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9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31
9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43
Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60
9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68
Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).
Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .
ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,
dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r
where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:
µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A
Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:
dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1
Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,
1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.1. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer. straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis.1.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I.3.B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9. Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law.2 Magnetic field of a current element. Example 9. Interactive Simulation 9. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r . (9.1. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P . one for each component of B . which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.1. Figure 9.1). 3 .2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq.1.4) The integral is a vector integral.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9.1. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P.
Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. (1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction. and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P. or out of the page. j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point. r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ . The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . y ) = (0. In this case. a ) . The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction. We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9. (2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x.10. the position vector describing P is r = aˆ . (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 .
while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis. 0) .1.7) 5 .3.1. the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin).1. let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ. The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9. θ 2 ) = (0. The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 .1. the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector. If the length of the rod is 2L . we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 . x and r are not independent of each other. then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9. From Figure 9. we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9.The variables θ.5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis. In order to complete the integration.
Figure 9. and the magnetic field lines are circular. µ = − µ z k 6 . using the Biot-Savart law. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed. i.5).1.1. then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field. z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z . if the current flows in the +z-direction. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P.6. Figure 9. the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I.1.5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction.Note that in this limit.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole. In fact. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r .4. then.. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry. as shown in Figure 9.1.e. ϕ . Example 9.1.
its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk . i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center.1. Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law. Thus. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 .9) is the distance between the differential current element and P. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9.8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9.6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current. (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates. (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9. the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) .1.Figure 9.1.1.
13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.14) On the other hand. The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.1.(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9. 8 . the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9.1. we see that along the symmetric axis.1. Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.11) (9.1.15) Thus.1.1.
1. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9. (9.7: Figure 9. Bz / B0 .The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 . due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field. µ = − µ z k .1.16). (9. we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9.1. the resulting force will be repulsive. On the other hand. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P. so that using Eq.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume.16) Upon differentiating Eq.1. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9.18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds .7 The ratio of the magnetic field. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed.17) Thus. the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 .1). 9. (9. the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring. From Chapter 6.1.15) and substituting into Eq. all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder.1.1.1. which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time. as discussed in Chapter 8. we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9.1. Let I be the current in the element.
19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c .21) Animation 9.1.20) Note. each moving with a different velocity. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi . 10 . however. zi ) and moving with velocity vi . In case of a single charge.1.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9. the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P. the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9.1.1. The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges.8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge. so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored. dN = 1 . and (b) a moving negative charge. Figure 9. the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9.8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge.1. Using the superposition principle. the speed of light. The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v . yi . that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current.
1. Far from the ring.9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four. As the addition proceeds. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq. and 8. Figure 9. When we get to eight charges.1. Other animations show the same situation for N =1.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9. 2. a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern. (9. The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane. We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane.19). The display in Figure 22.214.171.124: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display).10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring. Figure 9.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle.1.1. Figure 9.Animation 9. Interactive Simulation 9. 11 .9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle.
a wire carrying a current will experience a net force.1.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space. Thus. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other.2. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9.1. 9.11. To get a feel for the total magnetic field. as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field. In Figure 9.1. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 .2.1. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction. F12 .10. In addition. we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2.Figure 9.11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point. when placed in a magnetic field. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example.
(b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions. µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9. as depicted in Figure 9. if the currents flow in opposite directions. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1. The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other. On the other hand. which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization. the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires. In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires. Thus.3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism.2.2.3. we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ .j direction. (a) (b) Figure 9. the resultant force will be repulsive.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions.2. In the first case.3.1b). Animation 9. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire. 13 .1.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9. 9. Therefore. As shown in Figure 9. when I ≠ 0 .1a.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction.2. all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current. However.
2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 .3.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 . Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.3.1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path. that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9.3 Figure 9.2).Figure 9. as that shown in Figure 9.3.3. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line. Figure 9.3. we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9.1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ .3.
the current encircled by the loop. An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9.4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape. the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc .3. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration. and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da.2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ . ϕ .5) In other words. With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 . As shown in Example 9. 15 .3. z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis. the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9.The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9.4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9.3.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines. the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ .3. in cylindrical coordinates ( r . Figure 9.1.3.
In order to apply them.5).3. Example 9.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R. as shown in Figure 9.4). Figure 9. Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9. 4.3. Toroid (Example 9. 3.6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. when the length of the wire is finite.5. the system must possess certain symmetry. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1. 16 . Find the magnetic field everywhere. Figure 9. Infinite solenoid (Section 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density. Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9.3. Biot-Savart law must be used instead. However. In the case of an infinite wire. We shall examine all four configurations in detail.3.4).The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example.4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9.3) 2.
i. 17 . i.. we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R. I enc = I . I enc Thus.e.. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9.e. the field falls off as 1/r.3.3. Example 9. the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed. Find the magnetic field everywhere.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ .Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R .6 below: Figure 9. Outside the wire.6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I . Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R . the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current.
3.3. From Figure 9. The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 .9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside.i Figure 9.9. Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection.3.3.3. we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction. Similarly. Figure 9. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires. The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9.7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . we integrate along path C1 .8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet.8. we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction. Figure 9.
Figure 9. Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant.3. we have surface current K = K ˆ .8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 .11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin. with b → 0 .1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I. we obtain (9. The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law. Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet. the magnetic field vanishes. z < 0 j 19 .3. i Note that the dimension of K is current/length. the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9. as required by symmetry. ˆ.12) ˆ. where K = J 0b . The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j. In this limit.3.4. independent of the distance from the sheet. We see that if the turns are closely spaced.7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9. At z = 0 . − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ . z > 0 j (9.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9.3. z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9.4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form. In this i case. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ .10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | . the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform.3.3.
In the above. where N is the total number of turns. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter. For an “ideal” solenoid. and vanishes outside the solenoid. The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9.4. which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed.4.4. the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. Figure 9.2) or 20 . On the other hand.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9. In addition. The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9.4. the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI .1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid.4.2.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid. the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s . To compute B .
3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' .4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid.6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 . or current per unit length K = nI .4.B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (126.96.36.199) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length. Using the result obtained in Example 9. Figure 9. B = µ0 K (9. as shown in Figure 9.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9.. where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length. we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' . we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together. the magnetic field can also be written as.188.8.131.52.5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid. In terms of the surface current.
4.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R . as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected. Figure 9.4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R .4. where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid.5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns. as shown in Figure 9.5. the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows. as shown in Figure 9. Thus.5. we obtain 22 . and (b) l = 20 R . Find the magnetic field everywhere.4.) Applying Ampere’s law.4. Figure 9.A plot of Bz / B0 . Examaple 9. Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 .4.
Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid. In spherical coordinates (r.5. The y.5. the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r .5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9.g.∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9.. What is the magnetic field at a point (e.2) 23 .1) Readers are referred to Section 9.. the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9.g.7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9.5. center of the Earth) in the yz plane..8 for the detail of the derivation.4. φ ) .5.8) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid. 9.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole. 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9.and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ .4.θ.1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9.
In Figure 9.5.3) respectively.5. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis.6) 9. Thus. (9. the radius of the Earth.5.2 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field.5.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9.and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9. θ . Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass.13. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9. where r is the distance from the center of the Earth.) With the distance fixed at r = rE . and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane.3. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (9.5. φ ) .4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2. In general.6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r . the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ .4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction.5. measured from the x-axis.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it.5. 24 . with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9.
Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis.18 ˆ − 0. respectively. For historical reasons.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice.5. Using this definition. Thus. is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude.7) 25 . The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0.3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates. The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates.5. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point.5. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° . Figure 9. it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ . UK. Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians. denoted as δ . the equator has latitude 0° . The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins.062 ˆ + 0. a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude.Figure 9. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich.98 k ) i j E (9. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator. and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian.
The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet.4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table. in this case. if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT.65 Bθ (9. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal. field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth.9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) . On the other hand. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0.70 ˆ + 0. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . Looking at the compass.5.80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates. φ0 ) = (169°. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator.109°) . which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° .5.6. the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2. Thus. Thus. and we have used (θ 0 . Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene.24 ˆ − 0.79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 . However. 26 . Animation 9.5. the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position.1. Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole. Control-click and drag to zoom in and out. In this case. one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field. which. and 71° west of the prime meridian). as indicated in Figure 9. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet.5.67 k ) i j E (9.4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9. and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator.where µ E = 7.
One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned. Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. each with magnetic dipole moment µ . When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics.5.6. for a given amount of “free” electric charge.1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles. when we deal with magnetic materials. In contrast.4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles. 9.6. spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials). for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials).1. (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials).6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics. 27 . Below we discuss how these effects arise. as shown in Figure 9. their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be.Figure 9.
1) where V is the volume. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9. as seen from above. where all the dipoles are aligned.2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments.6. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9. (b) The equivalent current. In the absence of any external magnetic field. 28 . where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides. whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current. currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops.6.6. Figure 9.Figure 9. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9. In the case of our cylinder. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes. we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. Thus.2(b). what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question.2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents.6. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL . Now. The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out.1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder.6. We see that in the interior.
4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9.6. Therefore. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. With I eq running on the sides.6) is the average field due to all the dipoles. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq .5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M . The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9.6. A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles.6.3) Next. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves. The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole.6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles.6. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 . we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M . which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. Notice that the magnetic field in Eq. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.6.The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector.6. the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K .2) or I eq = Nµ A (9. The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9. (9. the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9.4) Thus.
when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 . Eq.9) κm = 1 + χm (9. The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9. Since B M is parallel to B0 .10) is called the relative permeability of the material. Thus.6. χ m > 0 .7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials. whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero.6. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 . The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9. or equivalently. κ m > 1 . (10. the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 . For paramagnetic substances. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field.6. The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. in the paramagnetic case. but also linearly proportional to B0 . the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 . In most paramagnetic substances. it will tend to enhance B0 . Left to themselves.11) 30 .6. that alignment enhances the external magnetic field. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously. This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 .7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9. However.6.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment.9. the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field. In both cases.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility. they are randomly aligned.6. However.7.
the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 .6.6. The 31 . these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . Figure 9.4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. although now κ m < 1 . The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials. although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 . The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable.3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains. or χ m < 0 . we can still define the magnetic permeability. 9. with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. as shown in Figure 9. However. but dependent on the previous history of the material.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 . Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 . and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles. there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments. as illustrated in Figure 9. (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 .6. since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 . The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant.6. as in equation (8-5). Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains. In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique. An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field.3(a).6. For diamagnetic materials. 9.3(b).
4 A hysteresis curve. Moreover.4.6.phenomenon is known as hysteresis. The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. without the necessity of an external magnetic field. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field. 9.7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9. To see how strong such magnets can be.000 Gauss. consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 . just due to the atomic currents alone. all by themselves.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 . This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss. If all these dipole moments are aligned. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3. in ferromagnets.6. or 10. The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero.6. This is the origin of permanent magnets.
• The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 . • The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length.B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid.
Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.8. Figure 9.1.3) 34 . at a point P along the axis of symmetry.8.1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I. the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k . On the other hand. The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9. The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9.8. Again.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (184.108.40.206 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9. as shown in Figure 9. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) . as shown in Example 9.2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P.9.8.
8. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' .8. namely.2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9. the y and the z components of B .4) Thus. On the other hand.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically.8. magnetic field at P is B ( 0. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9. followed by a straightforward integration. the field point P is located along the z-axis.8. By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.Using the Biot-Savart law. In the limit y = 0 . and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.8. y. One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish.5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9.9) 35 .7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' .8. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9.
µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.10) Now.8. In this limit. the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.8.13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA . Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ .e.14) 36 .12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9.8.8. i. the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured.8.. let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r .
8.8.18) Using the above relations.8. ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k . Figure 9.8.8. we have.3.2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9.17) In addition. ˆ Figure 9.2). Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9. for the unit vectors.8. the spherical components may be written as 37 . we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9.16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ .3 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop.8.15) Thus. j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9.8. and (b) a small bar magnet.
20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r . θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9. as shown in Figure 9.22) 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R.8. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9. Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil.8.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r . with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .9.1.21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9.1 Helmholtz coils 38 . There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.220.127.116.11) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. Figure 9.
Using the result shown in Example 18.104.22.168) One may readily show that at the midpoint. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.4) 39 . Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail.9.9.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9.9. z = 0 . the magnetic field at P ( z . the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle.9. we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9. Differentiating Bz with respect to z. µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9.2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9.2.
