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EMERGENCY DRUGS

DRUG CLASSIFICATION USE STOCK DOSE NURSING CONSIDERATION

• • •
Generic Name: •
Alpha/Beta Agonist
Antidote
Treatment of bronchospasm, anaphylactic reactions,
cardiac arrest, management of open-angle glaucoma
Injection:
Adrenalin®: 0.01 mg/mL [1:100,000] (5 mL); 0.1
• Rapid IV infusion may cause death from cerebro-
EPHINEPHRINE vascular hemorrhage or cardiac arrhythmias.
• Ophthalmic Agent mg/mL [1:10,000] (3 mL, 10 mL); 1 mg/mL [1:1000]
Brand Name:
• Anti-glaucoma
(1 mL, 2 mL, 30 mL) • Monitor heart rate, BP, site of infusion for blanching,
ADRENALIN extravasations.

• Theophylline • Bronchodilator in reversible airway obstruction due to • Injection, IV: 25mg/ml (10 ml, 20 ml) • Avoid I.M. injection, too painful; do not inject IV
Generic Name: Derivative asthma or COPD; increase diaphragmatic contractility; • Liquid, oral: 105 mg/5ml (240 ml) solution faster than 25 mg/minute.
AMINOPHYLLINE neonatal idiopathic apnea of prematurity. • Tablet: 100 mg, 200 mg • Encourage patient to drink adequate fluids to
decrease mucous viscosity in airway.
• Monitor vital signs

• Injection, as sulfate: 0.1 mg/mL (5 mL, 10 mL); 0.3 • Administer undiluted by rapid IV injection; slow
• Anti-cholinergic agent; • Preoperative medication to inhibit salivation and
mg/mL (1 mL, 30 mL); 0.4 mg/mL (1 mL, 20 mL, 30
mL); 0.5 mg/mL (1 mL, 5 mL, 30 mL); 0.8 mg/mL (0.5 •
injection may result in paradoxical bradycardia.
Monitor hear rate, BP, pulse, mental status.
Generic Name: Antispasmodic Agent, secretions; antidote for organophosphate pesticide
mL, 1 mL); 1 mg/mL (1 mL, 10 mL) • IV administration requires a cardiac monitor
ATROPHINE Gastrointestinal; poisoning; treatment of sinus bradycardia; treatment of
• Tablet, as sulfate: 0.4 mg
SULFATE Ophthalmic Agent exercise-induced bronchospam.
• Ointment, ophthalmic, as sulfate: 0.5%, 1% (3.5 g)
• Provide safety measures, it may cause drowsiness
and restlessness
• Observe for tachycardia if patient has cardiac
problems

Generic Name: • •
CAPTOPRIL
Angiotensin-
Converting Enzyme
• Management of hypertension; treatment of congestive
Tablet: 12.5 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg
• Anaphylactic reactions can occur. Angio-edema can
Brand Name: heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial occur at any time during treatment. Careful blood
(ACE) inhibitors
CAPOTEN infarction, diabetic nephropathy pressure monitor with first dose.
• Watch for hypotension effect within 1-3 hours of first
dose or new higher dose

Generic Name: • • •
CLONIDINE
Alpha2 Agonist
• Management of mild to moderate hypertension; either
Injection, preservative free, as hydrochloride: 100
mcg/ml (10 ml)
Monitor blood pressure, standing/sitting/supine,
respiratory rate and depth, pain relief, mental status,
Brand Name: used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive
• Patch, transdermal, as hydrochloride: 1, 2, and 3 heat rate (bradycardia may be treated with atropine)
CATAPRES (0.1, 0.2, .3 mg/day, 7-day duration) • Provide security measures because it causes
• Tablet, as hydrochloride: 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, 0.3 mg drowsiness

Generic Name: • • •
IPRATROPIUM &
Bronchodilator
• Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Aerosol: Ipratropium bromide 18 mcg and albuterol
sulfate 103 mcg per actuation [200 doses] (14.7 g)
Monitor signs of rapid respiration

ALBUTEROL (COPD) in those patents that are currently on a regular


Brand Name: bronchodilator who continue to have broncho-spasms
COMBIVENT and require a second bronchodilator
Generic Name: • Corticosteroid • Management of adrenocortical insufficiency; relief of • Injection, suspension: 25 mg/mL (5 mL, 10 mL); 50 • Monitor BP
HYDROCORTISONE
Brand Name:
inflammation of corticosteroid responsive dermatoses;
adjunctive treatment of ulcerative colitis •
mg/mL (5 mL, 10 mL)
Injection, I.M./I.V./S.C.: 50 mg/mL (2 mL, 10 mL) :
• IV bolus: Dilute to 50 mg/ml and administered over
SOLU-CORTEF 3-5 minutes
100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 1000 mg
• Tablet, oral: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Generic Name: • Anticoagulant • Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis, • Powder for injection, as sodium, lyophilized: 2 mg, 5 • Should not be given in close proximity to other drugs
WARFARIN pulmonary embolism; prophylaxis of systemic embolism mg because absorption may be decreased.
Brand Name: after myocardial infarction • Tablet, as sodium: 1 mg, 2 mg, 2.5 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg, 5 • Avoid all IM injections
COUMADIN mg, 6 mg, 7.5 mg, 10 mg

• •
Generic Name:
DIAZEPAM
• Benzodi azepine
Management of anxiety disorders; alcohol withdrawal
symptoms; skeletal muscle relaxant; convulsive • Injection: 5 mg/mL (1 mL, 2 mL, 5 mL, 10 mL)

Protect parenteral dosage from light
Do not mix with other medications
Brand Name: disorders • Tablet: 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg
• Monitor respiratory rate, heart rate, BP with IV use
DIASTAT
VALIUM • Provide safety measures (i.e., side rails, night light,
call button; supervise ambulation

• • •
Generic Name:
DIPHENHYDRAMINE
Antihistamine
• Symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms caused by
Injection, as hydrochloride: 10 mg/mL (10 mL, 30
mL); 50 mg/mL (1 mL, 10 mL)
Raise bed rails, institute safety measures, assist with
ambulation
Brand Name: histamine release which include nasal allergies and
BENADRYL allergic dermatosis; • Tablet/Capsule, as hydrochloride: 25 mg, 50 mg
• Syrup, as hydrochloride: 12.5 mg/5 mL (5 mL, 120
mL, 240 mL, 480 mL, 3780 mL)

Generic Name: •
• Infusion, as hydrochloride, in D5W: 0.8 mg/mL (250

DOPAMINE
Adrenergic
agent
agonist
• Adjunct in the treatment of shock (i.e., MI, open heart mL, 500 mL); 1.6 mg/mL (250 mL, 500 mL); 3.2
Protect from light; solution that are darker than
slightly yellow should not be used
Brand Name: surgery, renal failure, cardiac decompensation, etc) mg/mL (250 mL, 500 mL)
• Monitor BP and heart rate
INTROPIN which persists after adequate fluid volume replacement • Injection, as hydrochloride: 40 mg/mL (5 mL, 10 mL,
20 mL); 80 mg/mL (5 mL, 20 mL); 160 mg/mL (5 mL)
• Single-dose vial injection:
Generic Name: • Anticoagulant • Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic disorders Beef lung source: 1000 units/mL (1 mL); 5000 units/mL (1 • Monitor signs of bleeding
HEPARIN mL); 10,000 units/mL (1 mL); 20,000 units/mL (1 mL); • Do not administer IM due to pain, irritation and
40,000 units/mL (1 mL) hematoma formation

Generic Name: • Prevention and treatment of angina pectoris; for • Capsule, sustained release: 40 mg • Report acute headache, rapid heartbeat
ISOSORBIDE DINITRATE • •
Brand Name:
Vasodilator congestive heart failure; to relieve pain, dysphagia, and
spam in esophageal spasm with GE reflux •
Chewable: 5 mg, 10 mg
Oral: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg
• Provide safety measure, it may cause drowsiness
ISORDIL and restlessness
• Sublingual: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg
DILATRATE • Sustained release: 40 mg
SORBITRATE

Generic Name: • • •
LIDOCAINE
Analgesic, Topical
• Local anesthetic and acute treatment of ventricular

I.M.: 10% [100 mg/mL] (3 mL, 5 mL)

Lidocaine injection is stable at room temperature

Brand Name: • Anti arrhythmic Agent arrhythmias from myocardial infarction, cardiac
Direct I.V.: 1% [10 mg/mL] (5 mL, 10 mL); 20 mg/mL
(5 mL)
Constant EKG monitoring is necessary during IV
administration.
XYLOCAINE • Local Anesthetic manipulation, digitalis intoxication; topical local
anesthetic • Liquid, as hydrochloride, viscous: 2% (20 mL, 100 • Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of CNS
LIDODERM mL) toxicity (confusion, seizures, respiratory arrest)

Generic Name: • Diuretic, Osmotic • Reduction of increased intracranial pressure associated • Injection: 5% [50 mg/mL] (1000 mL); 10% [100 • Should be stored at room temperature and protected
MANNITOL with cerebral edema; promotion of diuresis in the mg/mL] (500 mL, 1000 mL); 15% [150 mg/mL] (150 from freezing
prevention and/or treatment of oliguria or anuria due to mL, 500 mL); 20% [200 mg/mL] (150 mL, 250 mL, • Monitor I and O
acute renal failure; reduction of increases intraocular 500 mL); 25% [250 mg/mL] (50 mL)
pressure; promoting urinary excretion of toxic • Solution, urogenital: 0.54% [5.4 mg/mL] (2000 mL)
substances; genitourinary irrigant in transurethral
prostatic resection of other transurethral surgical
procedures

Generic Name: • Antidote • Complete or partial reversal of opiod depression, • Injection, as hydrochloride: 0.4 mg/mL (1 mL, 2 mL, • Protect from light
NALOXONE including respiratory depression, induced by natural and 10 mL); 1 mg/mL (2 mL, 10 mL) • Endotracheal: Dilute to 1-2 ml with normal saline
Brand Name: synthetic opiods. • Injection, neonatal, as hydrochloride: 0.02 mg/mL (2 • Iv push: Administer over 30 seconds as undiluted
NARCAN • Adjunctive agent to increase blood pressure in the mL) preparation
management of septic shock • IV infusion: Dilute to 4 mcg/ml in D5W or normal
saline
• Monitor respiratory rate, heart rate and BP

• Caplet: 20 mg, 30 mg • Monitor closely for orthostasis


Generic Name: Calcium Channel Blocker • Management of essential hypertension • Sustained release: 30 mg, 45 mg, 60 mg • Measure blood pressure 8 hours after dosing
NICARDIPINE • Injection: 2.5 mg/mL (10 mL) • Ampoules must be diluted before use

• Injection: 0.5 mg/mL (10 mL); 0.8 mg/mL (10 mL); 5 • Monitor blood pressure and heart rate
Generic Name:
NITROGLYCERIN
• Treatment of angina pectoris; IV for congestive heart
mg/mL (1 mL, 5 mL, 10 mL, 20 mL); 10 mg/mL (5 mL,
10 mL)
• IV must be prepared in glass bottles and use special
sets intended for nitroglycerin
Brand Name: Vasodilator failure (especially when associated with acute
TRANSDERMAL myocardial infarction); pulmonary hypertension; • Injection, solution in D5W: 25 mg (250 mL), 50 mg • Clean skin before administering patches

-NTGPATCH hypertensive emergencies occurring preoperatively (250 mL, 500 mL), 100 mg (250 mL), 200 mg (500
(especially during cardiovascular surgery) mL)
• Patch, transdermal, topical: Systems designed to
deliver 0.1 mg/hr, 0.2 mg/hr, 0.4 mg/hr, 0.6 mg/hr,
2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, or 15 mg NTG over 24 hours
• Protect from light and freezing
Generic Name: Anti emetic •
PROMETHAZINE
• Symptomatic treatment of various allergic conditions;
Injection, as hydrochloride: 25 mg/mL (1 mL, 10 mL);
50 mg/mL (1 mL, 10 mL)
• Avoid SC administration, promethazine is a chemical
irritation which may produce necrosis
Brand Name: anti emetic; motion sickness; sedative; analgesic
• Tablet, as hydrochloride: 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg • Avoid IV use, if necessary may dilute to a maximum
PHENERGAN adjunct for control of postoperative pain
concentration of 25 mg/ml and infuse at a maximum
rate of 25 mg/minute
• Provide additional safety measures, for it may cause
drowsiness
• Injection, adsorbed: • Refrigerate, do not freeze
TETANUS TOXOID Toxoid • •
Selective induction of active immunity against tetanus in
selected patients
Tetanus 10 Lf units per 0.5 mL dose (0.5 mL, 5 mL)
• Inject Intramuscularly in the area of vastus lateralis
(midthigh laterally) or deltoid

• Sensitivity teasting should be conducted in all


TETANUS ANTITOXIN Antitoxin • Tetanus prophylaxis or treatment of active tetanus only individuals regardless of clinical history.
when tetanus immune globulin is not available. • Refrigerate, do not freeze

• Injection: 15 mg/mL (1 mL); 30 mg/mL (1 mL, 2 mL) • Monitor for signs of pain relief
Generic Name: Nonsteroidal Anti- • Short-term management of pain • Solution, ophthalmic: 0.5% (5 mL) • Sensitivity testing should be conducted
KETOROLAC Inflammatory Agent • Tablet: 10 mg
TROMETHAMINE (NSAID)
Brand Name:
TORADOL
• Injection: 100 mg/mL (10 mL) • May be given by direct I.V. injection at a maximum
Generic Name: Anti hemophilic Agent • Short term use to reduce or prevent hemorrhage • Tablet: 500 mg rate of 100 mg/minute
TRANEXAMIC ACID