## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

9.1 Biot-Savart Law....................................................................................................... 2 Interactive Simulation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element.......................... 3 Example 9.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire ...................................... 3 Example 9.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop .................................. 6 9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge ....................................................... 9 Animation 9.1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge ............................................. 10 Animation 9.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle................ 11 Interactive Simulation 9.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges .......... 11 9.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires ....................................................................... 12 Animation 9.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires......................... 13 9.3 Ampere’s Law........................................................................................................ 13 Example 9.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire............................ 16 Example 9.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet .............................. 17 9.4 Solenoid ................................................................................................................. 19 Examaple 9.5: Toroid............................................................................................... 22 9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole .................................................................................... 23 9.5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT ....................................................................... 24 Animation 9.4: A Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field ................................ 26 9.6 Magnetic Materials ................................................................................................ 27 9.6.1 9.6.2 9.6.3 9.6.4 Magnetization ................................................................................................. 27 Paramagnetism................................................................................................ 30 Diamagnetism ................................................................................................. 31 Ferromagnetism .............................................................................................. 31

9.7 Summary................................................................................................................ 32 9.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop............... 34 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils ................................................................................ 38 Animation 9.5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils ......................................... 40 Animation 9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents ........... 42 Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires......................... 43

0

Animation 9.8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils ....................................... 43 Animation 9.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils........................................ 44 9.10 Problem-Solving Strategies ................................................................................. 45 9.10.1 Biot-Savart Law: ........................................................................................... 45 9.10.2 Ampere’s law: ............................................................................................... 47 9.11 Solved Problems .................................................................................................. 48 9.11.1 9.11.2 9.11.3 9.11.4 9.11.5 9.11.6 9.11.7 9.11.8 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire ................................................................ 48 Current-Carrying Arc.................................................................................... 50 Rectangular Current Loop............................................................................. 51 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire........................................................ 53 Two Infinitely Long Wires ........................................................................... 54 Non-Uniform Current Density ...................................................................... 56 Thin Strip of Metal........................................................................................ 58 Two Semi-Infinite Wires .............................................................................. 60

9.12 Conceptual Questions .......................................................................................... 61 9.13 Additional Problems ............................................................................................ 62 9.13.1 Application of Ampere's Law ....................................................................... 62 9.13.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law..................... 62 9.13.3 Cylinder with a Hole..................................................................................... 63 9.13.4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid ...................................................... 64 9.13.5 Rotating Disk ................................................................................................ 64 9.13.6 Four Long Conducting Wires ....................................................................... 64 9.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop ............................................................... 65 9.13.8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron..................................................... 65 9.13.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets..................................................... 66 9.13.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field......................................................................... 67 9.13.11 Permanent Magnets..................................................................................... 67 9.13.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid...................................................................... 67 9.13.13 Effect of Paramagnetism............................................................................. 68

1

**Sources of Magnetic Fields
**

9.1 Biot-Savart Law Currents which arise due to the motion of charges are the source of magnetic fields. When charges move in a conducting wire and produce a current I, the magnetic field at any point P due to the current can be calculated by adding up the magnetic field contributions, dB , from small segments of the wire d s , (Figure 9.1.1).

Figure 9.1.1 Magnetic field dB at point P due to a current-carrying element I d s . These segments can be thought of as a vector quantity having a magnitude of the length of the segment and pointing in the direction of the current flow. The infinitesimal current source can then be written as I d s .

ˆ Let r denote as the distance form the current source to the field point P, and r the corresponding unit vector. The Biot-Savart law gives an expression for the magnetic field contribution, dB , from the current source, Id s ,

dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r 2 4π r

(9.1.1)

where µ 0 is a constant called the permeability of free space:

µ0 = 4π × 10 − 7 T ⋅ m/A

(9.1.2)

Notice that the expression is remarkably similar to the Coulomb’s law for the electric field due to a charge element dq:

dE = dq ˆ r 4πε 0 r 2 1

(9.1.3)

Adding up these contributions to find the magnetic field at the point P requires integrating over the current source,

2

(9. as shown in Figure 9. Example 9. straight wire carrying a current I is placed along the x-axis. Note that we have assumed that the leads to the ends of the wire make canceling contributions to the net magnetic field at the point P .B= wire ∫ dB = µ0 I 4π ˆ d s ×r 2 r wire ∫ (9.3 A thin straight wire carrying a current I.2 is an interactive ShockWave display that shows the magnetic field of a current element from Eq. Interactive Simulation 9. Evaluate the magnetic field at point P.1: Magnetic Field due to a Finite Straight Wire A thin.1. Figure 9.4) The integral is a vector integral.1. 3 .3.1: Magnetic Field of a Current Element Figure 9. Figure 9.1).2 Magnetic field of a current element. This interactive display allows you to move the position of the observer about the source current element to see how moving that position changes the value of the magnetic field at the position of the observer. which means that the expression for B is really three integrals.1. Understanding how to evaluate this cross product and then perform the integral will be the key to learning how to use the Biot-Savart law. The vector nature of this integral appears in the ˆ cross product I d s × r .1. one for each component of B .1.1.

the position vector describing P is r = aˆ .10. (6) Simplify and carry out the integration 4 . The i i location of this source is represented by r ' = x ' ˆ . and the magnitude r =| r |= a 2 + x '2 is the j i distance from between the source and P. We solve the problem using the methodology summarized in Section 9. j P (3) Relative position vector The vector r = rP − r ' is a “relative” position vector which points from the source point to the field point. In this case. or out of the page.Solution: This is a typical example involving the use of the Biot-Savart law. (1) Source point (coordinates denoted with a prime) Consider a differential element d s = dx ' ˆ carrying current I in the x-direction. The corresponding unit vector is given by ˆ r= r j i a ˆ − x 'ˆ j i = = sin θ ˆ − cos θ ˆ 2 2 r a + x' ˆ (4) The cross product d s × r The cross product is given by ˆ ˆ d s × r = (dx ' ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ ˆ) = (dx 'sin θ ) k i i j (5) Write down the contribution to the magnetic field due to Id s The expression is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I dx sin θ ˆ = k 2 4π r 4π r2 ˆ which shows that the magnetic field at P will point in the +k direction. (2) Field point (coordinates denoted with a subscript “P”) Since the field point P is located at ( x. y ) = (0. r = a ˆ − x ' ˆ . a ) .

the differential contribution to the magnetic field is obtained as dB = µ0 I (−a csc 2 θ dθ )sin θ µI = − 0 sin θ dθ 2 4π (a csc θ ) 4π a Integrating over all angles subtended from −θ1 to θ 2 (a negative sign is needed for θ1 in order to take into consideration the portion of the length extended in the negative x axis from the origin).1. If the length of the rod is 2L . let us rewrite the variables x and r in terms of θ.3. In order to complete the integration. The two terms add! Let’s examine the following cases: (i) In the symmetric case where θ 2 = −θ1 . the field point P is located along the perpendicular bisector.6) (ii) The infinite length limit L → ∞ This limit is obtained by choosing (θ1 .1. The magnetic field at a distance a away becomes B= µ0 I 2π a (9.5) The first term involving θ 2 accounts for the contribution from the portion along the +x axis. 0) . we obtain B=− µ0 I θ µI ∫−θ sin θ dθ = 4π0 a (cos θ 2 + cos θ1 ) 4π a 2 1 (9. then cos θ1 = L / L2 + a 2 and the magnetic field is B= µ0 I µI L cos θ1 = 0 2π a 2π a L2 + a 2 (9.The variables θ.7) 5 . while the second term involving θ1 contains the contribution from the portion along the − x axis.1. we have ⎧ r = a / sin θ = a csc θ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ x = a cot θ ⇒ dx = − a csc 2 θ dθ ⎩ Upon substituting the above expressions. From Figure 9. θ 2 ) = (0. x and r are not independent of each other.1.

Figure 9. if the current flows in the +z-direction.5). and the magnetic field lines are circular. (a) What is the magnetic field at a point P on the axis of the loop. the magnetic field must point in the ϕ -direction.e.1. at a distance z from the center? ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at P.4. using the Biot-Savart law. z ) where the unit vectors are related by r × φ = z . as shown in Figure 9. find the magnetic force experienced by the dipole.1. Figure 9. In fact.5 Direction of the magnetic field due to an infinite straight wire If you direct your right thumb along the direction of the current in the wire. Is the force attractive or repulsive? What happens if the direction of the dipole ˆ is reversed. In cylindrical ˆ ˆ ˆ coordinates ( r . then the fingers of your right hand curl in the direction of the magnetic field. Example 9. i.Note that in this limit. µ = − µ z k 6 .. ϕ .1.2: Magnetic Field due to a Circular Current Loop A circular loop of radius R in the xy plane carries a steady current I. then.1. as shown in Figure 9. the direction of the magnetic field due to a long straight wire can be determined by the right-hand rule (Figure 9.6. the system possesses cylindrical symmetry.4 Magnetic field lines due to an infinite wire carrying current I.1.

Thus.1. the differential current element located at r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) can be written as Id s = I ( dr '/ dφ ') dφ ' = IRdφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) . (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' The relative position vector is given by ˆ r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j and its magnitude (9.9) is the distance between the differential current element and P.1. its ˆ position vector is given by rP = zk .Figure 9. Solution: (a) This is another example that involves the application of the Biot-Savart law.1. the corresponding unit vector from Id s to P can be written as ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | 7 .8) r = r = (− R cos φ ') 2 + ( − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + z 2 2 (9. (1) Source point In Cartesian coordinates. i j i j (2) Field point Since the field point P is on the axis of the loop at a distance z from the center.6 Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying a steady current. Again let’s find the magnetic field by applying the same methodology used in Example 9.1.

Bz is the only non-vanishing component of the magnetic field.1.(4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × (rP − r ') can be simplified as ˆ d s × (rP − r ') = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k ] i j i j ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ] i j ( ) (9. 8 . we see that along the symmetric axis. The conclusion can also be reached by using the symmetry arguments.1.11) (9.14) On the other hand.15) Thus.1.10) (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law.1. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × (rP − r ') = = 2 4π r 4π r 3 4π | rP − r ' |3 ˆ µ IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' = 0 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (6) Carrying out the integration Using the result obtained above.1.13) By = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2π 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 cos φ ' (9.1.12) The x and the y components of B can be readily shown to be zero: Bx = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 ∫ ∫ 0 2π 0 cos φ ' dφ ' = 4π ( R + z ) 2 µ0 IRz 2 3/ 2 sin φ ' 2π =0 0 2π =0 0 (9. the z component is µ0 IR 2 Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9. the magnetic field at P is B= ˆ µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k i j dφ ' 4π ∫0 ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.

due to the non-uniformity of the magnetic field.1. the magnetic field dB due to the dN charge carriers is given by 9 .1.1. we see that the current I can be written as n Aq v = I (9.16) Upon differentiating Eq. we obtain FB = − 3µ z µ0 IR 2 z ˆ k 2( R 2 + z 2 )5/ 2 (9.16).1. (9.1.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Point Charge Suppose we have an infinitesimal current element in the form of a cylinder of crosssectional area A and length ds consisting of n charge carriers per unit volume. if the ˆ direction of the dipole is reversed.The behavior of Bz / B0 where B0 = µ0 I / 2 R is the magnetic field strength at z = 0 .1. as a function of z / R ˆ (b) If we place a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k at the point P. the dipole will experience a force given by ⎛ dB FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. the resulting force will be repulsive. 9. all moving at a common velocity v along the axis of the cylinder. Bz / B0 . which we define as the amount of charge passing through any cross-section of the cylinder per unit time.1. (9.7 The ratio of the magnetic field. as discussed in Chapter 8.1.18) The total number of charge carriers in the current element is simply dN = n A ds . On the other hand.1. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9. so that using Eq.15) and substituting into Eq. From Chapter 6. the dipole is attracted toward the current-carrying ring. µ = − µ z k .7: Figure 9. Let I be the current in the element.17) Thus.1). (9.

19) where r is the distance between the charge and the field point P at which the field is being ˆ measured. Figure 9.8 The magnetic field of (a) a moving positive charge.1. the above equation strictly speaking only holds in the non-relativistic limit where v c .1.1.1. so that the effect of “retardation” can be ignored. Using the superposition principle. when the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light.20) Note.dB = ˆ ˆ ˆ µ0 (nAq | v |) d s × r µ0 (n A ds )q v × r µ0 (dN )q v × r = = 2 2 2 r r r 4π 4π 4π (9. the above equation becomes B= ˆ µ0 q v × r 2 4π r (9.1. and (b) a moving negative charge. 10 . zi ) and moving with velocity vi . dN = 1 . each moving with a different velocity. yi .1: Magnetic Field of a Moving Charge Figure 9. that since a point charge does not constitute a steady current. the magnetic field at P can be obtained as: B=∑ i =1 N ˆ ( x − xi )ˆ + ( y − yi )ˆ + ( z − zi )k ⎥ µ0 i j qi v i × ⎢ ⎢ ⎡( x − x ) 2 + ( y − y ) 2 + ( z − z ) 2 ⎤ 3/ 2 ⎥ 4π i i i ⎦ ⎦ ⎣⎣ ⎡ ⎤ (9.21) Animation 9. however. assuming the speed of the charge is small compared to the speed of light. In case of a single charge. the speed of light.8 shows one frame of the animations of the magnetic field of a moving positive and negative point charge. the unit vector r = r / r points from the source of the field (the charge) to P. The differential length vector d s is defined to be parallel to v . The result may be readily extended to a collection of N point charges. Let the ith charge qi be located at ( xi .

1.9 The magnetic field of four charges moving in a circle.1. (9. Figure 9. The bullet-like icons indicate the direction of the magnetic field at that point in the array spanning the plane. As the addition proceeds. 11 . 2.2: Magnetic Field of Several Charges Moving in a Circle Suppose we want to calculate the magnetic fields of a number of charges moving on the circumference of a circle with equal spacing between the charges. a characteristic pattern emerges--the magnetic dipole pattern. the shape of the field lines is the same as the shape of the field lines for an electric dipole. Figure 9.Animation 9. and 8. Interactive Simulation 9.10 shows a ShockWave display of the vectoral addition process for the case where we have 30 charges moving on a circle. Figure 9.10 shows an observation point fixed on the axis of the ring.1.1. To calculate this field we have to add up vectorially the magnetic fields of each of charges using Eq. When we get to eight charges. Other animations show the same situation for N =1.9 shows one frame of the animation when the number of moving charges is four. we also show the resultant up to that point (large arrow in the display).19).1.10 A ShockWave simulation of the use of the principle of superposition to find the magnetic field due to 30 moving charges moving in a circle at an observation point on the axis of the circle. Far from the ring. The display in Figure 9.1.2: Magnetic Field of a Ring of Moving Charges Figure 9. We show the magnetic field vector directions in only one plane.

Thus.1.1. a wire carrying a current will experience a net force. 9. we also show a “iron filings” representation of the magnetic field due to these charges.1. as shown in Figure 9. In Figure 9.11 The magnetic field due to 30 charges moving in a circle at a given observation point.2.10. we expect two current-carrying wires to exert force on each other. F12 .2. the magnetic field lines due to I2 going in the +xdirection are circles concentric with wire 2.Figure 9. We can move the observation point about in space to see how the total field at various points arises from the individual contributions of the magnetic field of to each moving charge.1. but now we can interact with the display to move the position of the observer about in space. The position of the observation point can be varied to see how the magnetic field of the individual charges adds up to give the total field. In addition.11. exerted on wire 1 by wire 2 may be computed as follows: Using the result from the previous example. we show an interactive ShockWave display that is similar to that in Figure 9.1 Force between two parallel wires The magnetic force. To get a feel for the total magnetic field.2 Force Between Two Parallel Wires We have already seen that a current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field. Figure 9. Consider two parallel wires separated by a distance a and carrying currents I1 and I2 in the +x-direction. when placed in a magnetic field. with the field B2 pointing in the tangential 12 .

the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce an attraction between the wires.1b). The conclusion we can draw from this simple calculation is that two parallel wires carrying currents in the same direction will attract each other.2 (a) The attraction between two wires carrying current in the same direction. Animation 9. all compass needles point in the same direction in the absence of current. at an arbitrary point P on wire 1.3 Ampere’s Law We have seen that moving charges or currents are the source of magnetism.2.1) Clearly F12 points toward wire 2. we have B 2 = −( µ0 I 2 / 2π a)ˆ . However.1a. As shown in Figure 9. Therefore. (a) (b) Figure 9. This can be readily demonstrated by placing compass needles near a wire. the resultant force will be repulsive.2. (b) The repulsion of two wires carrying current in opposite directions. which points in the direction perpendicular to wire 1. On the other hand. 9. In the first case. Thus.3. µIIlˆ ⎛ µI ⎞ F12 = I1l × B 2 = I1 l ˆ × ⎜ − 0 2 ˆ ⎟ = − 0 1 2 k i j 2π a ⎝ 2π a ⎠ ( ) (9. if the currents flow in opposite directions. when I ≠ 0 .1.j direction. as depicted in Figure 9. 13 .2.2.2 shows parallel wires carrying current in the same and in opposite directions.3: Forces Between Current-Carrying Parallel Wires Figures 9.3. the needles will be deflected along the tangential direction of the circular path (Figure 9. The direction of current flow is represented by the motion of the orange spheres in the visualization. In the second case the magnetic field configuration is such as to produce a repulsion between the wires.

2).3. or an “Amperian loop” that follows one particular magnetic field line. as that shown in Figure 9.Figure 9.1 Deflection of compass needles near a current-carrying wire Let us now divide a circular path of radius r into a large number of small length vectors ˆ ∆ s = ∆ s φ .1) The result above is obtained by choosing a closed path. Figure 9. we obtain ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds = ⎜ 2π r ⎟ ( 2π r ) = µ I ⎝ ⎠ 0 ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ (9. Let’s consider a slightly more complicated Amperian loop.3 An Amperian loop involving two field lines 14 .3.3. that point along the tangential direction with magnitude ∆ s (Figure 9.3.3.3.3 Figure 9.2 Amperian loop In the limit ∆ s → 0 .

15 .3. the line integral of ∫ B ⋅ d s around any closed Amperian loop is proportional to I enc . z ) with current flowing in the ˆ +z-axis.4 An Amperian loop of arbitrary shape. Figure 9.4) closed path ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I ⎛ µ0 I ⎞ ⎜ 2π r ⎟ r dϕ = 2π ⎠ closed path ⎝ ∫ closed path ∫ dϕ = µ0 I (2π ) = µ0 I 2π (9.3.2) = 0 + B2 (r2θ ) + 0 + B1[r1 (2π − θ )] where the length of arc bc is r2θ . An arbitrary length element in the cylindrical coordinates can be written as ˆ ˆ ˆ d s = dr r + r dϕ φ + dz z which implies (9.3.3.3.The line integral of the magnetic field around the contour abcda is abcda ∫ B⋅d s = ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s + ∫ B⋅d s ab bc cd cd (9. the current encircled by the loop. and r1 (2π − θ ) for arc da. in cylindrical coordinates ( r .1.3) We see that the same result is obtained whether the closed path involves one or two magnetic field lines. The first and the third integrals vanish since the magnetic field is perpendicular to the paths of integration. As shown in Example 9.5) In other words. the above expression becomes abcda ∫ B⋅d s = µ0 I µI µI µI (r2θ ) + 0 [r1 (2π − θ )] = 0 θ + 0 (2π − θ ) = µ0 I 2π r2 2π r1 2π 2π (9. the magnetic field is given by B = ( µ0 I / 2π r )φ . ϕ . With B1 = µ0 I / 2π r1 and B2 = µ0 I / 2π r2 .

as shown in Figure 9.3. Biot-Savart law must be used instead.4). Infinitely large sheet of thickness b with a current density J (Example 9.3.3. However.3) 2. Find the magnetic field everywhere.The generalization to any closed loop of arbitrary shape (see for example. Toroid (Example 9. Figure 9. the system must possess certain symmetry.6) Ampere’s law in magnetism is analogous to Gauss’s law in electrostatics. 16 .4) that involves many magnetic field lines is known as Ampere’s law: ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I 0 enc (9. We shall examine all four configurations in detail.5). Figure 9. 3.5.3. Infinitely long straight wires carrying a steady current I (Example 9.5 Amperian loops for calculating the B field of a conducting wire of radius R. when the length of the wire is finite. 4.4). the system possesses cylindrical symmetry and Ampere’s law can be readily applied. Infinite solenoid (Section 9. In order to apply them. In the case of an infinite wire. Example 9. Biot-Savart Law Ampere’s law B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π 0 enc general current source ex: finite wire current source has certain symmetry ex: infinite wire (cylindrical) ∫ B ⋅d s = µ I Ampere’s law is applicable to the following current configurations: 1.3: Field Inside and Outside a Current-Carrying Wire Consider a long straight wire of radius R carrying a current I of uniform current density.

3. Outside the wire.e.e. we have ⎛ π r2 ⎞ =⎜ I 2 ⎟ ⎝ πR ⎠ ⎛ π r2 ⎞ ∫ B ⋅ d s =B ( 2π r ) = µ0 I ⎜ π R 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⇒ B= µ0 Ir 2π R 2 We see that the magnetic field is zero at the center of the wire and increases linearly with r until r=R. the Amperian loop (circle 1) completely encircles the current. I enc Thus. i. Example 9.. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = B ∫ ds =B ( 2π r ) = µ I 0 which implies B= µ0 I 2π r (ii) Inside the wire where r < R .3. the field falls off as 1/r. The qualitative behavior of the field is depicted in Figure 9.6 below: Figure 9. Find the magnetic field everywhere.4: Magnetic Field Due to an Infinite Current Sheet Consider an infinitely large sheet of thickness b lying in the xy plane with a uniform i current density J = J 0ˆ . 17 ..Solution: (i) Outside the wire where r ≥ R .6 Magnetic field of a conducting wire of radius R carrying a steady current I . the amount of current encircled by the Amperian loop (circle 2) is proportional to the area enclosed. I enc = I . i.

i Figure 9. Figure 9. we see that magnetic field at a point P above the plane points in the −y-direction.3. The amount of current enclosed by C1 is 18 . Figure 9.3. From Figure 9. Similarly. Solution: We may think of the current sheet as a set of parallel wires carrying currents in the +xdirection. we integrate along path C1 .9 Amperian loops for the current sheets For the field outside. we may show that the magnetic field at a point below the plane points in the +y-direction.9.3.8.8 Magnetic field of a current sheet We may now apply Ampere’s law to find the magnetic field due to the current sheet.3.7 An infinite sheet with current density J = J 0ˆ . The Amperian loops are shown in Figure 9.3. The z-component vanishes after adding up the contributions from all wires.

3. with b → 0 . the magnetic field becomes ⎧ µ0 K ⎪− ⎪ B=⎨ 2 ⎪ µ0 K ⎪ 2 ⎩ 9. z < −b / 2 j 2 ⎪ ⎩ (9. The results can be summarized using the unit-vector notation as ⎧ µ0 J 0b ˆ ⎪− 2 j.3.7) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 ( J 0b ) (9. where K = J 0b .1 shows the magnetic field lines of a solenoid carrying a steady current I. At z = 0 . i Note that the dimension of K is current/length. instead of current density J = J 0ˆ .3.11) Let’s now consider the limit where the sheet is infinitesimally thin. the magnetic field vanishes.I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (b ) Applying Ampere’s law leads to (9. Note that the magnetic field outside the sheet is constant. z > 0 j (9. In this limit.3. independent of the distance from the sheet. the resulting magnetic field inside the solenoid becomes fairly uniform. We see that if the turns are closely spaced. ˆ. The amount of current enclosed by path C2 is I enc = ∫∫ J ⋅ dA = J 0 (2 | z | ) Applying Ampere’s law. Next we find the magnetic field inside the sheet.8) or B = µ0 J 0b / 2 . z < 0 j 19 .12) ˆ. as required by symmetry. we have surface current K = K ˆ .10) or B = µ0 J 0 | z | .4.3.9) ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2 ) = µ0 I enc = µ0 J 0 (2 | z | ) (9. z > b / 2 ⎪ ⎪ B = ⎨ − µ 0 J 0 z ˆ.3. In this i case. Figure 9. we obtain (9. − b / 2 < z < b / 2 j ⎪ µJb ⎪ 0 0 ˆ .4 Solenoid A solenoid is a long coil of wire tightly wound in the helical form.

The line integral of B along this loop is ∫ B⋅d s = ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s + ∫B⋅d s 1 2 3 4 (9. where N is the total number of turns. and vanishes outside the solenoid. In the above. In addition. To compute B . Figure 9. we consider a rectangular path of length l and width w and traverse the path in a counterclockwise manner. On the other hand.provided that the length of the solenoid is much greater than its diameter. For an “ideal” solenoid.4. which is infinitely long with turns tightly packed.4.1) = 0 + 0 + Bl + 0 Figure 9. B = 0 along side 1 because the magnetic field is non-zero only inside the solenoid.2. the contributions along sides 2 and 4 are zero because B is perpendicular to d s .4. the total current enclosed by the Amperian loop is I enc = NI .1 Magnetic field lines of a solenoid We can use Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field strength inside an ideal solenoid.2 Amperian loop for calculating the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid.2) or 20 . the magnetic field inside the solenoid is uniform and parallel to the axis. The cross-sectional view of an ideal solenoid is shown in Figure 9.4. Applying Ampere’s law yields ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl = µ NI 0 (9.4.

Using the result obtained in Example 9.4..2. where n = N / l is the number of turns per unit length. we obtain Bz = µ0 nIR 2 2 µ nIR 2 dz ' z '− z = 0 ∫−l / 2 [( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 2 R 2 ( z − z ') 2 + R 2 l/2 l/2 −l / 2 (9. Figure 9.4. the magnetic field at a point P on the z axis may be calculated as follows: Take a cross section of tightly packed loops located at z’ with a thickness dz ' .B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI (9.4.3 The amount of current flowing through is proportional to the thickness of the cross section and is given by dI = I ( ndz ') = I ( N / l ) dz ' . In terms of the surface current.6) µ nI ⎡ (l / 2) − z (l / 2) + z = 0 ⎢ + 2 ⎢ ( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 21 .5) Integrating over the entire length of the solenoid. we shall approximate the solenoid as consisting of a large number of circular loops stacking together.4. the magnetic field can also be written as. B = µ0 K (9.4.4. as shown in Figure 9.4) What happens if the length of the solenoid is finite? To find the magnetic field due to a finite solenoid. or current per unit length K = nI .3) where n = N / l represents the number of turns per unit length.3 Finite Solenoid The contribution to the magnetic field at P due to this subset of loops is dBz = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 dI = µ0 R 2 2[( z − z ')2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 (nIdz ') (9.

5: Toroid Consider a toroid which consists of N turns. the magnetic field is completely confined inside the toroid and the field points in the azimuthal direction (clockwise due to the way the current flows. Notice that the value of the magnetic field in the region | z | < l / 2 is nearly uniform and approximately equal to B0 .4.4 for l = 10 R and l = 20 R . and (b) l = 20 R .5. we obtain 22 .4.4 Magnetic field of a finite solenoid for (a) l = 10 R . Examaple 9. as a function of z / R is shown in Figure 9.5 A toroid with N turns Solutions: One can think of a toroid as a solenoid wrapped around with its ends connected. Figure 9.4.A plot of Bz / B0 . as shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. Thus.4. where B0 = µ0 nI is the magnetic field of an infinite solenoid.) Applying Ampere’s law.5. Find the magnetic field everywhere. as shown in Figure 9.4.

and zcomponents of the magnetic field are given by By = − µ 0 3µ sin θ cos θ .θ. the radial and the polar components of the magnetic field can be written as Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ = − µ0 2µ cos θ 4π r 3 (9. φ ) .1 Earth’s magnetic field components In Figure 9..5. What is the magnetic field at a point (e.1 we show the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole. The y. Unlike the magnetic field of a solenoid.5.∫ B ⋅ d s = ∫ Bds = B ∫ ds =B(2π r ) = µ N I 0 (9.5 Magnetic Field of a Dipole ˆ Let a magnetic dipole moment vector µ = − µ k be placed at the origin (e.5. 4π r 3 Bz = − µ0 µ (3cos 2 θ − 1) 4π r 3 (9.1) Readers are referred to Section 9. the magnetic field inside the toroid is non-uniform and decreases as 1/ r .g.5.g.2) 23 . center of the Earth) in the yz plane. 9.8) where r is the distance measured from the center of the toroid.8 for the detail of the derivation.4.7) or B= µ 0 NI 2π r (9. In spherical coordinates (r.. MIT) a distance r away from the origin? Figure 9..4.

In general.13. and φ is the azimuthal angle in the xy plane. the magnetic field at MIT due to the dipole becomes µ µ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ B = Bθ θ + Br r = − 0 3 (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 4π r (9.2 an imaginary magnet is drawn inside the Earth oriented to produce a magnetic field like that of the Earth’s magnetic field. the radius of the Earth. It is most natural to represent the location of a point P on the surface of the Earth using the spherical coordinates ( r .5.5.4) Notice the similarity between the above expression and the electric field due to an electric dipole p (see Solved Problem 2.5. measured from the x-axis.3. the point P is parameterized by the two angles θ and φ .3) respectively. with 0 ≤ θ ≤ π .6): E= p ˆ ˆ (sin θ θ + 2 cos θ r ) 3 4πε 0 r 1 The negative sign in Eq. In Figure 9. Note the South pole of such a magnet in the northern hemisphere in order to attract the North pole of a compass.4) is due to the fact that the magnetic dipole points in the −z-direction. with 0 ≤ φ ≤ 2π (See Figure 9.5. where r is the distance from the center of the Earth. (9. the magnetic field due to a dipole moment µ can be written as B= ˆ ˆ µ0 3(µ ⋅ r )r − µ 4π r3 (9.5.5) The ratio of the radial and the polar components is given by µ0 2 µ cos θ Br 4π r 3 = = 2 cot θ µ0 µ Bθ − sin θ 4π r 3 − (9. 24 .5.1 Earth’s Magnetic Field at MIT The Earth’s field behaves as if there were a bar magnet in it. θ is the polar angle from the z-axis.6) 9. θ . Thus.5.) With the distance fixed at r = rE .and Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ = − µ0 µ sin θ 4π r 3 (9.5. φ ) .

The value of longitude depends on where the counting begins. it is related to θ (commonly referred to as the colatitude) by δ = 90° − θ . a location on Earth is described by two numbers – latitude and longitude. Lines of constant longitude are generally referred to as meridians. For historical reasons. is a measure of the elevation from the plane of the equator. How are they related to θ and φ ? The latitude of a point. respectively. UK.98 k ) i j E (9. Let the z-axis be the Earth’s rotation axis. the equator has latitude 0° .Figure 9. and the x-axis passes through the prime meridian. denoted as δ .5. the meridian passing through the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Greenwich.5. Using this definition. is chosen as the “prime meridian” with zero longitude. Figure 9.7) 25 . The longitude of a location is simply represented by the azimuthal angle φ in the spherical coordinates.2 Magnetic field of the Earth In practice. and the north and the south poles have latitude ±90° .5. Thus.18 ˆ − 0.062 ˆ + 0.3 Locating a point P on the surface of the Earth using spherical coordinates. The corresponding magnetic dipole moment of the Earth can be written as ˆ µ E = µ E (sin θ 0 cos φ0 ˆ + sin θ 0 sin φ0 ˆ + cos θ 0 k ) i j ˆ = µ (−0.

9) ˆ ˆ Note that the polar angle θ is defined as θ = cos −1 (r ⋅ k ) . 26 . Thus. However. the local field is dominated by the bar magnet. The expression shows that µ E has non-vanishing components in all three directions in the Cartesian coordinates. The interaction between the magnetic field of the bar magnet and the magnetic field of the earth is illustrated by the field lines that extend out from the bar magnet.5. if we measure the ratio of the radial to the polar component of the Earth’s magnetic field at MIT. On the other hand. Looking at the compass.4 shows a bar magnet and compass placed on a table. Thus. Click and drag the mouse to rotate the scene. and we have used (θ 0 . and 71° west of the prime meridian). In this case.5.80) = 37° | rMIT || −µ E | ⎠ ⎝ (9.5. the inverse of cosine of the dot ˆ ˆ product between a unit vector r for the position.24 ˆ − 0. the position of MIT can be described by the vector ˆ rMIT = rE (sin θ m cos φm ˆ + sin θ m sin φm ˆ + cos θ m k ) i j ˆ = r (0.6.10) Note that the positive radial (vertical) direction is chosen to point outward and the positive polar (horizontal) direction points towards the equator.109°) .67 k ) i j E (9.5. φ0 ) = (169°. is approximately a constant field coming at 60 degrees from the horizontal.8) The angle between −µ E and rMIT is given by θ ME = cos −1 ⎜ ⎛ −rMIT ⋅ µ E ⎞ −1 ⎟ = cos (0. one can see that a compass needle will always align itself in the direction of the local field. as indicated in Figure 9. and φm = 360° − 71° = 289° . which. Field lines that emerge towards the edges of the magnet generally reconnect to the magnet near the opposite pole. Animation 9. field lines that emerge near the poles tend to wander off and reconnect to the magnetic field of the earth. in this case. the location of MIT is 42° N for the latitude and 71°W for the longitude ( 42° north of the equator.1. which means that θ m = 90° − 42° = 48° . the result would be Br = 2 cot 37° ≈ 2.79 × 10 22 A ⋅ m 2 .4: Bar Magnet in the Earth’s Magnetic Field Figure 9. Control-click and drag to zoom in and out.where µ E = 7. and a unit vector +k in the positive zdirection.65 Bθ (9.70 ˆ + 0.

their effect was always to reduce E below what it would otherwise be. spread uniformly throughout the volume of the cylinder.Figure 9. Below we discuss how these effects arise. One of the concepts crucial to the understanding of magnetic materials is the average magnetic field produced by many magnetic dipoles which are all aligned.1 Magnetization Magnetic materials consist of many permanent or induced magnetic dipoles. Suppose we have a piece of material in the form of a long cylinder with area A and height L. and that it consists of N magnetic dipoles. (ii) increase B a little above what it would otherwise be (paramagnetic materials). each with magnetic dipole moment µ . (iii) increase B a lot above what it would otherwise be (ferromagnetic materials).4 A bar magnet in Earth’s magnetic field 9. their effect can be one of the following: (i) reduce B below what it would otherwise be.5. 27 . When we dealt with dielectric materials in electrostatics.6. as shown in Figure 9. 9. when we deal with magnetic materials.6. for a given amount of “free” electric charge. In contrast. for the same amount of "free" electric current (diamagnetic materials).6 Magnetic Materials The introduction of material media into the study of magnetism has very different consequences as compared to the introduction of material media into the study of electrostatics.1.

what is the average magnetic field due to these dipoles alone? To answer this question. The only place where cancellation does not take place is near the edge of the cylinder where there are no adjacent loops further out. the magnitude of M is simply M = N µ / AL .2(a) depicts the small current loops associated with the dipole moments and the direction of the currents.6.6.2(b). In the absence of any external magnetic field. (b) The equivalent current. Now. where there is an equivalent current I eq on the sides. 28 .2 (a) Top view of the cylinder containing magnetic dipole moments. we note that each magnetic dipole has its own magnetic field associated with it. where all the dipoles are aligned. as seen from above. the average current in the interior of the cylinder vanishes.6.1) where V is the volume. We see that in the interior. In the case of our cylinder. Figure 9. Let’s define the magnetization vector M to be the net magnetic dipole moment vector per unit volume: M= 1 V ∑µ i i (9. Thus. whereas the sides of the cylinder appear to carry a net current. The equivalent situation is shown in Figure 9.Figure 9. what is the average magnetic field produced by all the dipoles in the cylinder? Figure 9.1 A cylinder with N magnetic dipole moments We also assume that all of the magnetic dipole moments µ are aligned with the axis of the cylinder. currents flow in a given direction will be cancelled out by currents flowing in the opposite direction in neighboring loops.6.6.

A very different field is observed if we go close to any one of these little dipoles. let’s calculate the magnetic field produced by I eq .6) is the average field due to all the dipoles.6.2) or I eq = Nµ A (9.5) Since the direction of this magnetic field is in the same direction as M .6.6. the magnetic field is in the same direction as the magnetic dipole vector. The condition gives I eq A = N µ (9. Notice that the magnetic field in Eq. which is the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. we see that the surface current K is equal to the magnetization M .4) Thus.6) This is exactly opposite from the situation with electric dipoles. the equivalent configuration is identical to a solenoid carrying a surface current (or current per unit length) K .3) Next.The functional form of I eq may be deduced by requiring that the magnetic dipole moment produced by I eq be the same as total magnetic dipole moment of the system. in which the average electric field is anti-parallel to the direction of the electric dipoles themselves. it is not surprising that after a large-scale averaging. Let’s now examine the properties of different magnetic materials 29 .6. the average magnetic field also turns out to be parallel to the average magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. (9. The two quantities are related by K= I eq L = Nµ =M AL (9.6.4) BM = µ0 K = µ0 M (9. With I eq running on the sides. the above expression may be written in vector notation as B M = µ0 M (9. The average magnetic field produced by the equivalent current system is given by (see Section 9. Therefore. The reason is that in the region interior to the current loop of the dipole.6.

6. that alignment enhances the external magnetic field.6.6.10) is called the relative permeability of the material. whereas in the dielectric case it reduces the external electric field.9) κm = 1 + χm (9. but also linearly proportional to B0 . or equivalently. the dipoles experience a torque τ = µ × B0 that tends to align µ with B0 .7) can then be written as B = (1 + χ m )B0 = κ m B0 where (9.8) where χ m is a dimensionless quantity called the magnetic susceptibility. it will tend to enhance B0 . However. although χ m is usually on the order of 10−6 to 10−3 . thereby producing a net magnetization M parallel to B0 . The magnetic permeability µ m of a material may also be defined as µm = (1 + χ m ) µ0 = κ m µ0 (9. κ m > 1 .7. when we place a paramagnetic material in an external field B0 . they are randomly aligned. Eq.11) 30 . χ m > 0 . For paramagnetic substances.9. However. In the absence of any applied external magnetic field. The linear relation between M and B0 is expressed as M = χm B0 µ0 (9. M = 0 and the average magnetic field B M is also zero. the magnetization M is not only in the same direction as B0 . The total magnetic field B is the sum of these two fields: B = B 0 + B M = B 0 + µ0 M (9.6. In both cases.7) Note how different this is than in the case of dielectric materials. Thus. In most paramagnetic substances.6. Since B M is parallel to B0 . the torque on the dipoles causes alignment of the dipole vector parallel to the external field. This is plausible because without the external field B0 there would be no alignment of dipoles and hence no magnetization M . (10. in the paramagnetic case. the permanent magnetic dipoles in a paramagnetic material never line up spontaneously. Left to themselves.6.2 Paramagnetism The atoms or molecules comprising paramagnetic materials have a permanent magnetic dipole moment.

The strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments causes a much stronger alignment of the magnetic dipoles than in paramagnetic materials. 9. The permeability κ m of a ferromagnetic material is not a constant. as shown in Figure 9.Paramagnetic materials have µm > µ0 . as in equation (8-5). Figure 9.3(b). An externally applied field B0 will tend to line up those magnetic dipoles parallel to the external field.6.4 Ferromagnetism In ferromagnetic materials. (b) Alignment of magnetic moments in the direction of the external field B0 . The enhancement of the applied external field can be considerable. However. For diamagnetic materials.6.3 Diamagnetism In the case of magnetic materials where there are no permanent magnetic dipoles. although now κ m < 1 . these induced magnetic dipoles are anti-parallel to B0 . since neither the total field B or the magnetization M increases linearly with B0 . there is a strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments. although χ m is usually on the order of −10−5 to −10−9 .3(a). with the total magnetic field inside a ferromagnet 103 or 10 4 times greater than the applied field. leading to a magnetization M and average field B M anti-parallel to B0 . In fact the relationship between M and B0 is not unique. The 31 . we can still define the magnetic permeability. and therefore a reduction in the total magnetic field strength.6. Diamagnetic materials have µm < µ0 .6. Ferromagnetic materials are made up of small patches called domains. as illustrated in Figure 9. or χ m < 0 . but dependent on the previous history of the material. 9.3 (a) Ferromagnetic domains.6. the presence of an external field B0 will induce magnetic dipole moments in the atoms or molecules.

consider the fact that magnetic dipole moments of atoms typically have magnitudes of the order of 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .4 A hysteresis curve. And these aligned dipoles can thus produce a strong magnetic field. even when the external magnet field is reduced to zero. This is the origin of permanent magnets.4.phenomenon is known as hysteresis. just due to the atomic currents alone. the strong interaction between neighboring atomic dipole moments can keep those dipole moments aligned. or 10. The variation of M as a function of the externally applied field B0 is shown in Figure 9.7 • Summary Biot-Savart law states that the magnetic field dB at a point due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I and located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r 2 4π r where r = r and µ 0 = 4π × 10 −7 T ⋅ m/A is the permeability of free space. 9. • The magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance r away from an infinitely long straight wire carrying a current I is 32 .6. Figure 9. then we would get a magnetization of order M ∼ (10−23 A ⋅ m 2 )(1029 atoms/m3 ) ∼ 106 A/m (9. To see how strong such magnets can be. in ferromagnets. This is how we get permanent magnets with fields of order 2200 Gauss. Typical atomic densities are 1029 atoms/m3.6.000 Gauss. The loop abcdef is a hysteresis curve. Moreover. If all these dipole moments are aligned.12) The magnetization corresponds to values of B M = µ0M of order 1 tesla.6. all by themselves. without the necessity of an external magnetic field.

• The magnetic field inside a solenoid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying current I in a length of l is given by B = µ0 N I = µ 0 nI l where n is the number of number of turns per unit length.B= µ0 I 2π r • The magnitude of the magnetic force FB between two straight wires of length carrying steady current of I1 and I 2 and separated by a distance r is FB = µ0 I1 I 2 2π r • Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total steady current passing through any surface that is bounded by the close loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I • 0 enc The magnetic field inside a toroid which has N closely spaced of wire carrying a current I is given by B= µ0 NI 2π r where r is the distance from the center of the toroid. • The properties of magnetic materials are as follows: Magnetic susceptibility Materials Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic χm Relative permeability −10−5 ∼ −10−9 10 −5 ∼ 10 −3 χm 1 κm = 1 + χm κm < 1 κm > 1 κm 1 Magnetic permeability µ m = κ m µ0 µ m < µ0 µm > µ0 µm µ0 33 .

The P corresponding relative position vector is r = rP − r ' = − R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ') ˆ + zk i j ˆ with a magnitude (9. Figure 9.8. the field point i j ˆ j P now lies in the yz plane with r = y ˆ + z k .1.8 Appendix 1: Magnetic Field off the Symmetry Axis of a Current Loop In Example 9.8. at a point P along the axis of symmetry.1.1 Calculating the magnetic field off the symmetry axis of a current loop. the differential current element is Id s = R dφ '( − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ ) i j and its position is described by r ' = R (cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) . The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ˆ i j i j d s × r = R dφ ' − sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ × [− R cos φ ' ˆ + ( y − R sin φ ')ˆ + z k ] ˆ = R dφ '[ z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k ] i j ( ) (9.9.8. as shown in Example 9.2) and the unit vector ˆ r= r r −r' = P r | rP − r ' | ˆ pointing from Id s to P.3) 34 .8. Again. On the other hand. Let’s see how the same technique can be extended to calculating the field at a point off the axis of symmetry in the yz plane.2 we calculated the magnetic field due to a circular loop of radius R lying in the xy plane and carrying a steady current I. as shown in Figure 9.8.1) r = r = (− R cos φ ')2 + ( y − R sin φ ') + z 2 = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ 2 (9.

In the limit y = 0 .5) The x-component of B can be readily shown to be zero Bx = µ0 IRz 2π cos φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 = 0 4π ( ) (9.2: By = and 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = − 4π ( R 2 + z 2 ) µ0 IRz cos φ ' 3/ 2 2π =0 0 (9.8) involve elliptic integrals which can be evaluated numerically.8. magnetic field at P is B ( 0.8. On the other hand.Using the Biot-Savart law. and we recover the results obtained in Example 9.8.9) 35 .7) and Bz = ( R − y sin φ ') dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. the field point P is located along the z-axis.4) Thus.8. z ) = ˆ i j µ0 IR 2π z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k dφ ' 3/ 2 4π ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') ( (9. By = µ0 IRz 2π sin φ ' dφ ' ∫0 R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9. y.8.8. the contribution at φ ' is cancelled by the contribution at π − φ ' . namely.6) by making a change of variable w = R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' . followed by a straightforward integration. One may also invoke symmetry arguments to verify that Bx must vanish. the contribution of the current element to the magnetic field at P is dB = ˆ i j ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 IR z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + ( R − y sin φ ') k = = dφ ' 3/ 2 4π r 2 4π r 3 4π ( R 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 yR sin φ ') (9. the y and the z components of B .

8.10) Now.14) 36 . let’s consider the “point-dipole” limit where R ( y 2 + z 2 )1/ 2 = r .. In this limit.8.8. i. Using spherical coordinates where y = r sin θ and z = r cos θ .13) µ0 I π R 2 4π r 3 ⎡ 3 y2 ⎤ ⎢ 2 − r 2 + higher order terms ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ The quantity I (π R 2 ) may be identified as the magnetic dipole moment µ = IA .12) µ0 I R 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ( R − y sin φ ')dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ ⎤ µ 0 I R 2π ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ ⎛ 9 R 2 ⎞ 3Ry 2 2 = ⎢⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ sin φ '− 2 sin φ '⎥ dφ ' r 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ 2 r ⎠ ⎦ µ0 I R ⎡ ⎛ 3R 3 ⎞ 3π Ry 2 ⎤ = ⎢ 2π ⎜ R − 2 ⎟ − ⎥ r2 ⎦ 4π r 3 ⎣ ⎝ 2r ⎠ = (9.8. the above expressions may be rewritten as By = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) 3(r sin θ )(r cos θ ) µ0 3µ sin θ cos θ = 4π r5 4π r3 (9.e.11) This leads to By ≈ = and Bz ≈ µ0 I Rz 2π ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ sin φ ' dφ ' 4π r 3 ∫0 ⎣ 2 ⎝ r2 ⎠⎦ µ0 I 3R yz µ0 I 3π R yz 2 5 ∫0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 4π r 5 4π r 2 2π 2 (9.8. the denominator in the integrand can be expanded as (R 2 + y + z − 2 yR sin φ ') 2 2 −3/ 2 1 = 3 r ⎡ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎤ ⎢1 + ⎥ r2 ⎣ ⎦ ⎤ 1 ⎡ 3 ⎛ R 2 − 2 yR sin φ ' ⎞ = 3 ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ + …⎥ 2 r ⎣ 2⎝ r ⎠ ⎦ −3/ 2 (9. where A = π R 2 is the area of the loop. the characteristic dimension of the current source is much smaller compared to the distance where the magnetic field is to be measured.µ IR 2 Bz = 0 2 2 3/ 2 4π ( R + z ) ∫ 2π 0 µ0 2π IR 2 µ0 IR 2 = dφ ' = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 (9.

17) In addition. the spherical components may be written as 37 . j ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ ˆ − sin θ k j (9.8. Figure 9.and Bz = µ0 ( I π R 2 ) ⎛ 3r 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ µ0 µ µ µ (2 − 3sin 2 θ ) = 0 3 (3 cos 2 θ − 1) ⎜2− ⎟= 3 2 3 4π r r 4π r ⎝ ⎠ 4π r (9. ˆ Figure 9.8. ˆ ˆ r = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k . we see that the magnetic field at a point r R due to a current ring of radius R may be approximated by a small magnetic dipole moment placed at the origin (Figure 9. Bθ = By cos θ − Bz sin θ (9.8.2 Magnetic dipole moment µ = µ k The magnetic field lines due to a current loop and a dipole moment (small bar magnet) are depicted in Figure 9.8. The magnetic field at P can also be written in spherical coordinates ˆ ˆ B = Br r + Bθ θ (9.15) Thus.8.2).16) The spherical components Br and Bθ are related to the Cartesian components B y and Bz by Br = By sin θ + Bz cos θ .3.3 Magnetic field lines due to (a) a current loop. we have.8. and (b) a small bar magnet.8.8. for the unit vectors.18) Using the above relations.

as shown in Figure 9.1. There is a steady current I flowing in the same direction around each coil.20) In the limit where R Br ≈ and Bθ = ≈ r .21) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) ⎤ ⎛ 3R 2 ⎞ ⎛ µ0 IR 2π ⎡ 3R 2 3R 2 sin 2 θ ⎞ 2 − R sin θ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ + ⎜ r − − ⎟ sin φ '+ 3R sin θ sin φ '⎥dφ ' 3 ∫0 ⎢ 4π r 2r 2r ⎝ 2r ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ µ0 IR µ0 ( I π R 2 ) sin θ ≈ ( −2π R sin θ + 3π R sin θ ) = 4π r 3 4π r 3 µ µ sin θ = 0 4π r 3 (9.19) ( r sin φ '− R sin θ ) dφ ' µ0 IR 2π ∫0 R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ' 3/ 2 4π ( ) (9.1 Helmholtz coils 38 . Let’s find the magnetic field B on the axis at a distance z from the center of one coil. Figure 9.9 Appendix 2: Helmholtz Coils Consider two N-turn circular coils of radius R.8.8.9. we obtain µ0 IR 2 cos θ 4π r 3 ∫ 2π 0 dφ ' = µ0 2π IR 2 cos θ µ0 2µ cos θ = 4π r3 4π r3 (9.8.8.22) 9.µ0 IR 2 cos θ Br = 4π and Bθ ( r . with their centers located at z = ± l / 2 .9. θ ) = ∫ 2π 0 (R 2 + r 2 − 2rR sin θ sin φ ') dφ ' 3/ 2 (9. each perpendicular to the axis of symmetry.

z = 0 .9.3) d 2 B N µ0 IR 2 ⎧ 3 15( z − l / 2) 2 = + ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 dz 2 2 [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] − ⎫ 3 15( z + l / 2) 2 + 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ (9.2) One may readily show that at the midpoint.2 Magnetic field as a function of z / R . the derivative vanishes: dB dz Straightforward differentiation yields ′′ Bz ( z ) = =0 z =0 (9.9.9.9.4) 39 .Using the result shown in Example 9.1) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = depicted in Figure 9. we obtain ′ Bz ( z ) = dBz µ0 NIR 2 = 2 dz ⎧ ⎫ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) − ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] (9.9. µ0 NI (5 / 4)3/ 2 R being the field strength at z = 0 and l = R is Figure 9. Let’s analyze the properties of Bz in more detail. Differentiating Bz with respect to z. 0) (a point at a distance z − l / 2 away from one center and z + l / 2 from the other) due to the two coils can be obtained as: Bz = Btop + Bbottom = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 + [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.9.2 for a single coil and applying the superposition principle. the magnetic field at P ( z .2.

9. the magnetic force acting on the dipole is z ⎛ dB FB = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎝ dz ⎞ˆ ⎟k ⎠ (9. In this animation. and is illustrated by field lines stretching out to enclose both coils.3(b). 2! (9. the distance of separation between the two coils is equal to the radius of the coil. the top loop has only half the current as the bottom loop.9. we may make a Taylor-series expansion of Bz ( z ) about z = 0 : ′ Bz ( z ) = Bz (0) + Bz (0) z + 1 ′′ Bz (0) z 2 + . If we ˆ place a magnetic dipole µ = µ k at z = 0 . A configuration with l = R is known as Helmholtz coils. In this configuration the currents in the top and bottom coils flow in the same direction. For small z. That is. When the distance between the coils is not fixed..9. the force of attraction between them creates a tension. 40 .5) Thus. Animation 9. The field configuration is shown using the “iron filings” representation.At the midpoint z = 0 .5: Magnetic Field of the Helmholtz Coils The animation in Figure 9. One may even show that the third derivative ′′′ Bz (0) vanishes at z = 0 as well. the above expression simplifies to ′′ Bz (0) = d 2B dz 2 = z =0 µ0 NI 2 ⎧ 2 ⎫ 6 15l 2 − + ⎨ 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 7/2 ⎬ 2[(l / 2) + R ] ⎭ ⎩ [(l / 2) + R ] =− µ0 NI 2 2 6( R 2 − l 2 ) [(l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]7 / 2 (9..3(a) shows the magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils.6) The fact that the first two derivatives vanish at z = 0 indicates that the magnetic field is fairly uniform in the small z region.9. The magnetic fields from the two coils add up to create a net field that is nearly uniform at the center of the coils. the two coils move toward each other due to their force of attraction.7) which is expected to be very small since the magnetic field is nearly uniform there. the condition that the second derivative of Bz vanishes at z = 0 is l = R . Since the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coils and remains unchanged.9. with their dipole moments aligned. as in the animation depicted in Figure 9. Recall that the force experienced by a dipole in a magnetic field is FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) .

Figure 9. let’s consider the case where the currents in the loop flow in the opposite directions. as shown in Figure 9. the magnetic field at a point P (0.4 Two circular loops carrying currents in the opposite directions. Figure 9.9. Next.9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the same sense are attracted to each other.5.9.9.9.8) A plot of Bz / B0 with B0 = µ0 NI / 2 R and l = R is depicted in Figure 9.3 (a) Magnetic field of the Helmholtz coils where the distance between the coils is equal to the radius of the coil. z ) with z > 0 is Bz = B1z + B2 z = µ0 NIR 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 1 1 ⎢ [( z − l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 − [( z + l / 2) 2 + R 2 ]3/ 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9.4. 41 .(a) (b) Figure 9. Again.9. by superposition principle. 0.5 Magnetic field as a function of z / R .

6 (a) Magnetic field due to coils carrying currents in the opposite directions. 42 .9) µ NIR 2 dBz 3l = 0 ≠0 2 2 [(l / 2) + R 2 ]5/ 2 dz z = 0 (9. a magnetic dipole µ = µ z k placed at z = 0 will experience a net force: 2 3l ⎛ dB (0) ⎞ ˆ µ µ NIR ˆ FB = ∇(µ ⋅ B) = ∇( µ z Bz ) = µ z ⎜ z ⎟ k = z 0 k 2 2 5/ 2 2 [(l / 2) + R ] ⎝ dz ⎠ (9.9. The bottom wire loop carries twice the amount of current as the top wire loop. z = 0 . (a) (b) Figure 9. (b) Two co-axial wire loops carrying current in the opposite sense repel each other.11) For l = R .Differentiating Bz with respect to z.9. we obtain ⎫ dBz µ0 NIR 2 ⎧ 3( z − l / 2) 3( z + l / 2) ′ = + Bz ( z ) = ⎨− 2 2 5/ 2 2 2 5/ 2 ⎬ 2 ⎩ [( z − l / 2) + R ] [( z + l / 2) + R ] ⎭ dz At the midpoint.9.9.6: Magnetic Field of Two Coils Carrying Opposite Currents The animation depicted in Figure 9. the magnetic dipole moments associated with each coil are anti-parallel.12) Animation 9. we have Bz′ (0) = (9.10) ˆ Thus.6 shows the magnetic field of two coils like the Helmholtz coils but with currents in the top and bottom coils flowing in the opposite directions. the above expression simplifies to FB = 3µ z µ0 NI ˆ k 2(5 / 4)5 / 2 R 2 (9. The field configurations here are shown using the “iron filings” representation.9.9. In this configuration.

the magnetic field is zero.At the center of the coils along the axis of symmetry. Animation 9.7: Forces Between Coaxial Current-Carrying Wires Figure 9.7 shows the force of repulsion between the magnetic field of a permanent magnet and the field of a current-carrying ring in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus.9. With the distance between the two coils fixed.9. This is illustrated by field lines that are compressed along the central horizontal axis between the coils. The net result is a repulsion of the magnet when the current in this direction is increased. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).8: Magnet Oscillating Between Two Coils Figure 9. The visualization shows the stresses transmitted by the fields to the magnet when the current in the upper coil is increased. the repulsive force results in a pressure between them.9.8 Magnet oscillating between two coils 43 . The magnet is forced to have its North magnetic pole pointing downward.8 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). Animation 9. and the current in the top coil of the Magnetic Force apparatus is moving clockwise as seen from above. Figure 9.7 A magnet in the TeachSpin ™ Magnetic Force apparatus when the current in the top coil is counterclockwise as seen from the top.9. Figure 9.

there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they try to keep the coil and magnet apart. When the dipole moment of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. Conversely. Thus. the field lines of the resulting field. When the dipole moments are reversed during the second half of the cycle. again resulting in no net force. and pressure perpendicular to. Animation 9. This process can also be described in terms of tension along. and pressure perpendicular to. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and in phase. plus the magnetic field due to current in the two coils (here we see a "cutaway" cross-section of the apparatus).9 Magnet suspended between two coils 44 . there is a tension along the field lines as they attempt to "connect" the coil and magnet. Thus.9 illustrates an animation in which the magnetic field of a permanent magnet suspended by a spring in the TeachSpinTM apparatus (see TeachSpin visualization). the magnet is attracted to the upper coil and repelled by the lower coil. Conversely. causing it to move upwards.9: Magnet Suspended Between Two Coils Figure 9. Figure 9. The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. the field lines of the resulting field. the magnet moves downwards. When the dipole moment of one of the coils is aligned with that of the magnet. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. there is a pressure perpendicular to the field lines as they are "squeezed" from both sides. the magnet the magnet is attracted to both coils.9. when their moments are anti-aligned.9. there is a tension along the field lines as they are "pulled" from both sides. When the effective dipole moment of the top coil points upwards. and as a result feels no net force (although it does feel a torque. not shown here since the direction of the magnet is fixed to point upwards). This process can also be described in terms of tension along. the magnet is repelled by both coils. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points upwards as well. the dipole moment of the bottom coil points downwards. when their moments are anti-aligned. and the current in the two coils is sinusoidal and 180 degrees out of phase.The magnet is fixed so that its north pole points upward. When the conditions are reversed during the second half of the cycle.

10 Problem-Solving Strategies In this Chapter. ˆ (4) Calculate the cross product d s × r or d s × r . (3) Relative position vector: The relative position between the source point and the field point is characterized by the relative position vector r = rP − r ' .10. 9. 45 . Change of variables sometimes may help to complete the integration. The resultant vector gives the direction of the magnetic field B . (6) Complete the integration to obtain Bif possible. The magnitude r ' =| r '| is the distance between I ds and the origin. Variables with a “prime” are used for the source point. The quantity rP =| rP | is the distance between the origin and P.9. (5) Substitute the expressions obtained to dB and simplify as much as possible. The corresponding unit vector is r r −r ' ˆ r= = P r | rP − r ' | where r =| r |=| rP − r '| is the distance between the source and the field point P. we have seen how Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws can be used to calculate magnetic field due to a current source. (2) Field point: The field point P is the point in space where the magnetic field due to the current distribution is to be calculated. Using the same coordinate system. according to the Biot-Savart law. write down the position vector rP for the field point P. and the vector r ' describing the position of I ds .1 Biot-Savart Law: The law states that the magnetic field at a point P due to a length element ds carrying a steady current I located at r away is given by dB = ˆ µ0 I ds × r µ0 I d s × r = 2 4π r 4π r 3 The calculation of the magnetic field may be carried out as follows: (1) Source point: Choose an appropriate coordinate system and write down an expression for the differential current element I ds . The size or the geometry of the system is reflected in the integration limits.

Below we illustrate how these steps are executed for a current-carrying wire of length L and a loop of radius R. Current distribution Finite wire of length L Circular loop of radius R Figure (1) Source point r ' = x 'ˆ i d s = (dr '/ dx ') dx ' = dx ' ˆ i r ' = R(cos φ ' ˆ + sin φ ' ˆ) i j i j d s = (dr '/ dφ ')dφ ' = Rdφ '(− sin φ ' ˆ + cos φ ' ˆ) (2) Field point P rP = yˆ j r = yˆ − x ' ˆ j i r =| r |= x '2 + y 2 ˆ r= j i yˆ − x ' ˆ x '2 + y 2 ˆ rP = zk ˆ r = − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j r =| r |= R 2 + z 2 ˆ − R cos φ ' ˆ − R sin φ ' ˆ + z k i j ˆ r= R2 + z2 ˆ ds × r = ˆ R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j R2 + z 2 (3) Relative position vector r = rP − r ' (4) ˆ ds × r The cross product ˆ ds × r = ˆ y dx′k y 2 + x′2 (5) Rewrite dB dB = Bx = 0 By = 0 Bz = ˆ µ0 I y dx′ k 4π ( y 2 + x′2 )3/ 2 dB = ˆ µ0 I R dφ '( z cos φ ' ˆ + z sin φ ' ˆ + R k ) i j 2 2 3/ 2 4π (R + z ) (6) Integrate to get B µ0 Iy L / 2 dx ' ∫− L / 2 ( y 2 + x '2 )3/ 2 4π µI L = 0 2 4π y y + ( L / 2) 2 4π ( R + z ) µ0 IRz By = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 2 2 3/ 2 Bx = µ0 IRz ∫ 2π 0 2π cos φ ' dφ ' = 0 sin φ ' dφ ' = 0 dφ ' = ∫ ∫ 0 2π Bz = 4π ( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 µ0 IR 2 µ0 IR 2 2( R 2 + z 2 )3/ 2 0 46 .

System Infinite wire Ideal solenoid Toroid Figure (1) Draw the Amperian loop (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop (3) Calculate along the loop I enc = I I enc = NI I enc = NI ∫ B ⋅ ds ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) ∫ B ⋅ d s = Bl ∫ B ⋅ d s = B(2π r ) 47 . (2) Find the current enclosed by the Amperian loop.2 Ampere’s law: Ampere’s law states that the line integral of B ⋅ d s around any closed loop is proportional to the total current passing through any surface that is bounded by the closed loop: ∫ B ⋅ ds = µ I 0 enc To apply Ampere’s law to calculate the magnetic field. an ideal solenoid and a toroid.10. ∫ B ⋅ ds with µ 0 I enc and solve for B . Below we summarize how the methodology can be applied to calculate the magnetic field for an infinite wire. we use the following procedure: (1) Draw an Amperian loop using symmetry arguments.9. (3) Calculate the line integral (4) Equate ∫ B ⋅ ds around the closed loop.

Once again we solve the problem using the methodology outlined in Section 9. i (2) Field point As can be seen from Figure 9.10.11.1. now the field point is an arbitrary point in the xy-plane. the position vector for the field point P is r = x ˆ + y ˆ .1. as shown in Figure 9. with r =| rP |=| r − r ' |= [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]1 2 being the distance.11.1 Magnetic Field of a Straight Wire Consider a straight wire of length L carrying a current I along the +x-direction. However.10.1 A finite straight wire carrying a current I.(4) Equate µ 0 I enc with ∫ B ⋅ d s to obtain B 9. i j (3) Relative position vector i j The relative position vector from the source to P is r = rP − r ' = ( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ .1. (1) Source point From Figure 9.10. Solution: The problem is very similar to Example 9.1 (ignore the return path of the current or the source for the current.) What is the magnetic field at an arbitrary point P on the xy-plane? Figure 9. The corresponding unit vector is 48 . we see that the infinitesimal length dx′ described by the position i vector r ' = x ' ˆ constitutes a current source I d s = ( Idx′)ˆ .11 Solved Problems B= µ0 I 2π r B= µ0 NI l = µ0 nI B= µ0 NI 2π r 9.11.

1) ˆ Thus.11. (6) Carrying out the integration to obtain B The total magnetic field at P can then be obtained by integrating over the entire length of the wire: µI ( x − x′) ˆ B = ∫ dB = ∫ k=− 0 2 2 32 − L / 2 4π [( x − x′) + y ] 4π y ( x − x′) 2 + y 2 wire L/2 µ0 Iy dx′ L/2 ˆ k −L/2 =− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ ( x − L / 2) ( x + L / 2) ˆ − ⎢ ⎥k 4π y ⎢ ( x − L / 2) 2 + y 2 ( x + L / 2) 2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. y ) on the y axis.ˆ r= r −r' ( x − x′) ˆ + y ˆ r i j = P = 2 2 12 r | rP − r ' | [( x − x′) + y ] (4) Simplifying the cross product The cross product d s × r can be simplified as ˆ ( dx ' ˆ) × [( x − x ') ˆ + y ˆ] = y dx ' k i i j i i where we have used ˆ × ˆ = 0 and ˆ × ˆ = k .11. the field point P is at ( x. i j ˆ (5) Writing down dB Using the Biot-Savart law. The magnetic field becomes 49 .2) Let’s consider the following limits: (i) x = 0 In this case. y ) = (0. we see that the direction of the magnetic field is in the +k direction. the infinitesimal contribution due to Id s is dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I d s × r µ0 I y dx′ ˆ k = = 2 3 4π r 4π r 4π [( x − x′) 2 + y 2 ]3 2 (9.

6).B=− ⎤ µ0 I ⎡ −L / 2 +L / 2 L/2 ˆ µI ˆ µI ˆ − k = 0 cos θ k ⎢ ⎥k = 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 4π y ⎢ (− L / 2) + y 2π y ( L / 2) + y 2π y (+ L / 2) + y ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (9. y .5) ˆ where φ is the tangential unit vector and the field point P is a distance r away from the wire.4) If we use cylindrical coordinates with the wire pointing along the +z-axis then the magnetic field is given by the expression B= µ0 I ˆ φ 2π r (9.3) in agreement with Eq.1.11. This gives back the expected infinite-length result: B=− µ0 I ⎡ − L / 2 + L / 2 ⎤ ˆ µ0 I ˆ − ⎥ k = 2π y k 4π y ⎢ L / 2 L/2 ⎦ ⎣ (9.11. Figure 9. (9. 9.11. (ii) Infinite length limit Consider the limit where L x. Find the magnetic field B at P.11.2 Current-Carrying Arc Consider the current-carrying loop formed of radial lines and segments of circles whose centers are at point P as shown below. the magnitude of the magnetic field due to a differential current-carrying element I d s is given by 50 .11.2 Current-carrying arc Solution: According to the Biot-Savart law.

11.11.6) Bouter = µ0 I θ µ Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 40π b 4π b (9.11. we have Binner = µ0 I θ µ 0 Iθ ∫0 dθ ' = 4π a 4π a (9. the total magnitude of magnetic field is B = Binner + B outer = µ 0 Iθ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟ (into page) 4π ⎝ a b ⎠ (9. d s × r points into the page.11. for the inner arc.3 Figure 9.3 Rectangular current loop 51 .11. Similarly.11.9) 9.dB = For the outer arc. Thus.8) ˆ For Binner .3 Rectangular Current Loop Determine the magnetic field (in terms of I. a and b) at the origin O due to the current loop shown in Figure 9.7) ˆ The direction of Bouter is determined by the cross product d s × r which points out of the page.11. we have ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I r dθ ' µ0 I dθ ' = = 4π r2 4π r 2 4π r (9.

14) 52 . +b) to ( + a. or −k . (9. Therefore. +b) to (+ a. or +k . + d ) .11.11. y ) = ( − a. +b) .10) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x.Solution: For a finite wire carrying a current I.5): B= µ0 I ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) 4π r where θ1 and θ 2 are the angles which parameterize the length of the wire.13) ˆ The direction of B2 is into the page.12) This leads to B2 = ⎞ µ0 I ⎛ µ0 Ia a a ⎜ 2 2 + 2 2 ⎟= 4π b ⎝ a + b a + b ⎠ 2π b a 2 + b 2 (9. The contributions can be divided into three parts: (i) Consider the left segment of the wire which extends from ( x. +∞ ) to ( − a.11. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 (9.11. The angles which parameterize this segment give cos θ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = −b / b 2 + a 2 . +∞ ) . the (cosine of the) angles are given by cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.1. y ) = ( + a.11. To obtain the magnetic field at O. we consider the segment which extends from ( x. Again. y ) = ( − a. (ii) Next. B1 = ⎞ µ0 I µI⎛ b ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 ⎜1 − 2 2 ⎟ 4π a 4π a ⎝ b +a ⎠ (9. we make use of the above formula. the contribution to the magnetic field at a point P is given by Eq.11) cos θ 2 = cos θ1 = a a + b2 2 (9.

11. Find the magnetic field at the point P which lies at the center of the half-circle. Thus. y ) = ( −∞. the magnetic field vanishes in this limit.4. − r ) .11.4 Hairpin-shaped current-carrying wire Solution: Again we break the wire into three parts: two semi-infinite plus a semi-circular segments.16) ˆ The direction of B1 is out of page.ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page. (i) Let P be located at the origin in the xy plane.11. Therefore. its contribution to the magnetic field at P is B1 = µ0 I µI µI ( cos θ1 + cos θ 2 ) = 0 (1 + 0) = 0 4π r 4π r 4π r (9.11. the horizontal segment is absent.11. − r ) to (0. The two angles which parameterize this segment are characterized by cosθ1 = 1 ( θ1 = 0 ) and cos θ 2 = 0 (θ 2 = π / 2) . The magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = = µ0 I 2π ab a + b 2 2 (b µ0 I ⎛ b ⎜1 − 2 2π a ⎝ a + b2 ˆ a 2 + b2 − b2 − a 2 k ) ⎞ˆ µ0 Ia ˆ k ⎟k − 2π b a 2 + b 2 ⎠ (9. or +k . and the two semi-infinite wires carrying currents in the opposite direction overlap each other and their contributions completely cancel.4 Hairpin-Shaped Current-Carrying Wire An infinitely long current-carrying wire is bent into a hairpin-like shape shown in Figure 9. The first semi-infinite segment then extends from ( x. 53 .15) Note that in the limit a → 0 . or +k . 9. Figure 9.

11.11. we make use of the Biot-Savart law: B= ˆ µ0 I d s × r ∫ r2 4π (9.5 Two infinitely long wires 54 . y ) = (0.21) 9.18) ˆ The direction of B2 is out of page.11.5 Two Infinitely Long Wires Consider two infinitely long wires carrying currents are in the −x-direction.11. or +k .(ii) For the semi-circular arc of radius r.11.11. µ0 I 4π r (9. (iii) The third segment of the wire runs from ( x. Figure 9.17) and obtain B2 = µ0 I 4π ∫ π 0 rdθ µ0 I = 4r r2 (9. One may readily show that it gives the same contribution as the first one: B3 = B1 = ˆ The direction of B3 is again out of page.19) The total magnitude of the magnetic field is B = B1 + B 2 + B3 = 2B1 + B 2 = µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ µ0 I ˆ (2 + π )k k+ k= 2π r 4r 4π r (9.20) Notice that the contribution from the two semi-infinite wires is equal to that due to an infinite wire: B1 + B 3 = 2B1 = µ0 I ˆ k 2π r (9. + r) . + r ) to ( −∞.11. or +k .

23) µ0 I 2π a + z 2 2 ˆ (sin θ ˆj − cosθ k ) (9. Figure 9.11. (b) Find the distance d along the z-axis where the magnetic field is a maximum.6. z) due to wire 1 on the left is.25) 55 .11. using Ampere’s law: B1 = µ0 I µ0 I = 2π r 2π a 2 + z 2 (9.11. Notice that the directions of both currents are into the page. the magnetic field points in the direction of the cross product ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r1 = (−ˆ) × (cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ − cos θ k i ˆ i j j Thus.11.6 Magnetic field lines of two wires carrying current in the same direction.24) For wire 2 on the right. we have B1 = (9. (b) The magnetic field at (0. its direction is given by ˆ ˆ (−ˆ) × r2 = (−ˆ) × (− cos θ ˆ + sin θ k ) = sin θ ˆ + cos θ k i ˆ i j j (9. the magnetic field strength is the same as the left one: B1 = B2 .11.22) Since the current is flowing in the –x-direction.11. 0. However. Solutions: (a) The magnetic field lines are shown in Figure 9.(a) Plot the magnetic field pattern in the yz-plane.

11.11. the magnetic field strength is a maximum.6 Non-Uniform Current Density Consider an infinitely long.Adding up the contributions from both wires. 56 .11. and we arrive at B = B1 + B 2 = µ0 I sin θ ˆ µ0 Iz ˆ j= j 2 2 π (a 2 + z 2 ) π a +z (9.11. we set dB / dz = 0 and find ⎞ µ0 I a 2 − z 2 dB µ0 I ⎛ 1 2z2 = − 2 =0 ⎜ ⎟= dz π ⎝ a 2 + z 2 (a + z 2 ) 2 ⎠ π ( a 2 + z 2 )2 (9.11.30) where α is a constant.7 Superposition of magnetic fields due to two current sources To locate the maximum of B.11.28) Thus. with a magnitude Bmax = µ0 I 2π a (9. at z=a.29) 9. Find the magnetic field everywhere.26) Figure 9. cylindrical conductor of radius R carrying a current I with a non-uniform current density J = αr (9. the z-components cancel (as required by symmetry).27) which gives z=a (9.11.

**Figure 9.11.8 Non-uniform current density Solution:
**

The problem can be solved by using the Ampere’s law:

∫ B⋅d s = µ I

where the enclosed current Ienc is given by

0 enc

(9.11.31)

I enc = ∫ J ⋅ dA = ∫ (α r ')( 2π r ' dr ')

(9.11.32)

**(a) For r < R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =
**

0 r

2πα r 3 3

(9.11.33)

**Applying Ampere’s law, the magnetic field at P1 is given by 2 µ 0πα r 3 B1 ( 2π r ) = 3 or
**

B1 =

(9.11.34)

αµ 0

3

r2

(9.11.35)

The direction of the magnetic field B1 is tangential to the Amperian loop which encloses the current. (b) For r > R , the enclosed current is I enc = ∫ 2πα r '2 dr ' =

0 R

2πα R 3 3

(9.11.36)

which yields

57

B2 ( 2π r ) =

2 µ 0πα R 3 3

(9.11.37)

Thus, the magnetic field at a point P2 outside the conductor is

B2 =

αµ0 R3

3r

(9.11.38)

A plot of B as a function of r is shown in Figure 9.11.9:

**Figure 9.11.9 The magnetic field as a function of distance away from the conductor 9.11.7 Thin Strip of Metal
**

Consider an infinitely long, thin strip of metal of width w lying in the xy plane. The strip carries a current I along the +x-direction, as shown in Figure 9.11.10. Find the magnetic field at a point P which is in the plane of the strip and at a distance s away from it.

Figure 9.11.10 Thin strip of metal

58

Solution:

Consider a thin strip of width dr parallel to the direction of the current and at a distance r away from P, as shown in Figure 9.11.11. The amount of current carried by this differential element is

⎛ dr ⎞ dI = I ⎜ ⎟ ⎝w⎠

(9.11.39)

**Using Ampere’s law, we see that the strip’s contribution to the magnetic field at P is given by dB(2π r ) = µ 0 I enc = µ 0 (dI ) or
**

dB =

(9.11.40)

µ 0 dI µ 0 ⎛ I dr ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ 2π r 2π r ⎝ w ⎠

(9.11.41)

**Figure 9.11.11 A thin strip with thickness dr carrying a steady current I .
**

Integrating this expression, we obtain

B=∫

s+w

s

µ 0 I ⎛ dr ⎞ µ 0 I ⎛ s + w ⎞ ln ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎟ 2π w ⎝ r ⎠ 2π w ⎝ s ⎠

(9.11.42)

Using the right-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic field can be shown to point in the +z-direction, or µ I ⎛ w⎞ ˆ (9.11.43) B = 0 ln ⎜ 1 + ⎟ k 2π w ⎝ s⎠ Notice that in the limit of vanishing width, w expression becomes

B=

s , ln(1 + w / s ) ≈ w / s , and the above

µ0 I ˆ k 2π s

(9.11.44)

which is the magnetic field due to an infinitely long thin straight wire.

59

46) Let’s analyze each segment separately.45) Solution: Let P ( x. Show that the magnetic field in the quadrant with x.11. consider a differential element d s1 = −dy ' ˆ which is located at a i j distance r = xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ from P. y ) be a point in the first quadrant at a distance r1 from a point (0. y > 0 of the xy plane is given by Bz = µ0 I ⎛ 1 1 x y ⎜ + + + 4π ⎜ x y y x 2 + y 2 x x 2 + y 2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (9.11.11. y ') on the yaxis and distance r2 from ( x '.12 Two semi-infinite wires Using the Biot-Savart law.11.9. Figure 9. This yields 1 ˆ d s1 × r1 = (−dy ' ˆ) × [ xˆ + ( y − y ')ˆ] = x dy ' k j i j (9.47) 60 . 0) on the x-axis.11. the magnetic field at P is given by B = ∫ dB = ˆ µ0 I d s × r µ0 I ∫ r 2 = 4π 4π ˆ d s1 × r1 µ0 I + 2 r1 4π wire y ∫ ˆ d s2 × r2 2 r2 wire x ∫ (9. j (i) Along the y axis.8 Two Semi-Infinite Wires A wire carrying current I runs down the y axis to the origin. thence out to infinity along the positive x axis.

5) 9. they are at the corners of an equilateral triangle.1.49) The integrals can be readily evaluated using ∫ ∞ 0 b ds 1 a = + 2 3/ 2 2 [b + (a − s ) ] b b a + b2 2 (9. Suppose three infinitely long parallel wires are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section.11. Do the loops attract or repel each other? Explain. (9. coplanar circular loops of different diameters carry steady currents in the same direction. How is the path of the integration of ∫ B⋅d s chosen when applying Ampere’s law? 4. Two concentric. 2. Can currents be arranged (combination of flowing in or out of the page) so that all three wires (a) attract. we see that the magnetic field at P points in the +z-direction.51) We may show that the result is consistent with Eq.50) The final expression for the magnetic field is given by B= µ0 I 4π ⎡1 ⎤ y 1 x ˆ + + ⎢ + ⎥k x x x2 + y 2 y y x2 + y 2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ (9.11. Using the above results and r1 = x 2 + ( y − y ') 2 and r2 = Bz = ( x − x′ ) 2 + y 2 . does the spring stretch or compress? Explain. 61 .11.48) Thus. 3.i j i (ii) Similarly. we obtain µ0 I 4π ∫ ∞ 0 µI x dy ' + 0 2 3/ 2 [ x + ( y − y ') ] 4π 2 ∫ ∞ 0 y dx ' [ y + ( x − x ') 2 ]3/ 2 2 (9. If a current is passed through a spring. Compare and contrast Biot-Savart law in magnetostatics with Coulomb’s law in electrostatics. along the x-axis. we have d s2 = dx ' ˆ and r2 = ( x − x ')ˆ + yˆ which gives ˆ d s2 × r2 = y dx ' k (9.11. and (b) repel each other? Explain.12 Conceptual Questions 1. 5.

What is the field at a distance of 10 mm from the wire if the current is 10 A? (b) Eight parallel wires cut the page perpendicularly at the points shown. A wire labeled with the integer k (k = 1. Evaluate ∫ B ⋅ d s along the closed path (see figure) in the direction indicated by the arrowhead. for the rest. Adding more wires with differing currents will check your understanding of Ampere's law. (a) Calculate with Ampere's law the magnetic field.13 Additional Problems 9. Show with a sketch the integration path you choose and state explicitly how you use symmetry..13.9. I k = 2k I 0 ). as a function of distance r from the wire. | B |= B (r ) . 2.e. . 62 . the current flows up out of the page. (Watch your signs!) Figure 9. in the vicinity of an infinitely long straight wire that carries current I.2 Magnetic Field of a Current Distribution from Ampere's Law Consider the cylindrical conductor with a hollow center and copper walls of thickness b − a as shown in Figure 9. For those with k = 1 to 4.2..1 Application of Ampere's Law The simplest possible application of Ampere's law allows us to calculate the magnetic field in the vicinity of a single infinitely long wire.1 Amperian loop (c) Can you use a single application of Ampere's Law to find the field at a point in the vicinity of the 8 wires? Why? How would you proceed to find the field at an arbitrary point P? 9. the current flows down into the page. .. The radii of the inner and outer walls are a and b respectively.13.13.13. and the current I is uniformly spread over the cross section of the copper. 8) bears the current 2k times I 0 (i.

3 A cylindrical conductor with a hole. 63 .13. roughly.) What is the direction of B ? Figure 9.13. construct an Amperian loop. The conductor carries a current I which is directed out of the page and is uniformly distributed throughout the cross section.3 Cylinder with a Hole A long copper rod of radius a has an off-center cylindrical hole through its entire length.3. a < r < b. the variation of B(r) without another detailed calculation? (Hint: remember that the vectors dB from different current elements can be added to obtain the total vector magnetic field.(a) Calculate the magnitude of the magnetic field in the region outside the conductor. What is the direction of B ? (c) Calculate the magnetic field within the inner conductor. Figure 9. (Hint: consider the entire conductor to be a single thin wire. (b) Calculate the magnetic field inside the inner radius.) 9. Can you plot.13. Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic field at the point P. as shown in Figure 9. What is the direction of B ? (d) Plot the behavior of the magnitude of the magnetic field B(r) from r = 0 to r = 4b .13. r < a.2 Hollow cylinder carrying a steady current I. Is B(r) continuous at r = a and r = b? What about its slope? (e) Now suppose that a very thin wire running down the center of the conductor carries the same current I in the opposite direction. r > b . and apply Ampere's Law.

Show that the magnetic field at the center of the disk is B= 1 µ0σω R 2 Hint: Consider a circular ring of radius r and thickness dr. Show that the current in this element is dI = (ω / 2π ) dq = ωσ r dr .13. at radii 30 mm and 60 mm respectively. the current direction.6 Four Long Conducting Wires Four infinitely long parallel wires carrying equal current I are arranged in such a way that when looking at the cross section. 9. (a) Sketch the solenoid. and into the page at B and C. (c) Does the magnetic field have a component in the direction of the wire in the loops making up the solenoid? If so. they are at the corners of a square.30 A. and the magnetic field lines (inside and outside) with arrows to show their direction.13. as shown in Figure 9. It has a length of 0. and show the directions on your sketch.5 Rotating Disk A circular disk of radius R with uniform charge density σ rotates with an angular speed ω . What is the magnetic field at the center of the square? 64 .4 The Magnetic Field Through a Solenoid A solenoid has 200 closely spaced turns so that. and carries a current of 0. showing clearly the rotation direction of the windings.9. 9. Currents in A and D point out of the page. for most of its length. What is the dominant direction of the magnetic field inside the solenoid? (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's law. it may be considered to be an ideal solenoid. a diameter of 0. calculate its magnitude both inside and outside the solenoid.5.1 m.13.13.25 m.

9.13.13.7 Magnetic Force on a Current Loop A rectangular loop of length l and width w carries a steady current I1 .53 Å. What is the magnetic force experienced by the loop due to the magnetic field of the wire? Figure 9.6.13. We use a “semi-classical” model to do this. Figure 9. as shown in Figure 9.13. Assume that the electron has speed v and orbits a proton (assumed to be very massive) located at the origin.13. Note that 1 Å = 10−10 m .8 Magnetic Moment of an Orbital Electron We want to estimate the magnetic dipole moment associated with the motion of an electron as it orbits a proton. The loop is then placed near an finitely long wire carrying a current I 2 .13.7. as shown in Figure 9. The electron is moving in a right-handed sense with respect to the z-axis in a circle of radius r = 0.13.5 Four parallel conducting wires 9.Figure 9.7 65 .6 Magnetic force on a current loop.

] (c) What current is associated with this motion? Think of the electron as stretched out uniformly around the circumference of the circle. and its density is 7. and the value of r we give above. to wit that the orbital angular momentum of the electron can only assume integral multiples of h/2π. [Ans: 2.52 × 10−16 s .] (c) What is the magnetic dipole moment of the disk? [Ans: 0.48 A ⋅ m 2 . in units of h / 2π ? 9. what is the orbital period T of the electron? [Ans: 1. What is the orbital angular momentum of the electron here. [Ans: 1525 A.(a) The inward force me v 2 / r required to make the electron move in this circle is provided by the Coulomb attractive force between the electron and proton (me is the mass of the electron). µ B .85 g.9 Ferromagnetism and Permanent Magnets A disk of iron has a height h = 1. Big!] (d) What is the magnetic dipole moment associated with this orbital motion? Give the magnitude and direction.5 × 10 28 atoms/m 3 . The value of r is determined from quantum mechanical considerations. The molar mass of iron is 55.7 × 10 22 atoms . where h = 6.] (b) Given this speed. In a time T. The magnitude of this dipole moment is one Bohr magneton. the total amount of charge q that passes an observer at a point on the circle is just e [Ans: 1. 2. [Ans: 9.27 × 10 −24 A ⋅ m 2 along the −z axis.00 cm . find the speed of the electron in our “semi-classical” model.63 × 10−34 J/s is the Planck constant.05 mA.53 × 106 A/m .13.] (d) If we were to wrap one loop of wire around a circle of the same radius r.00 mm and a radius r = 1. Using this fact.] (b) What is the magnetization M in this disk? [Ans: 1.] (e) One of the reasons this model is “semi-classical” is because classically there is no reason for the radius of the orbit above to assume the specific value we have given.18 × 106 m/s . how much current would the wire have to carry to get the dipole moment in (c)? This is the “equivalent” surface current due to the atomic currents in the interior of the magnet. parallel to axis. Assume that all the iron atoms in the disk have their dipole moments aligned with the axis of the disk. The magnetic dipole moment of an atom of iron is µ = 1.8 × 10−23 A ⋅ m 2 .9 g/cm3.] 66 . (a) What is the number density of the iron atoms? How many atoms are in this disk? [Ans: 8.

(b) What is the axial field a distance of 1 meter from the center of this magnet.12 Magnetic Field of a Solenoid (a) A 3000-turn solenoid has a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 8 cm. Initially it is at rest.8. We make a magnetic field in the following way: We have a long cylindrical shell of nonconducting material which carries a surface charge fixed in place (glued down) of σ C/m 2 .11 Permanent Magnets A magnet in the shape of a cylindrical rod has a length of 4.9 The cylinder is suspended in a manner such that it is free to revolve about its axis.5 gauss).1 cm. find the magnitude of the magnetic field inside the solenoid by constructing an Amperian loop and applying Ampere's Law. as shown in Figure 9.13.0 A.8 ×10−5 gauss .] 9. or about 600 times the magnetic field of the earth].42 × 10−2 A ⋅ m 2 .8 × 10−9 T .8 cm and a diameter of 1.0314 T. or 314 gauss. without friction.9. A positive charge q moves with a velocity v = v ˆ when it crosses the axis at a distance x j from the center of the coil. If this solenoid carries a current of 5.8 Describe the subsequent motion of the charge. Figure 9. or 4. 67 . What is the instantaneous radius of curvature? 9.13. [Ans: 0.13. It has a uniform magnetization M of 5300 A/m. (b) 4. (a) Calculate the magnetic dipole moment of this magnet.13.13.13. directed parallel to its axis. along its axis? [Ans: (a) 2. as shown in Figure 9. We come along and spin it up until the speed of the surface of the cylinder is v0 . How does this compare to the magnetic field of the earth (0.10 Charge in a Magnetic Field A coil of radius R with its symmetric axis along the +x-direction carries a steady current I.

in A/m? [Ans: K = σ v0 .Figure 9.13.3 A.7 ×10− 4 .] 68 . [Ans: 0]. oriented along axis right-handed with respect to spin. B = µ0 K = µ0σ v0 . (b) 0.68 A/m.86 µT.] (c) What is magnetic field inside the cylinder? [Ans. [Ans: (a) 0.13 Effect of Paramagnetism A solenoid with 16 turns/cm carries a current of 1. (a) By how much does the magnetic field inside the solenoid increase when a close-fitting chromium rod is inserted? [Note: Chromium is a paramagnetic material with magnetic susceptibility χ = 2.] (d) What is the magnetic field outside of the cylinder? Assume that the cylinder is infinitely long.13.9 (b) What is the surface current K on the walls of the cylinder.] (b) Find the magnitude of the magnetization M of the rod. 9.

- ch14 Interference and Diffraction
- Physics 220 Homework
- Biomaterials
- Radioactive Decay. Lab Report 5
- Chapter 4
- Ch1 Fields
- Ch8-Introduction to Magnetic Fields
- Ulaby Solved Problems
- AIEEE Plus Module 11
- Ch7 Direct Current Circuits
- Online quiz 1
- Ch11-Inductance and Magnetic Energy
- FFR 4 pdf
- Ch10-Faraday’s Law of Induction
- Maxwell Equations MIT OCW
- W1110
- Fourier Transform Applications
- 0852967942 WaveguidesA
- Ch5-Capacitance and Dielectrics
- direction controlling dish antenna
- Ch2 Coulomb’s Law
- antenna2009
- Ch6-Current and Resistance
- Bhutto Zia and Islam, by Syed Mujawar Hussain Shah
- ch4-Gauss’s Law
- Prime Numbers
- Broadnand Antennas Bham
- Ch3 Electric Potential
- ch12-Alternating-Current Circuits
- Magnetic Field Calculation underEHVTransmission Lines for More

Read Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading