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# Chapter 9 Sources of Magnetic Fields

9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31

9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43

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Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60

9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68

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**Sources of Magnetic Fields
**

9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).

Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .

ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,

dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r

(9.1.1)

where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:

µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A

(9.1.2)

Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:

dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1

(9.1.3)

Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,

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3 .4) The integral is a vector integral. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer. Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r . Figure 9. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P . straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis.2 Magnetic field of a current element. Interactive Simulation 9. Example 9. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P. one for each component of B . (9.1.1.1.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9.1).1.B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin.1. which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.3.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I.1.

(2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x. (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 . and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P. the position vector describing P is r = aˆ . a ) . In this case. j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point.Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . or out of the page. (1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction.10. r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ . The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction. y ) = (0. We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9.

The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9. θ 2 ) = (0. If the length of the rod is 2L . In order to complete the integration. we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9.1. The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 . we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 .3. let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ.1. 0) .5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis. while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis.The variables θ. x and r are not independent of each other. the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector.7) 5 . the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin). then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9.1.1. From Figure 9.

i. as shown in Figure 9. using the Biot-Savart law.6. if the current flows in the +z-direction. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r .1.Note that in this limit.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I. z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z . Figure 9. Example 9.5).1.1. Figure 9. and the magnetic field lines are circular.e. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop.1.1. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole. µ = − µ z k 6 . ϕ . then. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction. the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9. In fact.. then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field. as shown in Figure 9.5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire.4.

i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center.Figure 9. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9. its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk .6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current.1.1.1.9) is the distance between the differential current element and P.8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9. the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) .1. (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 . Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law. (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates. Thus.

(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9. Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.1.1.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9. 8 . The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments.1.13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.11) (9. we see that along the symmetric axis.14) On the other hand.1.15) Thus.1.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.1. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.

1. the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 . Bz / B0 .1. (9.18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds . as discussed in Chapter 8.1.7: Figure 9. all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder. On the other hand. µ = − µ z k . as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9. we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9. Let I be the current in the element.15) and substituting into Eq. From Chapter 6. we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9.1. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P.16) Upon differentiating Eq. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed.17) Thus. the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring. which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume. (9.1. (9.16).1. 9. so that using Eq.1.7 The ratio of the magnetic field.1). the resulting force will be repulsive. due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field.1.The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 .

20) Note.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9. yi . and (b) a moving negative charge. the speed of light. each moving with a different velocity. In case of a single charge.19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured. the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9. the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P. The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges.8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge. the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c .21) Animation 9. 10 .1.1. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light.1.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9. The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v .1. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. zi ) and moving with velocity vi . so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored. however. that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current. Figure 9.1. the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9. dN = 1 . Using the superposition principle. Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi .8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge.

The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane. Other animations show the same situation for N =1.1.1.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle. and 8. Figure 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges.9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display).10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring. 11 . As the addition proceeds.1.1.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle. Far from the ring. We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane.1. When we get to eight charges.Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq.1. Interactive Simulation 9. a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern.9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four. Figure 9. Figure 9. (9. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole. The display in Figure 9.19). 2.

To get a feel for the total magnetic field. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9. Thus.Figure 9. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction.11. when placed in a magnetic field.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force.2. In Figure 9. F12 . 9.1.11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 . as shown in Figure 9. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field. a wire carrying a current will experience a net force. In addition. we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges.1.1. Figure 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2.1.2. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example.10.

3.1. On the other hand. (a) (b) Figure 9. As shown in Figure 9. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire.2. 13 . µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9. In the first case.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1. if the currents flow in opposite directions. the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires. In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization. all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current.2. we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ .2. However.1b).1a. (b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction. as depicted in Figure 9.3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism. 9. Animation 9.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions. when I ≠ 0 .2. Therefore. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1. Thus. the resultant force will be repulsive.3. The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other.j direction.

3. we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9.3 Figure 9.2). Figure 9.3. that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9. as that shown in Figure 9.3.3. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line. Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 .Figure 9.3.1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path.2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 .1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ .3.

5) In other words. Figure 9.3. the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ . the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9.3. As shown in Example 9.3.The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9. 15 .1.3. ϕ .2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ . and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da. With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 . in cylindrical coordinates ( r . the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc .4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9. z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines. An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9. the current encircled by the loop. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration.4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape.3.

Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9.3. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. when the length of the wire is finite. In order to apply them. In the case of an infinite wire. Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9.3) 2. Example 9. the system must possess certain symmetry. Figure 9. 16 . We shall examine all four configurations in detail.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R. Infinite solenoid (Section 9. Figure 9. Biot-Savart law must be used instead.The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example.5.4).6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density.5). 3. as shown in Figure 9.4).3.3.3. 4. Find the magnetic field everywhere. Toroid (Example 9.4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9. However. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1.

4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ . Find the magnetic field everywhere.Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R . i.3.6 below: Figure 9. Outside the wire. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9. 17 . Example 9.3. i. the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current..e. the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed. we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R.6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I . I enc = I . Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R . the field falls off as 1/r.. I enc Thus.e.

we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction. we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction.8.9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside. we integrate along path C1 .3.9.i Figure 9.3. Similarly.3. The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9. From Figure 9. Figure 9. Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection.8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet.7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . Figure 9. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires.3.3. The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 .

we have surface current K = K ˆ . z < 0 j 19 .12) ˆ. In this limit.11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin. Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet. where K = J 0b . − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ . z > 0 j (9.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9. Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant. In this i case.4.1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I. ˆ.8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 .3.3.4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form. independent of the distance from the sheet. Figure 9.3.3. The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9. the magnetic field vanishes.3. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ.3. z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9. i Note that the dimension of K is current/length.7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9. as required by symmetry. with b → 0 . the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9. At z = 0 . We see that if the turns are closely spaced. we obtain (9. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ . the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform. The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law.10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | .

where N is the total number of turns. The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9.4. the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI .4. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter. Figure 9. which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9. On the other hand. In the above. For an “ideal” solenoid.2.4. To compute B . Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9. The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9. In addition.4.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid. and vanishes outside the solenoid.4.1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner.2) or 20 . the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s .

where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length. Using the result obtained in Example 9.3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' . the magnetic field can also be written as.5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid. or current per unit length K = nI .B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (9.6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 .4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid. In terms of the surface current..4. Figure 9.4. as shown in Figure 9.4.2.4.4.4. we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9. we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9.3) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' . B = µ0 K (9.

Examaple 9.5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R . and (b) l = 20 R .) Applying Ampere’s law.5.A plot of Bz / B0 . Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 .4.4.5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected.4. where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid.4. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9. Thus. we obtain 22 . Figure 9.5. the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows.4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R . Find the magnetic field everywhere.4. as shown in Figure 9. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.

The y. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9.5.8) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid. the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9. 9. Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid.and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ .5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e.θ. center of the Earth) in the yz plane. What is the magnetic field at a point (e.5.∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9.. the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r .8 for the detail of the derivation.g.2) 23 .5.. In spherical coordinates (r.4.7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9.1) Readers are referred to Section 9.4.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole..1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9. φ ) . 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9.5.g.

with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it.5. In Figure 9.) With the distance fixed at r = rE . measured from the x-axis. the radius of the Earth.3. In general.6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r . the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ .5.5.13.2 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (9.6) 9.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9.5. φ ) .5. and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane.5. the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9.4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2. 24 .and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9.4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction. θ .5. Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass. (9.3) respectively.5. with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . where r is the distance from the center of the Earth. Thus.

7) 25 . The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins.062 ˆ + 0. The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0.98 k ) i j E (9.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice. Figure 9. respectively. and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian. the equator has latitude 0° . is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude. For historical reasons. Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator.Figure 9. a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude. Thus. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point.18 ˆ − 0. The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich.5.5. it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ .3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates. Using this definition. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° .5. denoted as δ . Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis. UK.

and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator. The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet.65 Bθ (9. which. field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth.4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table. one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field.9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) .5. On the other hand.80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet. if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT. Thus. and 71° west of the prime meridian).where µ E = 7.70 ˆ + 0. φ0 ) = (169°. 26 . the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator. and we have used (θ 0 .79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 . in this case.67 k ) i j E (9.4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates.5. the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0. Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene.5.109°) . Thus. Looking at the compass. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal. Animation 9. Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole. as indicated in Figure 9.24 ˆ − 0. Control-click and drag to zoom in and out. which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° .5.6. However.1. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . In this case.

