Chapter 9 Sources of Magnetic Fields

9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31

9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43

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Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60

9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68

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Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).

Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .

ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,
dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r

(9.1.1)

where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:

µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A

(9.1.2)

Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:
dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1

(9.1.3)

Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,

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Example 9.1.1. Interactive Simulation 9. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer. one for each component of B .1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9. Figure 9.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I. Figure 9. 3 .1.2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq.4) The integral is a vector integral. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P.B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P . Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law.1). which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.1.3. (9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin.2 Magnetic field of a current element.1.1. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r . straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis. as shown in Figure 9.

(1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction. or out of the page. The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction. r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ . (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 .Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. the position vector describing P is r = aˆ . j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point. We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9. y ) = (0. In this case. The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . (2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x.10. a ) . and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P.

let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ. θ 2 ) = (0.The variables θ. we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 .7) 5 . the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin). while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis. we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9. 0) . From Figure 9.5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis. If the length of the rod is 2L . The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 .1. In order to complete the integration.1. then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9. x and r are not independent of each other.1.3.1. The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9. the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector.

e. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r . z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z . using the Biot-Savart law. as shown in Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9.4. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction.6. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole. then.. In fact.Note that in this limit.1.1. i. ϕ . the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9.5). then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field. Example 9. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P. and the magnetic field lines are circular.5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed.1. if the current flows in the +z-direction.1. µ = − µ z k 6 . the system possesses cylindrical symmetry.1. Figure 9.

1.8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9. Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law.1. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9. the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) .9) is the distance between the differential current element and P.1. its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk . (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates. i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center. (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 . Thus.Figure 9.6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current.1.

8 .1.15) Thus. The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments.13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9. the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.1.1.14) On the other hand. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9.1.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.1.1.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9. Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.11) (9. we see that along the symmetric axis.

Let I be the current in the element.7: Figure 9.1.1. we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9. Bz / B0 . so that using Eq. µ = − µ z k . the resulting force will be repulsive.7 The ratio of the magnetic field. we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9.1. (9. as discussed in Chapter 8. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9.1.1.15) and substituting into Eq. the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 . the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring. all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder.16).1. From Chapter 6.1).1.The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 . 9. (9.18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds . as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9. which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time. (9.16) Upon differentiating Eq.1. due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field.1. On the other hand. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed.17) Thus.

10 . The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v . and (b) a moving negative charge. however. each moving with a different velocity. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light.1. In case of a single charge. zi ) and moving with velocity vi . the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c . The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges. Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi .8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge. the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9.8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge.1.1.1.1. Figure 9.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9. yi . the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P.20) Note.19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9. so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored.21) Animation 9. the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9. dN = 1 . the speed of light. that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current. Using the superposition principle. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light.

and 8. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display). Figure 9.1. Interactive Simulation 9. Other animations show the same situation for N =1. (9. a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern. As the addition proceeds. 2.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9.1.1. The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane.9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle.1. Far from the ring. When we get to eight charges.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges.10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle. Figure 9.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle. 11 . We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane. The display in Figure 9.1.19).1. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole. Figure 9.9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four.Animation 9.

F12 .11. as shown in Figure 9.11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2. To get a feel for the total magnetic field. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space.1. Thus.Figure 9.1. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9. In addition. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 . we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges.1. Figure 9. 9. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example.10. when placed in a magnetic field.2. In Figure 9.2. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force.1. a wire carrying a current will experience a net force.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other.

µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9.2.2. Animation 9. when I ≠ 0 . In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9. (a) (b) Figure 9. As shown in Figure 9. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization.1a. the resultant force will be repulsive.1.3. Therefore. as depicted in Figure 9. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1. 13 . which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1. However. In the first case.3. Thus.2.j direction.1b). all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current.3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism. if the currents flow in opposite directions.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires. 9.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions. (b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions.2. we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ . The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9. On the other hand.

2). Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ .3.3.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 .3.3. that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9.1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path.Figure 9. Figure 9. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line. we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9. as that shown in Figure 9.3 Figure 9.3.3.2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 .

the current encircled by the loop.3. 15 . the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc . the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ .3.3. z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis. in cylindrical coordinates ( r . ϕ . the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9. As shown in Example 9.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration. An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9.1.3.The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9.4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9. With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 .4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape. Figure 9.5) In other words. and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da.3.2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ .

4.3) 2.3.6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density. Example 9. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. Toroid (Example 9. the system must possess certain symmetry. In order to apply them. Figure 9. 16 . Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9.4). However.4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9. We shall examine all four configurations in detail.The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1.3. Find the magnetic field everywhere. Figure 9. Infinite solenoid (Section 9. Biot-Savart law must be used instead.5.3. as shown in Figure 9.5).4). Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9.3. In the case of an infinite wire. 3. when the length of the wire is finite.

3. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9.6 below: Figure 9.Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R . we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R.3. the field falls off as 1/r. I enc Thus. Outside the wire. the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current.. 17 .e. Find the magnetic field everywhere. i.. the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed.6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I . Example 9.e. i. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R . I enc = I .4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ .

8.3. From Figure 9. The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 .3. we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction.3. Figure 9. The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9. Figure 9.i Figure 9.9. we integrate along path C1 .7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection.3. we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction. Similarly. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires.9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside.3.8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet.

independent of the distance from the sheet. i Note that the dimension of K is current/length. We see that if the turns are closely spaced. we obtain (9. In this limit. − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ .4. we have surface current K = K ˆ .1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I.3. where K = J 0b . the magnetic field vanishes. z < 0 j 19 .3. Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet. the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform. At z = 0 . The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law.3.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9. The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j.11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin. Figure 9.4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ .12) ˆ.10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | .7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9.3.3. In this i case.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9. z > 0 j (9.8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 . with b → 0 .3. the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9. Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant. as required by symmetry. ˆ. z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9.

Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9.4. For an “ideal” solenoid.1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid. The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9. In the above. the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI .2) or 20 .4. On the other hand.2.4. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9.4.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid. The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9. and vanishes outside the solenoid. In addition. which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner. Figure 9. the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. where N is the total number of turns.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter. To compute B .4. the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s .

. as shown in Figure 9. In terms of the surface current.4.4.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9. or current per unit length K = nI . B = µ0 K (9. Figure 9.4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid. the magnetic field can also be written as. where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length.B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (9.2.3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' .4.4. we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' . Using the result obtained in Example 9.4. we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9.5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid.3) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length.6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 .4.

4.4.5.5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns. Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 .5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected.4. Find the magnetic field everywhere. the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows.A plot of Bz / B0 . where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid. Figure 9.) Applying Ampere’s law.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R .4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R .4. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.5. Examaple 9. Figure 9.4. we obtain 22 . and (b) l = 20 R . as shown in Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. Thus.

8 for the detail of the derivation. What is the magnetic field at a point (e. 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9.2) 23 .5. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9. The y. Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid.1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e.1) Readers are referred to Section 9.. 9.8) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid.θ.5.4..∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9. φ ) .g.5. the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r .7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9.4. the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9.and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ .5. center of the Earth) in the yz plane.g. In spherical coordinates (r..

and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9.5. the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9.6) 9.3. Thus. where r is the distance from the center of the Earth. 24 .5. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r .5. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (9. Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9.5. In general.3) respectively. (9.5.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it. measured from the x-axis.) With the distance fixed at r = rE .13.5. the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ .4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction.4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2. In Figure 9. θ . the radius of the Earth.2 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field. and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane. φ ) .5.6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq. with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .5.

a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude. the equator has latitude 0° .7) 25 . Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians. Figure 9. Thus. Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis. For historical reasons. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° .98 k ) i j E (9. The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins.5. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point.18 ˆ − 0.5.Figure 9.062 ˆ + 0. it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ . and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich.3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates. The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0. is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude. respectively. UK. The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates.5. Using this definition.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice. denoted as δ .

if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT. Looking at the compass.70 ˆ + 0.5. and we have used (θ 0 . the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position. in this case. Animation 9. The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator.6.where µ E = 7.65 Bθ (9.5. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0.109°) . the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2.24 ˆ − 0. In this case.4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . Thus. φ0 ) = (169°.67 k ) i j E (9. 26 .5. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet.9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) . field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth.80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9. and 71° west of the prime meridian). On the other hand. Thus.4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal.5. which.1.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator.79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 . Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole. However. Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene. one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field. and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection. which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° . Control-click and drag to zoom in and out. as indicated in Figure 9.

4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials).5. 27 . their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be.6. as shown in Figure 9. Below we discuss how these effects arise. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be. 9.6. for a given amount of “free” electric charge. when we deal with magnetic materials. (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials). each with magnetic dipole moment µ . One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned. spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder. When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics.Figure 9. Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials). and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles.1.1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles. In contrast.6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics.

2(b). We see that in the interior. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9. 28 . The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out.6. Thus. what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question.2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9. Now. (b) The equivalent current.2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents. In the absence of any external magnetic field. currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops.6. In the case of our cylinder.6. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9. where all the dipoles are aligned.6. where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides. as seen from above.Figure 9.1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder.1) where V is the volume. Figure 9. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL . we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current.6.

The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system. Notice that the magnetic field in Eq.6.4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9.6.6. The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9.6.4) Thus. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles. The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9. which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. (9. we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M .3) Next.6) is the average field due to all the dipoles. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector. The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9. The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole.6. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 . the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves.6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles.2) or I eq = Nµ A (9. Therefore. With I eq running on the sides.5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M . the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K .6. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq .

6. However.7. The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility.6. in the paramagnetic case. that alignment enhances the external magnetic field. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero. when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 .9) κm = 1 + χm (9. (10.7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9. In most paramagnetic substances. The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9.6. or equivalently.9.11) 30 . they are randomly aligned. For paramagnetic substances. Thus. Since B M is parallel to B0 . κ m > 1 .6. it will tend to enhance B0 .7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials. the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 .6.6. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field. Left to themselves. This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . χ m > 0 . the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 .10) is called the relative permeability of the material. In both cases. The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9. whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 . the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field. thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 . Eq. but also linearly proportional to B0 . However.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment.

the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules. The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant. In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique. However. as shown in Figure 9. although now κ m < 1 . (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 . as in equation (8-5).6. although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 . Figure 9. An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 . The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials.6.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 .6. there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments.6.3(b). with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. as illustrated in Figure 9.6. Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 . these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . we can still define the magnetic permeability. since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 . and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles.3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains. but dependent on the previous history of the material. or χ m < 0 . Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains.3(a).4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. 9. The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable. The 31 . 9. For diamagnetic materials.

without the necessity of an external magnetic field. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 . in ferromagnets. This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9. Moreover.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla. Figure 9.6.4. all by themselves. This is the origin of permanent magnets. If all these dipole moments are aligned.phenomenon is known as hysteresis. 9.000 Gauss. consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 . the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9. just due to the atomic currents alone.4 A hysteresis curve.6.6. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero. To see how strong such magnets can be.7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field. The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. or 10.

B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid. • The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length. • The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 .

8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9.8.1.9. The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9. On the other hand. at a point P along the axis of symmetry.3) 34 . as shown in Example 9.8. The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9. Figure 9.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I. Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop.8.8. as shown in Figure 9. Again.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (9.2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P.1. the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k .8. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) .

8. namely. and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.8. On the other hand. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9.9) 35 . By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9.Using the Biot-Savart law. the field point P is located along the z-axis.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically.2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9.6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' .8. magnetic field at P is B ( 0.8.8. One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish.7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. followed by a straightforward integration. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' .4) Thus. In the limit y = 0 . the y and the z components of B .8. y.

the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured. Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ .10) Now.12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9.µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA .8.8. In this limit.. let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r .e.8. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9.8. i.8. the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.14) 36 .

ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k .8.18) Using the above relations.3.2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9.2).8.15) Thus. we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9.8. the spherical components may be written as 37 .8. and (b) a small bar magnet. ˆ Figure 9.8. j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9.16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ . Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9. Figure 9.17) In addition.8.3 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9.8. for the unit vectors. we have.8.

9.9.21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9.8.1 Helmholtz coils 38 .19) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. as shown in Figure 9.22) 9.8.1.8. There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9. Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil. with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r . Figure 9.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r .8. θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9. each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.

4) 39 .9.9.2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R . the magnetic field at P ( z .2.9. the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle.1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9.9. z = 0 . µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail.9.Using the result shown in Example 9.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9. we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9. Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9.2) One may readily show that at the midpoint.

5) Thus. as in the animation depicted in Figure 9. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R .9. When the distance between the coils is not fixed. For small z. and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils. Animation 9.. 40 . The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation.. the force of attraction between them creates a tension.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there. the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop.3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils. the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction. That is.9.6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) . In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction.9. If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . with their dipole moments aligned.3(b). In this animation.9.9. 2! (9. A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils. The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils. Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged.At the midpoint z = 0 . we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + .

9.9. 41 . by superposition principle.9.9.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R . Figure 9. Again. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions.4. Next.9. 0. the magnetic field at a point P (0.(a) (b) Figure 9.5. Figure 9.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9.9.3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil. as shown in Figure 9. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other.

we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint.10) ˆ Thus. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9. the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel.6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions.9.9.11) For l = R . The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other.Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9.9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9. 42 . In this configuration. we have Bz′ (0) = (9.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions.12) Animation 9. z = 0 . The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation.9.9. (a) (b) Figure 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9.9. a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.

8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9. and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above.7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). the repulsive force results in a pressure between them. The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased.9. With the distance between the two coils fixed. Figure 9. Animation 9.8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 . The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased. Figure 9. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top.9. Animation 9. the magnetic field is zero.9.9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9.

there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). Conversely.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. again resulting in no net force. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. and pressure perpendicular to. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart. Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9.9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . when their moments are anti-aligned. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization).9. Thus. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). the magnet moves downwards. the field lines of the resulting field. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet.9. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. and pressure perpendicular to. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle. Conversely. Thus. the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils. when their moments are anti-aligned. the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. the field lines of the resulting field. When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. Figure 9. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase. the magnet is repelled by both coils. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides. When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle. causing it to move upwards.

1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds . Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration. and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds . ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r . The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. Using the same coordinate system. The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits. write down the position vector rP for the field point P.9. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B . Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point. according to the Biot-Savart law. we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source. (5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible.10. (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' . 9. (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin.10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter. 45 . The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P.

Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R. Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .

9. we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments. Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B . an ideal solenoid and a toroid.10.2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field. System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 . (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop. (3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop.

(1) Source point From Figure 9.11. we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ . with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9.10.1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I. Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 9. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ .1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current.11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9.1. the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ .10. as shown in Figure 9. However.11.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction.11.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9.) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 9.10.1.1. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane. The corresponding unit vector is 48 .

i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.1) ˆ Thus. the field point P is at ( x.11. The magnetic field becomes 49 .11. (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k .2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case. y ) on the y axis. y ) = (0.

This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.11.3) in agreement with Eq.1. Figure 9. (9.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below. y .11. Find the magnetic field B at P.11.6).5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire.B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9.11.11. the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 . (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law. 9.

3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I. Thus. Similarly.11.11.11.7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page.3 Figure 9.dB = For the outer arc.9) 9.11. for the inner arc. d s × r points into the page. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9.11. the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9.3 Rectangular current loop 51 .11. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9.11.8) ˆ For Binner . a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9.

Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9. The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x.11. Again. +b) to ( + a. + d ) . or +k .13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page. +∞ ) to ( − a. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9. y ) = ( − a. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x. we make use of the above formula. y ) = ( + a. or −k . y ) = ( − a.10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.1.5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire. (ii) Next. To obtain the magnetic field at O. we consider the segment which extends from ( x. the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9. Therefore. +b) .12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9.11.14) 52 . +b) to (+ a.11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.11. +∞ ) . the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq.11. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 . (9.11.

11. The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane. its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9. The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) . Figure 9. or +k . the magnetic field vanishes in this limit. 53 . y ) = ( −∞. − r ) .ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page. and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel.15) Note that in the limit a → 0 . The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9. Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle.4. 9.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.11. Thus.11.11.16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. − r ) to (0.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9. Therefore.11. the horizontal segment is absent. or +k .

(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r.21) 9. or +k .11. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.11.11.11. Figure 9.11.11. or +k .19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9. + r) .20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9.11.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction. + r ) to ( −∞.17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (9. y ) = (0. µ0 I 4π r (9.18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 .

11. z) due to wire 1 on the left is. (b) The magnetic field at (0.11.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane. Figure 9. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page.6.11.25) 55 . the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 . its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9. we have B1 = (9. 0. the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus.11.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction. using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9.24) For wire 2 on the right.11.11. However. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum.23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction.

at z=a. 56 .6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long. cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9.11. we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry).27) which gives z=a (9.11.26) Figure 9.Adding up the contributions from both wires.11. the magnetic field strength is a maximum.28) Thus.11.11.11. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9. with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9. Find the magnetic field everywhere.30) where α is a constant.29) 9.11.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.

Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:

∫ B⋅d s = µ I
where the enclosed current Ienc is given by

0 enc

(9.11.31)

I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')

(9.11.32)

(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
0 r

2πα r 3 3

(9.11.33)

Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
B1 =

(9.11.34)

αµ 0
3

r2

(9.11.35)

The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
0 R

2πα R 3 3

(9.11.36)

which yields

57

B2 ( 2π r ) =

2 µ 0πα R 3 3

(9.11.37)

Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is

B2 =

αµ0 R3
3r

(9.11.38)

A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:

Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.

Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal

58

Solution:
Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is
⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠

(9.11.39)

Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
dB =

(9.11.40)

µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠

(9.11.41)

Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
Integrating this expression, we obtain
B=∫
s+w

s

µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠

(9.11.42)

Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes
B=

s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above

µ0 I ˆ k 2π s

(9.11.44)

which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.

59

y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0.47) 60 .11.11. y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '.11. Figure 9. 0) on the x-axis. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis. j (i) Along the y axis.12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P.11.9. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (9.11.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin.45) Solution: Let P ( x. Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9.46) Let’s analyze each segment separately.

Two concentric.11. 2. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain. 61 .11. they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. 3. does the spring stretch or compress? Explain.48) Thus. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9.12 Conceptual Questions 1. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 .i j i (ii) Similarly. If a current is passed through a spring. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section.50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract. coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction. and (b) repel each other? Explain.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9.1.5) 9. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4.11. (9. along the x-axis.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9. 5. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction.11. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics.

in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I. What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown.13. | B |= B (r ) .. 8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively.1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire.13 Additional Problems 9. I k = 2k I 0 ). Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead.13.. . For those with k = 1 to 4. the current flows up out of the page.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9.13. as a function of distance r from the wire. for the rest. the current flows down into the page. (Watch your signs!) Figure 9.2.. 62 .13.9.e. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law. 2.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9. A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1. . Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry. and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper.

the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field. a < r < b.2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I. Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction. Can you plot. and apply Ampere's Law.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P.) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9.3. (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire. construct an Amperian loop. r > b .13.(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b . roughly.3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor. (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius.) 9.13.13. 63 . r < a.

1 m. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr .25 m. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction. What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 . the current direction. and carries a current of 0. showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings.5. (a) Sketch the solenoid. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that.13. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. 9. It has a length of 0. and show the directions on your sketch. 9.13.5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω . Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. they are at the corners of a square. as shown in Figure 9.13. a diameter of 0. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so. for most of its length. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid. Currents in A and D point out of the page.30 A.9. and into the page at B and C.

The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 .13.13. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0. Figure 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 .7 65 . as shown in Figure 9.6.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9.7. as shown in Figure 9.13. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this. What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9.6 Magnetic force on a current loop.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton.13.13.13.Figure 9. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m .53 Å. 9.

(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron). µ B . [Ans: 9.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r. to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1.5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 .48 A ⋅ m 2 . and the value of r we give above. [Ans: 1525 A.] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given.] 66 .13. (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8. how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet.7 × 10 22 atoms . In a time T.] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0.] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1.63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant. The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations.] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle. The molar mass of iron is 55.53 × 106 A/m . Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis.9 g/cm3. What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1. find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model.00 cm . [Ans: 2.00 mm and a radius r = 1. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1. Using this fact. Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk.85 g. where h = 6. 2.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .05 mA.52 × 10−16 s .] (b) Given this speed. and its density is 7. in units of h / 2π ? 9.18 × 106 m/s . parallel to axis. The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton.

A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil. or 314 gauss. (b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m.0314 T.9.8 cm and a diameter of 1.8 ×10−5 gauss . (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet. 67 .10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I. or 4.13. without friction.13. Figure 9.9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis.13.1 cm.8.] 9. (b) 4.13. How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0. as shown in Figure 9. Initially it is at rest. as shown in Figure 9.0 A. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 . directed parallel to its axis. along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2. We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 . What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth]. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law.13.8 × 10−9 T .42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 .12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm.5 gauss).11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4. If this solenoid carries a current of 5. [Ans: 0.13.8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge.

9.] 68 .68 A/m.7 ×10− 4 . (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2. B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 .Figure 9.13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1.86 µT.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long. (b) 0. in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 .3 A.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder. [Ans: 0].] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod. [Ans: (a) 0.13. oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin.] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans.13.

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