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1. What are sound waves? Variations of air pressure traveling across the space. 2. What is a waveform? A waveform is an image that represents an audio signal or recording. It shows the changes in amplitude over a certain amount of time. The amplitude of the signal is measured on the y-axis (vertically), while time is measured on the x-axis (horizontally). 3. How do vowels differ from consonants in a waveform? Vowels have greater amplitude (vertical axis of waveform). 4. What are the main physiological processes which are critically involved in speech production? 1) The airstream process 2) The phonation process 3) The oro-nasal process 4) The articulatory process 5. What does the term egressive pulmonic airstream refer to? A stream of air created in the lungs and pushed out through the mouth or nose (egressive=going out ☺). 6. What is phonation? The sound made by the vibration of vocal folds modified by the resonance of the vocal tract. 7. What are (a) larynx, (b) vocal cords, (c) glottis? (a) A rigid structure at the top of the trachea; contains vocal cords. (b) Two folds of tissue stretched horizontally across the larynx. When drawn together, they vibrate when air passes over them, producing the sound waves. When spread apart, the air flows between them freely, no sound is produced. (c) An organ of speech, located in the larynx, and consisting of the true vocal cords and the opening between them.
8. Describe vocal cords (or vocal folds) and explain their function. Two folds of tissue stretched horizontally across the larynx. When drawn together, they vibrate when air passes over them, producing the sound waves. When spread apart, the air flows between them freely, no sound is produced. 9. What is the velic closure? The velum (soft palate) is raised against the back wall of the pharynx, preventing the airflow to go out through nose. 10. Make sure that you can label a diagram of the vocal tract (e.g. the diagram on p. 24 in Ladefoged). No less than all labels we need to keep in mind ;)
11. Phoneticians differentiate active (movable) articulators and passive articulators (stationary targets). What are they? Active: tongue, lower lip Passive: upper lip, upper teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum, uvula 12. Phoneticians differentiate six parts of the tongue. What are they? tip, blade, front, center, back, root 13. Phoneticians and phonologists differentiate three different types of consonants according to the active articulator engaged in their production. What are they? 1)labial (lower lip), 2)coronal (tongue tip or blade), 3)dorsal (back of the tongue)
14. What are coronal articulations? dental, alveolar, post-alveolar, palatal, retroflex 15. List all labial consonants in English and in Czech/Slovak. /m, v, f, , w/
16. List all coronal consonants in English and in Czech/Slovak. /s, z, , , , , t , d , n, , t, d, , r, r, l/ (/s, z, , , š, ž, č, dž, n, ň, t, d, ď, r, ř, l/) 17. List all dorsal consonants in English and in Czech/Slovak. /k, g, j, w, , /
18. What type of sound is produced when the glottis is closed and the vocal cords are vibrating? Voiced 19. What type of sound is produced when the glottis is open and the vocal cords are spread? Voiceless 20. What type of sound is produced when the velum is lowered? Nasal 21. What type of sound is produced when the sides of the tongue are lowered? Lateral 22. What is special about articulation of affricates? There’s a combination of a stop immediately followed by a fricative - [ t , d ]. 23. How is articulation of a flap (tap) different from articulation of a stop? Flap (tap) [ ] is only a very brief interruption of the airflow, with no pressure built up and therefore no burst (unlike /t , d/).
24. Why are sounds [w, j, ] called approximants? Tongue approaches (approximates ☺) the passive articulators, but doesn’t get close enough to create a friction. 25. Why is /l/ described as a lateral sound? There’s an incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth, the air flows out freely along the sides. 26. /l/ is classified as an approximant. Its articulation however is different from other approximants. In what respect? There’s a complete closure between the tongue and the alveolar ridge. The airflow goes out along the sides of the tongue. 27. How is the articulation of voiceless sounds different from the articulation of voiced sounds? Voiced: vocal cords are drawn together and vibrate. Voiceless: vocal cords are apart, air flows through the open glottis freely. 28. How is the articulation of stops different from the articulation of fricatives? Stops involve a complete closure between the active articulators and the target. The air cannot escape and a pressure is built up. Fricatives – only close approximation of the articulators, the airflow remains undisrupted. 29. How is the articulation of oral stops different from the articulation of nasal stops? Oral stops: in addition to the articulatory closure in the mouth, the velum is raised so the nasal tract is blocked off. Nasal stops: the velum is lowered, so the air can go out through nose.
R. frequency: frequency in pharyngeal cavity (throat) (F1) and oral cavity (mouth) (F2). Vowels of any language can be described by stating their relationship to the cardinal vowels . frequency: (F0) frequency of vocal cords’ vibration while voicing (states [in Hz] how many times per second vocal cords open and close). How do phoneticians define vowel space? (in articulatory terms) It is the area of the oral cavity within which the tongue can move without creating a friction. 7. without a closure or narrowing. 5. They are extreme points of vocalic articulation . A cardinal vowel is a vowel produced when the tongue is in extreme position: front or back. nasal. Who was Daniel Jones? A phonetician who fixed reference points for the phonetic description of a vowel quality . 2. they are an idealized set. the vocal tract is open.V. high or low. What are the resonating tubes that participate in generating vowels? oral. It is a set of 8 reference vowels defined by Daniel Jones. are not vowels of a particular language (they don’t even correspond with any).they are a set of reference points used in describing the sounds of languages. What does it mean to say that in production of vowels the vocal tract acts as a resonating tube (a set of resonating tubes)? When pronouncing vowels. The air flows freely through the vocal tract and makes it resonate.Lecture 2 1. 6. What are cardinal vowels? How many primary cardinal vowels are there? Explain in prose.all peripheral vowels. and pharyngeal cavity 4. . What is the fundamental frequency (pitch or glottal tone) and what is a resonating frequency? F. 3. and are thus more tense. What is the difference between peripheral and non-peripheral vowels? Peripheral vowels are more distinct from one another than vowels in the middle.He defined Cardinal vowels. They are distributed along the edges of the vowel space. It determines pitch. C.
Position of lips determines vowel roundedness (rounded/unrounded). [i] is produced with the tongue as far in front and as high in mouth as possible (no friction).V. 11.low) and vowel backness (front -. [ ] and [u] have articulatory definitions. The second set of cardinal vowels differs from the first one in having the opposite setting for lip rounding. mid high. 12. open [ ] is produced with the tongue as far back and as low in mouth as possible. mid-open. 9. three in Czech. manner of articulation. voicing and nasality. Which of the cardinal vowels are most reliably defined in articulatory terms? How are they defined? Three of the C. with spread lips (unrounded).: [i]. mid-close. 10. mid low and low to differentiate degrees of vowel height in English.Cardinal vowels primary secondary 8. What are secondary cardinal vowels? Explain in prose. with pursed lips (rounded). (unrounded). Ladefoged uses the terms high. What corresponding terms are used by Gimson? close. Consonants are described in terms of place of articulation. with spread lips . English vowels are described with a reference to four different phonetic dimensions. How many levels of vowel height do we differentiate in English? How many levels of vowel height do we differentiate in Czech? Four in English. What are they? Position of the highest point of the tongue determines vowel height (high -.back). So far we discussed three of them. [u] is produced with the tongue as far back and as high in mouth as possible.
15. It shows the changes in amplitude over a certain amount of time. while time is measured on the x-axis (horizontally). The amplitude of the signal is measured on the yaxis (vertically).13. 16. Can two different vowels have the same formant structure (same F1 and F2)? Yes .) . O:) 17. the basic frequencies of the vibrations of the air in the vocal tract. F2 to vowel backness. u/. Can two different vowels be pronounced with the same fundamental frequency (i. . You will see a spectrogram of the three vowels and you will have to decide which one is which. See lecture 7 answers .e. 18. pitch or glottal tone)? Yes. 14. Technically.F1 corresponds to vowel height. What are formants? Distinguishing frequency components of human speech. horizontal and vertical axes correspond to time and frequency. What is a spectrogram? Two-dimensional visual representation of sound. Such vowels can still differ in roundedness. What is a waveform? A waveform is an image that represents an audio signal or recording. Make sure that you can differentiate spectrographic representation of vowels /i. amplitude is indicated only approximately by intensity (darkness) of color.
