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9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31
9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43
Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60
9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68
Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).
Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .
ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,
dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r
where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:
µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A
Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:
dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1
Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,
(9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin. Figure 9.1).1.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I. straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis.1.4) The integral is a vector integral.1.2 Magnetic field of a current element. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P . Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law.1.1. as shown in Figure 9.3. Example 9. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P. 3 . Figure 9. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer. which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9.1. Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9. one for each component of B .2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r .
We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9. y ) = (0. or out of the page. The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ . In this case.10. the position vector describing P is r = aˆ . The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction.Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. a ) . (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 . j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point. and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P. (1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction. (2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x.
5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 . we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9.3. while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis. From Figure 9. If the length of the rod is 2L .1.1. x and r are not independent of each other. In order to complete the integration. θ 2 ) = (0. the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector. 0) . then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9. we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions.The variables θ.7) 5 . The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 . the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin). let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ.1.1. The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9.
1.e.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I.6.4.1. ϕ .Note that in this limit. Example 9. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole. In fact. the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9. i. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r . and the magnetic field lines are circular. z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z .5). Figure 184.108.40.206: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I. if the current flows in the +z-direction. as shown in Figure 9.5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire. then. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed. using the Biot-Savart law. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop. Figure 9. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry. then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field.1. as shown in Figure 9. µ = − µ z k 6 ..
i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center. its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk . Thus.1.6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current.1. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 . the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) . (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9.1. Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law.Figure 9.9) is the distance between the differential current element and P.1. (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates.8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9.
1.13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9. 8 .11) (9.(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9.1.15) Thus.1.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.14) On the other hand. we see that along the symmetric axis.1. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9. The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments.1. Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.1. the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.
we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9. (9. µ = − µ z k .1. Bz / B0 . all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder.7 The ratio of the magnetic field. as discussed in Chapter 8.7: Figure 9.17) Thus.The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 .1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume. On the other hand.1). From Chapter 6. which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time. due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P.1. the resulting force will be repulsive. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed. so that using Eq. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9. (9. 9.1. (9. the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring. Let I be the current in the element. the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 . we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9.16) Upon differentiating Eq. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9.15) and substituting into Eq.1.16).18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds .220.127.116.11.
however. In case of a single charge. so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored.19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured. that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current.1.1.8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9. the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c .1.1. Figure 9. zi ) and moving with velocity vi . dN = 1 . the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9.1. 10 . the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9. Using the superposition principle. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v . the speed of light.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9. and (b) a moving negative charge. The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges. Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi .20) Note. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. each moving with a different velocity.21) Animation 9. the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P. yi .8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge.
1. As the addition proceeds. 2.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges. (9. Other animations show the same situation for N =1.9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle. Figure 9.1.Animation 9.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle. Figure 9.19). a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display).2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9. When we get to eight charges. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole. and 8.9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq. Interactive Simulation 9. Figure 9.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle.1. 11 .1. The display in Figure 9.10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring. Far from the ring. We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane. The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane.1.1.
F12 .1. when placed in a magnetic field. Figure 9.10. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other.11. Thus.11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space.2. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field.1.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example. To get a feel for the total magnetic field.Figure 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field. we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction.1.2. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2. In Figure 9.1. In addition. a wire carrying a current will experience a net force. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 . 9. as shown in Figure 9.
3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism. µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9. As shown in Figure 9. However. the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires. 13 .1.2.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9. On the other hand. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1. as depicted in Figure 9. all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9. (b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions.2.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. when I ≠ 0 . we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ . In the first case. 9. Thus. if the currents flow in opposite directions.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction. the resultant force will be repulsive. (a) (b) Figure 9. Therefore. Animation 9.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions.2. In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires. The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire.3.j direction.3.1a.1b).2. which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1.
3.2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 . we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line.3.3. as that shown in Figure 9.3.3. Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 .1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ .1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path.2).Figure 9. Figure 9. that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9.3 Figure 9.3.
the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ .3.3. 15 .3. With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 . in cylindrical coordinates ( r .The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9. z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis. An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9.5) In other words. the current encircled by the loop. As shown in Example 9. ϕ .3.3. and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines.4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape. Figure 9.1. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration. the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9. the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc .2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ .4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9.