When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be.4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned.Figure 9.1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles.6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics. 27 . as shown in Figure 9. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials).5. In contrast. their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be.6. for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials). for a given amount of “free” electric charge. each with magnetic dipole moment µ . and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles. (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials). Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder. when we deal with magnetic materials.1. 9.6. Below we discuss how these effects arise.

what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question.2(b).2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments. The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9.6.Figure 9. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9. currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops. We see that in the interior. as seen from above. where all the dipoles are aligned. Figure 9.2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents. whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current. Now. we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. Thus.6.1) where V is the volume. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9. (b) The equivalent current. In the case of our cylinder. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL .1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder.6. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes. In the absence of any external magnetic field.6. where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides. 28 .6.

6. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system.6.6. With I eq running on the sides.6.6.4) Thus.2) or I eq = Nµ A (9. (9.5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M . we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M .6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector. which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. Therefore.6) is the average field due to all the dipoles. The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9. the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 .6. The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles. Notice that the magnetic field in Eq.4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9. The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9.3) Next. the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K . The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq .

thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 . the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 . The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9.6. in the paramagnetic case.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment. that alignment enhances the external magnetic field. but also linearly proportional to B0 .9) κm = 1 + χm (9. Since B M is parallel to B0 .6. The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9.6.11) 30 . the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 . In most paramagnetic substances. However. or equivalently.9. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 .7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9. For paramagnetic substances. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously. This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . In both cases. whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field.6. Thus. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field.6.7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials. χ m > 0 . Left to themselves. κ m > 1 .7. The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. Eq.6. it will tend to enhance B0 . However. (10. the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field. when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 . they are randomly aligned.10) is called the relative permeability of the material.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility.

In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique. For diamagnetic materials.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles. 9. 9. as shown in Figure 9.6. or χ m < 0 . The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable. The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 . although now κ m < 1 .4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. The 31 . but dependent on the previous history of the material. Figure 9. these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 . Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 . Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains. the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules. (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 .6. there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 . as illustrated in Figure 9.6. with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. we can still define the magnetic permeability.6. and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength. The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials.3(b). as in equation (8-5). An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field.6. since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 .3(a). However.3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains.

The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9.4. The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 . without the necessity of an external magnetic field.000 Gauss. This is the origin of permanent magnets. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3. To see how strong such magnets can be. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field. If all these dipole moments are aligned. or 10. all by themselves. Moreover.7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. 9.6. Figure 9. consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .6.4 A hysteresis curve.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla. just due to the atomic currents alone.6. the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero. in ferromagnets.phenomenon is known as hysteresis. This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss.

• The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 .B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid. • The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length.

Again. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) . Figure 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9. Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I. at a point P along the axis of symmetry.1. The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9.1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop. the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k . On the other hand. as shown in Example 9.3) 34 .8. as shown in Figure 9.8. The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9.1.8.9.8.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (9.8.

In the limit y = 0 .8. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' .9) 35 . followed by a straightforward integration. On the other hand.7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. namely.5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9. By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.8. y.2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9.Using the Biot-Savart law.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically. One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9.8. and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.4) Thus. the field point P is located along the z-axis.8.8. the y and the z components of B .6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' . magnetic field at P is B ( 0.8.

e.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9. let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r . the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.8.13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA . In this limit.14) 36 .12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9.µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ .10) Now.8. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9.8. the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured.8. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop. i.8..

16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ .17) In addition. the spherical components may be written as 37 .3.8.18) Using the above relations.8. ˆ Figure 9.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9.8. we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9.15) Thus. ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k .8. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9. we have. j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9.8.3 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop.2). and (b) a small bar magnet. Figure 9. Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9.8.8. for the unit vectors.8.2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9.

with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .22) 9.8.9.8. Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil. each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.9. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9. θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9.19) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. Figure 9.1 Helmholtz coils 38 . as shown in Figure 9.1.21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9. There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.8.20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r .9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R.8.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r .

we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.9.1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9. the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.9. the magnetic field at P ( z .2.2) One may readily show that at the midpoint.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9. µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9. Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail.9.4) 39 .2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle. z = 0 .9. Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9.Using the result shown in Example 9.2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .9.

9. with their dipole moments aligned.9. 2! (9. For small z.3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils.3(b).9.At the midpoint z = 0 .9. The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation. we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + . the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged. If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils. In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction. A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils..9.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there. the force of attraction between them creates a tension. That is. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R . as in the animation depicted in Figure 9.5) Thus. In this animation. When the distance between the coils is not fixed. Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) . the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop. 40 .6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9. Animation 9. the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils..

(a) (b) Figure 9. by superposition principle. as shown in Figure 9.3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .9.9. the magnetic field at a point P (0.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. 41 .4. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other. Figure 9.5.9. Next. 0.9. Figure 9. Again.9.9.

Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other. In this configuration.11) For l = R .12) Animation 9.9. (a) (b) Figure 9.9.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions.10) ˆ Thus.9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9. the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9. a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions. we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint. we have Bz′ (0) = (9. The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation.9. 42 .9.9. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9. z = 0 . The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop.

The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward. With the distance between the two coils fixed.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils. Animation 9.8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). the magnetic field is zero. and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased. Figure 9. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top. Animation 9. the repulsive force results in a pressure between them.9.9.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry. Figure 9.7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus.8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 .9.9.

the magnet is repelled by both coils. when their moments are anti-aligned. not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). when their moments are anti-aligned. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9. there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. Thus. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. the field lines of the resulting field. Figure 9. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. causing it to move upwards.9.9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . Animation 9. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus). and pressure perpendicular to. When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. again resulting in no net force. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase. Conversely. and pressure perpendicular to.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. the magnet moves downwards. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart.9. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. the field lines of the resulting field.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides. Conversely. Thus. the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils.

Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point. write down the position vector rP for the field point P. The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P. (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r . (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. (5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B . (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' .10. Using the same coordinate system. 45 . The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits. according to the Biot-Savart law. Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration. and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds .1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds . The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin.9. we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source.10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter. The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. 9.

Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R.

System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 . we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments.10.2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field. (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B .9. Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire. an ideal solenoid and a toroid. (3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop.

we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ .11.1.11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction. Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 9.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9. The corresponding unit vector is 48 . with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance.10.11.1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I. the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ .11.1. (1) Source point From Figure 9. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ . However. as shown in Figure 9. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 9.) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9.1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current.10.1.10.

11. The magnetic field becomes 49 . the field point P is at ( x. (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.1) ˆ Thus. y ) on the y axis.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k . we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9. i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. y ) = (0.2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case.11.

5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire. (9. Find the magnetic field B at P.3) in agreement with Eq.6). This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. 9. the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 .1. Figure 9.11.11.11.11.4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9. (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below. y .11.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law.

11.3 Figure 9. d s × r points into the page.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9.3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I.11.dB = For the outer arc.11.11. the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9.8) ˆ For Binner .7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page.9) 9.11.3 Rectangular current loop 51 . Thus. a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9.11.11. Similarly. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9. for the inner arc.

11.11. (ii) Next. +b) .14) 52 . Therefore. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9. the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9. The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x. y ) = ( − a. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 .11. the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq.1. or +k . To obtain the magnetic field at O.12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9.11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I. or −k . One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9. (9. +∞ ) to ( − a. we make use of the above formula. +∞ ) .10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. y ) = ( − a. + d ) . y ) = ( + a. Again. +b) to (+ a. we consider the segment which extends from ( x.13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page.11. +b) to ( + a. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire.11.

11. 9. its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9.11. Thus.4.16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9. − r ) .ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page. The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. the horizontal segment is absent. or +k . Figure 9. and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel.11. 53 . The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) .11. or +k . the magnetic field vanishes in this limit.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.15) Note that in the limit a → 0 .11. Therefore. Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle. y ) = ( −∞. − r ) to (0. The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane.

or +k .18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page.11. or +k . + r) .11. µ0 I 4π r (9.(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r.19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9.11. + r ) to ( −∞.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 .17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (9.20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9.11. Figure 9.11. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction. y ) = (0.21) 9. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9.11. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.11.

0. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page. using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9.6.11. its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9. the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus. Figure 9.25) 55 . (b) The magnetic field at (0. we have B1 = (9.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction.11.11.11.23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9.24) For wire 2 on the right. z) due to wire 1 on the left is.11.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction. However.11. the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 .

11.11. at z=a.29) 9.28) Thus.11.11. with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9. 56 .6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long. cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9.26) Figure 9. we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9.30) where α is a constant. Find the magnetic field everywhere. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry). the magnetic field strength is a maximum.Adding up the contributions from both wires.27) which gives z=a (9.11.11.11.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.

**Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
**

The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:

∫ B⋅d s = µ I

where the enclosed current Ienc is given by

0 enc

(9.11.31)

I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')

(9.11.32)

**(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
**

0 r

2πα r 3 3

(9.11.33)

**Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
**

B1 =

(9.11.34)

αµ 0

3

r2

(9.11.35)

The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =

0 R

2πα R 3 3

(9.11.36)

which yields

57

B2 ( 2π r ) =

2 µ 0πα R 3 3

(9.11.37)

Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is

B2 =

αµ0 R3

3r

(9.11.38)

A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:

**Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
**

Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.

Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal

58

Solution:

Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is

⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠

(9.11.39)

**Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
**

dB =

(9.11.40)

µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠

(9.11.41)

**Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
**

Integrating this expression, we obtain

B=∫

s+w

s

µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠

(9.11.42)

Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes

B=

s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above

µ0 I ˆ k 2π s

(9.11.44)

which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.

59

Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x.11.11. 0) on the x-axis.11.11. Figure 9. y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis.46) Let’s analyze each segment separately.12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (9. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P.9.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin. j (i) Along the y axis.47) 60 . y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0.11. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9.45) Solution: Let P ( x.

coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4. 3. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 . If a current is passed through a spring. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics.i j i (ii) Similarly. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9.11. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9.11.50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9.48) Thus. does the spring stretch or compress? Explain. 2. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9.11.12 Conceptual Questions 1. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain. they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq.11. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. 61 .5) 9. 5. Two concentric. and (b) repel each other? Explain. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction. (9. along the x-axis.1.

8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9.13..1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire.. For those with k = 1 to 4.13.2. What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field. in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively. as a function of distance r from the wire. Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry.9. 2.. 62 . . Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law. the current flows down into the page. and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper. . for the rest.e.13. the current flows up out of the page. | B |= B (r ) . I k = 2k I 0 ).13 Additional Problems 9.13. A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1. (Watch your signs!) Figure 9.

13. (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length.13.) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9. (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius.13.3. r < a. and apply Ampere's Law.) 9. 63 .13. Can you plot. as shown in Figure 9. r > b . roughly. Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor.3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole. Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section.(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor. construct an Amperian loop. Figure 9. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b . a < r < b. the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field.2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I.

It has a length of 0. and carries a current of 0.5. Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr.25 m. a diameter of 0. 9. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid. they are at the corners of a square. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so.13. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr . Currents in A and D point out of the page.9. for most of its length. the current direction.30 A. (a) Sketch the solenoid.13. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law.13. and show the directions on your sketch. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. and into the page at B and C. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction.1 m.5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω . as shown in Figure 9. 9.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 . showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings.13.

as shown in Figure 9. The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 . Figure 9.13.7.Figure 9. 9. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m .13.13.53 Å.13. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0.6 Magnetic force on a current loop.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9.7 65 . as shown in Figure 9. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin.13.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this.6.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 . What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9.13.

] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1. 2. to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π. find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model. [Ans: 2.] (b) Given this speed.7 × 10 22 atoms .05 mA.52 × 10−16 s . Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction.9 g/cm3.00 mm and a radius r = 1. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1. and the value of r we give above. in units of h / 2π ? 9.85 g.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 . [Ans: 1525 A.53 × 106 A/m .27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis. The molar mass of iron is 55.5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 . parallel to axis.(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron). Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk.18 × 106 m/s . µ B .] 66 .00 cm . What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here. In a time T.] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle. how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet.63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant.48 A ⋅ m 2 . (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8.] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0. where h = 6. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1. The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1.13. [Ans: 9. and its density is 7.] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r. The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton. Using this fact.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1.

9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis. How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0. We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 .13. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth]. What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9. Initially it is at rest. as shown in Figure 9. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 . without friction. (b) 4. Figure 9.8 × 10−9 T .9. along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2. 67 . (b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m.13.8.] 9. or 4. directed parallel to its axis.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I.42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 . [Ans: 0. (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet.8 cm and a diameter of 1.8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge. A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil.1 cm.13.0314 T.11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4.13.5 gauss).0 A. as shown in Figure 9. If this solenoid carries a current of 5.8 ×10−5 gauss . or 314 gauss.13.

[Ans: 0].Figure 9.68 A/m. in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 .13.7 ×10− 4 .13. oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long.3 A. [Ans: (a) 0.] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod. B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 .86 µT. (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2. 9.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder.] 68 . (b) 0.13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1.] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans.