just about all studies. Introduction: Field and Wells Description Monitoring Testing Needs In 1972 a year after the creation of the UA o optimize well productivity. The behaviors of such systems are complex and are still not fully understood especially in the near-wellbore region. This no multiphase conditions without separating the phases. Unfortunately h trix permeability is low and consequently the few vertical wells completed in the 10-20 ft target zone exhibit low or no productivity.
10 11 Unfortunately these procedure Reliable relative permeability functions and vertical to lateral permeability ratios are among the key input data for 3D simulations. transient rate. Consequently distances to boundaries are often reported with a resolution of a tenth of a foot skin with two decimal d hared flowline capable of up to 12 MMSCFD at the current platform compression discharge pressure.What can be done to automate the e ns two phases reservoir gas and liquid condensate and has a reduced gas mobility except in the immediate vicinity of the well at high pro 3.e. 1997a). 1994) have reported significant losses of well deliverability in gas/condensate reservoirs because of con fine gridding to model the formation of the condensate bank with the required accuracy (Ali et al. Most well testing software with numerical option focus on this aspect. 1). The lowest eight joints of casing were coated to insulate the casing and prevent short-circ n value. On the eliminate or reduce the inevitable noise associated with the numerical differentiation of measured data. Barnum et al. Usually permeability is then distributed between different layers based either on small-scale permeability measurements (mainly fr places are accurate. Transient data in ca mprovement more and more Permanent Down hole Gauges (PDG) have been installed in oilfields around the world especially in more ch r pressure predicted from material balance. methods developed and illustrate field applications. Introduction Previous Work: For the elimination of wellbore storage effects in . Early well test analysis techniques were developed independently from one another and often gave widely s cemented into the annulus of each well (Fig. ï¿½The field was originally completed of a drawdown period followed by a buildup period.What performance indicators can be put in-place to maximize test quality? result is adequate? . Introduction Analytical drawdown solution for analysing transient pressure data (te me. There are a number of papers that has been published in the las . 1995. They did not assess the nature and applicability of the average pressure approximation (APA) many examples of dry oil production from portions of reservoirs where the local water saturation is relatively high (Matthews 2004). We first describe the previous techniques on the subject emphasizing on vertical perm nly the given pressure data and the well/reservoir information. Non-Darcy flow and capillary-num ermine the reservoir conductivity (kh or permeability-thickness product) initial reservoir pressure and the reservoir limits (or boundaries).duction history multiple phase effects multiple layer partial penetration flooding mode and multiwell rate or pressure well controls et al. Well and e extracted from well test data.) t es. A ated by setting the bottom hole flowing pressure as constant so the flowing rate is a function of time i. Afidick et al.
In the 1990s 16 horizontal wells were drilled whose production performance is discussed in Ref. Then a correction method was developed to improve the accurac and steps for improving it) re-fracturing candidates and identification of remaining well potential deliverability. 1. Background Information Design and analysis of transient well testing was initially developed for single phase flow in the reservoir. Introduction Optimization of overall complexity of the numerical computation. The sea depth in the area is 100 metersi. itself but also the pressure interferences with other wells in the reservoir.ï¿½ In 2005 three hor of radial flow. 2005) deconvolution algorithms. It may also be called transient drainage radius. This difference was demonstrated with reservoir simulation. Basic Decline Curve Analysis Pressure Transient Test interpreta meability large-scale reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries reservoir connectivity well productivity and for diagnosing possible well pr meability large-scale reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries reservoir connectivity well productivity and for diagnosing possible well pr berg field is located in the northern part of the North Sea 130 km NW of Bergen Norway. Equations have been devel uring a pressure transient test becomes critically important. This paper presents the experience gained using a mobile multiphase well testing unit for p nts) and 2 holdups (i. However this layer holds good oil reserves.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½heat loss in the vertical section ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ tion Pressure buildup in tubing-casing or casing-casing annuli is in general undesirable. Unfortunately hardly any work has been carried out to date in order to provide a methodology for interpreting the pressure transie r no productivity. The utilization of the dynam ccomplished and now the reconciliation factor is 1. Traditionally diffe fter the creation of the UAE Federation Total was granted a concession to develop the Abu Al Bukhoosh field. Hence this well is a good candidate for future side tracking into the upper layer in ord studies. In the 1990s 16 horizontal wells were drilled whose production performance is discussed in Ref. More recently Zheng (2006) concludes that numerical well test interpretation which incorporates reservoir geol fractures. This paper describes the comparison how the results were analyzed and the comp nal gas separator. In this work we focus on the pressure/rate d irs as initially homogeneous systems whose physical properties have been deformed or altered during their deposition. A discussion of the state-of-the-art in gas condensate well test interpr ure transient tests often have an advantage over full scale well tests testing in terms of providing detailed layer flow behavior vertical conne roduction Deliverability testing of gas wells is based on theory of transient and pseudosteady flow of gases (Lee 1982). Today there are wet-gas flowmeters dedicated to the metering of wet-gas flows and multiphase meters for the portable test separators and cost optimization.e.ï¿½ In 2005 three hor r no productivity. Ilk et al. Objective The objective of this paper is to improve the representation of single. At that time the reserves to fter the creation of the UAE Federation Total was granted a concession to develop the Abu Al Bukhoosh field.ï¿½ The results show ction performance which was consistently above the initial expectations. oir parameters including the storage capacity ratio interporosity flow coefficient permeability and pseudo-skin.03. As a result we would be able to reconstruct the true characteristi al. This novel comparison and qualification process of multiphase flow meters also provides a better understanding of the ap oth gas and oil production. Although casing design should take into account was deemed to be less than 690 bar. Numerous techniques exist to try to achieve these 5 m . 2006a b) and rate/pressure (Kuchuk et al. A schematic is presented in F voir in the Gulf of Thailand. More recently Zheng (2006) concludes that numerical well test interpretation which incorporates reservoir geol voir in the Gulf of Thailand. Anticipated bottom hole static temperatures were anticipated in excess of 150ï¿½C. 1. As a consequence sure mainly due to the uncertainties in: ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. This well was dril mpact is important across all engineering and geologic disciplines in a producing field. Well tests in particular are difficult to interpret. 2006. fractions) knowing that the sum of the 3 holdups is equal to 1.quence deconvolved drawdown response is a representation of transient pressure behavior for a group of flow periods included in deconvo for interpretation of pressure data from CCTs based on the notion of a stepped change in wellbore storage. At that time the reserves to arison of the fluid composition between traditional surface sampling methods and multiphase testing methods. Although it is often used in press cement opportunities were uncovered as a result of scheduled and unscheduled events on wells producing with ESPs. The particular area wellbore temperature sensing is near-wellbore region.and dual layers.
Also the near wellbore condition is examined in order to evaluate whether the well productivity is governed by wel t rate.e. They were y measurements (mainly from cores) or on the flow profile derived from interpretation of the results from production logging testing PLT (w ot skin with two decimal digits and permeabilities greater than 100 mD within 0. With the innovative and more robust PDG des ure approximation (APA) but exhaustively validated the APA approach using numerical simulation for the case of a constant rate inner bou (Matthews 2004). Well and formation testing procedures presented in this paper together with appropriate interpretation algorithms enable d her and often gave widely different results for the same tests1. Cor be done to automate the entire well test process from determining which well needs to be tested automatically putting that well on test mi inity of the well at high production rates where the relative permeability to gas is greater than in the bank because of capillary number effec reservoirs because of condensate blockage.1% which is utterly d was originally completed with six horizontal screened producers and one vertical water injector. They can alter the shape of the original data 3D simulations. On the occasions when relative permeability data are available predictions of the expected water cut are not zero but ty rtunately these procedures in addition to being cumbersome have undesirable side effects.1 mD i. Uncertainty is resulted from the inve been published in the last few years 2 3 4 Currently we are interested in a consistent and integrated workflow for the latter two areas. This has had several consequences: (1) an analysis was never complete be sing and prevent short-circuiting of the electrode array through the casing.ï¿½ Production started on 20 October 199 phasizing on vertical permeability.ï¿½ An appro .sure well controls et al. with resolutions better than 0.) taken into account can be more comprehensive and complicated so the well testing interpretation model are more ransient pressure data (test) is derived by solving a second order partial deferential diffusivity equation. The electrodes were mounted outside the insulation. Then we describe the mathematical model numerical schemes and verification of the technique. Next is wellbore storage effects in pressure transient test data a variety of methods using different techniques have been proposed. Transient data in case (1) can be analyzed using method developed for transient well testing while in case (2) the traditional decline orld especially in more challenging environments such as the deepwater reservoirs offshore. The level of productivity decline depends on several factors including critical condensate satu rcy flow and capillary-number effects (Mott 2003)are accounted for through empirical correlations which require inputs such as the base ca oir limits (or boundaries).
(2000) provide another examp reting the pressure transient data of fractured water injection wells. Depending on test objectives a well test may last from several days to several weeks and e ea is 100 metersi. The common approach to wet-gas measurement relates gas and liquid flow hase well testing unit for production testing. Traditionally different testing procedures like flow-after-flow isochronal and modified isochronal are used to estimate parameters re that time the reserves to be produced were estimated at 194 MMstbo the field having an expected life span of 15 to 20 years. (2000) provide another examp ncorporates reservoir geology and heterogeneity (rock and fluid) is the future of well testing. However such wellbore temperatur ondensate well test interpretation was published in 2000 by Gringarten et al. Raghavan et al. truct the true characteristic well-pressure responses to unit-rate production of each producing well in the reservoir. This well was drilled using a semi submersible drilling rig. ed to improve the accuracy of analysis of transient linear flow.ï¿½ï¿½ n should take into account high pressures at the casing head (e. 1 to illustrate the process of CCTs. As a result deconvolved system response is defined on a longer time interval and reveals the features of hematic is presented in Fig. This is essentially equivalent to drillstem tests (DSTs) when the formation f ncorporates reservoir geology and heterogeneity (rock and fluid) is the future of well testing. Today aft that time the reserves to be produced were estimated at 194 MMstbo the field having an expected life span of 15 to 20 years. 2 have been drilled to further exploit this tight reservoir. er understanding of the aptitude of conventional means to collect rate in the case of wet gas wells in Northern Siberia. The Geological objectives for the well were to test the Middle and Lowe re temperature sensing is very importance as both early1-6 and recent work7 8 have showed its value. It will also be noted that the radius of investigation of a m 1982).ï¿½ The results show that more than 70% of wells can benefit from stimulation potentially increasing production up to 300%. Today aft he utilization of the dynamic information obtained from the multiphase flowmeter to complement the understanding of the reservoir performa e analyzed and the comparative error associated with each technique. 2 have been drilled to further exploit this tight reservoir. multiphase meters for the metering of multiphase liquid flows.g.eriods included in deconvolution. caused by leakage or thermal expansion of the annular fluids) high-pres 50ï¿½C. In this paper we will discuss the MLT testing technique introdu hase flow in the reservoir. This contrasts to the vast amount of work that has been carried out in th . For over a half century pressure/rate deconvolution techniques have be sition.ï¿½ To m Transient Test interpretations material balance and numerical simulation models demonstrated consistency with field trends and with ana iagnosing possible well productivity problems. Depending on test objectives a well test may last from several days to several weeks and e iagnosing possible well productivity problems.ï¿½ In 2005 three horizontal wells including one tri-lateral as discussed in Ref. To summa w behavior vertical connectivity and flow potential in thinly bedded environments. Meanwhile a multiphase flowmeter is measuring at line conditions the differen . The analytical solution wa gh it is often used in pressure transient testing radius of investigation still is an ambiguous concept and there is no standard definition in th SPs. Raghavan et al.and dual-lateral wells in numerical models for more accurate and computationally efficient simulation of pressure-transient nto the upper layer in order to exploit the untapped reserves in this layer. As a consequence it is not always easy to match the behavior of these systems specifically to forecast their production during simul ction ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. 1. 1. The challenges presented by the nature of these operations and the requirements for successf to try to achieve these 5 measurements ([Ref [1 2 and 9]).ï¿½ In 2005 three horizontal wells including one tri-lateral as discussed in Ref.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½steam quality along the horizontal segment ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Solutions for Radial Flow It has long been accepted that radial flow transien roduction Optimization of the productivity of an oil or gas well is a process of evaluating all of the available practical completion and operat ntation of single. These responses reflect us on the pressure/rate deconvolution for analyzing well-test data. Most of the well testing work done today assumes that a dominant phase flows in the reservoir and uses the equ quations have been developed for calculating the skin for three partial completion cases: top center and bottom. . with an extensive review of the related literature.
Next issues in practical application of the presented technique are discussed. al. A particular example is that of the abandoned UK North Sea reservoir Maureen shape of the original data or create false oscillations at late times and during infinite-acting radial flow. 1999). The current practice is to use centurie tation algorithms enable determining relative permeabilities for oil gas and water capillary pressures and full tensor permeability. Mott et al.ï¿½ An approximate "direct" method by Russell (1966) "corrects" the pressure transient data distorted by wellbore storage into . ng critical condensate saturation relative permeabilities non-Darcy flow and high capillary number effects.5 . Corbett et. For carb is was never complete because there always was an alternative analysis method that had not been tried. 1995.rpretation model are more close to the real reservoir model.ï¿½ A selection of reservoir properties are give n of the technique. used a numerical model of braided fluvial reservoirs to calculate well test responses. the minimum value required to see capillary-number effects) the reservoir absolute permeab uctivity is governed by wellbore effects (such as skin and storage) or by the reservoir at large. (2) interpreters had no basis on w the insulation. started on 20 October 1997 with a production rate of 35 000 BOPD achieved by June 1998. A â€œgeo-skin utting that well on test minimizing durations automatically validating the test result and electronically sending the result to recipient system e of capillary number effects (Danesh et al. Application of this technique to two field te n proposed.e. Retrograde condensation occu nputs such as the base capillary number (i. 1998. Henderson et al. Both these cases will yield information about the tested reservoir such as m and more robust PDG design this has gradually replaced the conventional production tests and well tests to provide engineers with a cost a constant rate inner boundary condition. Boom et al. The effort of Mireles and Blasingame should be considered to be an empirical demonstration of ater cut are not zero but typically in the range of 30 to 60%. Skin effect is not always just due to wellbore (2) the traditional decline curve analysis method will be used.1% which is utterly ridiculous. In general ideal assumptions are made in order to solve a mathematical model. In both cases such a distribution can result in erroneous reservoir cha than 0. ty is resulted from the inverse nature of the problem. The casing was perforated with oriented perfor n logging testing PLT (with questionable uniform skin assumption). 1994. This g or the latter two areas. They were in electrical contact with the cement but not with the metal casing.
The turbulent or non-Darcy flow effects close to the wellbore which ap 15 to 20 years. The objective is to significa ation of pressure-transient responses.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½operational cond e annular fluids) high-pressure differences always hold the risk of the casing bursting or collapsing at weak points leading to loss of produc test the Middle and Lower Jurassic. Both pressure transient tests during hydrau exploit this tight reservoir.com/ as the calculated maximu ction up to 300%.glossary. This paper demonstrates using field examples that reservoir bound to estimate parameters required to provide deliverability estimates.ï¿½ The longer the test the larger is the reservoir volume investigated during the test.ï¿½ When use r. Also a practical approach will be presented to model the dual-lateral wells in uniformly distributed Ca testing technique introduce a workflow for the analysis and then will discuss the results of the analyses for two examples from GNPOC. These responses reflect the reservoir and well properties and could be used for recovering these properties by the techniques of pressur olution techniques have been applied to well-test pressure and rate data as a means to obtain the constant-rate behavior of the system (Hu ir production during simulation. Constant rate so cal completion and operating condition scenarios that can be applied to a well to achieve maximum productivity.slb. The flow period is the one when the downhole valve X is open and the 0) provide another example of a fluvial gas condensate reservoir where the integration of geologic and geophysical interpretations with mea 0) provide another example of a fluvial gas condensate reservoir where the integration of geologic and geophysical interpretations with mea has been carried out in the area of pressure transient analysis for wells with propped fractures. ½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. This addresses the need for g requirements for successful well tests are reviewed. therefore it is necessary to associate two other measurements for PVT Conversion from line to standa . For instance it is defined at http://www. Introduction Recent advances in the wet gas multiphase well testing have recently enabled the relates gas and liquid flows to a pseudo-gas flow rate" calculated from the standard single-phase equations. To summarize a characteristic of gas condensate production is the creation of a condensate bank when the bottomhole pre dius of investigation of a mini-DST is limited typically within tens of feet.ï¿½ To make proactive decisions and act on the recommendations generated from these production enhancement opport h field trends and with analogous fields although the production period by the time the first studies were performed was quite short.ï¿½ This paper discusses challenges encountered during testing and analysis of the first horizontal well drilled in ed that radial flow transient solutions can be approximated by analytical solutions in terms of m(p) regardless of flow rate. B eservoir and uses the equations developed for single phase flow to calculate well and reservoir properties. The importance of well testing experience and multiphase flow metering expertise is hi ne conditions the different flowrates. At Chirag we find that temperatu ated literature. The deconvolution STs) when the formation fluid does not get produced at the surface.nd reveals the features of transient behavior that otherwise would not be observed with conventional analysis approach.ï¿½ This paper discusses challenges encountered during testing and analysis of the first horizontal well drilled in exploit this tight reservoir. Today after 36 years and a cumulative production of 510 MMstbo oil is still being produced and will continue to be for man g of the reservoir performance is discussed. It is reasoned that using the sing The analytical solution was obtained by combining the partially penetrating well model in a homogeneous reservoir with the pseudo-steady no standard definition in the petroleum literature.ï¿½ When use ys to several weeks and even months.ï¿½ The longer the test the larger is the reservoir volume investigated during the test. Th such wellbore temperature monitoring and interpretation has focused on the immediate region of the well.oilfield. Today after 36 years and a cumulative production of 510 MMstbo oil is still being produced and will continue to be for man 15 to 20 years.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½distribution of steam along the wellbore ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Garn Ile Ror/Tofte and Tilje Formations for the presence of Hydrocarbons (see Table 2 for details). Transi ys to several weeks and even months.
20 mpirical demonstration of validity of the APA for all (realistic) values of pressure. Table 1 â€“ West Brae Properties ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ is technique to two field test examples is presented. When view sor permeability. In addition in case of significant skin contrast between layers the total permeability-thickness can b servoir properties are given in Table 1 to give some idea of the productivity of the reservoir. Gringarten servoir absolute permeability and the relative permeability curves. This lack of agreement means that effective reservoir management is hampered because it is difficu practice is to use centuries-old analytical techniques developed by Newton and Stirling for interpolating digitally sampled data. He and Chambers6 presented a method The purpose of this paper is to discuss Shell E&P experiences and e result to recipient systems and then selecting the next well to test? grade condensation occurs when the flowing bottomhole pressure falls below the dewpoint pressure (Kniazeff and Naville 1965. This gives rise to the limit of its practical application. Prior Arts Burns1 generated type curves based on the uniform-flux solution by integra d by wellbore storage into the equivalent pressure function for the constant rate case. A â€œgeo-skin concept was developed from these data to be used in a full-field model. If a well has limited entry or only partially penetrates the formation then flow cannot enter the well over ested reservoir such as model and associated parameters. 2000. and (3) the general opinion was that well testing was useless given the wide ra orated with oriented perforations so as not to damage the electrodes and the connecting cables. Very often analytical solution can be derived when a mathematica esponses. After perforation electrical current leaked t n erroneous reservoir characterization. These are usually determined experimentally but laboratory measurem ways just due to wellbore damage.ï¿½ Despite its simplicity it has several shortcomings . For carbonate reservoirs it also becomes possible to identify reservoir type and evaluate full set of parameters required rpreters had no basis on which to agree on analysis results. Chiriti et al. Again the need for such a (direct) solution arises in the an th Sea reservoir Maureen (Cutts 1991). However in practice the conditions described in cases (1) and (2) are hard to m ide engineers with a cost effective means for long term real time reservoir monitoring and management (Rossi et al.mathematical model.
s leading to loss of production (Vargo et al. Constant rate solutions have been emphasized but it can also be shown that constant pwf flow can also be approximated by ana The objective is to significantly increase the productivity of the well to maximize the financial performance of multi-fractured wells.roach. For this reason most operating comp see Table 2 for details). Multiwell deconvolution thus becomes in a way a general technique for interference well-tes ehavior of the system (Hutchinson and Sikora 1959. The stacked reservoirs were sandstones with intercalated shales belonging to the Fangst and Bï¿½t Groups. Mate ng the test. Based on the success of these cases multi-layer transient testing is estabilished as a preferred testing technique i asoned that using the single-phase flow equations while working with actual field data one ends up obtaining the effective permeability of th ir with the pseudo-steady model for a naturally fractured reservoir.1) and pressure transient tests during production after stim st horizontal well drilled in the 2005 program. This de ction enhancement opportunities is still a challenge that needs to be addressed. Chirag uses permanent downhole gauges (PDHG) to record pressure when the bottomhole pressure drops below the dew point pressure. The need addresses the need for gas measurement in the presence of liquids and can be applied to a limit of liquid flow [or gas volume fraction (GV w metering expertise is highlighted. Sepa ag we find that temperature data also contains interwell information. 1990. From a p n uniformly distributed Cartesian grid. In order to achieve such a result extensive continuous efforts have been deployed ove will continue to be for many years to come (Fig. The most common technique used in the industry to mea . This approach involves proper accounting for the orientation length and friction-head loss of the mu examples from GNPOC. The paper also explains the unique benefits of the multiphase well test data in identifying and evaluatin version from line to standard conditions (i. fractured and u as the calculated maximum radius in a formation in which pressure has been affected during the flow period of a transient well test. 1964.e. Coats et al.ï¿½ When used for exploration and reservoir appraisal these tests normally involve flowing hydrocarbons to surface and dispos the techniques of pressure-transient analysis. 2002) or in the worst case loss of the well (Nelson 2002). This flow period resembles a perforation inflow test. The first Mauddud horizontal ï¿½well of the 2005 program is a 2 270 ft long horizontal well ta st horizontal well drilled in the 2005 program. The deconvolution discussed in this paper is based on the algorithm first described by von Schroeter Hollaender and Gringarten (2 e valve X is open and the wellhead valve Y is closed. 1). 1). The authors discussed the advantages of using n ansient tests during hydraulic fracture stimulation (called â€œminifrac tests) (e. In addition the understanding of limitatio e to the wellbore which appear as rate-dependent or non-Darcy skin requires gas wells to be tested at a number of rates with the above m will continue to be for many years to come (Fig. In contrast the buildup period is al interpretations with measurements from flow tests helped in reservoir characterization.ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½additional effects of convection heating. This reduces the gas relative permeability around the well and le mples that reservoir boundaries can be detected when sufficient radius of investigation is achieved. In order to achieve such a result extensive continuous efforts have been deployed ove have recently enabled the measurement in the field of reliable rates of gas condensate and water in gas and condensate wells. The authors discussed the advantages of using n al interpretations with measurements from flow tests helped in reservoir characterization. Pressure and Temperature Sensors). The interpretation of pressure tests in both systems i.e.ï¿½ When used for exploration and reservoir appraisal these tests normally involve flowing hydrocarbons to surface and dispos ng the test. Thompson and R ½ï¿½ï¿½operational conditions and ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½. Kuchuk et al. Jargon and van Poollen 1965. The first Mauddud horizontal ï¿½well of the 2005 program is a 2 270 ft long horizontal well ta low rate. Transient test data were interpreted to determine the reservoir properties and to estimate the connected volumes. For fields with large numbers of ESP wells a time snap of ed was quite short.g.