3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density. Find the magnetic field everywhere.3. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1. In order to apply them. Figure 9. when the length of the wire is finite. Biot-Savart law must be used instead. Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9. Figure 9. Example 9.The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example. 3. Toroid (Example 9. 16 .3) 2.5).5.4).3.3.4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9. 4.6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics.4). the system must possess certain symmetry. Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. We shall examine all four configurations in detail.3.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R. In the case of an infinite wire. as shown in Figure 9. However. Infinite solenoid (Section 9.
e. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R .3.. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9. the field falls off as 1/r. I enc = I . i. we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R. Example 9. the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed. Find the magnetic field everywhere. Outside the wire.6 below: Figure 9.Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R . 17 .4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ .6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I .. the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current.3. i. I enc Thus.e.
we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires.3.9.9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside.8.3. Similarly. we integrate along path C1 . The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9.3. From Figure 9. Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection.i Figure 9. Figure 9. The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 .3.3. Figure 9.8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet.7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction.
z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9. ˆ. z > 0 j (9.3.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9.3.4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form. we have surface current K = K ˆ .3. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ.3. the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9.3. the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform. z < 0 j 19 . i Note that the dimension of K is current/length. Figure 9. as required by symmetry.3. with b → 0 . Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant.12) ˆ. The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ . we obtain (9. At z = 0 .11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin.4.8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 . Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet. In this i case. independent of the distance from the sheet. where K = J 0b .10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | . In this limit. The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law. the magnetic field vanishes. − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ .1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I. We see that if the turns are closely spaced.7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9.
2) or 20 . which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed.4. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid. the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. To compute B . The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9.4.4. The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9.2.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter. the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI . Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner. In addition. For an “ideal” solenoid. the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s . On the other hand. Figure 9. where N is the total number of turns. In the above.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid.1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid.4.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9. and vanishes outside the solenoid.4.
3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' . we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9. or current per unit length K = nI . where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length. Using the result obtained in Example 9.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9. we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together. B = µ0 K (18.104.22.168.4. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' .3) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length. In terms of the surface current.5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid.4.4. the magnetic field can also be written as.B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (9.4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid..6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 . Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.4.
the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R . Find the magnetic field everywhere.4. Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 . Figure 9. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.4.5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected.A plot of Bz / B0 .5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns.) Applying Ampere’s law. as shown in Figure 9. where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid.4. Figure 9. and (b) l = 20 R .4.4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R . Examaple 9.4.5. Thus.5. as shown in Figure 9. we obtain 22 .
5.. the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9.1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9. In spherical coordinates (r.and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ . The y.g.g. 22.214.171.124) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid.4. φ ) .2) 23 .7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9. What is the magnetic field at a point (e.8 for the detail of the derivation.. center of the Earth) in the yz plane.1) Readers are referred to Section 9.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9..∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9. 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9.5.θ.5.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e. the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r . Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid.
5. with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9. measured from the x-axis. where r is the distance from the center of the Earth.4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction.3) respectively. Thus. the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9.3.5. and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane.5. the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ .5. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r . with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9. φ ) .6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq.) With the distance fixed at r = rE . In general. 24 . θ .5. In Figure 9. Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it.5.13. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (126.96.36.199 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9.6) 9. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis. (9. the radius of the Earth.4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2.
The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates. Thus.5.18 ˆ − 0. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point. respectively.Figure 9.062 ˆ + 0. it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ . The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0. UK.5. Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis. the equator has latitude 0° . Using this definition. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator. The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice.7) 25 .98 k ) i j E (9. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich. and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian. Figure 9. For historical reasons. a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude. Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians.5. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° . denoted as δ . is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude.3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates.
80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9. In this case. Thus. Looking at the compass. The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet.109°) . in this case.1.65 Bθ (9. field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . and 71° west of the prime meridian).5. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator. and we have used (θ 0 . φ0 ) = (169°. the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2. However.4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table. Animation 9. as indicated in Figure 9.24 ˆ − 0. On the other hand.79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 . 26 .where µ E = 7.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0.70 ˆ + 0. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates. which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° .5. if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT. Thus.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator.5. which.5. and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection. Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole. one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0.9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) .4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9.6. Control-click and drag to zoom in and out. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal. Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene. the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position.67 k ) i j E (9.