What is sonority scale (sonority hierarchy)? Ranking of speech sounds (or phones) by amplitude In English. low vowels. d/ 6.sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. 2. Arrange the sounds in the brackets on a scale according to the degree of sonority (e. n). trills) . stops. .) /r/ is higher than /s/ in the sonority scale 5. glides. at the same pitch. In the Czech word “prst” The syllabic peak is the consonant /r/. high vowels). Arrange the sound classes in the brackets on a scale according to the degree of sonority (fricatives. nasals. affricates Sonorants: approximants. . n. fricatives.g. is the following: ([p t k] [b d g] [f θ] [v ð z] [s] [m n] [l] [r] [i u] [e o] [a]) 3.Lecture 3 1. from lowest to highest. taps. i z d / . fricatives. which is syllabic and not /s/? (Think about sonority. taps. nasal consonants. How is the articulation of obstruents different from the articulation of sonorants? Obstruents: (stops.sound formed by obstructing outward airflow causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract Sonorants: (approximants. trills 4. nasal consonants. . affricates) . Which types of consonants are obstruents and which are sonorants? Obstruents: stops. Why is it /r/. z. the sonority scale. Pronounced continuously.
They are allophones – they don’t contrast the meaning. as in ‘bold’ or ‘tell’. . 12. 11. 10. Phoneticians use two types of transcriptions to capture sound. One. pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant [l] with a "neutral" position of the body of the tongue. Narrow transcription encodes more information about the phonetic variations of the specific allophones in the utterance. What do we mean when we say that the English phoneme /l/ has several allophones? English has one lateral phoneme: the lateral approximant /l/. In English.or [ ]-like resonance. 13. so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally. found before vowels as in ‘lady’ or ‘fly’. are the sounds [n] and [ŋ] two distinct phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? Explain your reasoning.7. which gives the sound a [w]. 8. is called clear l. In English. What are allophones? Acoustically different realizations of one and the same phoneme 9. which in many accents has two allophones. The other variant. What are they called? How do they differ? When are they used? Broad transcription indicates only the more noticeable phonetic features of an utterance. They are allophones – they don’t contrast the meaning. are the sounds [t] and [t ] two distinct phonemes or are they allophones of the same phoneme? Explain your reasoning. What do we mean when we say that phonemes have a contrastive value or that they contrast? They can distinguish the meaning. What do we mean when we say that allophones of a phoneme are in complementary distribution? One element is found in a particular environment and the other element is found in the opposite environment. is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ ] with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised.
. (e. Ruth. cranberries. [t æp] – peel.g. Which vowel does the IPA symbol [ ] stand for? The mid central unrounded vowel . z. soon. m] bilabial.g. you. Transcribe words once in the broad and once in the narrow transcription. [t æp] => [p i ]. [t æp]=> [pil].g.g. voiced dental fricative. . piano. cook. trap 16. Write the IPA symbol which corresponds to the following phonetic description and give an English word that contains the sound and underline it (e. health /h lθ/ [h loθ] 20. practical 18. State whether you are attempting to transcribe RP or GA. Change the narrow transcription of the word X into a broad transcription and write the word in normal orthography e. Consider only RP. etc. Z in broad IPA (e. p. those. although). [t æp] – peel. Change the broad transcription of the word X into a narrow transcription and write the word in normal orthography e. [pil]. X = [s. hunger. . For each group of sounds X state the phonetic feature or features which they all share and which make them different from all the other sounds in English.g. e. trap 15. describe the underlined sound and transcribe it with an IPA symbol.) 21.g. æ] vowels. etc. Y. practical 17. Transcribe words X. (X = [b.14. ] fricative. practical 19. X = [i.). day). [p i ]. tense high back vowel. Using appropriate terms.
it occu . in „behind“ /b aind/) 30. What does placing the symbol transcription? Nasalized 23. What does placing a raised after a consonant indicate in the narrow transcription? Aspirated 26. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? stand for in the narrow transcription? stand for in the narrow transcription? stand for in the narrow transcription? voiced glottal fricative (In English. “comfort” [ k before labiodentals fricatives /f. it is an allophone of voiceless /h/ e. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? Labiodental nasal (In English.22.g. What does placing the symbol transcription? Voiceless 24. What does the symbol Glottal stop 28. it's an allophone of /m/ in e. What does the symbol Alveolar tap/flap 27.g. What does the symbol Voiceless labial-velar fricative 29. v/) f t]. What does placing the symbol transcription? Velarized or pharyngealized ̃ above the vowel indicate in the narrow under a consonant indicate in the narrow across an /l/ indicate in the narrow 25.
31. What does the symbol Retroflex approximant stand for in the narrow transcription? 32. What do the IPA symbols [ ] and [ ] stand for? R-colored / Rhoticized vowel .
the air escapes through the nose. With nasal stops. “middle” [d ]* 4) Affricated release e. What types of stop release are possible in English? Name four. “hidden” [d ]* 3) Lateral release e. the released airflow produces a sudden impulse causing an audible sound 2.g.g. Which of the three phases of stop articulation is often not realized in English? The third phase – release (usually the first in a cluster of plosives is unreleased) e. What is a nasal release (nasal plosion)? Give an example of a word in which a stop can have a nasal release (write it down in normal spelling and in IPA). 3) Release or burst: The closure is opened. causing a pressure difference to build up. Causes the nasal to become syllabic . in “hidden” / hidn/ Articulated with the tongue coming up and contacting the alveolar ridge for /d/ and staying there for the nasal. “test” [t ] 2) Nasal release e. What are they? the mouth.g.Lecture 4 1. 1) Aspirated release e. Articulation of stop consonants is said to involve three phases. “apt” [æp t] 3.g. Describe nasal release in terms of articulatory gestures. standardly not used in transcription of English sounds 4.g.g. The air pressure built up behind the stop closure is then released through the nose by lowering the soft palate (the velum) for the consonant. 1) Catch: The airway closes so that no air can escape through 2) Hold or occlusion: The airway stays closed. e. It occurs when a voiced stop is followed by a nasal in the same word. “tree” [t ]* *an IPA diacritic symbol for the phenomenon. In the case of plosives. Under what conditions can a stop have a nasal release? What function does the nasal assume when a stop has a nasal release? Nasal release is a release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop.
k/ are accompanied by an overlaping glottal stop gesture as in pronunciation of “tip”. Voiceless alveolar stop /t/ is in some positions replaced by a glottal stop. syllable final /p. p t. “button” [b n] . What is lateral release? Give an example of a word in which a stop can have a lateral release (write it down in normal spelling and in IPA). t.e. /p/ > [ p]). Takes place when an alveolar stop /t/ or /d/ occurs before a (homorganic) lateral /l/. which after lateral release becomes syllabic. 7.g. Describe lateral release in terms of articulatory gestures. in “middle” / m dl/ The tongue comes up and touches the alveolar ridge for the stop. k k]. E. Glottal stop [ ] is not a phoneme in English. k/ are in some positions pronounced as glottalized (reinforced by a glottal stop. but it frequently occurs as an allophone of /t/ in most dialects. t. e. t.g. What does it mean to say that two consonants are homorganic? That they have the same place of articulation (such as alveolar [n. /t/ is replaced by a glottal stop when it occurs before an alveolar nasal in the same word. When does this rule apply? Explain in prose and give examples (transcribed in IPA). “pit”. Voiceless stops /p. 8. l] in English) 6.5. The air pressure built up during the stop is released by lowering the sides of the tongue to produce /l/. d. s. Under what conditions can a stop have a lateral release? What function does the lateral assume when a stop has a lateral release? Lateral release is a release of an alveolar plosive into the lateral approximant /l/. i. “kick” as [t p. In many accents of English. When does glottalization rule apply? Explain in prose and give examples (transcribed in IPA). z.
they are transcribed with 11. Glottal stop is regularly used in Czech and sometimes also in English to reinforce vowels in certain conditions. or as a glottal stop. Explain and give examples in both languages. it can be used: . e. The final stop in words such as that can be pronounced as a plain released stop. [ æ ] least native-like . [ æ t]. How do Czech and English voiceless stops differ with respect to their closed and release phases? Czech voiceless stops are always released. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? syllabization (it is placed under a syllabic consonant) 14. In Czech. a preglottalized released stop. Which of the four alternatives is least native-like? Transcribe all four versions of the word (narrow transcription).9.as an emphasis: “come on” /k m . What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? glottal stop 15. “okno” / okno/ In English. [ æ t ]. Are unreleased stops more typical for Czech or for English? For English 12.in careful speech: “reaction” / n/ æk n/ 10. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? No audible release (unexploded) 13.g. [ ] is frequently used to reinforce the initial vowel. a preglottalized unreleased stop. [ æt]. English voiceless stops may lack the release phase – if so.
in “bat” /bæt/. A vowel is shortened. when stands before a fortis (voiceless stop/fricative). d/). . e. What does the term “pre-fortis clipping” refer to? Explain and give examples. 18. k/ are shorter. with no pressure built up and therefore no burst (unlike /t .g. How is the vowel in words like bat/bad or pick/pig affected by the following consonant? The vowels preceding a voiceless stop /t. What is a flap? How is it different from an alveolar stop? Flap (tap) [ ] is only a very brief interruption of the airflow.16. [æ] is shorter than in “bad” /bæd/ 17.
What does the term VOT (Voice Onset Time) refer to? The time between the release of the oral closure and the beginning of voicing. 4. the release. Czech phoneme /p/ with a short VOT. it takes some time before the vocal cords begin to vibrate). In acoustic terms aspiration corresponds to long Voice Onset Time (VOT). /p/ is sometimes realized as aspirated in English. and aspiration. Explain in prose. English voiceless stops are in some positions followed by a period of voicelessness which we call aspiration. /g/ 2. in Czech it is not. Identify a stop consonant in a spectrogram and waveform. There is a long voice onset time (after releasing a consonant. . Indicate the closure of the stop. Aspiration is a feature of VOT. The voicing doesn’t start at the point when the consonant is released. Explain. English phoneme /p/ is realized with a long VOT. 3.Lecture 5 1.
d. to facilitate the pronunciation. k/ in words such as skill. E.e. E. spill? unaspirated 10. Lagef. spill? There's zero VOT. Fricatives – only close approximation of the articulators. p. g/ are realized as fully voiced (i.g. voicing lasts throughout the closure)? When they stand in the middle of a word or phrase in which a voiced sound occurs on either side. e. viz.g. How is a fricative different from a stop in a spectrogram? under b. “abed” / bæd/ 8.g. prince. “led” /let/ 7. The contrast between voiced and voiceless obstruents is sometimes neutralized in Czech. Give a new example of a word in which an intrusive (epenthetic) stop occurs (give a phonemic and phonetic transcription of the word).57. t. Explain what it means. Explain in articulatory terms why stop epenthesis takes place. indicate in narrow transcription? . How is a fricative different from a stop in the waveform? The waveform of a fricative is longer.58 13. in skill.g. 12. tense. k/ pronounced after the fricative /s/. How are /p. still. youngster are pronounced with an intrusive (epenthetic) stop. no aspiration 6. still. What is the typical VOT of /p. e. 11. What does the symbol devoicing 9. How is the articulation of fricatives different from the articulation of stops? Stops involve a complete closure between the active articulators and the target. Words such as something. hamster – /hæmst /. Give an example.5. The air cannot escape and a pressure is built up. the airflow remains undisrupted. [ hæmp. Devoicing of a voiced consonant – voiced obstruents in the syllable coda or at the end of a word become voiceless in Czech. t. When are English voiced stops /b. Epenthesis – insertion of voiceless stop between a nasal and a following voiceless fricative.st ] – the stop is homorganic with the nasal. d.
z. in English. . e. in „behind“ /b aind/) 21. θ.14. . plural is pronounced as /z/ – “graves” /g eivz/ 3) In words ending with voiceless sound /f. ]? [f. z.g. English fricative [ ] has a secondary articulation. when stands before a fortis (voiceless stop/fricative). /. They are characterized by a hissing sound. θ. p. How is the pronunciation of the glottal fricative different in e. . . What does the symbol e. v. z. dentals [s. What is the difference between fricative [f. postalveolar 15. "sh" [ ]. Like voiceless stops. voiceless fricatives cause pre-fortis clipping. /f. There is one exception. as in "she". . is pronounced as /s/ – “coughs” /kç:fs/ 17. 18./h/ is voiced [ ] because it follows a vowel stand for in the narrow transcription? voiced glottal fricative (In English. z. in “bat” /bæt/.g. Which one? /h/ 19./h/ is voiceless because it follows a voiceless consonant In “go ahead” . 1) / / must be added when realizing plural at words that end with /s. dish. nice head versus go ahead? In “nice head” . ð] and [s. ð] = labiodentals. What is it? The addition of lip rounding to an articulation: e. . ] = alveolar. it is an allophone of voiceless /h/ . What is it? A vowel is shortened. s. moth. [æ] is shorter than in “bad” /bæd/ 20. 16. What are sibilants? Type of fricative or affricate consonant. ditch.g. / made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel in the vocal tract towards the sharp edge of the upper teeth. kiss. v. Most English fricative phonemes form voiced-voiceless pairs. grave.g. How does the feature [±sibilant] affect realization of the plural morpheme in words such as cough. . t / 2 ) In words that end with /v/ (voiced).
trills) . but also / / (ň) . How is the articulation of obstruents different from the articulation of sonorants? Obstruents: (stops. it's an allophone of /m/ in e. taps. he says you are ….g. this /z/ 23. affricates Sonorants: approximants. nasal consonants. Which sounds do foreign learners of English most frequently substitute for the English [θ ð]? Other sibilants. this /z/ Russian .22.sound formed by obstructing outward airflow. Which types of consonants are obstruents and which are sonorants? Obstruents: stops. affricates) . 26. causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract Sonorants: (approximants.: French – think /s/. trills 27. fricatives. faith /fe:t/ NYC – think /tink/ 24. Czech has not only /m. Is the inventory of nasal phonemes same in English and Czech? No. n/ like English.ju/ alveo-palatal 25. fricatives. taps. “comfort” [ k before labiodentals fricatives /f. at the same pitch. Pronounced continuously. or stops e. Which sounds do English speakers of varieties than RP and GA substitute for the dental fricatives [θ ð]? South Ireland – breath /bri:d/. nasal consonants. it occurs Labiodental nasal (In English.sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. this /d/ Czech – think /f/.g. v/) 28.think /t/. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? f t]. What may happen in connected speech to /s/ or /z/ in sequences like this year. it does you good? /s/ or /z/ are palatalized before palatal glide /j/ “miss you” – alveolar /m s/ + /ju/ palatal s+j= /m .
[w] labiovelar glide . j. lateral [ l ].tongue approaches (approximates ☺) the passive articulators. . Why are sounds [w. 30. ] called approximants? Tongue approaches (approximates ☺) the passive articulators.29. but doesn’t get close enough to create a friction. What are approximants? [w. The airflow goes out along the sides of the tongue. 32. 31. but doesn’t get close enough to create a friction. j. In what sense is /l/ an odd approximant? There’s a complete closure between the tongue and the alveolar ridge. Glides: [ j ] – palatal glide. Which sounds are called liquids? Which sounds are called glides? Liquids: rhotic r [ ]. l] .
alveolar (“clear”) [la f] [ l ] – play – devoiced. found before vowels as in ‘lady’ or ‘fly’.g. List all the possible allophones of English /t/ and give examples of words in which these allophones occur (use IPA). Which sounds are called liquids? Which sounds are called glides? Liquids: rhotic r [ ]. vocalized. One. non-syllabic [h op] 4. as in ‘bold’ or ‘tell’. dentalized [h lθ] [ [ ] – fail – voiced. syllabic [ fa n ] [ o ] – help – voiced.Lecture 6 1. so-called dark l found before consonants or word-finally. velarized (“dark”) [fa ] ] – final – velarized. [w] labiovelar glide 2. alveolar [ple ] [ l ] – health – voiced. which in many accents has two allophones. like Albanian. English has one lateral phoneme: the lateral approximant /l/. pronounced as the alveolar lateral approximant [l] with a "neutral" position of the body of the tongue. those two sounds are different phonemes. Russian) contrast [ ] and [l ] but do not have a plain [l]. lateral [ l ]. [ l ] – life – voiced. List all the possible allophones of English /l/ and give examples of words in which these allophones occur (use IPA). Glides: [ j ] – palatal glide. which gives the sound a [w]. In some languages. East Slavic languages (e. is pronounced as the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ ] with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape with its back part raised. 3. is called clear l. Aspirated [t ] eg: [t st] (test) Unreleased (unexploded) [t ] eg: [ st ju] (stew) Dentalized [t] eg: [e tθ] (eighth) Glottal stop [ ] eg: [b n] (button) Voiced stop (tap) [ ] eg: [ dæ ] (data) . How many lateral phonemes does English have? Do you know a language that contrasts two lateral phonemes? Give an example. The other variant.or [ ]like resonance.