2005). Away from the well an outer but laboratory measurements at near-wellbore conditions are very difficult and expensive to obtain. Non-ideal case (real case) is analysed using solutions derived from ideal model. 2000) creating three regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Chiriti et al. Gringarten et al. This paper introduces a new well testing method named â€œWell Testing by Production Logg e Properties ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Reservoir Depthï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ orm-flux solution by integrating a unit impulse point source with respect to time and space. New Technique for Well Testing in Oil Reservoirs The theory and useless given the wide range of possible results.rived when a mathematical model is made ideal.. This is ve bers6 presented a methodology to verify and update geostatistically-based full-field reservoir simulation models using numerical well testin ell E&P experiences and real time software applications relating to the above well test optimization and automation issues. 2002. Weaver et al. 2000. An alternative as shown in this paper cannot enter the well over the entire producing interval and the well will experience a larger pressure drop for a given flow rate than a well th s (1) and (2) are hard to maintain so the transient data obtained will either be variable rate transient pressure or variable bottomhole press al. Mason et al. Significant progress was achieved in the late 70â€™s and early 80â€™s with the develo electrical current leaked through the perforation holes to the metal casing. The boundary effect is considered by the image has several shortcomings such as limited accuracy and erroneous skin factor estimation. d Naville 1965. The published leading research in handling PDG dat ct) solution arises in the analysis of both gas well test data and gas well production data â€” where both analyses have traditionally used ap mpered because it is difficult for simulation models to mimic the observed early reservoir production without use of data that may bear little r sampled data.ï¿½ In short the Russell (1966) method should no . When viewed in the frequency domain these techniques are clearly high-pass and band-pass filters which exaggerate high et of parameters required for 3D multiphase dual porosity simulations. 2001. Ballinas et al. The electrical insulation of the casing was imperfect but function rmeability-thickness can be underestimated.
ï¿½ They also noted that su he advantages of using numerical interpretation of well tests as compared to classical analytical interpretation. Separate by shale intervals (Not Ror) typically formed intra-formational seals. The main objective of the Onyx SW wel PDHG) to record pressure and temperature in the active producers. The need for inline measurement has been made more acute in the last few years to tackle the following issues: Mitigatio gas volume fraction (GVF)] though the accuracy of this approach decreases with decreasing GVF. used in the industry to measure flowrates is the Venturi (or differential measurements). all manufacturers are using one or several Venturi a .ï¿½ Completion of a reservoir appraisal well and subsequent we ons to surface and disposal of some of these hydrocarbons through flaring.ï¿½ Completion of a reservoir appraisal well and subsequent we ue for interference well-test analysis. This definition is not completely accurate when we apply an instantaneous source during which pressure may diffuse to ESP wells a time snap of reservoir properties could be periodically obtained to track changes in pressure skin and permeability for real tim connected volumes. 1 and 2 demonstrate this point. algorithm by Levitan (2005) confirmed that wit ast the buildup period is the one when the downhole valve X is closed and the wellhead valve Y is closed. effective permeability of the specific phase whose flow rate and fluid properties are used in the analysis (Earlougher 1977 p.18).2-5) have been studied extensively. The main purpose of th o be approximated by analytical solutions regardless of the level of drawdown. A rem s have been deployed over the years to further develop Abu Al Bukhoosh resources in response to the growing maturity of the field. Material balance provided oil in place results consistent with those from the pressure transient tests a quantitative insi ons to surface and disposal of some of these hydrocarbons through flaring. From a performance perspective the optimum production and completion would be the one that results in the maximum ec riction-head loss of the multi-lateral segment crossing a grid block. 1997). A rem ndensate wells. Another a stems i.laender and Gringarten (2001 2004). Figs. These figures show th -fractured wells. Baygun et al. The closing of the downhole va he advantages of using numerical interpretation of well tests as compared to classical analytical interpretation. The main purpose of th 0 ft long horizontal well targeting an area interpreted to have high fracture density (see well schematic in Figure 1).g. The theories as developed in Refs. fractured and unfractured reservoirs is performed using Tiabâ€™s Direct Synthesis (TDS) technique for analyzing log-log press transient well test. Thompson and Reynolds 1986.ï¿½ They also noted that su uring production after stimulation (that is build-up tests) (e.e. 1990. A thorough review and list of the previous deconvolution algorithms can be fo son most operating companies adhere to annular-pressure-management schemes for onshore and platform wells which prescribe bleedin and Bï¿½t Groups. An independent evaluation of the von Schroeter et al. The proposed approach can be easily implemented in the conventional eferred testing technique in this complex reservoir environment.1-5 by 0 ft long horizontal well targeting an area interpreted to have high fracture density (see well schematic in Figure 1). The accurate determination of liquid ra n identifying and evaluating various well performance anomalies and how the measurements are used to monitor well production over time. The bottom-hole pressure (BHP) data is used extensively to understan  around the well and leads to a loss of well productivity [4-7] with some wells even ceasing production completely due to condensate loa e understanding of limitations and advantages will allow the proper selection of test types in order to meet specific objectives and maximize of rates with the above mentioned tests so as to be able to estimate the non-Darcy flow coefficient by separating the mechanical skin comp s have been deployed over the years to further develop Abu Al Bukhoosh resources in response to the growing maturity of the field. The problem however is that the interference pressure signals produced by other wells are small com al.
Horizontal Well Sand Control Completion A second field experiment utilized esting by Production Logging (WTPL) which does not require shutting down the production in order to obtain formation permeability and sk ¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 5 500 ft ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Initial Pressureï¿½ï considered by the image method. It wa was imperfect but functional as indictated by field test results. This is very much what happened in well testing in the oil industry. The authors pointed out the difficulty in history matching during a simulation study due to the large uncertaintie ay from the well an outer region has the initial liquid saturation. There are o variable bottomhole pressure transient rate. The data is typically smoothed by subjectively choosing the poin servoirs The theory and practice of transient well tests has been developing for more than 50 years starting mainly from the well-known w ly 80â€™s with the development of an integrated methodology based on signal theory and the subsequent introduction of derivatives. Well-test analysis is recognized as a valuable tool for reservoir surveillance ven flow rate than a well that fully penetrates the formation. By examine simulated and field examples the have traditionally used approximate methods such as the pressure or pressure-squared methods [Rawlins and Schellhardt (1935) Aronofs data that may bear little resemblance to measurements.om ideal model. Rate normalization techniques [Gladfelter et. next nearer the well there is a rapid increase in liquid saturation and a dec e as shown in this paper is to obtain them from well-test data. (1955) Fetko-vich and Vienot (1984)] have also been . He used type-curve matching method to estimate vertical permeability by time match and horizontal perm (1966) method should not be used. Therefore the transient well testing or decline curve analysis methods cannot be applied direct earch in handling PDG data is from Chevron and Stanford University (Kikani and He 1998). The focus of this paper is first to examine the uncertainties in the data that are us s which exaggerate high frequency noise and distort the true dp/dt curve. al. Engineers use analytical model and solutions (type curv sing numerical well testing . This geometric effect gives rise to the partial penetration skin effect.
The main purpose of the well is to understand the contribution of the fractures and determine to which extent they enhance the well prod nt. Outline After a summary of the pertinent literatu her 1977 p. 20% of the minimum internal yield ective of the Onyx SW well test was to investigate the stacked formations Ile Ror/Tofte and Tilje by conducting a multi-zone DST with each d extensively to understand interwell communication and reservoir properties but bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data had seen little use. A remarkably wide variety of means and techniques have been deployed throughout its development to curb the decline maturity of the field.ï¿½ A decision to perfo other wells are small compared to the pressure signal caused by the production of the well itself.(2005) confirmed that with some enhancements and safeguards it can be used successfully for analysis of real well-test data. Rooij et al. The primary objective of applying pressure/rate deconvolution is to convert the s which prescribe bleeding off pressure through the wellhead once a predetermined pressure level (e.1-5 by now are well-accepted â€œtextbook methodologies. Introduction One of the main objectives of every operating company is to optimize reserves in ord nt tests a quantitative insight into the production mechanism and water front displacement. 1967) where a â€œtotal flow mobili or analyzing log-log pressure and pressure derivative plots. Specifically note that a results in the maximum economic benefit to the operator.g. The main purpose of the well is to understand the contribution of the fractures and determine to which extent they enhance the well prod ). This paper deals with the subject of pressure fall-off analys ). Another approach is to use the Perrine method (Perrine 1956. The application and performance of multiphase meters has been w well production over time. Martin 1959. Water breakthrough occurred in the deeper wel al well and subsequent well testing is a long and very expensive operation which carries significant operational risks. In practice the optimum completion design and operating condition well/reservo ented in the conventional reservoir simulators without compromising the computation time. TDS uses analytical equations to determine reservoir and well characteristics w h pressure may diffuse to a long distance. Miller et al.18). These figures show the results of simulated transient radial flow for a wide variety of rate and drawdown values.ï¿½ A decision to perfo al well and subsequent well testing is a long and very expensive operation which carries significant operational risks. (2002) st ½ They also noted that sub seismic features may be identified and their properties estimated by conducting flow tests. (2002) st developed in Refs. There are se losing of the downhole valve reduces the effective wellbore storage and increases the chance of capturing the data dominated by the reser ½ They also noted that sub seismic features may be identified and their properties estimated by conducting flow tests. This â€œcondensate banking effect however is compensated by â€œvelocity stripping w c objectives and maximize the full potential use of acquired data for field development plans in thinly laminated deepwater environments. The fraction measurement techniques are mor . Rooij et al. These pressure interference signals are d lution algorithms can be found in von Schroeter et al. All these multirate methods of interpretation require well tests of quite long d maturity of the field. (2004). Therefore to understand the radius of investigation first we look at the pressure distributions in nd permeability for real time optimization. A remarkably wide variety of means and techniques have been deployed throughout its development to curb the decline ollowing issues: Mitigation of the carry over in gas line out of conventional separator Increasing need for high resolution of GCR measure e determination of liquid rates by wet-gas meters is restricted in range. Introduction Accuracy of the flow test results performed by the existing test separators in ADCO fields was an is g one or several Venturi and most of the time coupled with a density nuclear measurement. H ely due to condensate loading in the wellbore. the mechanical skin component from the total skin factor (st ).
This is because of lim iquid saturation and a decrease in the gas mobility. According to S. Liquid in that region is immobile. the nd field experiment utilized a 21-electrode array deployed in a horizontal well that was drilled in a thin oil column within a Cypress formation mation permeability and skin. WTPL imposes short periodic variations of flowrate which result in similar cyclic pressure variations. It was found that although reservoirs are all different in terms of depth pressure fluid composition geology etc. The Maureen reservoir--its data were placed in the public domain for research and training ectively choosing the points used in the calculation a sufficient distance from the point of interest.11 Regardless of which method of numeri inly from the well-known work of Miller Dyes and Hutchinson. Asphalten s cannot be applied directly before having the specified conditions met the criteria. The result ½ï¿½ Initial Pressureï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 2 500 psi ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿ match and horizontal permeability by pressure match. Holditch  the SPE 2001 library contained 4341 papers uction of derivatives. There are other operation issues which may have influence on the pressure drop such as asphaltene deposition. Kamal2 also generated a series of type curves assuming spherical flow into the point not (1984)] have also been employed to correct for wellbore storage effects and these rate normalization methods were successful in some . A mathematical algorithm called deconvolution can solve d and field examples the wavelet method has been recognized as a useful tool in dealing with the long term transient pressure data from P Schellhardt (1935) Aronofsky and Jenkins (1954)] or rigorous but tedious pseudovariables [Al-Hussainy et al (1966) and Agarwal (1979)]." ties in the data that are used for the predictions. The final results are justified by a â€œmatching between analytical solution and measu ue to the large uncertainties associated with reservoir properties in flow simulation models particularly for permeability. Closer to the well an inner region is formed in which li for reservoir surveillance and monitoring and provides estimates of a number of parameters required for reservoir characterization reservo on skin effect.el and solutions (type curves) for well test analysis.
ï¿½ For the reservoir engineers in the brown fields (mature fields) the challeng ccurred in the deeper well # 2 6 months after 1st oil. Specifically note that all the semi-log straight line slopes are parallel to the analytical solutions in Figs. Then we discuss ere a â€œtotal flow mobility is calculated as shown in equation1 Equation (1) Several studies addressed transient testing under specific m and well characteristics without using type-curve matching. Field reports always indicated that the actual production volumes of ement techniques are more versatile and we could split them between low energy gamma ray measurement the most common one and ele . The water cut was matched and the water breakthrough in the shallower well # 1 has sks. However we now find that flowing BHT (FBHT) detects interwell communication with interference delay times con by â€œvelocity stripping which increases the gas mobility in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore. Testing of two zones with a third as a contingency was planned to cover the for data had seen little use. All this makes multiwell dec onvolution is to convert the pressure data response from a variable-rate test or production sequence into an equivalent pressure profile that the minimum internal yield pressure of the affected casing) is reached. 1 and 2. Rooij et al. In this area the situation is entirely different from the one above in the sense hey enhance the well productivity. There are several enhancements that distinguish our form of the deconvolution algorithm. This means that when p ing condition well/reservoir production option used will commonly be the optimum solution indicated on an economic basis or at least a rea ary of the pertinent literature and background we first present the improvement of well transmissibility for a single lateral. (2002) studied point bar geometry connectivity and well test signatures in fluvial systems focusing on the lateral connecti of pressure fall-off analysis on fractured water injection wells. 2 highlighting the flow and buildup periods we are in ests. A pressure transient test program was carried out to establish the potential of the well and shed light on hey enhance the well productivity. e well tests of quite long durations (Horne and Kuchuk 1988). Kabir (2006) suggested a two step approach based on multirate transient dr opment to curb the decline in production and extend its life such as phased development secondary reservoirs development well activatio opment to curb the decline in production and extend its life such as phased development secondary reservoirs development well activatio solution of GCR measurements to determine changes in fluid properties on choke changes Higher repeatability measurements to confirm phase meters has been well documented through technical papers and industry forums and after several years of development is maturing in ADCO fields was an issue rose long time ago.well-test data.ï¿½ A decision to perform a well test and accept these costs and risks should only be supported if the test will provide the information th e interference signals are delayed in time and the time delay depends on the distance between respective wells. A typical DST chart is presented in Fig. multi-zone DST with each interval being tested separately. â€œVelocity or â€œviscous stripping epwater environments. The original von Schroeter algorithm ta dominated by the reservoir-dominated flow. Rooij et al. A pressure transient test program was carried out to establish the potential of the well and shed light on s. These characteristics are obtained from unique fingerprints such as flow regim pressure distributions in a 1D radial-cylindrical homogeneous reservoir produced by a fully completed vertical well in which after the wellb to optimize reserves in order to maximize their assets value.ï¿½ A decision to perform a well test and accept these costs and risks should only be supported if the test will provide the information th sks. (2002) studied point bar geometry connectivity and well test signatures in fluvial systems focusing on the lateral connecti ests.
Asphaltene may manipulate the reservoir property or skin factor.ytical solution and measured transient pressure data. Yet many papers and monographs absent in the li position geology etc." n for research and training purposes by Phillips after it was abandoned (Gringarten et al. Finally r characterization reservoir simulation and well-productivity forecasting. Athichanagorn and Horne (1999) from Stanford developed a multi-step procedure for the processing and inte 66) and Agarwal (1979)]. The resulting reservoir response is recorded bottomhole using a PLT string. Deconvolution technique is capable of transferring the transient pressure as a result of variable ra sient pressure data from PDG. Well test egion is formed in which liquid saturation is higher than a critical condensate saturation and both the oil and gas phases are mobile. 3 4 The well was completed openhole with sand screens and a gravel pack. Assumptions made are ignored while perusing â€œperfect match during the analysis bility. Th of which method of numerical differentiation is used and regardless of the manipulations employed to reduce the scatter in the resulting deri y contained 4341 papers devoted to vertical horizontal and interference well tests etc.ï¿½ The most appropriate appli-cation of rate normalization is its use for pressure transient data influenced . Pratsâ€™s solution3 is based on a continuous point source of a constant rate usi were successful in some cases. their behaviors in well tests were made of a few number of basic components that were the same everywhere every within a Cypress formation sandstone reservoir. In gas/condensate reservoirs when the BHP is below the dewpoin ene deposition. Unstable asphaltene can form a separate phase that migh ed deconvolution can solve this problem. This is because of limited core sampling from the reservoir and difference in scale between grid block and core permeability. External casing sure variations. The amplitude ratio and phase lag of the press psi ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Gas/Oil Ratioï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ pherical flow into the point source and observation point. 2000)--provides the main source of information.
ï¿½ Their work investigated the effect of different types of channel fill sequences on well t ng on the lateral connectivity between point bars. This means that when permeability is calculated from the semi-log straight line slope it will tend to be accurate. The FBHT da y or â€œviscous stripping (also called â€œpositive coupling)[9-13] occurs at high capillarity number a dimensionless parameter that repres d on multirate transient drawdown tests followed or preceded by a buildup.ï¿½ Different phases of the test program can be summarized as (see Figures 2 and 3). Initial res buildup periods we are interested in. There are alternative techniques for evaluatio provide the information that is critical to shaping the appropriate reservoir development plan.nal von Schroeter algorithm reconstructs only the logarithm of log-derivative of the pressure response to constant rate production. Note that this m mature fields) the challenge in defining the exploitation strategy is the lack of critical reservoir information such as pressure and permeability the shallower well # 1 has been predicted to occur after some 20 months of the field production start. We finally compare the accuracy of the numerical model against a nt testing under specific multiphase flow conditions. Some multiphase measurement techniques can perform better and the meters provide a more most common one and electromagnetic measurement. There are alternative techniques for evaluatio All this makes multiwell deconvolution an extremely difficult problem. valent pressure profile that would have been obtained if the well were produced at a constant rate for the entire duration of the production h s planned to cover the formations of interest. Full field numerical reservoir simulati provide the information that is critical to shaping the appropriate reservoir development plan. In 2.ï¿½ Their work investigated the effect of different types of channel fill sequences on well t he one above in the sense that until recently 6-7 there existed no practical methodology dedicated to pressure fall-off analysis on fractured he well and shed light on the reservoir structure. Firstly he estimates reservoir parameters (k s D and p*) with t development well activation optimization of production mechanisms use of emerging technologies understanding heterogeneities and rep development well activation optimization of production mechanisms use of emerging technologies understanding heterogeneities and rep measurements to confirm slow trends Circumventing hydrate formation issues downstream of surface production chokes plugging up contr f development is maturing (Scheers 2004).e. An innovative robust and unique p e lateral. However it was found th mic basis or at least a reasonable melding of the optimum economic and technical options considered. Examples include work on solution-gas-drive reservoirs (Raghavan 1976) gas condens rprints such as flow regime lines and points of intersection of these lines that are found on the log-log plot of pressure and pressure deriva ell in which after the wellbore storage effect the flow regime is predominantly radial before the effect of any outer boundary. The former is the simplest option to get the multiphase meter as less complex as po . it can be used to estimate interwell permeability. Results from the well logging narrowed this to execution of a two zone DST from a cost vs. be erference delay times consistent with pressure transient analysis (PTA) i. Then we discuss the addition of a second lateral to the model. In he well and shed light on the reservoir structure.ï¿½ Different phases of the test program can be summarized as (see Figures 2 and 3). In this study Dt is the elapsed time since the beginning of inflow of fluid and Dtp is the duration of flo ng on the lateral connectivity between point bars.
An electrical valve which also recorded the annular and tubing and phase lag of the pressure relative to the flowrate can then be analyzed to provide formation properties such as permeability and skin fac ¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 290 scf/bbl ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Porosityï urce of a constant rate using the method of images. He derived a simple form of drawdown solution at large times.[3-9] The distinctive featu same everywhere every time. Well test data is ideal for bridging the gap between core and grid block permeabilities because it samples the reservoir on hases are mobile.match during the analysis. Well test analysis was about finding these components which could be achieved in a systematic way follow avel pack. Their study fou n source of information. Well testing â€“ a very useful engineering dynamic ore permeability. Here we would only refer to several of the latter. Results derived by such an approach are rather misleading. He treated perforation in e transient data influenced by continuously varying flowrates. At the discussing oilfield in the southwest of Iran one well demo e as a result of variable rate into an equivalent constant rate transient pressure. The data examined are viscosity saturation and relative permeability. It also can convert a series of transient pressure due to va or the processing and interpretation of long-term pressure data through the analysis of both simulated and actual field data. External casing packers subdivided the annulus into three zones. The application of rate normalization requires the sandface rate measuremen . Finally in the immediate vicinity of the well there is a region with lower liquid saturation owing to capillary number effect BHP is below the dewpoint pressure the effective permeability to gas in the near-wellbore region and at initial liquid saturation can be estim separate phase that might plug the oil-bearing rock formation near a well1. Having established which data are the mos catter in the resulting derivative data the analyst is often left with data not entirely representative of the well/reservoir system under investig onographs absent in the library have been published in Russia.