6.6. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials). 9. Below we discuss how these effects arise.6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics. 27 . Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. for a given amount of “free” electric charge. their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be. When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics. One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned. when we deal with magnetic materials. as shown in Figure 9. for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials). spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder. (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials).1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles.5. each with magnetic dipole moment µ .Figure 9.4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. In contrast. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be. and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles.1.
28 .1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder. where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides.Figure 9.2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents. We see that in the interior.6. what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL . whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current. we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out. where all the dipoles are aligned. as seen from above.6.6. In the case of our cylinder. Now. Figure 9. Thus. currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops.2(b).2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9.6. In the absence of any external magnetic field.1) where V is the volume. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9. (b) The equivalent current. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes.6.
4) Thus. The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9.2) or I eq = Nµ A (9. Notice that the magnetic field in Eq.6.4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9. A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq . the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. (9. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves.5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M .6. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9.6) is the average field due to all the dipoles.6. which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.3) Next. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector.6. Therefore. With I eq running on the sides. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 .6.The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system. we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M . The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9.6. the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K . The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole.
Thus.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility. they are randomly aligned. The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. or equivalently.7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials.6.6. The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously.9. κ m > 1 . in the paramagnetic case. the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 . Eq. However. In most paramagnetic substances. However. The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9. Left to themselves.6. when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 .6.6. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 .6.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment. it will tend to enhance B0 . This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . that alignment enhances the external magnetic field. whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field. (10. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero. the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field. but also linearly proportional to B0 . the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 . thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 . χ m > 0 . Since B M is parallel to B0 .10) is called the relative permeability of the material.7.7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9.9) κm = 1 + χm (9. For paramagnetic substances.11) 30 . In both cases. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field.
although now κ m < 1 .4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 . The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable. For diamagnetic materials.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 . The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials. The 31 . with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. or χ m < 0 .6.6. since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 . these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 . However.3(b).3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains. The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant. (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 . there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments. 9. Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains.6. 9.6. the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules. Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 . as shown in Figure 9. we can still define the magnetic permeability.3(a). as illustrated in Figure 9. Figure 9. An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field.6. and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength. as in equation (8-5). but dependent on the previous history of the material.
The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9.4. just due to the atomic currents alone.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla.6. without the necessity of an external magnetic field. This is the origin of permanent magnets. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero. To see how strong such magnets can be. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field.4 A hysteresis curve. This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss.phenomenon is known as hysteresis. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3.000 Gauss. the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. Moreover. all by themselves. consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 . The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. 9. or 10.6. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 .7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9. in ferromagnets. If all these dipole moments are aligned.6. Figure 9.
• The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length.B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid. • The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 .
1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) . The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9.9. Again.188.8.131.52.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (9. The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9. as shown in Figure 9. as shown in Example 9.8.8. at a point P along the axis of symmetry. Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.3) 34 . the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k . Figure 9.8. On the other hand.2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P.
the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9. One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish. and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' .9) 35 . the y and the z components of B . On the other hand. magnetic field at P is B ( 0. followed by a straightforward integration. namely.8.8. y.7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically.8.Using the Biot-Savart law.4) Thus. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' . By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. the field point P is located along the z-axis.8.8.5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9.8. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9. In the limit y = 0 .2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9.
e. Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ . In this limit.8.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop..12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9.14) 36 .8. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9.µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.8.8. the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured. let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r .8.10) Now. i.13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA .
3 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9.8.15) Thus.8. the spherical components may be written as 37 .16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ . for the unit vectors.8. we have. Figure 9. ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k .18) Using the above relations.2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9. Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9.8. j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9.8.8. and (b) a small bar magnet.2).8.3.17) In addition.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9. we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9.8. ˆ Figure 9.
21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9.1 Helmholtz coils 38 .8. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r . with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r .1. each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.8.19) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.8.22) 9.9. θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9. Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil.9.8. There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.
9.Using the result shown in Example 9.9.2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9. the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9.4) 39 .9. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9. we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9.2.9. Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail.9. Differentiating Bz with respect to z.2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R . z = 0 .9.2) One may readily show that at the midpoint. the magnetic field at P ( z .
A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils..5) Thus. Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) . and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils. If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + .3(b). The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation.9. That is.9. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9. the force of attraction between them creates a tension.6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region. In this animation. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R . the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction. In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction.9. When the distance between the coils is not fixed. 40 .At the midpoint z = 0 .5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils. as in the animation depicted in Figure 9. 2! (9. with their dipole moments aligned.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there.9.9. Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged. Animation 9.3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils. the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well.. For small z.
(a) (b) Figure 9.3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil.9. as shown in Figure 9.9. 41 . Next. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. by superposition principle.9.5.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .9. Figure 9. the magnetic field at a point P (0.4. Again.9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other. Figure 9. 0.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.9.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9.
11) For l = R .9.9. 42 .9. (a) (b) Figure 9.Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9. The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions.12) Animation 9. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9.9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9. we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint.10) ˆ Thus.9. z = 0 . The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other. the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel. we have Bz′ (0) = (9.9. a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions. In this configuration.
and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 . Animation 9. Figure 9.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top.9. Animation 9. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils. Figure 9. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased.9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9. the repulsive force results in a pressure between them. The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased. the magnetic field is zero.7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus.9. With the distance between the two coils fixed.9.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry.8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward.
the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils. and pressure perpendicular to. Thus.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque. the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides.9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). and pressure perpendicular to. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. the field lines of the resulting field.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). the magnet moves downwards. Thus. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. the field lines of the resulting field. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase. When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle. Conversely.9. Animation 9. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. Figure 9. there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. Conversely. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward.9. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle. when their moments are anti-aligned. again resulting in no net force. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. the magnet is repelled by both coils. causing it to move upwards. when their moments are anti-aligned.
The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P. The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. (5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible. ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r . Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration. according to the Biot-Savart law. (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' . 45 . (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits. write down the position vector rP for the field point P. The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin.10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter. and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds . Using the same coordinate system. (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B .9. Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point.1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds . 9.10.
Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R. Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .
9. Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire. (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop. an ideal solenoid and a toroid.2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B .10. (3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop. we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments. System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 .
10.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9. The corresponding unit vector is 48 .11.1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current.11.1.1. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ . the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ .1. with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance.) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9.10. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 9. (1) Source point From Figure 9. we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ .1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I. as shown in Figure 9.10. Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 9.11.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction. However. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane.11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9.
11.1) ˆ Thus. the field point P is at ( x.2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case. y ) on the y axis. we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9. i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.11.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k . (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. y ) = (0. The magnetic field becomes 49 .
the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 .6). This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9. 9. y . Find the magnetic field B at P.11.5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire.11.1.3) in agreement with Eq.11. (9.B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. Figure 9.11.11. (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law.
11. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9.7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page. for the inner arc.dB = For the outer arc.184.108.40.206 Figure 9. a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9.11. Thus.8) ˆ For Binner . Similarly.9) 9. the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9.11.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9.3 Rectangular current loop 51 .11.3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9. d s × r points into the page.
+b) to (+ a. The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x. y ) = ( − a.10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. Therefore. the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9.11. we make use of the above formula. +∞ ) . Again. (9. + d ) . To obtain the magnetic field at O. +∞ ) to ( − a. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9.13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 .14) 52 .1.11. +b) to ( + a.5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire. y ) = ( + a. or −k .11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.11. y ) = ( − a. the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq.11. or +k . +b) . we consider the segment which extends from ( x. (ii) Next.11.12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9.
The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. Figure 9. the horizontal segment is absent.11. or +k . The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) . Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle.11. Thus. The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9. the magnetic field vanishes in this limit. y ) = ( −∞. its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9.11. 53 . 9. Therefore. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane.11.11. or +k .15) Note that in the limit a → 0 . and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel. − r ) . − r ) to (0.ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.4.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.
11. + r) .17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (9.19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 .21) 9.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction.11.(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.11.11. + r ) to ( −∞.18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9.20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9.11. µ0 I 4π r (9.11. Figure 9. y ) = (0. or +k .11. or +k .
However.11.25) 55 . the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus.6.11.11. using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9. the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 .11. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9.23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction. its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction. Figure 9.24) For wire 2 on the right.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum. we have B1 = (9. z) due to wire 1 on the left is.11. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page. 0. (b) The magnetic field at (0.11.
with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9.26) Figure 9. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry). cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9.11.6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long. we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9. at z=a.11.11.27) which gives z=a (9. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9. the magnetic field strength is a maximum.28) Thus.11.11.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.Adding up the contributions from both wires. Find the magnetic field everywhere.11. 56 .30) where α is a constant.29) 9.11.
Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:
∫ B⋅d s = µ I
where the enclosed current Ienc is given by
I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')
(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα r 3 3
Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα R 3 3
B2 ( 2π r ) =
2 µ 0πα R 3 3
Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is
A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:
Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.
Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal
Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is
⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠
Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠
Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
Integrating this expression, we obtain
µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠
Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes
s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above
µ0 I ˆ k 2π s
which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.
y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '. j (i) Along the y axis. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (9.11. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin.45) Solution: Let P ( x.12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9.46) Let’s analyze each segment separately. Figure 9.11. Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x.11.47) 60 .11. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9.9.11. 0) on the x-axis. y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0.
they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq. and (b) repel each other? Explain.11. does the spring stretch or compress? Explain. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract.12 Conceptual Questions 1. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics.1. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 . If a current is passed through a spring.i j i (ii) Similarly. (9. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9.48) Thus.50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction.11. 2. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4.11.5) 9. along the x-axis. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. 61 . coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction.11. 5. Two concentric. 3.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain.
62 . for the rest. What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown. . and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper. I k = 2k I 0 ).13.2. (Watch your signs!) Figure 9. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law. in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I. Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry.9. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9. A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1.. the current flows up out of the page. Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead.13. the current flows down into the page. 8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i.1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire. as a function of distance r from the wire.13 Additional Problems 9.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field. For those with k = 1 to 4.13.13. ..e. 2. | B |= B (r ) ..
Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length.3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole. 63 .2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I. Can you plot. a < r < b. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b . roughly.13. Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P. (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire. (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius. and apply Ampere's Law. Figure 9. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor.13. r < a.(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section.) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9. construct an Amperian loop. the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field.3.13.) 9. r > b . as shown in Figure 9.13.
13. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. and show the directions on your sketch. Currents in A and D point out of the page. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that.1 m. and carries a current of 0.5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω . It has a length of 0.13. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction. 9.9. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr . (a) Sketch the solenoid. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law. 9.5. the current direction. as shown in Figure 9.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. and into the page at B and C. What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 . they are at the corners of a square. Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr. for most of its length.30 A. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively.13. a diameter of 0. showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings.13.25 m.
8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m .13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 . 9.13. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin. What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9.6.13. Figure 220.127.116.11 Magnetic force on a current loop.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9.7 65 . The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 .13.53 Å.13. as shown in Figure 9.13. as shown in Figure 9. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0.Figure 9. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this.
27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1.(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron). [Ans: 2.48 A ⋅ m 2 . The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton.00 mm and a radius r = 1. [Ans: 1525 A. where h = 6.18 × 106 m/s . in units of h / 2π ? 9.52 × 10−16 s .00 cm . The molar mass of iron is 55. 2. µ B .05 mA.] 66 . to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1. (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8.] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r. parallel to axis.53 × 106 A/m . In a time T.] (b) Given this speed.13. and the value of r we give above. [Ans: 9. Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk.85 g.9 g/cm3. What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here. how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet. and its density is 7.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant.5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 .9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1.7 × 10 22 atoms . Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction. Using this fact. The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations.] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given.] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle.] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0. find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1.
along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2.9. A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil. If this solenoid carries a current of 5. [Ans: 0.13.8 × 10−9 T . as shown in Figure 9. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m.8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge.11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4. Initially it is at rest.13.8 ×10−5 gauss . (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I. as shown in Figure 9. or 314 gauss.0314 T. or 4. (b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet.9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis.42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 . We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 .5 gauss).8 cm and a diameter of 1. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law.13. directed parallel to its axis.1 cm. Figure 9.0 A. What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9.13.] 9. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth].13. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 . without friction.13. 67 . (b) 4.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm.8. How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0.
(b) 0. in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 .13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1.86 µT. [Ans: 0].13. (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2.3 A.] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans.13. oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin.7 ×10− 4 . 9.68 A/m. B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 . [Ans: (a) 0.] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder.Figure 9.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long.] 68 .
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