Example: the voiceless labialized velar plosive [k ] has only a single stop articulation. In RP the lateral phoneme in words like feel or field is pronounced with a secondary articulatory gesture. The approximant-like secondary articulation is weaker than the primary.) Praktická otázka. and is usually heard as a kind of [k]. in English. 9. /l/is velarized . clear [l] is pronounced with a "neutral" position of the body of the tongue. with its back part raised. dark [ ] is pronounced with the tongue assuming a spoon-like shape. as in "she". How is the spectrogram of a dark l different from the spectrogram of a clear l? (See the pictures below. [l] [ ] 6. (“dark l”) . In both words. 10. What is secondary articulation? Secondary articulation is involved in co-articulated consonants. What is the distribution of dark /l/ in RP? Clear [l]is pronounced in the onset of a syllable (before a vowel). and colors it rather than obscuring it. Dark [ ] everywhere else.5. with a simultaneous [w]-like rounding of the lips. How is the articulation of dark /l/ different from the articulation of clear /l/? Describe in prose. 7. What is it? The addition of lip rounding to an articulation: e.g. with two articulations of different manner.the back of the tongue goes towards the velum. Explain. :-( 8. "sh" [ ]. English fricative [ ] has a secondary articulation. velar [k].
/l/ becomes vocalized . L-voclization is a notable feature of some English dialects (e.) ] (‘French r’) The back of the tongue approaches the uvula or the soft palate. The front part of the tongue approaches the upper gum. 12. Many languages use taps as reduced variants of trills. or ‘bunched r’ – Also frequent in GA. perro . Wha different types of r-pronunciations occur in Received Pronunciation and General American English? [ [ ] (alveolar approximant): Typical for RP.11. What happened to the phoneme /l/ in the pronunciations [h op] “help” or [p ipo] “people”? Describe the articulation in prose. London Cockney). “upside down r” . Uvular trill: [ (Northumberland) . especially in fast speech (but Spanish contrasts them: pero .g. (Scottish E.tap. The sounds written with the letter “r” can be articulated in a number of ways. The tongue-tip is curled back towards the roof of the mouth (‘retroflexion’). What is a rhotic liquid? post-alveolar approximant. The rhotic phoneme has different phonetic realization in various English dialects.[ ] 13. What are they? ] (RP) Alveolar approximant: [ Retroflex approximant: [ ] (GA) Alveolar trill [ r ] (rolled r): Airstream interrupted by several taps.sounds more like the vowel /o/. 14. ] (retroflex approximant): Characteristic for GA.) Tap (flap) [ ] Just one brief interruption of airflow.trill) (Scottish E. Whole body of the tongue is bunched upwards and backwards (towards the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall).
How are retroflex sounds articulated? The down side of the tongue tip goes against the alveolar ridge.15. whole body of the tongue is bunched upwards and backwards (towards the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall). d. root. w . vocalized /l/. What is a trill? In which variety of English does trill occur? Trill [r] (‘rolled r’) consists of several alveolar flaps (one brief interruption of the airflow). . [ r ] . What do the IPA symbols [ r . /b. [ ] represent? ] . It is frequently replaced by a flap in relaxed speech. What is “bunched r”? Common in American English dialects.alveolar approximant. road is in some varieties of English realized as a trill. It is typical for Scottish English. What does the symbol stand for in the narrow transcription? Retroflex rhotic liqid (approximant).trill. [ 20. The rhotic sound at the beginning of words such as ripe. What does the symbol o (or u ) stand for in the narrow transcription? Non-syllabic. 19. which become voiceless in certain situations. when devoiced at the end of a word (sob. Can the symbol be placed under other sounds? Yes . What does placing the symbol transcription? Velarized (“dark”) [ ]. j . 18. g/. across an / l / indicate in the narrow 23. . sag). What does placing the symbol under transcription? Devoicing :-) .retroflex approximant ] . 22. 16. E. sad. l indicate in the narrow 21. 17.they can be placed under other primarily voiced sounds.g.
t. alveolar fricative or X = [j]. E. which is a voiceless. A sound changes so that it becomes more like a neighbouring sound. which is a palatal approximant/glide etc. E.t ] (have to) 29. Regressive assimilation: When a sound changes with reference to a following segment. k bz] (/s/ becomes voiced (/z/) after voiced consonants) . They are descriptive. k ps . NOT prescriptive.: Voiceless stops such as /p. k b. cub. and may even be curled back to reach the hard palate. What is assimilation? Define and illustrate with an example. They define environment in which each allophone occurs.g. (For example.g.“skill” [sk l] 28. E. cubs) [k p. (cup. What does it mean? The tip of the tongue is placed behind the alveolar ridge. Using appropriate terms give a phonetic description of the consonant X.) See IPA chart :-( 27.: English suffix -s. Fill consonant symbols into the chart of English consonants.g. Describe what happens in these words. What are phonological rules? Explain and give an example of a phonological rule. 25. The English rhotic liquid is often realized as retroflex. Write the words in phonemic and in phonetic transcription. See IPA chart :-( 26.g.24.: [hæf. k/ are unaspirated after /s/ . E. cups . it copies a feature of neighbouring sound. Give an example of anticipatory (regressive) assimilation and perseverative (progressive) assimilation (from Czech/Slovak or English). X= /s/.: “bank” /bæNk/ (/n/ is velarized before velar plosive /k/) Progressive assimilation: When a sound becomes more like the preceding sound.
Formulate the rule and give examples of words or phrases in which they apply (use IPA). g] in words keep. Give an example of assimilation of voicing and assimilation of place of articulation. In ‘keep’.: button [b n] 3) Voicless stops /p.g.30. in “bank” /bæNk/ (/n/ is velarized before velar plosive /k/) 33. j . because of following dental fricative /θ/. because the following /u/ sound is rounded. after voiced velar plosive /g/) Assimilation of place of articulation: e. w) 35. State the rules and exemplify. In words ‘cool’. lagoon. ‘lagoon’ /k. geese differs from [k. g] in cool. “winter” RP /w nt /.k/ are unaspirated after /s/ in word such as spew. because of the preceding front vowel /i/. g/ are more lip rounded. l . stew. Describe in detail how pronunciation of [k. E. E.: data [ dæ ] 2) /t/ is replaced by a glottal stop when it occurs before an alveolar nasal in the same word. skew 34. 32. How is the pronunciation of the phoneme /d/ different in “width” and “widow”? Explain in prose.t. GA /w n / / .g. To which class of sounds does this devoicing rule apply? Approximants ( .g.g. GA /w n “winner” RP /w n /. 1)Alveolar stops become voiced taps when they occur between two vowels the second of which is unnstressed. Give three phonological rules that affect the voiceless alveolar stop in English. e. /d/ is dentalized in “width”. English has a devoicing rule which applies after aspirated stops.g. Assimilation of voicing: e. ‘geese’ /k. g/ are more front. (Ladefoged’s 13a) Alveolar stops and alveolar nasals followed by stop sequences become voiced taps when they occur between two vowels second of which is unstressed. in “widow” it’s alveolar. in “example” / gzæmpl/ (/s/ becomes voiced. 31. Give a phonological rule which typically applies in American English.
“razor” [ se br .g. The approximants /w. play. In Czech there are numerous examples of compete devoicing (e. Sonorants . Explain when they lose voicing and give examples (transcribe in IPA). “chasm” [ l dn . youngster. Approximant consonants are typically voiced.g. Which class of sounds given in the brackets is likely to be completely devoiced before a voiceless obstruent in the following word? (nasals. typewritten [t a p another stop. E. twin. in led. E. lost balance [l s bæl nts] etc.g. sonorants. j.” n]. Ladefoged discusses epenthesis of a stop in words such as something. l / are at least partially voiceless when they occur after initial /p. stops). In English complete devoicing is much more restricted. mez. Which phonological rule applies in pronunciation of words and phrases like acting [æk t ŋ].36.? “The gestures for consecutive stops overlap so that stops are unexploded when they occur before 37.” 38. Nasals are syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after an obstruent. Liquids /l. fricatives. When do nasal consonants become syllabic? Explain the rule in prose and give an example transcribed in IPA. tense. t. Formulate the rule of stop epenthesis. “leaden”. How are these words pronounced? Write them down in phonemic and phonetic transcription. “sabre”. E. tw n. prince. kæzm] 39. k/. re zr] 40. r. cue [ple . “A homorganic voiceless stop may occur after a nasal before a voicless fricative followed by an unstressed vowel in the same word.g. r/ are syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after a consonant. kju] 41. When do liquids become syllabic? Explain the rule in prose and give an example transcribed in IPA. lávka).
republic 44. p t. “kick” as [t p. i. Voiceless stops /p. captain. happy. When does glottalization rule apply? Explain in prose and give examples (transcribed in IPA). police.e. Alveolar stops /t. police. republic. t. as in “beaten” [ bi n]. t st. “most people” [ mo s pipl ] . k/ as [p . Voiceless stops /p. k/ are in some positions pronounced as glottalized (reinforced by a glottal stop. spy paradise. t. t. 45. 43. d/ are sometimes not pronounced. “test”. When the cluster is hetero-morphemic and the stop belongs to an unbound morpheme. When does this deletion happen? Explain the rule in prose and give an example transcribed in IPA. E. In which of the following words is p aspirated? paradise.42. When does this rule apply? Explain in prose and give examples (transcribed in IPA) When before an alveolar nasal in the same word. t. t . /p/ > [ p]). k / are aspirated when they are syllable initial. 47. d/ are reduced or omitted when between two consonants. apply. When does aspiration rule apply? Explain in prose and give examples (in IPA). in words such as “pip”. Voiceless alveolar stop / t / is in some positions replaced by a glottal stop. k ]? Voicless stops are aspirated only at the beggining of a stressed syllable. apply. coping. Syllable final /p. “kick” [p p. t. k/ are accompanied by an overlaping glottal stop gesture as in pronunciation of “tip”. Voiceless stops /p. k/ are in some positions pronounced as aspirated. What does it mean to say that aspiration depends on syllabification? When does the way in which words are divided into syllables affect pronunciation of /p. (This rule does not apply to all varieties of English) 46.g. “pit”. k k]. k k]. Alveolar stops /t.
GA /w n / / 50. “winter” RP /w nt /.g. GA /w n “winner” RP /w n /. “life” [la f] X “file” [fa ] 49. Lateral /l/ is velarized when NOT in the onset of a syllable (when after a vowel or before a consonant at the end of a word). e.48. What if flapping (tapping)? Under what conditions does the flapping rule apply? A flap (tap) [ ] involves a rapid movement of the tongue tip from a retracted vertical position to a (more or less) horizontal position. during which the tongue tip brushes the alveolar ridge. What is the difference between British and American pronunciation of words such as winter or twenty? “winter” RP /w nt /. (Ladefoged’s 13/a/) Alveolar stops (in GA also alveolar nasals+ stop sequences) become voiced taps when they occur between two vowels second of which is unstressed. What does it mean to say that in RP / l / is in some positions velarized? Explain the velarization rule in prose and give an example transcribed in IPA. GA /w n / “twenty” RP /tw nti/. E.g. GA /tw n i/ .
How are vowels different from consonants? Consonants – (noise). What determines acoustic quality of vowels? Height (F1). 7. 2. open. 3. Often voiceless. boifurendo. Ladefoged uses the terms high. mid close. corresponds to vowel height.: It is the area of the oral cavity within which the tongue can move without creating a friction. ☺]) 6. Open (low) vowels have high F1 frequencies. nasalization. -masu. . How do phoneticians define vowel space? (in articulatory and acoustic terms) Art. phonation [not in English. Usually voiced. Back vowels have low F2 frequencies. F2. mid open. mostly articulated via closure or obstruction in the vocal tract. hito. R-coloring (F3). the basic frequencies of the vibrations of the air in the vocal tract. 5. abbreviated "F1". produced with a relatively free vocal tract. tenseness (+ others: e. Vowels – (tone). 4. backness (F2).g. front vowels have high F2 frequencies. What is the difference between peripheral and non-peripheral vowels? Peripheral vowels are more distinct from one another than vowels in the middle. mid high.. vowel space is defined as the area of the quadrilateral formed by the four corner vowels. What are formants? Distinguishing frequency components of human speech. close (high) vowels have low F1 frequencies. corresponds to vowel backness. but e.. Acoustically. roundedness. mid low and low to differentiate degrees of vowel height in English. in Japanese – vowels can be devoiced – -desu. What corresponding terms are used by Gimson? Close. Technically.Lecture 7 1. Which articulatory dimension does the first formant (second formant) correspond to? The first formant. The second formant.g.
which is a high front tense vowel etc. You will see a spectrogram of the three vowels and you will have to decide which one is which. so its F1 value is higher than that of [i]. so its F2 is substantially higher than that of [ ]. which is a high vowel. Fill vowel symbols into the chart of English vowels (RP vowel chart and GA vowel chart). u/.) 9. Using appropriate terms. give a phonetic description of the vowel X. Make sure that you can recognize spectrographic representation of the “corner” vowels /i. X = [i].) See IPA chart .( 11. [i] is a front vowel.8. (For example. which is a back vowel. 10. . How is the formant structure of the vowel /i/ different from the vowel / /? /i/ has F1 value higher and F2 value lower than / / (*[ ] is a low vowel. .
careless in traditional RP and in modern RP? Traditional RP: . .g. modern RP: (e. . . æ. . (e.g. mod. Chocolate – trad. What is the position of the English vowels [i. Transcribe the example in IPA. How many back vowels are contrasted in Received Pronunciation? What are they? 5: u . . Which vowel does the IPA symbol [ ] stand for? The mid central vowel (“schwa”) 18. tense high back vowel). / kl t/) 20. How many front vowels are contrasted in Received Pronunciation? What are they? 4: i . What is the pronunciation of the underlined unstressed syllables in words such as chocolate. Praktická :( 16. describe the underlined sound and transcribe it with an IPA symbol. Give an example of vowel reduction (a word in which an originally full vowel is reduced to a schwa). 15. What does placing the symbol ̃ above the vowel indicate in the narrow transcription? Nasalization . u. . cook: lax high back rounded vowel / /). Tahle taky :( 17.12. . . Explain / ksple n/ . . Write the IPA symbol which corresponds to the following phonetic description and give an English word that contains the sound and underline it (e. explanation / kspl ne n/ 19.æ 14.g. / kl t/. . possible. Using appropriate terms. ] in the vowel space as described from the point of view of cardinal vowels? See IPA chart 13.
and end with a central one (usually schwa). 3) roundedness.) Diphthong /a / from the utterance "eye". A diphthong is a vowel in which there is a change in quality during a single syllable. English vowels are described with a reference to four different phonetic dimensions. as in English [a ] in “high”.g. Can you recognize a diphthong in a spectrogram? (Note: The diphthongs have strong moving voicing. 24.g.. How many levels of vowel height do we differentiate in English? How many levels of vowel height do we differentiate in Czech? Four in English. Define centering diphthongs. E. with /a/ passing into / /. E. /a / in “eye” Rising d. The formants are not horizontal throughout the life of the vowel as they were in the monophthong vowels. in fear /f / . 27. What are falling diphthongs? What are rising diphthongs? Explain in prose and give an example. voicing and nasality. three in Czech. What is the origin of centering diphthongs in RP? They came with words borrowed from French. / a/ in "yard" . manner of articulation. 25.g. They begin with a more peripheral vowel. 4) tenseness 22. tour /t / . 26. E. start with a vowel of higher prominence (higher pitch or louder) and end in a vowel with less prominence. Falling d.21. What are they? 1) Height. 23. but move from a beginning configuration to a target configuration. 2) backness. Define diphthongs. English consonants are described in terms of place of articulation. begin with a less prominent vowel and end with a more prominent vowel.. as represented in the picture bellow.