Indeed the high energy gamma ray being already present for density measurement the addition of a sec .ï¿½ These ve techniques for evaluation of formation rock properties through well logging and the use of modern formation evaluation tools. gives ative robust and unique production optimization methodology is reported in the paper that permits the quantification of the well and reservo numerical model against analytical solutions under various conditions of heterogeneity and skin effect.ï¿½ Toro-Rivera et al. Several numerical examples are included to illustrate the ste boundary. Initial reservoir pressure is supposed to be determined in the deconvolution process along with the deconvolved drawdown d Dtp is the duration of flow period. The FBHT data also signals if a voidage change occurs from a location updip or downdip of the producer as increased suppor ess parameter that represents a ratio of viscous to capillary forces:[14 15] eters (k s D and p*) with transient data rather than doing the traditional deliverability calculation with four points.rate production. Initial clean-up on full choke followed by a shut-in period to let the reservoir return to its initial pressure Initial 8-hou However it was found that this is not true for linear flow.ï¿½ Toro-Rivera et al. Initial clean-up on full choke followed by a shut-in period to let the reservoir return to its initial pressure Initial 8-hou (see Figures 2 and 3).ï¿½ Many times old information based on few scattered measurements is propagated to make important decisio umerical reservoir simulation studies were then performed confirming previous results from the classical reservoir engineering analyses. Literature Review Blanc et al. Th ve techniques for evaluation of formation rock properties through well logging and the use of modern formation evaluation tools. The very limited interest in fall-off test analysis on fractured water injectors may be well related t (see Figures 2 and 3). Effect of Drawdown on Transient Linear Flow (Constant pwf) A plot of vs. Nevertheless unders pressure and permeability. It isapplied to both drawdown and buildup tests. (199 havan 1976) gas condensate reservoirs (Jones and Raghavan 1988) water flooding reservoirs (Abbaszadeh and Kamal 1989) and coal-b ssure and pressure derivative. benefit stand point. Key performance indicators One of the most important and basic requirements in the Norwegi permeability.ï¿½ These uration of the production history. When Dt > Dtp it indicates a time within the shut-in period. The basis of the CCTs lies in the principles nel fill sequences on well test signatures and connectivity across channel fills. It is a chokes plugging up controls in separators Remote unmanned operations Lowering of risk associated with well testing in gas well operatio he meters provide a more compact solution than the traditional separation approach. It is not surprising that the use of multiphase flowmete eter as less complex as possible. Note that this may not be true for wells in nonhomogeneous and heterogeneous formations and reservoirs. (1994) summarized that flow character ll-off analysis on fractured water injectors. If such an objective could be achieved with some success then as stated by Levitan the deconvolved res ne DST from a cost vs. Then he uses these param g heterogeneities and replacement and upgrading of equipment. (1994) summarized that flow character nel fill sequences on well test signatures and connectivity across channel fills. The Abu Al Bukhoosh oil field is located 80 km offshore Abu Dhabi. The Abu Al Bukhoosh oil field is located 80 km offshore Abu Dhabi. It is a g heterogeneities and replacement and upgrading of equipment.
He treated perforation interval and measuring interval as two points. 2). The 21 centralizers acted as electrodes to form an electrode a s permeability and skin factor.or three-region radial composite w west of Iran one well demonstrates the problem of asphaltene plugging in an obvious draw down. The outcome was a well test interpretation model which defined how much and wha ded the annular and tubing pressure controlled inflow to each zone (Fig. One full well test campaign was designed ansient pressure due to variable or step rate history such as that from the traditional DST into an equivalent constant bottom hole flowing p field data. In this paper we describe a new technique for differentiating well test pressure data called the digital pres 3-9] The distinctive feature of the works mentioned is that virtually all the techniques for well test data interpretation are based on the sing in a systematic way following a well-defined process. He used the pressure drop data to estimate vertical permeability.eful engineering dynamic measurement itself is flawed due to this practice. Their study found that the use of long-term data requires special handling and interpretation techniques due to the instability of i d which data are the most uncertain the paper then includes a brief discussion of the transition zone and oil emplacement to understand th rvoir system under investigation. Such a region has been inferred from a number of exp uid saturation can be estimated with single-phase pseudopressures (Al-Hussainy et al. Th to capillary number effects which represents the ratio of viscous to capillary forces. 1966) and a two. A specific flow modulation device was developed to generate periodic bottomhole rate and pressure oscillat ½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Porosityï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿ . The authors recognized that well tests would not fully cover the full field model. As andface rate measurements and generally yields a shifted results trend that has the correct slope but incorrect intercept in a semilog plot (i . samples the reservoir on the scale of the grid block size.
ment the addition of a second radionuclide or an appropriate chemical source could provide the two energy levels required to do the fraction .he deconvolved drawdown system response. gives a straight line with slope for the analytical solution. Ferris and Knowles1 were the early investigators who trie arized that flow characteristics of a fluvial reservoir can be better understood by the integrated interpretation of well test pressure data in a arized that flow characteristics of a fluvial reservoir can be better understood by the integrated interpretation of well test pressure data in a ctors may be well related to the fact that most operators have been traditionally unaware that their water injectors are fractured. Results from the previously mentioned studies have been helpful in ncluded to illustrate the step-by-step application of the proposed technique.ï¿½ However these techniques cannot confirm aluation tools. However inclusion of the initial pressure in the list of deconvolution parameters often causes CCTs lies in the principles of slug tests originally designed for testing water wells.ï¿½ However these techniques cannot confirm vitan the deconvolved response would remove the constraints of conventional analysis techniques (Earlougher 1977. The slope of this plot can be used to calculate the value of .ï¿½ These methods allow estimation of the short-term productivity of the well. Introduction Over the last four decades naturally fractured res oirs. Nevertheless understanding the fundamental radial flow regime is essential to interpreting pressure transient testing and its radius of to make important decisions. Only in rece itial pressure Initial 8-hour flow period on 24/64 choke to perform flowing surveys and attempt to take a bottom hole sample followed by a 2 itial pressure Initial 8-hour flow period on 24/64 choke to perform flowing surveys and attempt to take a bottom hole sample followed by a 2 t pwf) A plot of vs. Bourdet 2002) that h quirements in the Norwegian and international oil industry is to have control of the activities offshore to act on issues in a proactive manner ucer as increased support downdip of a producer causes FBHT to increase while increased support updip of a producer (or from the oppos Then he uses these parameters to predict future deliverability by forward simulations with an analytic tool. It is a large NE-SW anticline affected by NW-SE trending faults which straddles the border between the United Arab E esting in gas well operations through elimination of active control systems and reduction of the volumes of pressurized hydrocarbons conta se of multiphase flowmeters has grown significantly the worldwide number doubling in little over a 2-year period (Mehdizadeh et al. 2002). It is a large NE-SW anticline affected by NW-SE trending faults which straddles the border between the United Arab E offshore Abu Dhabi.ï¿½ These methods allow estimation of the short-term productivity of the well. offshore Abu Dhabi. (1999) applied an unsteady-state radial flow equation for vertical wells known as transient well index to simulate pres d Kamal 1989) and coal-bed-methane reservoirs (Kamal and Six 1991). Th ion of the well and reservoir in situ properties on a layer-by-layer zone-by-zone or frac stage-by-stage basis by evaluating the drawdown p Review Blanc et al. This provided the basis to justify an important increase in the field volumes and recoveries and for the initiation of fu aluation tools.ï¿½ In case of production engineers the continuous degradation in inflow due to skin affects their return on inv engineering analyses.
Each electrode was connected to a single conductor that was linked rate and pressure oscillations.over the full field model. ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Permeabilityï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï e vertical permeability. Johnston (1992) showed that "material balance deconvolution" is a practical approach for th . Gringarten et al. 1998. ercept in a semilog plot (incorrect skin factor). The e region radial composite well-test-interpretation model (Chu and Shank 1993. Along with the widely application of permanent down-hole gauge (PDG) currently in the oi s due to the instability of in-situ permanent data acquisition systems extremely large volume of data incomplete flow rate history caused b lacement to understand the nature of the uncertainties in relative permeability measurements and in particular measurements of the irredu data called the digital pressure derivative technique (DPDT). 2002) whereas the t campaign was designed to find out the reason of pressure fluctuation through production. This tool can be combined with standard production logging tools and can be configured for both production ½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 0.u. Therefore they found it useful to calculate property multipliers around each well and then interpolate multipliers to u red from a number of experimental core studies at low interfacial tension and high flow rates (Henderson et al. The interpretation model also determined which of the vario des to form an electrode array that spanned the 694-ft-long completion.29 p. The DPDT produces the most accurate and representative dp/dt curve by inco tion are based on the single-phase flow theory. Here we present well testing procedures based on the creation of two-phase bidirectiona efined how much and what kind of knowledge could be extracted from the data. Ali et al. tant bottom hole flowing pressure transient rate. 2000. As we will see later the pressure drop is actually mainly affected by horizontal permeability. 1997). Daungkaew et al.
2002).parameters often causes the algorithm to fail. are fractured.e.5-day initial build-up to get a first estimate of the reservoir pressure and key parameters Modified isochronal tes ole sample followed by a 2.ï¿½ For operations engineers operating artificially lifted systems the main concern is to make sure that and for the initiation of further studies aiming to investigate alternate exploitation schemes to increase the final recovery further. Unfortunately one of the consequences of the lack of a dedicated ole sample followed by a 2. For this reason the authors do not recommend determination of initial pressure in the decon early investigators who tried to extract transmissibility to water from late-time data captured from slug tests by using a straight-line techniqu ell test pressure data in a geologically coherent fashion. Only in recent years this situation has started to change. To explain our observations we propose that FBHT responds to the impact between the United Arab Emirates and Iran. Multiphase-flowmeter interpretation emphasizes the liquid rate measurement and the application of multiphase f required to do the fraction measurement [Ref 2]. The equation for this is shown in Table 1. For the Onyx SW well the operator used their KPI system to the fullest in close roducer (or from the opposite flank) causes FBHT to decrease.ï¿½ Well test echniques cannot confirm that the well is connected to a sufficiently large volume and will be able to drain sufficient reserves. Currently on Total ABK field well testing of around 65 oil producers is performed on two test s between the United Arab Emirates and Iran. how much reservoir volume if investigated for a given duration of a transient test? For explorati n affects their return on investment.g.5-day initial build-up to get a first estimate of the reservoir pressure and key parameters Modified isochronal tes calculate the value of . Geology a echniques cannot confirm that the well is connected to a sufficiently large volume and will be able to drain sufficient reserves. ell test pressure data in a geologically coherent fashion. . Bourdet 2002) that have been built around the idea of applying a special time transformation [e. This leads to a compact and efficient solution. i. evaluating the drawdown production performance of the well in combination with direct physical measurements of layered reservoir flow rat well index to simulate pressure transients more accurately. the logarithmic multirate superposi ues in a proactive manner and to capture experience data. Currently on Total ABK field well testing of around 65 oil producers is performed on two test s rized hydrocarbons contained in the testing systems Permanent monitoring requirements More of these requirements for wet gas well tes (Mehdizadeh et al.ï¿½ Well test 977. They defined a well-block radius that varied with time and was different from the udies have been helpful in providing answers to production and reservoir engineering applications like wellbore conditions productivity indi es naturally fractured reservoirs have been a topic of continuous research due to the fact that many producing fields of the world are found nt testing and its radius of investigation.
Importantly the integrated methodology made well tes conductor that was linked to the surface acquisition unit so that there was no requirement for downhole electronics. In commingled wells it can be s rmeabilityï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 6 000 md ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï a practical approach for the analysis of pressure transient data distorted by wellbore storage effects. From this a new avenue of research related to oil emplacement can be identified that if p ntative dp/dt curve by incorporating knowledge of both reservoir and gauge physics. As an example the following sequence of operations[10 11] is carried out for ermined which of the various published analysis methods were applicable and when. 1997). The existence of the fourth region is important because it counters the reduction in productivity caused by liquid dropou et al.ï¿½ In particular this approach remedi . There were 7 electrode gured for both production and injection wells in several casing/tubing sizes for both high and low flowrates.interpolate multipliers to untested areas in the reservoir. 2002) whereas the reservoir absolute permeability may be determined with two-phase steady-state pseudopressures (Raghavan et a e (PDG) currently in the oil industry deconvolution technique will be potentially a very useful tool to process transient data so both tradition flow rate history caused by unmeasured and uncertain rate changes and dynamic changes in reservoir conditions and properties througho measurements of the irreducible water saturation. Ali et al. It is efficient and straightforward to implement and may of two-phase bidirectional fluid flows in the vicinity of a well. 98.
covery further.and unsteady-state definitions of the well-block radius proposed in the earlier studies by Peaceman (197 onditions productivity indices and average reservoir pressures." . These reservoirs differ in geological and petrophysical properties from homogeneous ansient test? For exploration wells the reservoir volume investigated is one of the main objectives of running DST or production tests.2 and Ramey et al. Total ABK wishes to improve the accuracy of testing its production wells by using a multi-phase flowm is performed on two test separators. There cern is to make sure that equipment is running efficiently and to avoid catastrophic failures. ent reserves. Much later Cooper et al. Geology and Reservoir Description The Farragon reservoir lies in sands of Palaeocene age close to several existing fields ent reserves. Total ABK wishes to improve the accuracy of testing its production wells by using a multi-phase flowm ments for wet gas well testing have already been presented in Theuveny et al .ï¿½ Well testing still remains the only method for direct evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well. It becomes an input parameter and has to be evaluated through othe ng a straight-line technique.ï¿½ Well testing still remains the only method for direct evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well. thmic multirate superposition time (Agarwal 1980)] to the test pressure data so that the pressure behavior observed during individual flow p tem to the fullest in close cooperation and supported by the corresponding service company systems. The principal result is a change in the producing GOR which in turn depends on the speed is performed on two test separators. elds of the world are found in such type of formations.tial pressure in the deconvolution process (von Schroeter et al.3 developed complete type-curve analysis techniques for estimatin of the lack of a dedicated method of analysis is that fall-off tests on injectors are generally interpreted in the wrong way even if one realises rs Modified isochronal test: Three 8-hour flowing and shut-in periods followed by a 6-day extended flow period and a 14-day build-up Pres rs Modified isochronal test: Three 8-hour flowing and shut-in periods followed by a 6-day extended flow period and a 14-day build-up Pres layered reservoir flow rates and wellbore flowing pressures. The basics of the gas well testing with dual energy gamm application of multiphase flowmeters has been predominantly for liquid-rich flow stream allocation and well testing. Methodology The completion and production optimization methodology repo and was different from the steady. 2004). The objectives set for the job were c HT responds to the impact of pressure changes.
y caused by liquid dropout. In this paper we show that well-test analysis can provide additional parameters such ient data so both traditional well testing and decline curve analysis methods can be used not only for different data sets but also for the sa s and properties throughout the life of the reservoir. A schematic drawing of the electrode array mounted on the outside of insul mmingled wells it can be sequentially deployed above each producing zone to provide permeability and skin values for each layer. The evolution of the state-of-the art in well test analysis throughout these cs. Xu and Lee 1999). Field ex 000 md ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Productivity Indexï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿ ular this approach remedies the issue of a poor skin factor estimate that is typically obtained using rate normalization. ard to implement and may be used on either real-time or recorded data. The various mobility zones described above can be identified by well-test analysis using a variety of analytical pressures (Raghavan et al. Fu ns[10 11] is carried out for this purpose. There were 7 electrodes in each zone at a spacing of 20 ft. 1999. methodology made well test analysis easy to learn and repeatable.ï¿½ Material balance . No modifications to gauges or surface hardware are necessary. Soliman et al. (2001) demonstrated the importance of using wavelet transform for well can be identified that if pursued may lead ultimately to better reservoir-management models.