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9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31
9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43
Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60
9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68
Sources of Magnetic Fields
9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).
Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .
ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,
dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r
where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:
µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A
Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:
dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1
Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,
B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9. Interactive Simulation 9.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer.1.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9. straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis.1. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P.1.2 Magnetic field of a current element.1. Example 9.1.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin.4) The integral is a vector integral. one for each component of B .1). (9.3. Figure 9. which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.1.2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq. as shown in Figure 9. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P . Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r . 3 . Figure 9.
r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ .Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. (1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction. a ) . y ) = (0. j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point. The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction. and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P. The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . In this case. the position vector describing P is r = aˆ . or out of the page. We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9. (2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x.10. (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 .
the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin). while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis.1. let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ. the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector. The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 .7) 5 .1.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 .1. 0) . θ 2 ) = (0. From Figure 9. we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions.3.The variables θ. The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9.5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis. we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9. x and r are not independent of each other. If the length of the rod is 2L . then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9.1. In order to complete the integration.
Note that in this limit. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole.1. Example 9. using the Biot-Savart law. then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field. z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z .. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed. Figure 9. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r .1.6. then.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I. i. as shown in Figure 9.e. Figure 9. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop. and the magnetic field lines are circular. the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9.5).1. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction.1. ϕ .5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire. µ = − µ z k 6 .4. In fact. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P.1.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I. if the current flows in the +z-direction. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry. as shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9.1. (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates.6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 . the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) . Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law.8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9. Thus.1.9) is the distance between the differential current element and P. its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk . i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center. (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9.1.1.
The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments.1.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9.1. 8 .1.14) On the other hand.1.1.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.1.11) (9. we see that along the symmetric axis.(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9.15) Thus. Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.
the resulting force will be repulsive. so that using Eq. which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time. the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring.16) Upon differentiating Eq.1. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. Bz / B0 .1). µ = − µ z k .7: Figure 9.1. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed. (9. all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder.1.15) and substituting into Eq. 9.The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 . we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9.17) Thus.184.108.40.206 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.1.18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds . the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 .1. due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field. From Chapter 6.16).7 The ratio of the magnetic field. On the other hand. as discussed in Chapter 8. (9. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P. (9. Let I be the current in the element.1. we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9.
Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi . The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges.1. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c .8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge.21) Animation 9. the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P. and (b) a moving negative charge. each moving with a different velocity.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9.20) Note. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9. Figure 9. 10 . the speed of light. zi ) and moving with velocity vi . In case of a single charge. that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current.1. yi . however. dN = 1 .1. the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9.19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured. the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9.1.1. Using the superposition principle.8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge. The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v .
Far from the ring. The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane. Figure 9. (9. When we get to eight charges.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges. As the addition proceeds. Figure 9.1.1. 11 . Other animations show the same situation for N =1.1.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole.9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle. The display in Figure 9. a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern.10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring. We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle.Animation 9. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display).9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four.19). Figure 9.1. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq.1. Interactive Simulation 9. 2. and 8.1.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle.
2. Figure 9. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example.1. Thus. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space. 9. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other. we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges.11. a wire carrying a current will experience a net force.1. In Figure 9. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction.2. To get a feel for the total magnetic field. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9.10. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge. when placed in a magnetic field.Figure 9. F12 .2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field.1.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force.1. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 .11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point. In addition. as shown in Figure 9.
µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1. (b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions. when I ≠ 0 .3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism. However. The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other. (a) (b) Figure 9. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire.j direction. which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1. 9. 13 .2.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. In the first case. the resultant force will be repulsive.2. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization.1b). Thus. Animation 9. Therefore. On the other hand. the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires. In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires.1a.1. as depicted in Figure 9. As shown in Figure 9.2.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction.3. if the currents flow in opposite directions.3.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions.2. we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ . all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current.
that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 .3. as that shown in Figure 9.2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 .2).1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ . Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.3.3.3 Figure 9. Figure 9. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line.3.Figure 9.1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path. we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9.3.3.
2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ .4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9.5) In other words. the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc .4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape. the current encircled by the loop. and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da.The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9.1. With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 .3.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration. An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9. 15 . in cylindrical coordinates ( r .3.3. the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9. the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ . z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis.3. As shown in Example 9. Figure 9. ϕ .3.