In closing diphthongs. the second element is more close than the first. in “sin” /s n/ 34..g. . “layer” 32. 31. An open syllable ends with a vowel (has no coda). E.. 2) Vowels are longer in an open syllable.g. 33. What do the dots stand for? Why does one author use them and the other does not? Jones/Gimson (and some other authors) use this ( ) symbol to mark vowel length (e. We are using the IPA system in line with Ladefoged’s textbook. “power” /pa /le /. in “see” /si/ A close syllable ends with a consonant (has a coda). In GA. the schwa is usually R-colored) 30. . A quick. /. so there is no need to mark both (sheep / ip/. passing over a third one. What is smoothing? Explain in prose and give an example. Ladefoged assumes that vowel quality and vowel length are linked. E. Name three factors that affect length of vowels in English.28.g. (unlike e. . u. There is one phonetic term that is common for vowels [ ]. E. sheep / i p/. ship / p/ => [i] is always long in English. ship / p/).g. . 1) Voicing of the following obstruent (a vowel is shorter before a voiceless consonant). and [ ]. The major point of difference between this system and the system of Jones/Gimson is the use of the dots after vowels.g. What are closing diphthongs? Explain in prose and give an example.Which one is it? They are all central vowels. [ ]. Czech) only quality does). E. What are closed syllables and open syllables? Explain in prose and give an example of each. . Transcription systems may differ and the greatest differences often concern vowels. ]? [ . æ . æ . 3) Vowels are longer in a stressed syllable. thus creating a triphthong.g. ] are found only in closed syllables. “fire” /fa /. How is distribution of vowels [ . they are always followed by a consonant. [ai] 29. ] appear also in open syllables. . while [ ] is short – vowel length doesn’t contrast meaning in E. . u. (note: all RP triphthongs end by schwa. ] different from distribution of vowels [i. [i. but smooth movement of tongue from position of one vowel to another.
43. . Less peripheral (closer to schwa). . More peripheral. finally. ].g. u . .35. How are English lax vowels different from the tense ones? Lax vowels are short. Lax: [ . ] 41. Which English vowels are lax and which are tense? Give a list of IPA symbols. æ. Tense vowels can be much longer. Which English vowel cannot occur in a stressed syllable? Schwa (again) ☺ . But it is phonetically somewhat different from the other lax vowels. vowel length is very unreliable – only vowel quality contrasts the meaning. What is the pronunciation of the underlined unstressed syllables in words such as pretty. city in traditional RP and in modern RP? traditional RP: lax [ ] modern RP: tense [i] 39. What does it mean to say that in Czech. What is the difference? [æ] is generally longer than the rest of lax vowels. foot /f t/ 37. test /t st/. 42. . long/short vowels form minimal pairs (e. Which pair of English vowels is distinguished purely by length? Short and long schwa [ . 40. plus /pl s/. ] 36. usually followed by a consonant. Give a list of monosyllabic words containing all English lax vowels. What is schwa? The mid central unrounded vowel [ ]. “pas” (passport) / “pás” (belt). In English. hot /h t/. ash / æ /. . ship / p/. they often appear at the end of a word. The vowel [æ] is grouped with lax vowels. Tense: [i . vowel length is contrastive but in English it is not? In Czech. 38.
account. 3) Vowels are longer in a stressed syllable. . in “first” [ f st]* Unstressed rhoticized vowel: [ ] . gallery.44. Which three factors affect duration of English vowels? 1) Voicing of the following obstruent (a vowel is shorter before a voiceless consonant). Three out of the twenty-three rules are concerned with vowel length. Explain in prose and give an example . e. R-colored vowels may have either the tip or blade of the tongue turned up during at least part of the articulation of the vowel (a retroflex articulation) or the tip of the tongue down and the back of the tongue bunched (both produces the same effect). Stressed rhoticized vowel: [ ] . paper? Account – the vowel is followed by a nasal.g.g. in “dinner” [ d n ]* * GA pronunciation 46. 2) Vowels are longer in an open syllable. In Chapter 4 you reviewed phonological rules which operate in English. e. 45. In which of these words could you expect a nasalized vowel in American English desk. What are r-colored or rhoticized vowels? Explain and list them.
1) Inventory of phonemes (one dialect may lack some phonemes present in a different dialect.” It is spoken by some 2/3 of the USA.g. GA doesn’t have RP phoneme / / 2) Distribution of phonemes in words (a different phoneme can occur in one and the same word) e. RP retains an important status – it is still the standard accent of British national institutions (though it’s no longer obligatory for BBC broadcasting). where most RP speakers live and work. esp. ‘American Broadcast English’ or ‘Network English’. but it can be found anywhere in the country. . Which variety of English is referred to as Received Pronunciation (where is it spoken? by whom)? "Received Standard. 3. Less than 3% of the regional characteristics. We described three aspects in which sound systems of two dialects can differ from each other. are both pronounced as tense /u/ in Scottish. Give an example of a vowel merger (two phonemes in one dialect corresponding to a single phoneme in another). However. “man” RP [mæn] GA [mæ̃ n] ./æ/ is nasalized before /n/ in GA.g. and is thus widely used abroad. RP phonemes lax / / and tense /u/.Lecture 8 1. RP: “tied” “tide” /ta d/ /ta d/ a Scottish: /taed/ /t d/ ae 4. “past” RP /p st/. British people speak it in a pure form now." It’s associated with south-east of England. and it’s taught to majority of foreign learners.g. GA /pæst/ 3) Phonetic realizations of phonemes (the same phonemes can be pronounced a slightly different way) e. or have some extra ones) e. the dialect of British English spoken by the upper classes. Which variety of English is referred to as General American pronunciation (where is it spoken? by whom)? It is “majority of American accents which do not show marked north-eastern or southern characteristics. 2. sometimes referred to as ‘Standard Midwestern’. What are they? Explain and give examples. e. Give an example of a vowel split.g. by graduates of the public schools and of Oxford and Cambridge. One phoneme is divided into two phonemes in another variety (dialect). with various 5. Most educated people speak ‘modified RP’.
6. e. e. e. “marry” RP /mæ / GA /m “merry” RP /m “ant” RP /ænt/ GA /ænt/ 5) nasalized vowels before nasals. d. “stop” RP /st p/ GA /st p/ “straw” RP /st / GA /st / 3) [æ] and [ ] before [ ] merge > [ ]. l]. the palatal glide [j] is not pronounced) “new” GA /nu/.g. RP /s ti/ 7. give an example of RP and GA pronunciation transcribed in IPA. RP /nju/ 4) ‘yod’ coalescence (in unstressed syllables.g. 1) [ ] and [ ] merge > [ ]. e. the palatal glide [j] coalesces (merges) with the preceding alveolar obstruent) “situate” GA /s t ue t/. . “man” RP [mæn] GA [mæ̃ n] / GA /m 4) [ ] and [æ] merge > [æ]. 1) postvocalic r (r pronounced after vowels) “card” GA /k d /. “aunt” RP / nt/ GA /ænt/ / / . RP / k d/ 2) bunched r [ ] (whole body of the tongue bunched upwards and backwards /to the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall/) “great” GA / e t/. “spot” RP /sp t/ GA /sp t/ “calm” RP /k m/ GA /k m/ 2) [ ] and [ ] merge > [ ]. RP /s tjue t/ 5) flapping (tapping) (RP voiceless plosive [t] is generally replaced by a voiced tap[ ] between vowels in GA) “city” GA /s i/.g. n. Name each feature. s. What are the main differences between vowels in General American pronunciation and Received Pronunciation? List five differences (phonetic or phonemic) and give examples. e. RP / e t/ 3) ‘yod’ dropping (in stressed syllables.g. after coronals [t.g. What are the typical features of General American pronunciation (compared to RP)? List five features.
g.) “leaf” GA /lif/. Name three differences between consonants in General American pronunciation and Received Pronunciation? Explain in prose. / . GA has dark [l] in all positions. How do British and American vowel systems differ with respect to diphthong phonemes? GA lacks the RP centering diphthongs / . “past” RP /p st/. short vowels + r. they correspond to sequences of Barry [’b i] [’bæ i] . How do British and American English differ with respect to back vowel phonemes? GA has no / /. GA /st p/ – a limited subset has / / (frequently before a voiceless fricative) e. fear. GA /pæst/ “after” RP / ft / GA /æft / “plant” RP /pl nt/. “stop” RP /st p/. RP / e t/ 2) /t/ flapping (tapping) (RP voiceless plosive [t] is generally replaced by a voiced tap[ ] between vowels in GA) “city” GA /s i/. RP /lif/ 9. can’t. go. sir. RP /s ti/ 3) /l/ is generally dark (RP has clear [l] before vowels. and dark [l] everywhere else. – most commonly replaced by / / e. “gone” RP /g n/.… ? RP Betty sir fear cop GA life sand can’t RP GA [’b ti] [’b i] [s ] [s ] [f ] [f ] [k p] [k p] [la f] [la f] [sænd] [sæ̃ nd] [k nt] [k æ̃ nt] . GA /plænt/ 11. sand. 1) /r/ is bunched ([ ] whole body of the tongue bunched upwards and backwards /to the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall/) “great” GA / e t/.g.in GA. GA /f / 10. cop. life. What are the differences between the RP and GA pronunciations of words such as Betty.) e.g. Barry. or a nasal followed by another cons. “fair” – RP /f /.8. GA /g n/ RP / / is replaced by /æ/ in GA (before a voiceless fricative.g. e.