9.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there. The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation. A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils.9. with their dipole moments aligned. the force of attraction between them creates a tension. Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) . 2! (9. That is. as in the animation depicted in Figure 9.. For small z. In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + . Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged. If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well.3(b). The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils.9. In this animation..At the midpoint z = 0 . the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R .5) Thus. Animation 9.9. 40 .9.6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region.3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9. the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction. When the distance between the coils is not fixed.
9. 0. Figure 9.(a) (b) Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions.5.9. 41 .9. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. Next. Figure 9. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other.4.9. by superposition principle.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R . Again.9.3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil.9. the magnetic field at a point P (0.
we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9.9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other. z = 0 .Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9.9.12) Animation 9. The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop. In this configuration.9.11) For l = R . The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation. we have Bz′ (0) = (9.9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9. the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel.9.6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions.10) ˆ Thus.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions. (a) (b) Figure 9. 42 . a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.9.
9. and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above.8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 .7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9. the repulsive force results in a pressure between them. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils. With the distance between the two coils fixed. Animation 9.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9.8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). Figure 9. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased.9. The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased.9.9.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top. The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward. the magnetic field is zero.7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus. Figure 9. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). Animation 9.
there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. Figure 9. not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle. the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils. when their moments are anti-aligned. the magnet is repelled by both coils. and pressure perpendicular to. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. the field lines of the resulting field.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. Animation 9. again resulting in no net force. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. Conversely. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. Thus. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides. and pressure perpendicular to. When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. the field lines of the resulting field.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization).9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9.9. Conversely. the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).9. causing it to move upwards. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase. the magnet moves downwards. there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet.9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . Thus. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. when their moments are anti-aligned.
(5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible. Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration.9. (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B .10.10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter. (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' . Using the same coordinate system. 45 . write down the position vector rP for the field point P. ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r .1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds . and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds . we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source. The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P. The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits. (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. 9. according to the Biot-Savart law. Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point. The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin.
Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R.
(3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop. we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments. Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire.9. an ideal solenoid and a toroid. System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 .10. (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B .2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field.
11. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane. (1) Source point From Figure 9. However. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ .10. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction.10.1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current. with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance.11.1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I.1.11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9. The corresponding unit vector is 48 .1. Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 9. we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ .11.10.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9.) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ . as shown in Figure 9. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 9.1.
1) ˆ Thus.11.11. i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. The magnetic field becomes 49 . we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. y ) = (0. y ) on the y axis.2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k . the field point P is at ( x. (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.
5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below. (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x.11.11.B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. 9.3) in agreement with Eq.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law.4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9. Find the magnetic field B at P.11.11. This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.6).11. the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 . y . Figure 9. (9.1.
3 Rectangular current loop 51 . a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9.11.7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page.11.11. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9. for the inner arc.9) 9.11.dB = For the outer arc.8) ˆ For Binner .11. Thus.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9. the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9.3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I.11.11. d s × r points into the page. Similarly.3 Figure 9.
Therefore.11.14) 52 . +∞ ) . or +k . The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x.11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9. +∞ ) to ( − a.Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I. +b) to (+ a. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 . the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq. we make use of the above formula. we consider the segment which extends from ( x. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9.1. y ) = ( + a. +b) to ( + a. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.11. +b) . One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9. (9. To obtain the magnetic field at O.11. (ii) Next.12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9. y ) = ( − a.10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. Again.11.11. + d ) .13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page. y ) = ( − a. the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire. or −k .
Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. y ) = ( −∞. Therefore.11. The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. − r ) . its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9. Figure 9.4.15) Note that in the limit a → 0 . or +k .ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.11.11. and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel. 9. The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) .11. 53 . or +k .4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9. the horizontal segment is absent. Thus. The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane.11. − r ) to (0. the magnetic field vanishes in this limit.
11.18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page.11. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page. Figure 9. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9.17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (9. or +k .11. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x. + r) .20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9. or +k . y ) = (0.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 .21) 9. + r ) to ( −∞.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction.11.11.11.(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r.19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9. µ0 I 4π r (9.11.
However. 0.11. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page.11.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction. Figure 9. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane.11.24) For wire 2 on the right. (b) The magnetic field at (0. the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus.11.25) 55 .11.6.23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction. its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9. the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 . using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9.11. z) due to wire 1 on the left is. we have B1 = (9.
at z=a.27) which gives z=a (9.11. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry). we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9. the magnetic field strength is a maximum. cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9. Find the magnetic field everywhere.26) Figure 9.28) Thus.11.6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long.Adding up the contributions from both wires.11. with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9. 56 .11. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9.11.29) 9.30) where α is a constant.11.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.11.
Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:
∫ B⋅d s = µ I
where the enclosed current Ienc is given by
I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')
(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα r 3 3
Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα R 3 3
B2 ( 2π r ) =
2 µ 0πα R 3 3
Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is
A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:
Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.
Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal
Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is
⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠
Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠
Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
Integrating this expression, we obtain
µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠
Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes
s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above
µ0 I ˆ k 2π s
which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.
11. j (i) Along the y axis. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P.11.9. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9.11. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis.11. 0) on the x-axis.47) 60 .12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin.45) Solution: Let P ( x. y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '. Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x.11. y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0. Figure 9. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (9.46) Let’s analyze each segment separately.
50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9.12 Conceptual Questions 1. 61 .11. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics. (9. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 . does the spring stretch or compress? Explain.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9. 2. 3. coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9. along the x-axis. they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.i j i (ii) Similarly. and (b) repel each other? Explain.11.1.11. 5. Two concentric. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction. If a current is passed through a spring. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract.5) 9.48) Thus.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq.11. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section.
.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9. For those with k = 1 to 4. for the rest. 62 . I k = 2k I 0 ).13. | B |= B (r ) . (Watch your signs!) Figure 9. and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper. What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown. the current flows up out of the page. as a function of distance r from the wire. Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead. the current flows down into the page.13. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law. in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I.13 Additional Problems 9. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field.13. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively.9. .. 8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i.. Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry. 2.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9.13.2.e. . A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1.1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire.
3.13. r > b . a < r < b. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section. Figure 9. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor.) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9. construct an Amperian loop. Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction. roughly.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length.13.) 9. (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire. r < a. and apply Ampere's Law. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b . Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P.(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor.2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I.13.3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole. (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius. 63 . the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field. Can you plot.13. as shown in Figure 9.
1 m. a diameter of 0. the current direction.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction.5. It has a length of 0. 9.30 A. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr . Currents in A and D point out of the page.13. showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings. Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr. for most of its length. 9. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law.5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω .25 m. (a) Sketch the solenoid. they are at the corners of a square.13.13. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively. and into the page at B and C. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid.13. and show the directions on your sketch.9. What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 . as shown in Figure 9. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. and carries a current of 0.
7.13. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton.6 Magnetic force on a current loop.13. What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 .7 65 .6. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this.13. 9. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m .13.13.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9. Figure 9. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0.Figure 9.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 .53 Å.13.13. as shown in Figure 9.
in units of h / 2π ? 9. [Ans: 1525 A. µ B . Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk. The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations.00 mm and a radius r = 1.] (b) Given this speed. (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8. 2. and its density is 7.18 × 106 m/s .53 × 106 A/m .] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0. parallel to axis.00 cm . where h = 6.9 g/cm3.7 × 10 22 atoms . What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here.(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron).] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1. [Ans: 9.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1.48 A ⋅ m 2 .63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant. and the value of r we give above.13. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1.05 mA.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis. The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1. to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π.52 × 10−16 s . how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet. In a time T.] 66 .85 g. The molar mass of iron is 55. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1. Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given.5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 . find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model. [Ans: 2.] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle. Using this fact.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r.
A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil.11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4. as shown in Figure 9.5 gauss).8.0 A.] 9.8 ×10−5 gauss .1 cm. directed parallel to its axis.9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis.13.13. or 314 gauss. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law. Initially it is at rest. as shown in Figure 9.13. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m.9. How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0.8 cm and a diameter of 1.13. [Ans: 0. along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2. Figure 9.13. or 4. (b) 4. (b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth].12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm. If this solenoid carries a current of 5. (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet.13.8 × 10−9 T . We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 .0314 T. 67 .8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 . What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9. without friction.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I.42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 .
13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder. B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 . 9.86 µT. in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 . (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2. [Ans: (a) 0. [Ans: 0].3 A.] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans.13.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long.68 A/m.] 68 .13.7 ×10− 4 . oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin.] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod. (b) 0.Figure 9.
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