16 . Example 9.3. Find the magnetic field everywhere.5). when the length of the wire is finite.5.4).3. We shall examine all four configurations in detail. Biot-Savart law must be used instead. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1. In the case of an infinite wire. Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9. Figure 9. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9.6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density. Figure 9. However. 4. 3.3) 2.4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9. Infinite solenoid (Section 9. In order to apply them.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R.3.The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example.3. the system must possess certain symmetry. as shown in Figure 9.4). Toroid (Example 9.
i.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ . Example 9. Find the magnetic field everywhere. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R .6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I .e. the field falls off as 1/r. we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R. Outside the wire. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9. i..6 below: Figure 9.e.Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R . 17 . I enc = I .3.. the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed. the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current.3. I enc Thus.
3.3. Figure 9. From Figure 9. we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction.9.3. Figure 9.8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet. The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9. Similarly. Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection. we integrate along path C1 . The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 .3. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires.i Figure 9.9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside.3.7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction.8.
We see that if the turns are closely spaced. ˆ. z > 0 j (9.4. we have surface current K = K ˆ . At z = 0 .3. where K = J 0b .3. Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ. In this i case.4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form.3.8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 . we obtain (9.3. the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9. Figure 9. z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9. z < 0 j 19 . as required by symmetry. the magnetic field vanishes.7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9. Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet.1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I.11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin.3.10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | . independent of the distance from the sheet. i Note that the dimension of K is current/length. the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ . The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9. In this limit. The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j.3. − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ .12) ˆ. with b → 0 .
The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9.4.4. the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s . The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9. On the other hand.2) or 20 . the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI .4. and vanishes outside the solenoid.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid. which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed. In the above.2.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter.4. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid. For an “ideal” solenoid.4. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9. To compute B . the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. Figure 9. In addition.1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid. where N is the total number of turns.
4.4.4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid. In terms of the surface current.4. Using the result obtained in Example 9. where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length. the magnetic field can also be written as. we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together. B = µ0 K (9.3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' .2..4.5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' .6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 . Figure 9.3) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length. we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9.4. or current per unit length K = nI .B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (9.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9.4. as shown in Figure 9.
Thus.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R .) Applying Ampere’s law. where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 220.127.116.11. Examaple 9.4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R . we obtain 22 . Figure 9. Figure 9.4.5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns.A plot of Bz / B0 .4. Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 . as shown in Figure 9. and (b) l = 20 R .4. as shown in Figure 9.5. the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows.5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected. Find the magnetic field everywhere.
the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9.θ.4. φ ) .g.and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ . the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r .5. Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid. 9..5.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole. 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9..5.4.8 for the detail of the derivation..8) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid.g.7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9.1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9.1) Readers are referred to Section 9. center of the Earth) in the yz plane.5.2) 23 . The y. What is the magnetic field at a point (e. In spherical coordinates (r.∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9.
θ . the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9. φ ) . Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass. and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane.13. where r is the distance from the center of the Earth.3) respectively.2 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (9.) With the distance fixed at r = rE .5. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9. In Figure 9.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9. the radius of the Earth.4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2. with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . In general. the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ . 24 .5.5.5.and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis.18.104.22.168.4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction. Thus. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r .6) 9.3. measured from the x-axis.6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq. (9.
5. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich.98 k ) i j E (9.7) 25 .3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates. denoted as δ . it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ . Using this definition. For historical reasons. is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point. Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator. Thus. The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates. UK. and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian. Figure 9.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice.062 ˆ + 0.5. The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins.5. Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° . the equator has latitude 0° .Figure 9. a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude.18 ˆ − 0. respectively. The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0.
However.5.79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 . Control-click and drag to zoom in and out. Thus. φ0 ) = (169°.67 k ) i j E (9. if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position. Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole.65 Bθ (9.6.70 ˆ + 0. Thus.80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9. Looking at the compass.109°) . as indicated in Figure 9. which. field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth.1. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator. and we have used (θ 0 . On the other hand. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0. Animation 9.5.9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) .where µ E = 7. and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection. and 71° west of the prime meridian).5. which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° . one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field.5. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet.4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates. 26 .4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table.24 ˆ − 0. in this case. the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2. The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet. Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene. In this case.
as shown in Figure 9.6.1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles. their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be. each with magnetic dipole moment µ . and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials). (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials).4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. for a given amount of “free” electric charge. 27 . When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics. In contrast.Figure 9.1.6. Below we discuss how these effects arise.5. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be. Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder. for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials). 9.6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics. when we deal with magnetic materials. One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned.