Formulate the rule and give examples of words or phrases in which they apply (use IPA). but => “India and China” / nd – centering diphthongs ☺ ntan / we / . “situate” GA /s t ue t/.g. s. Irish…) have: – r-colored vowels e./r/ not pronounced “far away” /f – intrusive /r/ e.g. What is yod dropping? Explain in prose and give three examples.g. RP /sju/ “tube” GA /tub/. “India” / nd / .g.g. In stressed syllables. “it’s far” /f / . . RP /nju/ “sue” GA /su/. GA /f / Non-rhotic dialects (e. “father” /f / – /r/ always pronounced => – no centering diphthongs e.no /r/ sound.g. What is the difference between rhotic and non-rhotic dialects of English? Rhotic dialects (e. GA. the palatal glide [j] is not pronounced. e. “winter” RP /w nt /. the palatal glide [j] coalesces (merges) with the preceding alveolar obstruent. GA /w n / / 15. n. after coronals [t. In unstressed syllables. GA /w n “winner” RP /w n /. (Ladefoged’s 13a) Alveolar stops and alveolar nasals followed by stop sequences become voiced taps when they occur between two vowels second of which is unstressed. What is yod coalescence? Explain in prose and give an example./r/ pronounced .g. “fair” – RP /f /. l]. e.g. RP /s tjue t/ 13. “first” /f st/ – syllabic /r/ ([ ]) e.12. “new” GA /nu/. d. e.g.g RP…) have: – linking /r/ e. RP /tjub/ 14. Give a phonological rule which typically applies in American English.
20. “India” / nd / . “peel” [p io] . they correspond to sequences of . Dental fricatives [ ] and [ ] are often replaced by various other sounds in English dialects other than RP or GA.g. An example of a rhotic dialect on British Isles is Irish.g. 17. / . E. Intrusive [ ] sound is added after a word that ends in a non-high vowel or glide if the next word begins with a vowel. /h /.g. /t / 19. What is linking r? What is intrusive r? Linking /r/: occurs in most non-rhotic dialects of English. Name one such dialect and say which sounds replace [ ] and [ ] in this dialect. or followed by a consonant) precedes a word that begins with a vowel./r/ not pronounced “far away” /f we / . “it’s far” /f / . short vowels + r. How are words such as here. tour pronounced in RP and GA? Explain the difference in prose and transcribe the words in IPA. / / is realized at the onset of the next word. but => “India and China” / nd ntan / 18. /θ/ and /ð/ become dental stops [t ] and [d]. if stands alone. GA lacks the RP centering diphthongs / .16. respectivelly. /h /.no /r/ sound. /t / GA /h /.in GA. Do you know any rhotic dialects on the British Isles? Rhotic dialects have /r/ pronounced in all positions (unlike non-rhotic dialects that exclude the phoneme /r/ from syllable coda). If a word that ends with [ ] (which is not normally pronounced. In which variety of English is the lateral phoneme vocalized in post-vocalic positions? In Cockney (London English). In Hiberno-English (spoken in Ireland). RP /h /. e. hear. e./r/ pronounced Intrusive /r/: occurs in some dialects with linking /r/. What does it mean to say that GA is a rhotic dialect of English? Explain in prose.
Cockney. root. It is frequently replaced by a flap in relaxed speech. typical for American English dialects. or ‘bunched r’ – Also frequent in GA.21. /t/ is replaced by a glottal stop [ ] only when it occurs before an alveolar nasal /n/ in the same word. glottal stop replaces /t/ before vowels. What is “bunched” r? Common in American English dialects. “beaten” [ bi n] (In e. The rhotic sound at the beginning of words such as ripe. whole body of the tongue is bunched upwards and backwards (towards the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall). What is a trill? In which variety of English does trill occur? Trill [r] (‘rolled r’) consists of several alveolar flaps (one brief interruption of the airflow). The tongue-tip is curled back towards the roof of the mouth (‘retroflexion’). Whole body of the tongue is bunched upwards and backwards (towards the roof of the mouth and pharynx wall). laterals and nasals) 22. road is in some varieties of English realized as a trill. However. E. . The front part of the tongue approaches the upper gum. In RP.g. in RP such glottaling in more restricted. What is a retroflex r? Retroflex approximant [ ]. ] (retroflex approximant): Characteristic for GA. What different types of r-pronunciations occur in Received Pronunciation and General American English? [ [ ] (alveolar approximant): Typical for RP.g. Explain in prose and give examples. the tip of the tongue is curled further backwards than in RP. 25. The sounds written with the letter “r” can be articulated in a number of ways. 23. 24. The voiceless alveolar stop /t/ can be replaced by a glottal stop both in Received Pronunciation and in non-standard varieties such as London English. It is typical for Scottish English.
Draw a diagram of the following syllable (e. How do we define syllables in terms of sonority? Each sonority peak in a word corresponds to one syllable. /flaI/.g. If it consists of a diphthong or a triphthong. such as a liquid or a nasal). consists of a consonant (sequence) preceding the rhyme. . 3. . /b®Est/. Describe the hierarchical structure of the syllable. : 4. 2.Lecture 9 1. consisting of nucleus and optional coda. What is syllable coda? Closing (optional) part of syllable. => Dictionary form. 6. What is citation form of words? It’s what words are like when pronounced loud and clear. 7. e. a consonant (sequence) following the nucleus. /eIm/). What is syllable rhyme? Rhyme (also rime) is the sonorous part of the syllable. most commonly a vowel (but sometimes also a syllabized consonant. 8.) 5. What is syllable nucleus? Nucleus (sometimes called peak) is the central part of the syllable. in isolation. it is called branching (complex) nucleus.g. What is syllable onset? An optional part of syllable.
g.pA®t/ /´saIn/ – /´. / nd stænd/.9. What does it mean to say that in some languages stress has demarcative function? Does English have demarcative stress? Demarcative stress tends to be placed near ends of the words. /hæm /. /p√nIS/ . 12. 13. Is the final syllable in the following words heavy or light (Gimson: strong or weak): e. / sa n/. n/). /d sa d/. / nv lv/. Name four factors which affect assignment of stress in English words. or syllabized consonants (such as liquids /l. Divide these words into syllables: e.m´/ t/. English does have it in some words.g. /b liv/ Heavy final syllable: receives stress (has a branching nucleus) e. triphthongs).t´/ /hæm´/ – /hæ. /p n /. 1) structure of the final syllable 2) rhythm 3) morphological structure of the word 4) grammar: word class 14. What does it mean to say that stress falls on the penultimate syllable? The pre-final syllable (next to the last one). /d p /dIpA®t/ – /dI. /dIsaId/ Light final syllable: never receives stress e. 10. /b t /.g. r/ or nasals /m.saIn/ /b√t´/ – /b√.g. Which sounds can occupy the position of the nucleus in English? Vowels (monophthongs. diphthongs. 11. / æl p/.
g.g . given by a rule.e.3. bank account.g. increase = noun . drug addict. 10. “intoxicate” 19.g. joy riding. theme park. e. increase = verb 18. When the verb and the noun have identical spellings. When does the fact that a word is a noun or a verb determine the stress pattern of the word? explain and give examples. You may be asked to indicate the stress pattern in some of those words.15. babysit? practical (* remember that stress tends to fall to the first base of compounds!) 17.5 (p. In Gimson (6 edition. But in some context. inferiority. 2001) read the sections 10. medicinal. verify => verification e. in terms of speech production)? ‘The use of extra respiratory energy during the syllable. ladylike. Where is the stress going to fall in the following words? Why? e. alcoholism. not intoxicate!” – normally: “detoxicate”. We recognize three types of suffixes according to their impact on the stress pattern of the word. the stress may shift on another syllable to contrast meaning. and 10. he is putting together three cues. How do we define stress in physical terms (i. What is contrastive stress? The stress is normally fixed in the lexicon. 1) suffix that shifts stress 2) suffix that attracts stress 3) stress neutral suffix e. monotone => monotonic e. …) There are heaps of them in there 20. What are they? Name the type and give an example for each. How do listeners perceive stress? What are the cues to stress (we named three)? Stress can serve as a cue to word boundary. E. 1) loudness 2) increased pitch 3) longer duration th English. e. “I said detoxicate.g.g. neighbor => neighborhood 16. Pay special attention to the examples in his discussion of word stress (accent) in in medicine. 224-235).4. weather-beaten.g.’ 21. When a listener perceives a syllable as stressed.
English is said to be a stress-timed language.) 24. E. (But in a row of monosyllabic lexical words.g. sometimes even reduced. a [e / ]. has [hæz/h z]. We said that speech prosody has a melodic component and a rhythmical component. When do these words appear in their strong form (in their weak form)? Strong form occurs when the word is stressed. and [ænd/ n]. 26. Some English words appear in strong and weak forms. What does it mean? Rhythm units are stressed syllables.’ – In respect to timing and distribution of prominent syllables. The big black cat ate ten mice. he [hi/h ]. must [m st/m st]. at [æt/ t]. How is the pronunciation of the demonstrative pronoun that (I want that skirt. e. that [ æt/d t].22. What is rhythm? ‘The arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements. . “I ought to have” /t .) different from the pronunciation of the relative pronoun that (the skirt that I want is much nicer. Which words are they? Give examples of ten such words. E. Weak form occurs when the word is in an unstressed position. 27.g. v/ Lexical words: usually stressed. What is stress group (foot)? A group of syllables staying between two stressed components (interstress interval). Function words: usually unstressed.g.)? Demonstrative – stressed Relative – unstressed 23. some stress is usually omitted. Explain how pronunciation of function words differs from the pronunciation of lexical words. to [tu /tU] 25. can [kæn/k n]. as [æz/ z]. she [ i/ ].
” 31. making them similar. Stresses in English tend to occur at regular intervals of time.. E.” “The father is unknown. Assimilation of place of articulation: e.” X “An unknown person entered the house. What is assimilation? ‘Influence of one segment on another. Divide the following utterance into stress groups: e.” and “An unknown person entered the house. cub.g.: English suffix -s.g. k bz] (/s/ becomes voiced (/z/) after voiced consonants) 34. How will the stress pattern of the word unknown be different in the sentences “The father is unknown. E. Regressive assimilation: When a sound changes with reference to a following segment. What is coarticulation? ‘An assimilation of the place of articulation of one speech sound to that of an adjacent speech sound.’ 32. Her mother and father had promised Ann could have riding lessons. k ps .28. after voiced velar plosive /g/) . in “example” / gzæmpl/ (/s/ becomes voiced.’ => A sound changes so that it becomes more like a neighboring sound. in “bank” /bæNk/ (/n/ is velarized before velar plosive /k/) Assimilation of voicing: e.g.: [hæf. What types of assimilation do we differentiate when we consider the feature that assimilates? Name and give an example for each. Her mother and father had promised Ann could have riding lessons.: “bank” /bæNk/ (/n/ is velarized before velar plosive /k/) Progressive assimilation: When a sound becomes more like the preceding sound. (cup.t ] (have to) 33.g. cubs) [k p.g. E. u S u u S u u S u S u u S u S u 30. What types of assimilation do we differentiate when we consider the direction of assimilating? Name and give an example for each.g. it copies a feature of neighboring sound. k b. cups .
What it pitch? What does pitch correspond to in the physical world? Pitch of sound is an auditory property that enables the hearer to place the sound on a scale going from low to high. What is the average fundamental frequency of a man’s voice (woman’s voice)? Men: 120Hz. Czech) .g. Technically. frequency => higher pitch 4. English. What is a pitch track? A computer processed graphic representation of pitch values changing during the speech. 5. Chinese) Pitch accent (e. It determines pitch. frequency.Lecture 10 1. clause.g. it is the perceived f. Waveform (up) and pitch track (down) 6. What is fundamental frequency? (F0) frequency of vocal cords’ vibration while voicing (states [in Hz] how many times per second vocal cords open and close). 2.g. Japanese) Intonational (e. We said that intonation is a pattern of changing pitch. Chinese) Linguistic functions of pitch: Lexical tone (e. sentence) that conveys linguistic information: 1) syntactic information – pitch marks boundaries of grammatical units 2) discourse info – cohesion of discourse 3) lexical info – pitch itself can contrast meaning (in e. What is the relationship between pitch and fundamental frequency? higher f. What main linguistic uses does pitch have in the languages of the world? It determines intonation: a pattern of changing pitch during the utterance (a phrase.g. Women: 220Hz (differences are due to different sizes of larynx and vocal cords) 3.
as separate tone units (e.’).7. stressed from unstressed.unstressed. full i – accented. ‘Paraplegic!’ 10.d k/ .unstressed. and accented from unaccen 9.pli.’. e. They are commonly known as the primary a . What are they? Prosody: ‘The patterns of stress and intonation in a language. What degrees of prominence can be differentiated in longer words pronounc ‘Mononucleosis. differentiat syllables.unaccented. e.’ The basic unit is syllable 1) Stress group – organization of syllables into rhythmic units 2) Tone unit . Explain using examples.-) aloud in isolation. How can the tone unit boundaries be indicated in speech? They can be indicated by: 1) pauses 2) final syllable lengthening 3) increased tempo of unstressed syllables after the boundary 4) completion of intonational pattern raised and lowered marks: and . 12. In the lecture we discussed degrees of prominence in a tone unit. What do they actually represent? The relative emphasis given to certain syllables in a word.4 degrees of prominence reduced from full vowels. 11. full æ . reduced d . See right above .g. ‘Memorization.organization of syllables into intonational units 8. stressed. Textbooks and dictionaries indicate prominence patterns of longer words u secondary stress.g. What is the basic structural unit in the description of intonation? Basic structural unit is defined as a specific pattern of changing pitch.g. stressed. What is prosody? In the lecture we discussed the two prosodic components o speech. “Paraplegic” /pæ . . full .
Explain the difference in prose. What do we call the syllable which receives the main pitch accent (or tone)? ‘Tonic syllable’ 14. How is intonation different in the two following questions: Is Larry coming to see me? When is Larry coming to see me? (Consider the type of the question. What are the basic intonation patterns used in English? The change of pitch stands on the tonic syllable and continues till the end of the tone group. All of us wanted to help him. it is most usually the last stressed syllable of the tone unit.) Yes/no questions: usually rising-neutral Wh. He didn’t want to leave. It’s the syllable within a tone group that stands out because it carries the major pit change Falling – pitch begins to fall on the accented syllable and continues to go down till the end of the tone unit.g. He didn’t want to leave. All of us wanted to help him. in They moved to Massachusetts. 15. . What intonation pattern is used to indicate continuation? Rising 20. Which syllable is the tonic syllable in a neutral declarative utterance? E. In neutral declarative. 16. What is the tonic syllable? (has the main pitch accent). ? 17. Rising – pitch begins to rise on the accented syllable and continues to go up till the end of the tone unit. We need to buy more white paper.13. What intonation pattern is most likely in each of the three tone units that compose the sentence: He closed the book. Which syllables will receive the tonic accent in the neutral declaratives: We need to buy new wall paper.questions: falling-neutral 18. stood up and left the room? Rising 19. Which tone pattern is most likely in such sentences? They moved to Massachusetts.
What is linking r? 27. What is re-syllabification? Boundaries of syllables not matching the word boundaries. What are the general meanings associated with falling and rising intonation.21. “She opened her bag” / i Up nd/ . statements. continuation 22.transient j 25. What is intrusive r? 26. What are transient j and transient w? An articulatory “accident” caused by a gradual movement between two vowels – a high front vowel “gliding” to another vowel.g. wh. surprise. uncertain statements. finality. e.) ? 24. What basic meanings can it convey? Contrast. In fluent English speech words are linked together. a common intonation pattern used in English is the fall-rise. What strategies do speakers use to link a word which ends in a vowel with the following word beginning in a vowel (We mentioned three ways of such linking. . Falling – assertions. continuation 23. reservation.questions Rising – most questions. Besides falling and rising tones.
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