Figure 9. In the absence of any external magnetic field. whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current.6. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL . currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops. as seen from above. (b) The equivalent current.6. In the case of our cylinder. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9.2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9. we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question.6. The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out. 28 .6.2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes.1) where V is the volume. Now.1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9. Thus. We see that in the interior.6.2(b). Figure 9. where all the dipoles are aligned. where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides.
6) is the average field due to all the dipoles.The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system.3) Next. which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.6. Therefore.6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles.4) Thus.6. (9. The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector.6. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 . The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9.6. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq . Notice that the magnetic field in Eq.2) or I eq = Nµ A (9.4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9. With I eq running on the sides. The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole. the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M .6. A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles. the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K .6. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves.5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M . The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9.
that alignment enhances the external magnetic field.6. In most paramagnetic substances. but also linearly proportional to B0 . the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field.6. For paramagnetic substances. Left to themselves. However. Since B M is parallel to B0 .9. (10. in the paramagnetic case. However.7.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility. The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9. or equivalently. Thus.6. Eq. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously.10) is called the relative permeability of the material. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field. This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 . whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field.7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9. The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero. The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. they are randomly aligned. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 .11) 30 . the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 . it will tend to enhance B0 . κ m > 1 .9) κm = 1 + χm (9. when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 .7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials.6. thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 . In both cases.6.6. χ m > 0 .
In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique.6. However.3(a). or χ m < 0 . The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable. although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 . The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant. we can still define the magnetic permeability. there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments. these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength.6. although now κ m < 1 .4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. 9.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles. The 31 .6. Figure 9.3(b). 9. Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 . as shown in Figure 9. An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field.3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains. as illustrated in Figure 9.6.6. Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains. with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 . as in equation (8-5). since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 . For diamagnetic materials. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 . (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 . but dependent on the previous history of the material. the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules.
9.6.4 A hysteresis curve. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 .phenomenon is known as hysteresis. To see how strong such magnets can be.7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. in ferromagnets. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9. the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. or 10.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla. If all these dipole moments are aligned.6. Figure 9. consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 . This is the origin of permanent magnets. without the necessity of an external magnetic field. The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero.000 Gauss. all by themselves. This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss. just due to the atomic currents alone. Moreover.4. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field.6.
• The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 .B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid. • The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length.
3) 34 . On the other hand. Again.8. Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I.22.214.171.124. as shown in Figure 9. at a point P along the axis of symmetry.1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop. as shown in Example 9.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (9. The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) .2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P. Figure 126.96.36.199 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9. the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k . The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9.8.
8. y.8. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9.5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9. the y and the z components of B . One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish.2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9. magnetic field at P is B ( 0. By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. followed by a straightforward integration.8.Using the Biot-Savart law. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' .7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically. On the other hand. and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' .4) Thus.8. In the limit y = 0 .8. the field point P is located along the z-axis.8.9) 35 . namely. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9.
12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9. the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA .8.8. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9. the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured.8.14) 36 .8. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9.10) Now.µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ .e..8. let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r . i. In this limit.
18) Using the above relations.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9. ˆ Figure 188.8.131.52. ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k .2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9. Figure 9. for the unit vectors.8. and (b) a small bar magnet. Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9. j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9. the spherical components may be written as 37 .8. we have.16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ .2).17) In addition.184.108.40.206 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop. we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9.3.15) Thus.
1 Helmholtz coils 38 .21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9.8.9. There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.8.8. with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .8.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R.20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r . Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil. as shown in Figure 9.19) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.9.22) 9.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r . each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9.1. θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9. Figure 9.
2.2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9.2) One may readily show that at the midpoint.9. the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.9.9.Using the result shown in Example 9. Differentiating Bz with respect to z. z = 0 .2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .9. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail.4) 39 . the magnetic field at P ( z . µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9.1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9. we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9.9.9.
9. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well. If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils..9. When the distance between the coils is not fixed.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9.. For small z.3(b). Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) . the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction. the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop. the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. 2! (9. A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils. 40 . Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged. The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R .9.9. In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction.9. we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + . That is.5) Thus. the force of attraction between them creates a tension. The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there.At the midpoint z = 0 . with their dipole moments aligned. In this animation.6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region.3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils. as in the animation depicted in Figure 9. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. Animation 9.
Figure 9.9.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9.(a) (b) Figure 9.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil.5. Figure 9. 41 . the magnetic field at a point P (0. by superposition principle.9. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (220.127.116.11.9. Next. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other. Again. as shown in Figure 9.9. 0.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions.
Differentiating Bz with respect to z. (a) (b) Figure 9. z = 0 .6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions.18.104.22.168.12) Animation 9. In this configuration. 42 .6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9. The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation.11) For l = R . the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel. we have Bz′ (0) = (9.9. The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop. we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other.10) ˆ Thus.9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9.9. a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.
7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9. Animation 9.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top.9. Animation 9.8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 .9. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils.8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased. and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above. The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9. With the distance between the two coils fixed.9. Figure 9. Figure 9. the magnetic field is zero. the repulsive force results in a pressure between them.9. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).
not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). and pressure perpendicular to. again resulting in no net force. the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. the magnet is repelled by both coils.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. the magnet moves downwards. causing it to move upwards. Thus. Animation 9. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. when their moments are anti-aligned. the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. and pressure perpendicular to. the field lines of the resulting field. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards.9. the field lines of the resulting field. This process can also be described in terms of tension along.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization).9. there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase.9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. Conversely. Figure 9. Conversely. when their moments are anti-aligned. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. Thus.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle.
according to the Biot-Savart law. Using the same coordinate system.10. Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration. (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B . we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source. ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r . 9. (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. (5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible. The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits. 45 .9. The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin. The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point. and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds . The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P. (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' . write down the position vector rP for the field point P.1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds .10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter.
Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R. Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .
10. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B . Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire.2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field.9. (3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop. an ideal solenoid and a toroid. we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments. (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop. System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 .
11. Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 22.214.171.124. However.1. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 126.96.36.199.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9. (1) Source point From Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. The corresponding unit vector is 48 .11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9. with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ . the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ .) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ .1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane.1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I.10.
2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9. we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. y ) = (0. The magnetic field becomes 49 . y ) on the y axis.11. (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.11.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k .1) ˆ Thus. i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. the field point P is at ( x.
4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9.11. y .11.6). This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire.11.11. 9.3) in agreement with Eq. Figure 9.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law.1. (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x.B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.11. (9. Find the magnetic field B at P. the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 .
the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9.dB = For the outer arc.11.11.8) ˆ For Binner .11.3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I. for the inner arc.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9.11.3 Rectangular current loop 51 . d s × r points into the page. a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9. Thus.3 Figure 9.11. Similarly.11.9) 9.11.7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page.
we make use of the above formula.11.1. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.11.12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9. +b) to ( + a. +∞ ) to ( − a. y ) = ( − a.11. y ) = ( − a. + d ) . Therefore.11. the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9. Again. (ii) Next. The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x.Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I.10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.11. or −k . (9. we consider the segment which extends from ( x. y ) = ( + a.13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 . One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9. To obtain the magnetic field at O. or +k . +∞ ) .14) 52 .5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire. +b) . the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq. +b) to (+ a.
16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.11.15) Note that in the limit a → 0 . Thus. the magnetic field vanishes in this limit. the horizontal segment is absent. − r ) to (0. or +k .11. The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.11. 9. and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel. or +k .ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.4. 53 . The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane. The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) . its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9.11. − r ) . Therefore. y ) = ( −∞. Figure 9.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9.11.
y ) = (0.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 .20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction.11. + r) .(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r.18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page.17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (188.8.131.52. µ0 I 4π r (9. + r ) to ( −∞.11.21) 9.11. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.11. or +k . (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9.19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9. or +k . Figure 9.
However.11. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page. z) due to wire 1 on the left is.11.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction. using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9.11.6. Figure 9.23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9.11.11. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9. its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane. (b) The magnetic field at (0. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum. we have B1 = (9.11.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction. the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus.25) 55 . 0.24) For wire 2 on the right. the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 .
6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long.28) Thus.11. the magnetic field strength is a maximum. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry).11. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9. Find the magnetic field everywhere.11.26) Figure 184.108.40.206) 9.11.27) which gives z=a (9. at z=a.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.30) where α is a constant. we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9. cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9.11. with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9. 56 .Adding up the contributions from both wires.
Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:
∫ B⋅d s = µ I
where the enclosed current Ienc is given by
I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')
(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα r 3 3
Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
2πα R 3 3
B2 ( 2π r ) =
2 µ 0πα R 3 3
Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is
A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:
Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.
Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal
Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is
⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠
Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠
Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
Integrating this expression, we obtain
µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠
Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes
s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above
µ0 I ˆ k 2π s
which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.
y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0.11. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin.12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (220.127.116.11. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9.47) 60 . j (i) Along the y axis.45) Solution: Let P ( x. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9. Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x.11.11. y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '.46) Let’s analyze each segment separately. Figure 9. 0) on the x-axis.
If a current is passed through a spring. (9.5) 9. they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9.11. along the x-axis.11. and (b) repel each other? Explain. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4.i j i (ii) Similarly.48) Thus. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain. Two concentric. 5.11. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9.50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 .11.12 Conceptual Questions 1. 61 . 3. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction.1. does the spring stretch or compress? Explain.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq. 2.
13. ..9. A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1. .2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law.e.2. 8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i. for the rest. What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown.1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire. and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper. as a function of distance r from the wire. (Watch your signs!) Figure 9. in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I. Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead.. 62 .13 Additional Problems 9. 2. I k = 2k I 0 ). | B |= B (r ) .13. For those with k = 1 to 4.13. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9. the current flows down into the page.13. Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry. the current flows up out of the page..
) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b . (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length.3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole.13. Can you plot. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section. roughly.2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I. Figure 9.) 9. construct an Amperian loop.13. r < a. Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction. Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P. and apply Ampere's Law. a < r < b. r > b .(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor. the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field.3. 63 . (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius.13. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor. as shown in Figure 9.13.
It has a length of 0. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr .5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω . (a) Sketch the solenoid.1 m.13. as shown in Figure 9. Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so. and carries a current of 0. 9. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction.9. they are at the corners of a square. and into the page at B and C.25 m. and show the directions on your sketch.13. What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 .13.13. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively. Currents in A and D point out of the page.5. for most of its length. showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law. 9. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid.30 A. the current direction. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. a diameter of 0.
Figure 9.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 .13. 9.7 65 . as shown in Figure 9.13.13. Figure 9.6 Magnetic force on a current loop. The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 . as shown in Figure 9.13. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin.7. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m . What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9.6. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton.13.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9.13.13. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this.53 Å.
18 × 106 m/s . [Ans: 1525 A. 2.] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given. and its density is 7. Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction.52 × 10−16 s .00 cm . (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .05 mA. Using this fact.] 66 .] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1.85 g. find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model.] (b) Given this speed. how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet.9 g/cm3. and the value of r we give above. where h = 6. in units of h / 2π ? 9.7 × 10 22 atoms . µ B .] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1.63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant.] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0. Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1. The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis. What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1. In a time T.00 mm and a radius r = 1.13. parallel to axis.53 × 106 A/m .5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 . The molar mass of iron is 55.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1.(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron). to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π.48 A ⋅ m 2 . [Ans: 2. [Ans: 9. The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton.
as shown in Figure 9.0 A.8 ×10−5 gauss .13. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 . Figure 9. along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2. We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 .8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge.0314 T. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m. (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet. What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9.9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis. without friction. [Ans: 0. (b) 4.13.13. 67 .8.8 cm and a diameter of 1.9. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth]. If this solenoid carries a current of 5.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law.8 × 10−9 T .13. as shown in Figure 9.] 9. directed parallel to its axis.13. A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil.13. or 314 gauss. (b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm. or 4. Initially it is at rest.11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4.1 cm. How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0.42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 .5 gauss).
] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans.68 A/m.] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod.Figure 9. (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2. [Ans: (a) 0. oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin. in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 . B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 .] 68 .7 ×10− 4 . (b) 0.13.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long.13. 9.13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1.3 A. [Ans: 0].86 µT.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder.
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