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C6 – MAIN & AUXILIARY MACHINES

EVALUATION OF COMPETENCE
Function: Marine Engineering Practice at Operational Level

COMPETENCY 6

Operate Main and Auxiliary Machinery and Associated Control Systems.

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TAR BOOK

(1) Theoretical knowledge of Construction and Operation of Main Machinery.

Different parts of Two Stroke Diesel Engine are:-

Air starting valve, fuel injector, and exhaust valve are mounted on the cylinder head. Piston,
piston rings, piston rod are under the cylinder liner. Cross head, connecting rod, bottom end
bearings and crank shaft are under the crankcase. Bed plate, A-frame and cylinder head are held
together by tie rod.

Working principle of Two Stroke Engine:


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It takes two strokes to complete a power cycle: one stroke down, one stroke up, resulting in one
turn of the crankshaft The power stroke occurs at every down stroke which would lead us to
believe the two stroke to be twice as efficient. . On large plants, the two stroke is about 1.8:1
more powerful than a four stroke engine of similar weight.

Describing the action of the piston within the cylinder generally start with the piston in the
bottom dead center position (BDC), at the end of its travel downward before it’s travel upwards.
With the piston, having covered the intake ports, travels upwards, compressing the trapped air
from its original volume to a fraction of it, generally anywhere from 17:1 to 23:1 (gas engines
are about 9:1) to about 42 bars (~600psi). The air’s volume reduction crushes the air molecule
together and as a result they build up heat.

Slightly before top dead center (TDC), around 10 degrees, injection of atomized fuel begins, it
burns, ignited by the high temperature from to the air being compressed. Injection last about 30
degrees, this varies depending on load. The fuel continues to burn and expands which increases
the pressure and temperature within the cylinder. Around 15 degrees after TDC, combustion is
complete and maximum pressure is reached within the cylinder, this stage is commonly called
Pmax. Pmax is anywhere between 180 bars to 195 bars; this is why Diesel engine construction is
so robust; it is to withstand this pressure. 3
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(2)Define :

a) Crosshead Type Diesel Engines:

In cross head type diesel engines the piston is connected to cross head through piston rod. The
reciprocating motion is transmitted to rotary motion by crosshead. The Two Stroke Crosshead
Engine has long been the favoured main propulsive power unit for most types of merchant
vessels. In this type of two stroke engines, there is a crosshead which has shoes sliding over the
cross head guides.

(b)Trunk Type Diesel Engines:

In trunk type diesel engines the piston is connected to connecting rod by gudgeon pin. The
reciprocating motion is converted to rotary motion by gudgeon pin. The name "Trunk Piston"
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refers to the piston skirt or trunk. The purpose of the skirt or trunk in four-stroke cycle engines is
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to act in a similar manner to a crosshead. It takes the thrust caused by connecting-rod angularity
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and transmits it to the side of the cylinder liner, in the same way as the crosshead slipper
transmits the thrust to the crosshead guide. With such engines, which are termed trunk-piston
engines, the engine height is considerably reduced compared with that of a crosshead engine of
similar power and speed. The engine-manufacturing costs are also reduced. It means of course
that there is no separation between the crankcase and the liner and piston. This has its
disadvantages, especially when considering the choice of lubricating oils when burning high
sulphur residual fuels. These types of engines are much lighter and smaller than equivalent slow
speed engines but require gearing or some other means to reduce the drive speed for ships’
propellers

c) Slow Speed Diesel Engines:

It is basically used for propulsion purpose.Its speed is below 150 rpm. This slow speed, around
150 rpm, has two benefits to an owner of ships. The first, probably the most important, allows
the engine to burn heavy fuel oil (HFO) efficiently. Slow speed, also allows a direct coupling of
the propeller shaft to the crankshaft, eliminating the need for gearing. The most prominent
builders of large, slow speed, two stroke engine are Sulzer of Switzerland, and Burmeister &
Wain (B&W) of Denmark.

d) Medium Speed Diesel Engines:

It is basically used for power generation (electrical generators) purpose. Its speed lies between
150-1500 rpm.
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e) High Speed Diesel Engines:

Its speed lies above 1500 rpm. High speed engines are the most common. Their high
revolutions are ideal for driving vehicles such as busses and yachts. All Diesel trucks and
vehicles on our roads use this class of Diesels, having an rpm over 1500.

(3) Define Two Stroke and Four Stroke Diesel Engines and their scavenging process. Also
differentiate between (a) Loop Scavenging (b) Uniflow Scavenging

Scavenging is the process in a diesel engine, in which low pressure air is utilizes to blow
out the waste gases of combustion i.e. scavenging, and refill the cylinder with fresh pressurized
air for the next compression stroke.

Air cooler is used to cool the scavenge air. The cooler is designed with an air receiving chamber
which incorporate a water mist catches built of a number of smaller units, which separate the
condensate water from the scavenge air during the passage of flow. The separated water is
collected in the bottle of the cooler housing from which it is removed by drain system.

Types of scavenging are:-

 Uniflow scavenging

 Loop scavenging

 Cross scavenging

Uniflow Scavenging:

With Uniflow scavenging the incoming air enters at the lower end of the cylinder and leaves at
the top. The outlet at the top of the cylinder may be ports or a large valve. The process is shown
in Figure (c).

Loop Scavenging:

In loop scavenging the incoming air passes over the piston crown then rises towards the cylinder
head. The exhaust gases are forced before the air passing down and out of exhaust ports located
just above the inlet ports. The process is shown in Figure (b).
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Cross Scavenging:

In cross scavenging the incoming air is directed upwards, pushing the exhaust gases before it.
The exhaust gases then travel down and out of the exhaust ports. Figure (a) illustrates the
process.

Each of the systems has various advantages and disadvantages. Cross scavenging requires the
fitting of a piston skirt to prevent air or exhaust gas escape when the piston is at the top of the
stroke. Loop scavenge arrangements have low temperature air and high temperature exhaust gas
passing through adjacent ports, causing temperature differential problems for the liner material.
Uniflow is the most efficient scavenging

System but requires either an opposed piston arrangement or an exhaust valve in the cylinder
head. All three systems have the ports angled to swirl the incoming air and direct it in the
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appropriate path.
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(4) Explain reasons for super charging and indicate typical Supercharging pressures.
The power developed in diesel engine cylinder is limited by the capacity of air it
can breathe in. By super charging an air quantity, larger than the engine can naturally aspirate, is
admitted in the cylinder at a pressure above atmospheric. Though super charging implies high
pressure at intake that is the larger mass of air that is required to obtain more power within a
given dimension of cylinder. However slight gain in thermal efficiency may result because of
better combustion of fuel. Thus it is means of obtaining more power without increasing
correspondingly the weight of the engine .As a result super charging improves the power to
weight ratio of the engine.

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(5) Explain what Indicator diagrams are and how following can be read or calculated from
it: (a) Peak pressure (b) Compression pressure (c) Indicated horsepower.

Instrument for obtaining Indicator Cards

The Draw Card diagram is used for measuring the compression pressure and maximum
pressure, and for evaluating the ignition / combustion characteristics of the injected fuel oil.
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The Power Card is used for calculating the Mean Effective Pressure in the Cylinder by tracing
the area using a Planimeter and the value converted to pressure units and used further for
calculating IHP, BHP & Engine Performance in comparison to sea / shop trials results.

Faulty Instrument Diagrams:

1) For engines fitted with indicator drive: Vibrations in the cord, or drive, give a wavy
indicator diagram, but a smooth draw diagram.

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2) For engines fitted with indicator drive: The drum hits the stop at one of the end points, before
the diagram is completed: The cord is too long or too short.

3) The indicator piston works sluggishly in the cylinder, and moves in jerks: If only the
expansion curve is wrong (wavy), the cause may be gas pulsations in the combustion chamber or
indicator bore.

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4) The Indicator Spring is too Weak. The piston strikes against the top of the indicator
cylinder. Change to a more rigid spring.

5) The Indicator Valve Leaks: Gives an untrue atmospheric line.

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Information from Indicator and Draw Diagrams:


1)
 Fuel injection too late.
 Fuel pressure too low.
 Defective fuel valve(s).
 Defective fuel pumps suction valve or shock absorber.
 Exceptionally poor fuel (bad ignition properties)
 Fuel pumps lead too little.

2) Fuel Injection too Early.


- VIT index wrong.
- Fuel pump lead too large.

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3) Leakages, Increased Cylinder Volume, or Fouling.


- Piston ring blow-by.
- Exhaust valve seat leakage.
- Piston crown burnt.
- Low scavenge pressure,
- Fouling of exhaust and/or air system.

Indicated Power:

ip= pm l a n

Where pm=mean indicated pressure

a= area of cylinder

l=length of stroke

n=revolution per second of engine.

n=number of cylinder X revolution per second, for 2-stroke engines:

n= number of cylinder X revolution per second / 2, for 4-stroke engine.


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METHOD OF MAIN ENGINE POWER CALCULATION


Ref: MAN B&W Main Engine Instruction Manual ‘Operation and Data’

STEP 1: MIP

Calculate Mean Indicated Pressure ( pi ) bar

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A = Area of the indicated diagram by Planimetering in mm

Pi (bar) = A L = Length of the indicator diagram in mm

L x Cs Cs = Spring Constant in mm / bar

STEP 2: MEP

Calculate Mean effective Pressure ( pe ) bar

pe ( bar ) = pi – k1 pi = mean indicated pressure in bar

k1 = mean friction loss in bar.( approx 1 bar )

STEP 3: IHP

Calculate Indicated Engine Power ( Pi )

Pi = k2 x n x pi k2 = Cylinder constant = 0.78 x D2 x S

D = Cylinder dia in m

S = Piston stroke in m

n = Engine RPM

pi = Mean indicated pressure in bar 15


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STEP 4: BHP

Calculate effective engine power ( Pe )

Pe = k2 x n x pe k2 = Cylinder constant = 0.78 x D2 x S

n = Engine RPM

pe = Mean effective pressure in bar

SHP : Shaft Horse Power will be 1 % less than BHP

Note : To calculate IHP in KW then k2 = Cylinder constant = 0.57 x D2 x S

For fast calculation : ( Only approximate )

Take Load Indicator Value (Fuel Index) or Average Fuel pump racks x 0.97 = q

From performance curve on shop trial with fuel index (q) obtain power output in percentage = r
then, BHP = (r x Maxm Rated Output ) / 100.

ENGINE DISTANCE = REVOLUTIONS x PROP CONSTANT

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6) Describe the fuel injector and reasons for using the high pressure of fuel.
Solution: A typical fuel injector is shown in Figure; it can be seen to be two basic parts, the
nozzle and the nozzle holder or body. The high-pressure fuel enters and travels down a passage
in the body and then into a passage in the nozzle, ending finally in a chamber surrounding the
needle valve. The needle valve is held closed on a mitred seat by an intermediate spindle and a
spring in the injector body. The spring pressure, and hence the injector opening pressure, can be
set by a compression nut which acts on the spring. The nozzle and injector body are
manufactured as a matching pair and are accurately ground to give a good oil seal. The two are
joined by a nozzle nut. The needle valve will open when the fuel pressure acting on the needle
valve tapered face exerts a sufficient force to overcome the spring compression. The fuel then
flows into a lower chamber and is forced out through a series of tiny holes. The small holes are
sized and arranged to atomize, or break into tiny drops, all of the fuel oil, which will then readily
burn. Once the injector pump or timing valve cuts off the high pressure fuel supply the needle
valve will shut quickly under the spring compression force. All slow-speed two-stroke engines
and many medium-speed four stroke engines are now operated almost continuously on heavy
fuel. A fuel circulating system is therefore necessary and this is usually arranged within the fuel
injector. During injection the high pressure fuel will open the circulation valve for injection to
take place. When the engine is stopped the fuel booster pump supplies fuel which the circulation
valve directs around the injector body. Older engine designs may have fuel injectors which are
circulated with cooling water. Some injectors have internal cooling passages in them extending
into the nozzle through which cooling water is circulated. This is to prevent overheating and
burning of the nozzle tip.

Injectors on modern 2 stroke crosshead engines do not have internal water cooling passages.
They are cooled by a combination of the intensive bore cooling in the cylinder head being close
to the valve pockets and by the fuel which is recirculated through the injector when the follower
is on the base of the cam or when the engine is stopped.

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In cooled nozzle there will be another line provided for the return of the cooling oil after cooling

High pressure fuel is being used for achieving proper atomization of the fuel for better
combustion.
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(7) State typical values of :-


a)Break thermal eficiency
b)Mechanical efficiency
c)Break specific fuel consumption/hrs

A) Brake thermal efficiency: - It is the ratio of energy in the brake power to the fuel
energy.

B) Mechanical efficiency: - It is the ratio of the brake power to the indicated power.

C) Specific fuel consumption: - It is the ratio of the fuel consumed by the engine in
generating 1KW of brake power per hour. It is expressed in gm/KW hour. Typical value of
SFOC is 130 gm/BHP hrs.

(8) Indicate the heat balance diagrams of the diesel engines.


A diesel engine working on the basis of an air standard cycle is inherently incapable of utilizing
all the heat that is liberated in the cylinder engine. Heat balance chart is a useful method of
computing thermodynamic losses in the engine.
1. Maximum (heat) power utilized as engine power.

2. Heat transferred to jacket cooling water, utilized for producing fresh water from sea water
using Fresh Water Generator.

3. This heat from the Main Engine exhaust is utilized to run the Turbo charger.

4. Heat from the Turbo Charger exhaust is utilized to generate steam on Composite Boiler /
Exhaust Gas Boiler.

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(9) Sketch the section through:

a) Piston showing cooling arrangement

b) Water cooled piston

c) Engine bed plate showing girders, main bearings, tie bolt housing

(a) Piston showing cooling arrangement: Oil Cooled Piston

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(b)Water Cooled Piston:

c) Engine bed plate showing girders, main bearings, tie bolt housing:

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(10) List the normal operating pressures and temperatures in a diesel engine for:

a) Exhaust gas b) Inlet air


c) Circulating water inlet and outlet d) Lubricating oil e) Fuel Oil

(a) Exhaust gas temperature =350oc to 400oc

(b) Inlet air pressure = 1.8 to 2 bar

(c) Circulating water (i) Inlet temperature = 60-70oc

(ii) Outlet temperature = 80-90oc

Circulating water pressure = 2.5 bar

(d) Lubricating oil pressure = 2.5 bar for two stroke

(e) Fuel oil pressure = Above 5 bar

(11) Draw line diagram of following systems:

(a) Fuel Oil:

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(b) Lube Oil:

(c) Piston Cooling: Oil Cooled Piston

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(d) Jacket Cooling Water System:

(e) Fuel Valve Cooling:

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(f) Starting Air:

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COLOUR CODE FOR PIPELINES


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(12) Sketch an air reservoir with its fitting and safety devices and state typical air
pressures.
Fittings required on air reservoir are:
 Safety valve

 Pressure gauge connection

 Filling valve

 Distribution valves:

Main engine starting air valve, auxiliary engine starting air valve, air reducer valve, Air to ship’s
whistle.

 Fusible plug

 Drain valve

Typical air pressure of air reservoir to be maintained is 30 bar.

(13) Explain the purpose of the following:


a) Sheathing on high pressure fuel line
b) Lagging on hot surfaces
c) Guards over moving machinery.
(a)Sheathing in high pressure fuel line: - It is provided on the high pressure fuel line so as to
avoid fuel to fall on the hot surface which ultimately will lead to fire, also to avoid personal
injury.

(b)Lagging on hot surface: - It is the insulation provided on the hot surface to reduce heat
transfer and to avoid personal injury.

(c)Guards over moving machinery: - the guards are provided on the moving parts like coupling
etc to avoid accidents and to provide safety.

(14) Explain the purpose of turning gear and interlocks.


The purpose of a turning gear is:
1. Mainly used during maintenance work; e.g. moving piston to different position for
removal, taking the web deflection and bearing clearance etc.
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2. Before starting the engine, the crankshaft is rotated using the turning gear for lubricating
the rotating parts, and we also check their freeness.
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The purpose of interlock:


It prevents the admission of starting air when turning gear is engaged, and prevents the engine
from starting.

(15) Describe how engine speed is varied and how over speed is prevented.
When used for alternating current power generation, a diesel engine is normally fitted with a
hydraulic governor. This incorporates a centrifugal speed sensing device (spring loaded
flyweights) controlling a suitably damped oil operated servo-cylinder through a pilot valve. The
governor has adjustable speed droop and load limit controls. A split field, electric motor-
operated speeder gear to facilitate remote alteration of engine speed setting from the switchboard
is incorporated. This alters the spring pressure usually through a screwed rod.

Over speed trip:

The 'Bolt' type over speed trip (Figure below) consists essentially of a spring-loaded stainless
steel bolt which, due to its special design, is heavier at one end than the other. The rotary motion
of the turbine shaft tends to move the bolt outwards, while the spring retains it in its normal
position until the turbine speed reaches a pre-determined safety level. At this speed the
centrifugal force exerted by the heavier end of the bolt overcomes the spring opposing it and the
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bolt moves outwards to strike the trip trigger. This in turn disengages the trip gear, allowing the
steam stop valve to shut.
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(16) Explain what is Oil Mist, when does it become dangerous and working and
maintenance of the oil mist detector.
Oil mist is the result of oil vaporization caused by a hot spot. It becomes dangerous when the
density of oil mist increases above a certain limit.
Two basic methods of measuring the oil mist density. The first is the Comparator type where a
sample taken from each crank chamber is compared in turn with the combined mist from the
remaining chambers.
The second method, called the Level type, involves comparing a sample from each crank
chamber in turn with clear air. The first method is particularly applicable to crosshead type two
stroke engines where there is a low background of oil mist, a sub-divided crankcase and
relatively slow speeds. The second is used for engines where there is a high background of oil
mist and little or no sub-division of the crankcase, i.e. high and medium speed trunk piston
engines.

Maintenance carried out on Oil Mist Detector:-

1. Cleaning of reference tube.


2. Cleaning of rotary valve.
3. Calibration of oil mist detector.

(17) State approximate exhaust gas temperatures at (a) Discharge from cylinder (b) At
inlet to and outlet from exhaust gas turbine.
(a) Discharge from cylinder : 350oc
(b) Inlet to exhaust gas turbine : 400oc
(c) Outlet from exhaust gas turbine : 340oc
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(18) Define turbocharger “surging” and action to be taken when it occurs.


Surging (variously known as coughing, barking etc.) is a vibration of audible level emanating
from the compressor end of the rotating element.
The turbocharger should be matched to the engine's air consumption rate and pressure across the
whole operating range.
Action to be taken when surging takes place:
 Slow down the engine.
 To reduce surging as far as possible the development of scale or deposits of any type,
'water washing' of the blades is frequently adopted.
 Clean the suction filter of turbo charger.

(19) Define “Scavenge Fire” and action to be taken when it occurs.


A scavenge fire may be caused by the ignition of unburned oil and carbon which has been
blown from the engine cylinder into the scavenge spaces. This may include unburned fuel or
cylinder lubricating oil and may be due to incorrect combustion caused by a defective injector,
faulty fuel pump timing, incorrect fuel condition, lack of scavenge air, partially chocked exhaust,
low compression, after burning, by operating the engine at overload conditions, or due to
defective piston rings, badly worn cylinder liner, or by wrongly timed or excessive cylinder
lubrication.
The oil will build up in scavenge spaces where it will become carbonized by further
heating and will then reach a condition in which it can burn in the presence of air. It may be
ignited by hot gases and burning particles from blow fast of piston rings.

Indication of a scavenge fire are loss in power and irregular running of engine, high
exhaust temperatures of the scavenge drain shut.

Action to be taken:

 Reduce the speed of engine,


 cut off the fuel supply of that unit by lifting the plunger ,
 increase the lubrication of the unit and
 Shut the scavenge drain.
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(20) Construction and operation of Turbocharger.


The turbocharger is driven by the exhaust gas leaving the cylinders of the diesel engine it serves.
The gas has sufficient pressure and heat when released from the cylinder at exhaust opening, to
drive the turbocharger. It is directed on to turbine blades by nozzles which are built into a nozzle
ring in the axial flow type or into a radial turbine from the peripheral volute casing of smaller
turbochargers.

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(21) Construction and operation of Governor.

The speed control mentioned above is achieved with the help of a governor and we will study
about this device here. I would just like to clarify one confusion here that the main role of the
governor is not to increase or decrease the speed which can be done via fuel control system
(similar to an accelerator on your car) but once the speed of the engine has been set, the job of
the governor is to maintain that speed despite the variations in load. In other words the governor
controls the speed variation and keeps the speed within restrained limits despite these variations.

The variations could arise from several factors such as say rough weather. A ship rolling and
pitching in heavy weather may temporarily come in such position that its propeller is literally out
of water and without the governor the speed of the engine could shoot up to such an extent that it
could damage the engine itself.

Governors are also fitted in auxiliary diesel engines on the ship used for power generation, and
their function remains the same in this situation as well. The power delivered by the alternator
needs to be constant despite load variations and this depends to a great degree on the speed at
which the prime mover of the generator diesel engine is rotating since the alternator is getting its
movement from that engine only. Hence the role of the governor is equally important in this case
as well.

Function of governor:

To control the engine speed within the closed limits, from no load to full rated speed.

Isochronous governors:

It is a governor which maintains a “constant speed” , irrespective of load and power changes.

e.g.:- Auxiliary engines.

Variable speed governors:

When there is a facility to adjust the set speed on the governor according to the load, then the
governor is a variable speed governor.

e.g.:- Main engine governor.

Governors may be classified into

1) Mechanical governors
2) Relay governors
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Mechanical governors:

The figure below explains the working of an elementary governor known as direct action
governor.

It is a purely mechanical device working on the principle of centrifugal force acting on


rotating/revolving bodies.

The governor spindle is rotated through a gear mechanism via the engine shaft whose speed
needs to be governed. There are flyweights which rotate along with the governor spindle and
they are thrown outwards (as shown by arrows in diagram), and the degree of their outward
motion is in proportion to the speed at which the shaft and hence the spindle is rotating.

The spring fitted on the spindle acts to return the flyweights to their original position and hence
counters the centrifugal force acting on the flyweights.

The net results of all this action is that the spindle moves vertically up or down depending on the
position of the flyweights and this motion is transmitted to the appropriate mechanism which
results in actual speed change.
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Drawbacks of mechanical governors

 Increased wear
 Friction
 Mechanical damage
 Bearing failure
 Limited governor effect
 This type of governor must have large rotating masses to provide sufficient power to
move and regulate the control shaft

Relay governor:

The detailed working of relay governor with servomechanism is shown

Here apart from the controlling force represented by S2 in this diagram, there are two more
spring forces namely S1 and S2. The working of this device till the lever L is same as studied
about direct action controller.

Under conditions of constant speed, the mechanisms are in overall equilibrium. The spring force
S2 is balanced by the centrifugal force from the flyweights. The servomechanism piston is also
kept in equilibrium with the help of lubricating oil pressure acting on its underside and the spring
force S1 which tends to pull it towards the zero admission position by default.

Let the load in the engine suddenly drops. This would result in a sudden increase in speed. This
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would mean that the bell crank levers will go more towards their outward position and the
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controlling spring S2 will be pushed inside. The level L also acts through the linkage and the
motion is finally delivered to the pilot valve F inside the servo cylinder.
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When the pilot valves moves the lubricating oil pressure is unbalanced and it moves the valves
so that a new equilibrium position is reached. This new position is towards reduced admission
position of the spring S1. Hence this reduced admission of fuel helps to reduce the speed of the
engine. The function of the spring S3 is simply to provide a buffer against excess oscillation due
to instantaneous load changes on the engine.

Role in Engine Safety:

Apart from speed control which can be even achieved with a simple direct action control, the
other advantage of using this type of arrangement is to safeguard engine damage against loss of
lubricating oil pressure.

We know that the lubricating oil is very necessary for a marine engine, rather any type of engine.
Hence there should be two safeguards – firstly the engine should not start in the absence of
proper lubricating oil pressure build up, and secondly the engine should automatically shut down
if the lubricating oil pressure drops below a certain value. If this does not happen, there are
chances of severe engine damage.

In this case suppose if the lubricating oil pressure is not present due to any reason, the pilot valve
would have nothing to stop it from being pulled towards the zero admission position. So the
engine would not start or even if it is in the running position, the fuel would get cut-off
completely in such a situation thus saving the engine.

(22) Write short note on Stuffing Box.


Because the crankcase is separated from the cylinder, and scavenges space by the diaphragm
plate on a two stroke crosshead engine, provision must be made for the piston rod to pass
through the plate without oil from the crankcase being carried upwards, or used cylinder oil
contaminated from products of combustion being carried downwards. It is also highly
undesirable to allow the pressurized air in the scavenge space to leak into the crankcase.

The Piston rod passes through a stuffing box which is bolted into the diaphragm plate. The
stuffing box casing which can be split vertically, as shown in the photo, contains a series of rings
which are each made up of three or four segments. On the outside of each set of segments is a
garter spring which provides the tension to hold the ring segments against the piston rod. There
is a clearance between each segment to allow for wear. The rings are either bronze or can
comprise of replaceable cast iron lamella fitted into a steel backing ring.

As the Piston rod passes up through the stuffing box, the oil from the crankcase is scraped off by
the lower sets of rings and is returned via drillings to the crankcase. Any oil that passes this
primary set is scraped off by another set of rings, and is led away through a drain to a tell tale
open ended pipe into a tun dish outside the engine from where it drains to a recycling tank.
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As the piston passes down through the stuffing box, the top set of scraper rings will scrape off
the contaminated oil into the bottom of the scavenge space, where it is drained away via the
scavenge drains. However if these rings are faulty, then the oil may drain into the recycling tank.

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Theoretical knowledge of Construction and Operation of Marine Auxiliaries

(1)Air compressors:
A single stage compressor used to provide air at the high pressures required for diesel engine
starting, would unfortunately generate compression temperatures of a level similar to those in a
diesel. Such heat would be sufficient to ignite vaporized oil in the same way as in a compression-
ignition engine. The heat produced in a single stage of compression would also be wasteful of
energy.
This heat of compression adds energy and produces a resultant rise in pressure apart from
that pressure rise expected from the action of the piston. However, when the air cools the
pressure rise due to the heat generated is lost. Only the pressure from compression remains. The
extra pressure due to heat is of no use and actually demands greater power for the upward
movement of the piston through the compression stroke.
A compressor is a rotary or reciprocating machine which compresses air or other gases.

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Compressor Suction and Delivery Valves:

Valves- Air compressor use plate type valves which are designed to cover and uncover the parts
in the valve seat, thus controlling flow of air into and out from the compressor. These are
automatic, requiring small pressure differential to operate. For intake of air suction valve is used
and for outtake of air delivery valve is used.

Bursting disc:

These are relatively tamper proof provided that the correct materials and replacement caps
are used. They do vent the manifold completely and, unlike the above relief valve, which resets
once the pressure has dropped, require some form of blanking off if the engine is to be started
again. For this reason, it is usual for several caps to be fitted to the engine (one per unit), unlike
the relief valve where one or two valves are the norm.
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Bursting disc comprise of thin metal diaphragms designed to burst at a pressure equal to the
maximum working pressure.
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(2) Oil Purifier:


Purifier
When a centrifuge is set up as a purifier, a second outlet pipe is used for discharging water as
shown. In the fuel oil purifier, the untreated fuel contains a mixture of oil, solids and water,
which the centrifuge separates into three layers. While in operation, a quantity of oil remains in
the bowl to form a complete seal around the underside of the top disc and, because of the density
difference, confines the oil within the outside diameter of the top disc. As marine fuel oil
normally contains a small quantity of water, it is necessary to prime the bowl each time that it is
run, otherwise all the oil will pass over the water outlet side to waste. The water outlet is at
greater radius than that of the fuel. Within the water outlet there is a gravity disc, which controls
the radial position of the fuel water interface
A set of gravity discs is supplied with each machine and the optimum size to be fitted depends on
the density of the untreated oil. When the fuel centrifuge is operating, particulate matter will
accumulate on the walls of the bowl. If the centrifuge is set as a clarifier, the particulate matter
will be a combination of water and solid material. If it is set as a purifier, the free water is
continuously discharged, therefore, the particulate matter will consist of solid material. In older
machines it is necessary to stop the centrifuge to manually clean the bowl and disc stack,
however, the majority of machines today can discharge the bowl contents while the centrifuge is
running.

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Clarifier:

The addition of an inlet and an outlet connection forms a simple clarifier. Rotational speeds vary
according to designs and are of the order of 7,000 to 9,000 rpm. Efficiency is increased by the
inclusion of a number of discs (up to 150) that increase the surface area and thus help separation.
Discs are separated at a distance of 0.5-0.6 mm. After passing down the central passage, the
untreated oil is carried by centrifugal forces towards the periphery of the bowl and then passes up
through the disc stack. Here is where the actual separation takes place, in the channel formed
between two discs. Two forces act on each solid or liquid particle. The particle is pushed
upwards with the oil stream towards the centre while the centrifugal force directs it to the
periphery. The residual force on denser particles (impurities) will drive them towards the
periphery, while the less dense particles (oil) will be directed towards the centre of the bowl and
raise to the outlet connection.

(3) Heat Exchangers:

The application of heat exchangers to diesel engines is principally in the dissipation of heat to the
environment, either to water or to atmospheric air. The functions which they fulfill can be
classified as:

(i) Engine cooling, to maintain within acceptable temperature limits such components as liners,
pistons, and cylinder covers, etc. The pistons are cooled by a separate circuit in some larger
engines. The materials used in the construction of engines are unable to withstand the thermal
39

stresses that would be imposed upon them, for any appreciable length of time, without some
form of forced cooling.
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(ii) Oil cooling, to control temperature and hence the viscosity of lubricating oil within the limits
required to provide effective lubrication. The lubricating oil is sometimes used also for cooling
the pistons.

(iii) Charge air cooling in pressure-charged engines, to increase the density of the combustion air
entering the cylinders as well as reduce its temperature, enabling engine power to be increased
by burning more fuel on each piston firing stroke, whilst maintaining acceptable exhaust value
temperatures.

Plate type Heat Exchanger.

The plate-type heat exchanger is made up of a number of pressed plates surrounded by seals and
held together in a frame. The inlet and outlet branches for each liquid are attached to one end
plate. The arrangement of seals between the plates provides passageways between adjacent
plates for the cooling liquid and the hot liquid. The plates have various designs of corrugations to
aid heat transfer and provide support for the large, flat surface. A double seal arrangement is
provided at each branch point with a drain hole to detect leakage and prevent intermixing or
contamination.

Operation:
Temperature control of coolers is usually achieved by adjusting the cooling liquid outlet valve.
The inlet valve is left open and this ensures a constant pressure within the cooler. This is
particularly important with sea water cooling where reducing pressure could lead to aeration or
the collecting of air within the cooler. Air remaining in a cooler will considerably reduce the
cooling effect. Vents are provided in the highest points of coolers which should be opened on
first filling and occasionally afterwards. Vertical mounting of single pass coolers will ensure
automatic venting. Positioning the inlet cooling water branch facing downwards and the outlet
branch upwards will achieve automatic venting with horizontally mounted coolers. Drain plugs
are also fitted at the lowest point in coolers.

Plate type heat exchanger


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Shell / Tube type Heat Exchanger

In the shell and tube design a tube bundle or stack is fitted into a shell. The end plates are sealed
at either end of the shell and provision is made at one end for expansion. The tubes are sealed
into the tube plate at either end and provide a passageway for the cooling liquid. Headers or
water boxes surround the tube plates and enclose the shell. They are arranged for either a single
pass or, for a double pass of cooling liquid. The tube bundle has baffles fitted which serve to
direct the liquid to be cooled up and down over the tubes as it passes along the cooler. The joint
arrangements at the tube plate ends are different. At the fixed end, gaskets are fitted between
either side of the tube plate and the shell and end cover. At the other end, the tube plate is free to
move with seals fitted either side of a safety expansion ring. Should either liquid leak past the
seal it will pass out of the cooler and be visible. There will be no intermixing or contamination.

Materials:-
Shell: Generally of cast iron or fabricated steel.
Tubes: These are of aluminum-brass (76% copper, 22% zinc and 2% aluminum), or cupro-
nickel or even stainless steel may be used.
Tube-plates: The tube plate material should suit the tube material and the method of fixing.
Naval-brass tube plates are used with aluminum-brass tubes.
Water boxes: Cast iron or fabricated steel always designed to keep turbulence and coated for
corrosion protection.

Shell/tube type heat exchanger

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(4) Steering Gears:

The steering gear provides a movement of the rudder in response to a signal from the bridge. The
total system may be considered made up of three parts, control equipment, a power unit and a
transmission to the rudder stock. The control equipment conveys a signal of desired rudder angle
from the bridge and activates the power unit and transmission system until the desired angle is
reached. The power unit provides the force, when required and with immediate effect, to move
the rudder to the desired angle. The transmission system, the steering gear, is the means by
which the movement of the rudder is accomplished.
Certain requirements must currently be met by a ship's steering system. There must be two
independent means of steering, although where two identical power units are provided an
auxiliary unit is not required. The power and torque capability must be such that the rudder can
be swung from 35° one side to 350 the other side with the ship at maximum speed, and also the
time to swing from 35° one side to 30° the other side must not exceed 28 seconds.

In brief, a steering gear is required to:


a) Be continuously available.
b) Move the rudder rapidly to any position in response to the orders from the bridge during
maneuvering, and hold it in the required position.
c) Have arrangements for relieving abnormal stress and returning the rudder to its required
position.
d) Maintain the ship on course regardless of wind and waves.

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Complete Steering Gear system consists of three main parts namely:

1. Telemotor
2. Control Unit
3. Power Unit.

A brief description about the construction and working of these components is as follows:

Telemotor unit comprises of two parts namely, Transmitter and Receiver. The Transmitter is
located on the navigation bridge in the form of a wheel, which transmits the given order to the
Receiver located in the steering gear compartment, by turning the steering wheel. The Receiver
conveys this order to the Control Unit, also located in the steering gear compartment, via linear
motion.

The Telemotor is generally hydraulic type, electric type or, as is the case with modern steering
systems, it could be electro-hydraulic type. In olden days, Telemotors were purely mechanical
type consisting of linkages and chains with sprockets. As they were operated manually, they
required very healthy sailors to operate them.

Control Unit is the link between the Telemotor and the Power Unit. I receives signal from the
Telemotor and operates the Power Unit until it receives another signal, this time from the Rudder
through the Hunting Gear, to stop the operation of Power Unit.

Power Unit can be any prime mover like steam engine, diesel engine or, an electric motor,
directly coupled to the Rudder; it can be an electro-hydraulic unit or, an all- electric unit
complete with the Telemotor

HUNTING GEAR MECHANISM:

With the Tiller arm going to port the rudder moves to starboard. The rotating stock
movement is led back by a spring link to the pump control floating lever. This constitutes the
hunting gear (feed back) in that when the telemotor movement stops, the floating lever stops
going to the left. The bottom of the lever is being pushed to the right and so the stroke control of
the pump is almost immediately brought back to pump midposition. This means the pump stops
pumping and the unit is virtually fluid locked at the required rudder position. 43
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The pump control is moved by the telemotor through a floating lever.The other end of this
lever, is connected through a safety spring link to the rudder stock or tiller (Fig).
The telemotor is the receiver of the hydraulic remote control system from the wheel on
the bridge. The linkage through the floating lever of telemotor, pump and rudder stock forms the
hunting gear.
The pump is only required to deliver oil when the steering wheel is moved. The hunting
gear returns the pump operating rod to mid position as soon as the helmsman stops turning the
wheel. When the rudder has moved through the angle corresponding to the wheel position, it will
remain there until the wheel and telemotor are moved again.
The sketch shows simply, the operation of the hunting gear. The telemotor moves the
end of the floating rod A to A1 and the pump control is moved , therefore, from B to B1 .
Pumping of the hydraulic oil causes movement of the rams and the end of rod C moves to C1 thus
causing the pump control to be pulled back to the neutral position B.
If the rudder is displaced by a heavy sea through lifting of the relief valves, the hunting
gear is moved by the rudder stock. This will put the pump on stroke and the rudder will be
restored to its previous position.

FLOATING LEVER

The Floating Lever in Ram type Steering Gear is so called because it is connected to three parts:
(a) Telemeter
(b) Control Rod of variable delivery pump &
(c) Rudder stock

Control rod operation is adjusted by telemotor and rudder stock feedback.

MATERIAL FOR HYDRAULIC STEERING GEAR:

MATERIAL

RAM TYPE HYDRAULIC STEERING GEAR

TILLER - FORGED OR CAST STEEL


RAMS - CLOSE GRAIN HARD CAST IRON
OR STEEL
SUPPORT FOR BEARING - DOUBLER PLATE (MILD STEEL) &
STEEL PLATE
RUDDER - MEEHANITE
THRUST RING - GUNMETAL
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(5)Write short notes on Rudder Carrier Bearing:

The rudder carrier bearing takes the weight of the rudder on a grease lubricated thrust face. The
rudder stock is located by the journal beneath, also grease lubricated.

Support for the bearing is provided by framing beneath the steering gear deck. There is
thicker deck plating in the area beneath the carrier bearing and the latter may be supported on
steel chocks. The base of the carrier bearing is located by side chocks welded to the deck. The
carrier may be of meehanite with a gunmetal thrust ring and bush. Carrier bearing components
are split as necessary for removal or replacement. Screw down (hand) lubricators may be fitted
but automatic lubricators are common. The grease used for lubrication is of a water resistant type
(calcium soap base with graphite).

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(6) Shafting and Propellers:

The simplistic view of the main propulsion shafting and installation is that the system is set up
with initial straight alignment and remains in that state during the life time of the ship unless
affected by accidents or wear.

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ENGINE DISTANCE = REVOLUTIONS x PROP CONSTANT ( PITCH )


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How propeller Thrust is transmitted to the Hull:

The thrust block shaft is comparitively short with the coupling at each end,a thrust coller in the
middle of its length and the journal at each side of the thrust coller .the journals run in the
bearing housed in the thrust block which carry the weight of the shaft.

Each side of the collar bears upon a number of kidney shaped white metal faced pads
supported in the thrust block. Pads on the forward face of the collar being to take the ahead thrust
and those on the after face to take the astern thrust.There is always a film of oil maintained
between the face of the collar and white metal face of the pad and thus there is no metallic
contact.

As the propeller turns, it throws water away from the ship(when running forward
direction). Thus a thrust is created which has equal and opposite reaction on the propeller shaft.
Propeller shaft tends to does enter into the engine room. There actually will be microscopic
inward movement of the entire shaft till the thrust collar hits the forward pads. This way thrust
gets transmitted to the ships hull and ship moves forward.

Intermediate shaft and Intermediate tunnel bearing:

The intermediate shaft are those which connect the thrust shaft to propeller shaft.each
intermediate shaft has a coupling at each end to connect by coupling bolt to the next,and has one
or two journal bearings to carry these bearings with the exception of the after most are white
metal lined on the bottom half only. All bearings are water cooled.these bearings are sometimes
are also called “plummer blocks”.

Establishing the shaft centre line:

Optical ( or laser) instrument can be used to establish the centre line of the shafting system, to
give a reference for cutting through bulkheads and machining of the aperture in the stern frame.

Deviation while building:

With the ship under construction still firmly supported, faults causing shaft misalignment can
and do occur. Any contraction or expansion of the hull as a result of temperature variation can
conspire with changes cause by welding of the hull to effect change of hull shape. The welding
in place of fabricated stern tube requires constant check to ensure alignment to maintained. Some
stern tube bearing failures have been traced to alignment errors which should have been detected
and remedied during installation.
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Alignment deviation in service:

Shaft line is continually change through the life time of a ship as the hull is distorted by a hog or
sag due to different conditions of loading. The weight and distribution of cargo,ballast ,fuel and
fresh water are all subject to change and the changes are known from experiment to affect shaft
alignment.

High deck temperature in the tropics or low sea temperatures can cause differential
expansion and hogging of the hull. These type of change can alter crank shaft deflection or shaft
alignment readings which are taken even a few hours apart. There are also local factors which
alter shaft alignment.

Fair curve alignment:

The method of fair curve alignment accepts the changes of line endured by the shaft system and
seeks a compromise installation to suit the varying conditions.

The initial calculation is to determine the load on each bearing,assuming all bearings to
be in a straight line. The computer programme then simulates the raising of each bearing through
a range and calculates,for each small change,the increase of its own load and alteration in load on
each of the other bearings.the progress is then repeated with the simulation of the lowering of
each bearing in turn with the computer finding resultant load changes on the bearing in question
and others.

(7) Stern Tube:

What is a Stern Tube:-


The stern tube, as the name suggests, is a hollow tube-like structure at the stern or rear part of the
ship. A ship needs a propeller to drive it forward against the waves. The propeller, located
outside the ship needs to be connected to the engine inside the ship’s engine room. A long shaft
known as the propeller shaft is used for connecting the ship’s engine and the propeller. This
narrow hole in the hull structure at the rear end (aft peak) of the ship, through which the
propeller shaft passes and connects the engine and propeller, is known as the stern tube.

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Stern Tube Bearings and Glands

The total weight of the propeller shaft inside the stern tube is carried by these bearings which are
known as the stern tube. The weight of the overall stern tube arrangement, along with the
bearings is carried by the stern frame and the internal framing of the ship’s hull structure at the
aft peak area. Moreover, there are generally two bearings inside the stern tube for supporting the
shaft, located at both the ends. The main function of stern tube bearings is to allow an
unrestricted and smooth rotation of the propeller shaft.

Apart from stern bearings, the stern tube also houses water and oil sealing glands known as the
stern glands. It is also to note that stern tube is that sensitive part of the ship from where the sea
water can easily seep inside the ship. The stern glands thus seal the area between the stern tube
and the propeller shaft. The glands are attached at the forward end of the stern tube and prevent
the passing of sea water into the ship. The glands also prevent the leaking of oil from the stern
bearings into the sea.

Stern Tube Bearing

Adequate lubrication is required for the rotation of the propeller shaft inside the stern tube. For
this reason, various types of lubrication systems are used.

Thus, the two main purposes of a stern bearing are:


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 To prevent the entry of sea water into the machinery spaces


 To support the tail shaft and a considerable proportion of propeller weight.
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The stern tube gland should be such that it allows a free movement of the propeller shaft without
causing any harm. In the ancient days, lignum vitae - a dense form of timber, was used as
bearing material. The timber was continuously lubricated by sea water. However, with the advent
of higher tonnage steel ships, the size and weight of propellers increased and timber bearings
became outdated. In most of the modern ships, an oil lubrication system with a white metal lined
stern tube bearing is used.

Construction and Working of Stern Tube Bearing:

The arrangement of a stern tube with oil lubrication system has been shown in the figure. The
bush of the white metal bearing has grooves made into it. Oil is pumped in though this external
axial groves into the bush of the bearing. The oil then passes through the internal axial passages
through the holes made on each side. A return line, at the end of the bush facilitates the flow of
the oil back to the pump. A pump attached with a cooler, continuously pumps oil into the
bearings to maintain the required pressure. In case the pump fails, of the two header tanks under
gravitational pressure, provide the required oil with a back pressure to the bearing system. Thus,
it is imperative that the level of hydraulic oil is well maintained in each header tank. Moreover,
both the tanks should also be fitted with low level alarms.

The pressure in the system should be maintained at a level higher than that of the static sea water
head to prevent the water from seeping inside in-case of the seal failure. A low pressure alarm is
also provided to the system to prevent any kind of accident.
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Stern Tube Seals

A stern tube, which is present at the bottommost part of the ship, connects the engine, inside of
the ship to the propeller outside. A propeller shaft passes through this stern-tube and is used to
connect the propeller to the engine. Stern tube bearings, generally oil lubrication glands, are used
to prevent the ingress of sea water inside the engine room and also to support the weight of the
propeller. But this is not it, the whole stern tube arrangement is packed and sealed from both the
sides for additional protection of the stern tube. The packing materials used for these sealing
arrangements are known as stern tube seals.

Thus, these specially made seals, fitted at the inboard and outboard ends of the tail shaft are used
for two main functions :

 To provide extra protection for preventing the entry of sea water


 To prevent loss of lubricating oil from the stern tube bearings.

Types of Stern Tube Seals:

In the older ships, where the timber bearings with sea water lubrication systems were used,
conventional stuffing box and glands were used at the aft bulkhead of the ship. However, the
modern ships which uses oil lubricated stern bearings mainly uses two types of seals :

 Lip seals
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 Face seals
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Lip Seals:

Lip seals are seals made of special kind of materials (elastic) , having a projecting lip or edge.
This peculiar shaped ring is held in close contact with the shaft and the stern tube to prevent oil
leakage or water entry. The shape, size and number of lip seals depends on the size and type of
application.

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Face Seals:

Face Seals are seals made in pairs. The seals consists of two mating radial faces, which are
forced against each other to prevent any kind of leakage. Out of the two faces, one is rotating and
the other is stationary. The rotating seal is attached to the propeller boss and the stationary seal is
attached at the aft bulkhead. The arrangement also consists of a spring which forces the two
faces, one stationary and other rotating towards each other in order to provide the adequate seal.

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(8) Windlass and Anchor chains and Deck Machinery.


Windlass: Different types of machines are used on a ship's deck for the overall and smooth
functioning of deck procedures. Deck procedures such as cargo handling, berthing and anchoring
represent a lion's share of a vessel's total working operations.

Anchoring is one such process that is carried out when the ship requires a stoppage at mid sea or
at the port. For this an anchor is used for holding the ship at one place, to remain unaffected by
waves and weather. Bigger the ship, larger and heavier is the anchor. The anchoring process
requires dropping and lifting of the anchor from the sea. Windlass is the device used for anchor
handling on all the ships.

Usually, a ship is provided with a pair of anchors. On almost all the ships, a single marine
windlass handles both the anchors, but if the size of the ship is more , dedicated windlasses
known as split windlasses are used for individual anchor.

An ideal windlass assembly consists of a cable lifter, mooring drum and a warp end. All these
are rotating equipments that work together for the anchoring process. The cable lifter has cable
shaped snugs that are used to grip the anchor cable on the drum. The cable from the cable lifter
goes around a mooring drum, which guides the cables by paying out or letting go of the mooring
wires. A warp end is used to hold the cable at the desired position and is always driven in
association with the mooring drum for efficient carrying out of the warping duties.

Although all these units work together, they can also be individually controlled. A dog clutch is
used to separately engage or disengage each of this unit. All the rotating parts are connected to a
motor with the help of a spur gear assembly, which is used to transmit the motor drive to the
54

shaft where various dog clutches enable the power take off. Moreover, separate band brakes are
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used to lock the cable lifters and the mooring drums to prevent any kind of accidental movement
when the power of the motor is turned off.

The cable lifter guides the anchor by raising and lowering the cable through the spurling pipe.
The spurling pipe is located at the top and centre of the chain or the cable locker. Snug’s in the
cable lifter are used not only to grip the cables but also to hold the band brakes and the cables.

Anchor capstans, which are windlasses that rotate in the horizontal direction about a vertical
axis, also have cable lifters that rotate about the same axis. These arrangements are generally
used for heavy anchors and have the cable lifter unit located on the deck with the driving
machinery on the deck below. The same unit which drives the cable lifter is used to drive the
warping end, which is generally positioned near the cable lifter.

Nowadays, different types of windlasses are used according to the weight of the anchor and
various other vessel requirements. The driving unit can be electrical, pneumatic or hydraulic,
which also depends on the ship's system requirement.

Anchor:

A ship has all the controls and automation but she is quite helpless when it comes to the simple
concept of braking. There are no brakes on a ship and an anchor is used to hold it from drifting
astray.

There are no brakes on the ship for the simple reason that the ship is floating on water. So
when the ship is stopped and its engines are not running, there needs to be a mechanism to
ensure that the ship does not drift freely in the sea. Just note that this is only necessary when the
ship is stopped in open water. This is not required when the ship is moored at the port, since in
such a situation the vessel is bound by heavy ropes. The mechanism for holding the ship in place
is the ship anchor chain.

Ship Anchor & Chain

Basically the ship anchor chain arrangement consists of two parts - the anchor and the chain. The
anchor is nothing but a heavy piece of metal which is normally in the shape of a fork, The exact
shape and size of the anchor would vary depending on the size and type of ship. The anchor
chain is made out of heavy metal links and it holds the anchor at one end, while the other end is
fastened to the ship

The Sea Anchor:

The sea anchor is also an anchor with the only difference that it does not touch the bottom of the
ocean but haggles midway between the sea surface and the seabed. The role of the sea anchor is
the same as that of the conventional anchor, and is useful in situations where the sea bed is very
deep. It is mostly used in smaller marine vessels such as kayaks, boats and smaller yachts.
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How is Anchoring carried out:

Whenever the anchor needs to be dropped in the seabed, the available marine charts of the sea
area are used to determine the nature and depth of the sea floor. After the appropriate spot has
been selected, the anchor is lowered into the water at a steady pace. A certain length of the
anchor chain is kept loose so as to allow a certain movement of the ship depending on weather
conditions and experience of the master. Of course the actual process of anchoring is not as
simple or easy as described here, and the ship crew might have to try a few times before they
find a proper spot. All types of ocean floors are not suitable for anchoring; especially soft mud-
floors are least suited for anchoring.

Common misconception at this stage that the weight of the anchor holds the ship in place. This is
not correct because the main role of the anchor is to grip the sea bed. The role of securing the
ship is performed mainly by the chain rather than the anchor, though the latter has a role to play
in that as well.

Once the ship is anchored properly, it is bound to remain in a certain circular area which is
defined by the length of loose chain. Of course there are several other factors which need to be
considered to ensure that the ship is safe during anchor. For example if there are several other
ships in the vicinity, the navigating officers should ensure that the circular movement of one ship
does not come in the way of the circular movement of the other ships lest they collide.

Another point you might be thinking is that when the ship is in the middle of the ocean, it may
not be possible to anchor because of the depth of the seabed but there is hardly a reason why ship
should need to anchor in the deep sea. Even if the engines have to be stopped for some reason in
56

the deep sea, the ship can keep floating without anchoring since there is hardly a soul (ship) in
the vicinity.
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Mooring Winch:

A ship is a huge structure and when it comes to a port for any purpose such as cargo loading,
discharging or bunkering; it needs to be "parked" properly so that it does not move from its
position beyond a certain degree. This could lead to disruption of operations and also could mean
damage or harm to life and nearby installations. It is very easy to tie up a small boat to the shore,
but how do you go about securing a big sized vessel. Well, we will learn in detail about the
"berthing operation" as it is called in navigational language, in a separate article. But for now, I
will talk something about an important component of the mooring systems, namely a winch.

Mooring winch is a mechanical device used for securing a ship to the berth. An equipment with
various barrels used for pulling ropes or cables, mooring winches play an important role in
berthing the ship ashore. The barrels, also known as winch drums, are used for hauling in or
letting out the wires or ropes, which will help in fastening the ship to the berth.

Mooring winches assembly comes in various arrangements with different number of barrels,
depending on the requirement of the ship. The main parts of a mooring winch includes a winch
barrel or a drum, a warp end and a driving motor. Modern mooring winches comprises of
elaborate designs with various gear assemblies, which can be electric, pneumatic or hydraulic
driven.

Construction and Working:

A mooring winch assembly consists of a winch drum which has cable or rope wound around it.
The winch drum and warp end is driven with the help of a motor drive. All these parts are
supported with the help of a substantial frame, which also support a band brake, clutch and
geared drives.
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The motor drive is connected to the barrel and warp end using a spur gear transmission system.
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The transmission system is also provided with a clutch and a band brake. Thus, the spur gear

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transmission system controls both the barrel and the warp end. The warp end acts like a locking
device, which prevents the rope from sliding off the barrel when pulled excessively. Warp end is
extremely important for moving the ship along the berth for alignment purposes. This is done by
fastening one end of the ropes or wires to the bollards on the shore and the other end around the
warp end of the winch.

Appropriate control of the drum movement is an important aspect of the mooring operation. For
this reason, band brakes are provided to stop the drum whenever required. Also, it is important
that the drum rotates smoothly in both reverse and forward direction. A controller arrangement
of the drive motor facilitates forward and reverse direction as and when required, including
selection of speeds as per the requirement.

Most of the modern mooring winches help in avoiding the stress related to constant monitoring
of the mooring winches when the ship is berthing at a port. It is essential to tension or slacken the
mooring wires according to the flow of the tides and the change in the draught that takes place
due to cargo operations. The modern mooring assemblies act as an automatic self tensioning unit,
which provides for paying out or recovering wires when a pre-set tension is not present.

(9) Refrigeration machinery.

Solution: Refrigeration works by removing heat from a product and transferring that heat to the
outside air.
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS
There are five basic components of a refrigeration system, these are:
- Evaporator
- Compressor
- Condenser
- Expansion Valve
- Refrigerant; to conduct the heat from the product
- Filter drier
- Oil separator
In order for the refrigeration cycle to operate successfully each component must be present
within the refrigeration system.

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Evaporator:
The purpose of the evaporator is to remove unwanted heat from the product, via the liquid
refrigerant. The liquid refrigerant contained within the evaporator is boiling at a low-pressure.
The level of this pressure is determined by two factors:
- The rate at which the heat is absorbed from the product to the liquid refrigerant in the
evaporator
- The rate at which the low-pressure vapour is removed from the evaporator by the compressor
To enable the transfer of heat, the temperature of the liquid refrigerant must be lower than the
temperature of the product being cooled. Once transferred, the liquid refrigerant is drawn from
the evaporator by the compressor via the suction line. When leaving the evaporator coil the
liquid refrigerant is in vapour form.

Compressor:
The purpose of the compressor is to draw the low-temperature, low-pressure vapour from the
evaporator via the suction line. Once drawn, the vapour is compressed. When vapour is
compressed it rises in temperature. Therefore, the compressor transforms the vapour from a low-
temperature vapour to a high-temperature vapour, in turn increasing the pressure. The vapour is
then released from the compressor in to the discharge line.

Condenser:
The purpose of the condenser is to extract heat from the refrigerant to the outside air. The
condenser is usually installed on the reinforced roof of the building, which enables the transfer of
heat. Fans mounted above the condenser unit are used to draw air through the condenser coils.
The temperature of the high-pressure vapour determines the temperature at which the
condensation begins. As heat has to flow from the condenser to the air, the condensation
temperature must be higher than that of the air; usually between -12°C and -1°C. The high-
pressure vapour within the condenser is then cooled to the point where it becomes a liquid
refrigerant once more, whilst retaining some heat. The liquid refrigerant then flows from the
condenser in to the liquid line.

Oil Separators:
Some oil is always carried over with the compressed gas and must be removed.
This is:
a) To prevent it entering and fouling the internal surfaces of the evaporator and other heat
exchangers; and
b) To ensure its return to the crankcase or reservoir, preventing failure through the shortage of
oil.
Oil separators are placed in the line between compressor and condenser, and consist of a vessel
fitted with internal baffles and screens. The separation of oil is mechanical, the slowing down
and change of direction of the gas/oil stream throwing out the oil. The oil separated from the gas
collects the bottom of the separator and is returned to crankcase or receiver through an automatic
regulating valve.

Expansion Valve:
Within the refrigeration system, the expansion valve is located at the end of the liquid line,
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before the evaporator. The high-pressure liquid reaches the expansion valve, having come from
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the condenser. The valve then reduces the pressure of the refrigerant as it passes through the
orifice, which is located inside the valve. On reducing the pressure, the temperature of the
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refrigerant also decreases to a level below the surrounding air. This low-pressure, low-
temperature liquid is then pumped in to the evaporator.

The expansion valve is the regulator through which the refrigerant passes from the high pressure
side of the system to the low pressure side. The pressure drop causes the evaporating temperature
of the refrigerant to fall below that of the evaporator. Thus, for example, the refrigerant can be
boiled off by an evaporator temperature of -18°C because the pressure drop brings the
evaporating temperature of the refrigerant down to say -24°C
The liquid refrigerant leaves the condenser with a temperature just above that of the sea-water
inlet, say 15 °C. As it passes through the expansion valve the evaporating temperature decreases
to- 24°C and some of the liquid boils off taking its latent heat from the remainder of the liquid
and reducing its temperature to below that of the evaporator.

Filter Driers:
The function of filter driers is to remove moisture from all refrigerant systems, with the
exception of those using ammonia (R717), which has a high tolerance for moisture. Foreign
particles, sediment, and the products of oil breakdown are also filtered out.
The filter driers are fitted in the liquid refrigerant line from the condenser to prevent moisture
and other contaminants entering and blocking the expansion valve.
Filter driers contain a desiccant, which is a moisture absorbing substance which will eventually
become saturated with moisture and have to be replaced.
Two widely used desiccants are silica gel and molecular sieves. Where rechargeable units are
fitted, the desiccant can be removed and the drier casing refitted with a fresh charge.

Hazards:

Frost Bite:
Direct contact with liquid refrigerant may result in frost-bite, due to the rapid evaporation of the
liquid. Refrigerants are not usually caustic.
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Eye Injuries:
Refrigerant vapours are not usually harmful to the eyes. However, if liquid refrigerant squirt
directly into the eyes, ensure that the injured person is taken to hospital or a doctor immediately?
Avoid rubbing the eyes.

Mechanical Hazards:
Personnel should be aware at all times that refrigeration systems contain liquids and
vapours under pressure. Suitable precautions must be taken when working any part of the system
to guard against the pressure hazard.

Electrical Hazards:
The electrical power used in this equipment is at voltage high enough to endanger life. Before
carrying out maintenance or repair procedures, persons concerned must ensure that equipment is
isolated from the electrical supply and tests made to verify that isolation is complete.

(10) Describe preparation for starting Main & Auxiliary machinery for departure and
checking important parameters.
Refer competency 4, Watch keeping while Maneuvering (DEPARTURE PORT)

(11) Identify various controls in the E.C.R. for operating the main and auxiliary
machinery.

Various controls in ECR for operating the main and auxiliary machinery are
 Speed control
 Air compressor starting and stopping
 Lube oil temperature control
 Viscosity control etc…

(12) Identify alarms and cut-outs for main and auxiliary machinery in E.C.R.

Main engine slow down automatically when there is problem in the system and to avoid the
greater damage in the later stages .when these defects are rectified the engine automatically tunes
to the sea speed .This is the primary stage to rectify the defects and it also indicates there is a
great damage to be taken place so rectify the defects as early as possible.

1. Main Engine lube oil high temperature.


2. Jacket cooling water high temperature.
3. Piston cooling water high temperature.
4. Oil Mist Detector alarm.
5. Thrust Bearing Low lube oil pressure.
6. Control air Low pressure.
7. Scavenge air high temperature.
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8. Exhaust Gas high temperature.


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Main Engine Safety Trips:

Main engine safety trip which trips the main engine when no corrective action is taken to the
alarm and in certain cases the main engine is tripped manual.

Manual tripping of main engine is done in chance of the collision or grounding of the ship when
sailing in conjusted water and in navigation of the ship in restricted visibility.

So when any main engine trips are activated the Main engine stops and again it should be started
with the help of starting air after correcting the faults.

SOME OF THE MAIN ENGINE TRIPS ARE:

1. Over Speed Trip


2. Low Lube oil pressure Trip
3. Cam shaft Lube oil low pressure Trip
4. Jacket cooling water low pressure Trip
5. Piston cooling water low pressure Trip
6. Thrust Bearing High pressure Trip
7. Main Bearing high pressure and temperature Trip.
8. Oil Mist Detector
9. Spring air pressure Low Trip
10. Emergency Manual Trip.

(13) Observe parameters of main and auxiliary machinery in E.C.R.

 Exhaust gas temperature : 350 - 400oc


 Lube oil temperature : 40oc(inlet), 50oc(outlet)
 Lube oil pressure : 2.6 - 2.8 bar
 Jacket cooling water temperature : 60-65oc
 Jacket cooling water pressure : 3 bar
 Scavenge temperature : 40-45oc
 Scavenge pressure : 1.8 ~ 2 bar
 Cooling sea water temperature : Variable
 Cooling sea water pressure :2 bar
 Air bottle pressure : 30 bar (Max)
 Boiler steam pressure : 7.5 bar
 Fuel oil temperature : 125 ~ 140oc
 Fuel oil pressure : 6 bar
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(14) Theoretical knowledge of construction and operation of Marine Boilers including


material used.

Whether it is steam powered or has a diesel engine as the main form of propulsion, a ship
without a boiler is really difficult to imagine. Boiler is an equipment that will be found on ship in
some or the other form . For example if a ship is a steam powered ship, two or more boilers will
be provided to produce steam having very high temperature and pressure; while if a ship is
carrying a diesel engine as the main propulsion system, one or two smaller boilers are used for
running various ship's machinery and services.

How do Boilers Work:

A basic boiler is a machine with the simplest arrangement of the internal parts. The main job of a
boiler is to make high pressure steam. The feed water supplied to the boiler drum utilizes the heat
of the energy released by burning the fuel. This energy of the burning fuel is stored in the form
of steam with high temperature and pressure. The fuel is burnt in a combustion chamber inside
the boiler. To attain high efficiency and complete combustion, air is supplied to this combustion
chamber through a separate arrangement. The heat generated in this combustion chamber is
transferred to the water from the boiler drum through a large surface area, which enables highest
rate of energy transfer.

Steam Generation Process:

The process of steam generation initiates when the feed water enters the steam drum. The water
from the steam drums enters the water drum through both internal tubes and the tubes that
surround the furnace. The system of tubes that surrounds the furnace is known as water wall or
floor tubes. The feed water gets heated when passed through these tubes. Addition to this, there
is Large-bore down comer tubes that passes outside of the furnace and are used to circulate water
between the drums, to which the tubes are attached from outside of the furnace.

The steam produced in the steam drum is known as wet or saturated steam. This steam cannot be
used directly as it contains high amount of moisture. To make this steam usable, it is first dried
and heated with the help of a super heater located within the boiler. Once all the moisture content
is removed from the steam, the super-heated steam can be supplied to other systems. It is utmost
important to monitor and control the temperature of the superheated steam, or else it can cause
damage to the systems it is supplied to. For this reason, an implement known as attemperator is
used. Attemperator is a kind of cooler which is used to cool down the superheated steam to the
right temperature. Thus, all the steam used in various systems is taken out from the main steam
drum of the boiler.

The energy from the fuel burning are used for various other purposes, the main two are as
follows:

1. For heating feed water to produce steam


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2. For superheating the steam from the boiler drum


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To increase the efficiency of the boiler, the feed water that enters the boiler is pre-heated with the
help of an economizer through which, the feed water passes before entering the boiler. The
exhaust gas of the boiler is also put to use by making it pass over an air heater, which heats up
the combustion air entering the furnace. Thus, even the energy exhausted from the boiler is
allowed to go waste which increases the overall efficiency of the system.

All these boilers are fitted with various safety fittings and control system to monitor and control
various aspects such as fuel oil flow rate, flow of combustion air and feed water supply. All these
systems should work in co-ordination to supply the amount of steam required by various
systems. The boiler is also provided with various mounting to ensure safe operation of the boiler.

Types of Boilers:

There are two main types of boilers. These are known as the basic boilers, the rest all are
different versions of them. The main two basic boilers are:

 Water Tube Boiler


 Fire Tube Boiler
 Composite boilers

The design and arrangement of both the types is just the opposite. In water tube boilers, the feed
water passes through the tubes and the hot gases are made to pass over them, while in fire tube
boiler, the hot gases passes through the tubes and feed water surrounds them.

Composite Boiler:

Composite boilers are provided with systems that can be run by two ways, either by
conventional oil firing and burning or by using the heat from the engine' exhaust gases. All the
composite boilers are based on fire tube boiler designs. Even the Cochran boiler can be modified
to be used as a composite boiler. The only modification that is required is to install a separate
tube bank section which takes the engine exhaust gases and exits through its own dedicated
exhaust duct. A composite boiler arrangement permits steam generation either by oil firing when
necessary or by using the engine exhaust gases when the ship is at sea.

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This is one of the recent vertical type of boiler, having a fully spherical furnace. Due to its shape
the boiler is also known as spheroid. The main feature of the boiler is that the furnace of the
boiler is surrounded by water and therefore there is no requirement of refractory material. It is a
single phase pass boiler, which means that the hot gases pass just through the horizontal tube
stack before going to the exhaust. Small bore tubes along with the retarders are used to ensure
better heat transfer, higher efficiency and cleaner tubes due to turbulent gas flow.

Material used:

Tube temperatures for the water cooled sections are considered to be saturation temperature plus
15oC. Solid drawn mild steel is generally used.

Tube temperatures for convection superheated sections are considered to be final superheat
temperatures plus 30oC. For Radiant heat a higher temperature is considered.

For Super heater tubes operating above 455oC a Chrome Molybdenum alloyed steel is required
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(15) Define (a) Fire tube boiler (b) Water tube boiler (c) Packaged Boiler & briefly explain
the differences and why one type of Boiler is preferred over other.

(a)Fire tube or Smoke tube Boiler:


The fire tube or smoke tube boiler is usually chosen for low-pressure steam production on
vessels requiring steam for auxiliary purposes. Operation is simple and feed water of medium
quality may be employed. The name tank boiler is sometimes used for fire tube boilers because
of their large water capacity. The terms smoke tube and donkey boiler are also in use.

These were the most common form of boiler design before the introduction of water tube
designs.
This style of boiler still see active services were low quantities of low quality steam are required,
such as for cargo and fuel tank heating when in port.
This style of boiler is relatively cheap, supplied as a packaged unit and requires less stringent
feed water conditioning and level control.

(b) Water Tube Boiler:


The construction of water a tube boiler, which use small-diameter tubes and have a small steam
drum, enables the generation or production of steam at high temperatures and pressures. The
weight of the boiler is much less than an equivalent fire tube boiler and the steam raising process
is much quicker. Design arrangements are flexible, efficiency is high and the feed water has a
good natural circulation. These are some of the many reasons why the water tube boiler has
replaced the fire tube boiler as the major steam producer. Early water tube boilers used a single
drum. Headers were connected to the drum by short, bent pipes with straight tubes between the
headers. The hot gases from the furnace passed over the tubes, often in a single pass,
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Package Boilers:
Most fire tube boilers are now supplied as a completely packaged unit. This will include the oil
burner, fuel pump, forced-draught fan, feed pumps and automatic controls for the system. The
boiler will be fitted with all the appropriate boiler mountings. A single-furnace three-pass design
is shown in Figure. The first pass is through the partly corrugated furnace and into the cylindrical
wetback combustion chamber. The second pass is back over the furnace through small-bore
smoke tubes and then the flow divides at the front central smoke box. The third pass is through
outer smoke tubes to the gas exit at the back of the boiler. There is no combustion chamber
refractory lining other than a lining to the combustion chamber access door and the primary and
secondary quart.
Fully automatic controls are provided and located in a control panel at the side of the boiler.

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(16) Explain why the shells of cylindrical forms are preffered and why end plates of
spherical types are to be preffered over flat end plates.

Stress concentration on the sharp edges is more so spherical types is preffered over flat end
plates.

(17) What are different types of stays used in boiler and why.

Purpose of using the stays:

A boiler stay is an internal strengthener inside a steam boiler. Their function is to support the
flat walls of a boiler against the internal steam pressure. In many cases the boiler can be given a
domed shape that is self-supporting: stays are required where this is not possible. There are
several forms of stay, according to the forces they must resist.

Stays are most common inside fire-tube boilers: large tanks of water, perforated by heating flues.
The alternative water-tube boilers have far less need of stays, as they use the geometry and
inherent strength of multiple small diameter tubes to resist their forces.

Although the design of stays to resist the simple pressure is relatively straightforward, careful
design is required if they are to serve well and safely in use. Many boiler explosions have been
caused by an initial failure in a boiler's stays.

Type of stays used:

Longitudinal stays: These are long rods, from one end (or side) of a boiler to the other. Most
boilers are a development of a horizontal flat-ended cylindrical pressure vessel. The flat ends of
this require support, to prevent them being forced outwards. This is done by providing
longitudinal rod stays along the length of the boiler. These are usually retained by large external
nuts (as illustrated).

Rear face of a Scotch marine boiler, showing the heads of six large stays running the length of
the boiler shell, and smaller rod stays beneath, supporting the combustion chambers.

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Gusset Stays: These are simple plate girders reinforcing the corner joints of a boiler shell. The
natural shape for a pressure vessel is approximately spherical (e.g. a rubber balloon), as this
minimizes the tensile force relative to the internal pressure. Where a rigid boiler shell is non-
spherical, e.g. a flat end plate on a cylindrical shell, these forces will tend to flatten out the sharp
corner and force the boiler into a shape closer to this ideal sphere. Gusset stays resist this
flattening force.

Rod Stays: The locomotive boiler's firebox has flat walls that require extensive staying. These
are typically short cylindrical metal rods, spaced on a square grid at 4inch spacing. As the sides
of the firebox are closely spaced between inner and outer walls, it is convenient to use a great
many simple, short rod stays.

Rod stays may be attached by riveting, threading into a tapped hole in the boiler shell, or by nuts
onto a threaded stay. Threaded stays are usually peened over as well, to prevent unscrewing in
service. The threading of these stays also gave rise to their US name of "stay bolts"

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Sling Stays: Sling Stays. Also shows some horizontal longitudinal stays

(18) Explain the advantages of using corrugated furnances.

In corrugated furance the surface area is more thus the heat absorbtion is more. The
corrugations increase the surface area and allow a degree of flexibility to allow for expansion
and contraction. The staying effect is reduced somewhat by the use of corrugated furnaces.
These are internal circumferential corrugations to the furnace tubes. Their primary aim is to
strengthen the tubes against hoop stresses, but they also allow the tubes to expand lengthways
with heating. This ability to expand somewhat reduces their effectiveness as stays.

(19) Describe how tubes are expanded in a tube plate and explain differences in following

(a) Plain tube ( b) Stay tube (c) Single flow tubes (d) Swirly flow tubes (e) Thimble tubes

The hot gases leaving the combustion chamber pass through smoke tubes fitted between the
back,or combustion chamber, tube plate , and the front tube plate ,on the way to the uptakes .
Two types of tubes are used (i) plain tube and (ii)stay tube. The smoke tubes may be plain or
threaded to act as stays. There are one stay tube for every three plain tubes approx.

The plain or common tubes are expended into the tube plates at both ends. Tubes have a
diameter of about 65mm with a thickness of 5mm.

The front end of the tube is often swelled out to allow for easer tube removal, if this
should prove necessary, as even slight deposits of scale forming on the water side of the tube
would make the withdrawal of parallel tubes through the holes in the front tube plate difficult.
Another provision, sometimes made, is to allow about 12mm of tube to project from the front
tube plate so that if the tube burns away and becomes thin at the back end it can be driven in an
reexpended. However for this to be successful the outside of the tube must be clean and in good
condition as corrosion, or scale getting between the faces to be expended, prevents the formation
of sound, tight seal between tube and plate.

The back end of the tube is bell mouthed after expansion or, as an alternative, it may be spot
welded
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(20) List all the Boiler Mountings

(a) On shell (b) Internal & Describe briefly their purposes.

Boiler mountings:-
Certain fittings are necessary on a boiler to ensure its safe operation. They are usually referred to
as boiler mountings. The mountings usually found on a boiler are:
Safety valves: These are mounted in pairs to protect the boiler against overpressure. Once the
valve lifting pressure is set in the presence of a Surveyor it is locked and cannot be changed. The
valve is arranged to open automatically at the pre-set blow-off pressure.
Main steam stop valve: This valve is fitted in the main steam supply line and is usually of the
non-return type.
Auxiliary steam stop valve: This is a smaller valve fitted in the auxiliary steam supply line, and
is usually of the non-return type.
Feed check or control valve: A pair of valves is fitted: one is the main valve, the other the
auxiliary or standby. They are non-return valves and must give an indication of their open and
closed position.
Water level gauge: Water level gauges or 'gauge glasses' are fitted in pairs, at opposite ends of
the boiler. The construction of the level gauge depends upon the boiler pressure.
Pressure gauge connection: Where necessary on the boiler drum, super heater, etc., pressure
gauges are fitted to provide pressure readings.
Air release cock: These are fitted in the headers, boiler drum, etc., to release air when filling the
boiler or initially raising steam.
Sampling connection: A water outlet cock and cooling arrangement is provided for the
sampling and analysis of feed water. A provision may also be made for injecting water treatment
chemicals.
Blow down valve: This valve enables water to be blown down or emptied from the boiler. It may
be used when partially or completely emptying the boiler.
Scum valve: A shallow dish positioned at the normal water level is connected to the scum valve.
This enables the blowing down or removal of scum and impurities from the water surface.
Whistle stop valve: This is a small bore non-return valve which supplies the whistle with steam
straight from the boiler drum.

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(21) Explain purpose and working of (a) reducing valves (b) steam traps (c) drains

(a) Reducing valves:

PURPOSE: If it is necessasry to provide steam or air at a pressure less than that of the boiler or
compressed air reservoir,a reducing valve is fitted.this will maintain the down stream pressure
with in defined limit over a range of flow,despite any changes in supply pressure.

Working: The spring load causes the valve to open,this is balenced by the reduced steam
pressure p2 acting on the area of the top of the valve,A2 as this area is constant,any decrease in
outlet pressure will allow the valve to open and any increase will close it.

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The area of the under side of the valve and that of the piston are equal, A1 , both these area are
exposed to the inlet steam pressure P2 and so the loads on them will be equal and
opposite,therefore they will balance.

(b) Steam traps: Steam trap is a special type of valve which prevents the passage of steam but
allows condensate through .It works automatically and is used in steam heating lines to drain
condensate wiyhout passing any steam.the benefit gained with the steam trap is that steam is
contained in the heating line untill it condenses,thus giving up all of its latent heat.

There are three main types :

1) Mechanical
2) Thermostatic
3) Thermodynamic

Mechanical steam traps: mechanical traps have been installed with ball floats or open floats for
control of a needle valve to release condensate.

Thermostatic trap: Thermostatic traps uses the expansion of an oil filled element,bimetallic
strip,or flexible bellows to actuate the valve.
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Oil filled Thermostatic Trap :

As the condensate temperature rises in the oil filled element type ,element A expands to close the
valve D . An adjustment screw E permits the valve to be set up for condensate release at a
specific temperature .clearly in an application where the pressure varies,where could be a broad
bend of operation in which the trap would be either waterlogged or passing steam.

Bi Metallic Strip Type ::With a bi metallic strip type,deflection of the bimetallic strip when the
temperature increases,closes the valve.the device will work over a range of pressures without the
need for readjustment and will operate satisfactorly under super heated condition. It is not
perticularly prone to damage by water hammer or vibration.

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Bellow Type Steam Trap: In the flexible bellows type the bellows is filled with a mixture
which boils at lower temperature than does the steam.the trap self compensates for operating
pressures. It will be dameged if water hammer occurs and will brust if subjected to superheated
steam.

Thermodynamic type :This type of trap uses the pressure energy of the steam to close the valve
which consist of a simple metal disc.The sequence of operation is shown in fig. In fig A disc A
is raised from seat rings C by incoming pressure allowing discharge of air and condensate
through oulet B.As the condensate approaches steam temperature it flashes to steam at the trap
orifice.This means that the rate of fluid flow radially outward under the disc is greatly
increased.There is thus an increase in dynamic pressure and a reduction in static pressure.This
disc is therefore drawn towards the seat.Due to this alone the disc will never seat.However,steam
can flow round the edge of the disc resulting in pressure built up in the control chamber D as
shown in fig B.When the steam pressure in chamber D acting over the full area of the disc C
exceeds the incoming condensate/steam pressure acting on the much smaller inlet area,the disc
snaps shut over the orifice.This snap action is important.It removes any possibility of wire-
drawing the seat,while the seating itself is tight,ensuring no leakage.As shown in fig D.the
incoming pressure will eventually exceed in the control chamber pressure and the disc will be
raised,starting the cycle all over again.

The rate of operating will depend upon the steam pressure and on ambient air temperature.In
practice,the trap will usually open after 15-25 sec,the length of time open depending on the
amount of condensate to be discharged.If no condensate have been found,then the trap snaps shut
immediately.From the foregoing it will be seen that the trap is never closed for more than 15-25
secs,so condensate is removed vertually as soon as it is formed .
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(c)Drains:
Drains are provided in pipelines and usually have small cocks to open or close them. It is
essential that certain pipelines are drained regularly, particularly in steam systems. When steam
is admitted to a pipeline containing a reasonable surface of water it will condense and a partial
vacuum occur: the water will then be drawn along the pipe until it meets a bend or a closed
valve. The impact of the moving water in the pipe work will create large forces known as 'water
hammer', which can result in damage to pipe work and fittings.

(22) Explain

(a) how lengths of steam pipe are joined ?

(b) how the pipes are supported ?

(c) how expansion is allowed for ?

(a) Machinery space pipe work is made up of assorted straight lengths and bends joined by
flanges with an appropriate gasket or joint between or very small-bore piping may use
compression couplings.

(b) The pipes are supported and held in by hangers or pipe clips in such a way as to minimize
vibration. Steam pipes or pipes in systems with considerable temperature variation may be
supported on spring hangers which permit a degree of movement. An alternative to spring
hangers is the use of expansion loops of piping or an expansion joint.
(c)Provision must be made in pipe systems to accommodate change in length due to change in
temperature, and so prevent undue stress or distortion as pipe expands or contracts
One type of expansion joint has an anchored sleeve with stuffing box and gland in which
extension of joining pipe can slide freely within imposed limits
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Simpler schemes allow for change of length with a right angle bend arrangement or a loop .

For high pressure and temperature stainless stee bellows expansion joints are commonly used
since they will absorbe some movement or vibration in several planes, eliminate maintenance,
reduce friction and heat loss.

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(23) Describe correct procedure for raising pressure in a Steam Boiler and coupling them
to steam system.

 The forced draught fan should be started and air passed through the furnace for
several minutes to 'purge' it of any exhaust gas or oil vapours.
 The air slides (checks) at every register, except the lighting up' burner, should then be
closed.
 The operating burner can now be lit and adjusted to provide a low firing rate with good
combustion.
 The fuel oil pressure and forced draught pressure should be matched to ensure good
combustion with a full steady flame.
 The super heater header vents may be closed once steam issues from them. When a drum
pressure of about 210kPa (2.1 bar) has been reached the drum air vent may be closed.
 The boiler must be brought slowly up to working pressure in order to ensure gradual
expansion and to avoid overheating the super heater elements and damaging any refractory
material.
 Boiler manufacturers usually provide a steam raising diagram in the form of a graph of
drum pressure against hours after flashing up.
 The main and auxiliary steam lines should now be warmed through and then the drains
closed. In addition the water level gauges should be blown through and checked for correct
reading.
 When the steam pressure is about 300 kPa (3 bar) below the normal operating value the
safety valves should be lifted and released using the easing gear.
 Once at operating pressure the boiler may be put on load and the super heater circulating
valves closed.
 All other vents, drains and bypasses should then be closed.
 The water level in the boiler should be carefully checked and the automatic water
regulating arrangements observed for correct operation.

(24) Describe how to check correctly water level in Steaming Boilers and the dangers of
low level and high level and corrective actions required in either case.

Water level gauges:

The water level gauge provides a visible indication of the water level in the boiler in the region
of the correct working level.
If the water level were too high then water might pass out of the boiler and do serious damage to
any equipment designed to accept steam. This process is called as priming of the boiler.
If the water level were too low then the heat transfer surfaces might become exposed to
excessive temperatures and fail.
Constant attention to the boiler water level is therefore essential. Due to the motion of the ship it
is necessary to have a water level gauge at each end of the boiler to correctly observe the level.
Depending upon the boiler operating pressure, one of two basically different types of water level
gauge will be fitted. For boiler pressures up to a maximum of 17 bar a round glass tube type of
water level gauge is used. The glass tube is connected to the boiler shell by cocks and pipes, as
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shown in Figure below. Packing rings are positioned at the tube ends to give a tight seal and
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prevent leaks. A guard is usually placed around the tube to protect it from accidental damage and
to avoid injury to any personnel in the vicinity if the tube shatters. The water level gauge is
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usually connected directly to the boiler. Isolating cocks are fitted in the steam and water
passages, and a drain cock is also present. A ball valve is fitted below the tube to shut off the
water should the tube break and water attempt to rush out.
For boiler pressures above 17 bar a plate-glass-type water level gauge is used.

(25) Explain how water treatment is provided ad why is it necessary.

Feed water treatment


Feed water treatment deals with the various scale and corrosion causing salts and entrained gases
by suitable chemical treatment. This is achieved as follows:

1. By keeping the hardness salts in a suspension in the solution to prevent scale formation.
2. By stopping any suspended salts and impurities from sticking to the heat transfer surfaces.
3. By providing anti-foam protection to stop water carry-over.
4. By eliminating dissolved gases and providing some degree of alkalinity which will prevent
corrosion.
The actual treatment involves adding various chemicals into the feed water system and then
testing samples of boiler water with a test kit. The test kit is usually supplied by the treatment
chemical manufacturer with simple instructions for its use. For auxiliary boilers the chemicals
added might be
 lime (calcium hydroxide) and
 Soda (sodium carbonate). Alternatively caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) may be used on
its own.
For high-pressure water tube boilers various phosphate salts are used, such as

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trisodium phosphate,
 disodium phosphate and
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 Sodium metaphosphate.

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 Coagulants are also used which combine the scale forming salts into a sludge and stop it
sticking to the boiler surfaces. Sodium aluminate, starch and tannin are used as coagulants.
Final de-aeration of the boiler water is achieved by chemicals, such as hydrazine, which
combine with any oxygen present.

Reason for boiler water treatment:


 Avoid scale and corrosion by eliminating
 Dissolved gases
 Hardness salt
 Various pollutants (oil ,mud, acid etc)
 Heat transfer surface ;boiler tubes
 Boiler tube must be kept clean for safe and reliable operation

(26) Describe the Steam Plant as fitted on board the ship including the design.

The composite marine steam boiler is a combination of an oil-fired steam boiler and an exhaust
gas economizer. When the diesel engine is at full load the fuel oil burner only starts if the steam
demand exceeds the steam production achieved from the diesel engines exhaust gases.
Most common composite boilers nowadays have separated sections for the diesel engines
exhaust gases and the flue gases from the fuel oil burners.
The economizer part also works as a silencer for the diesel engine, but often an additional
silencer is required.

Composite Boilers that mixes the diesel engines exhaust gases and the flue gases from the fuel
oil burner have existed, and may still exist.
Using the diesel engines exhaust gases as combustion air for the fuel oil burner is quite
economically although it makes a rather complicated unit.

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Starting, stopping and modulating the burner normally control the steam pressure in the
composite boiler. In the old days a huge damper was used to by-pass the composite boiler when
the steam demand was less than the quantity produced by the diesel engines exhaust gases.
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(27) Describe Circuit of Generated Steam.

(28) Describe preparations to be made for putting the steam plant in operation.

1) Fill up water up till ¼ of the gauge glass


2) Ensure vent is open
3) Steam stop valve closed
4) Fire the burner intermittently to ensure gradual heating up of boiler and feed water
5) Once the mud hole doors are warm the frequency of firing can be increased
6) When steam starts coming from vent, close the vent.
7) Now gradually increase the pressure up till the working pressure.
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(29) Describe checks to be made during firing up of Boilers.

Firstly, the forced draft fans should be started to purge the system to remove any trapped
exhaust gases or oil vapours.

 All the air slides at different registers should be checked and closed, except the "lightning
up" burner.
 The operating burner should then be lit for low firing rate and efficient combustion
 The fuel oil flow should be matched with the speed of the fan to ensure a complete
combustion with steady flame.
 Fuel temperature and pressure should be checked
 Colour of smoke should be checked
 Once the boiler starts and steam starts coming out of the super heater vents, the super
heater header vents should be closed.
 As soon as the pressure reaches 210 kpa, the air drum vents should be closed.
 The working pressure should be brought up gradually to avoid overheating and damage to
refractory material.
 After the main and auxiliary lines are warmed through, the drains should be closed.
 All the water level gauges should also be blown through and checked to ensure correct
reading.
 The safety valves should be lifted and released when the pressure is 3 bar below the
normal operating value.
 Once the operating pressure is reached, the boiler should be put on load and the super
heater circulatory valves should be closed.
 All the vents, drains and by passes should also be closed.
 The water level in the boiler should be properly checked and the cascade system should be
monitored for correct operation.
 Check for visible leaks
 Check steam pressure

(30) Describe Automatic Control for Starting Up and Shutting Down an Oil Fired Boiler.

Automatic firing

 Set the mode of the boiler to "Low firing" or "High pressure" mode. Low or high
pressure led will be lit

 Check that the force draught fan switch is in "auto mode".


 Check that the boiler fuel oil pump is in “auto” and the steam pressure controller is
on “auto”.
 Check that the fuel atomizing medium valve is open.
 Check that there are no alarms on the boiler panel, and water level is normal.
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 Press button "burner start". The iginitor will come into play and flame eye will
ensure ignition fuel valve is energized only when the ignition spark is detected.
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 After starting sequence is completed the boiler will fire and continue to fire with the
flame eye ensuring the main fuel oil solenoid valve is energized (only if the flame
present inside the furnace is sustained and un-interrupted ) till it reaches the cut out
pressure of "low firing" mode or "high pressure” mode.
 Once the boiler reaches cut off pressure, the fuel valve will be de-enegized and the
FD fan will continue to run till the pre set post purging sequence is completed.

Emergency mode firing

Resort to emergency mode start up only when the burner sequence is out of order.

 Switch over from auto to emergency operation


 Set the load controller in manual.
 Close the air damper completely.
 Start the force draught fan.
 Open the damper completely and purge the furnace for at least 60 seconds.
 Close the air damper completely.
 Press the ignition push button (maximum 10 second).
 Press the fuel valve solenoid valve and ensure flame inside the furnace is
continuous and bright in colour.
 Boiler staem pressure can be raised to desired value by keeping the fuel on.
 Note Emergency Operation is not to done on continuous mode as alarms & trips
are bypassed in this mode.
 Normal operation must be put ensured for continuous boiler operation.

Note: If the burner fails to start furnace must be re-purged positively prior to
repeating the ignition sequence again.

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The Most Important Alarm and Trip functions on Marine Boilers

Function Audible and visual Action

Low water level Alarm

Low Low water level * Alarm Burner stop

High water level Alarm

High High water level Alarm Feed water pump stop

Low steam pressure Alarm (overridden on slave boiler?)

High steam pressure Alarm Burner stop

Low feed water pressure Alarm Stand-by pump start

Low fuel oil pressure Alarm Stand-by pump start

Low fuel oil temperature Alarm

High fuel oil temperature Alarm

Low combustion air pressure Alarm Burner stop

Low atomizing steam pressure Alarm Burner stop

Flame failure ** Alarm (overridden during light-up) Burner stop

Burner not in firing position Alarm Burner stop


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(31) Describe safety devices of plant, mandatory safety requirements.

Mandatory Safety Requirements.


 At least two safety valves have to be fitted to the boiler. They may be both mounted on a
common manifold with a single connection to the boiler.
 The safety valve size must not be less than 38mm in diameter and the area of the valve
can be calculated from the following formula.

C x A x P = 9.81 x H x E

Where,
H= Total heating surface in m3
E = Evaporative rate in Kg steam per m2 of heating surface per hour
P = Working pressure of safety valves in MN/m2 absolute
A = Aggregate area through the seating of the valves in mm2
C = the discharge coefficient whose value depends upon the type of valve.

C=4.8 for ordinary spring loaded valves


C=7.2 for high lift spring loaded valves
C= 9.6 for improved high lift spring loaded valves
C= 19.2 for full lift safety valves
C= 30 for full bore relay operated safety valves

 Pressure setting to lift at 10% above working pressure,


 It should clear the accumulation test,
 Flame failure should be provided.

Boiler Safety Valve

A boiler safety valve is a spring loaded valve, which is always fitted in pairs on a common valve
chest. The valve is so set that it releases all the steam generated by the boiler if the boiler
pressure increases 10% above the pre-set level. The main advantage of a boiler safety valve is
that it is the utmost form of reliable safety measure that a boiler can have, and which also shows
positive action at any inclination. The safety valves are directly mounted on the boiler body,
generally at the steam space.

Construction and Working

The spring loaded valve used as the safety valve, is a conventional type of valve with a helical
spring, which is used to pre-set a pressure of the valve using a compression nut. All the safety
valves, once set for a specific pressure limit, is locked and cannot be changed at a later stage.
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The functioning of the valve is also similar to the conventional type of spring loaded valve, with
the valve getting raised when the pressure of the steam rises above the pre-set mark. The spring
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gets compressed and the steam escapes through a waste pipe connected to the funnel, which
opens out to the atmosphere.

Drawback in Operation

The process of opening of the safety valve is often faced with a drawback. When the valve is
opened by the initial compression of the spring it stays in the same position only for few seconds.
The force of the steam opens the valve further by compressing the spring. Hence more then
necessary pressure and steam is relieved from the system. To counteract this phenomenon, a lip
arrangement is provided on the valve lid, which provides a greater area for the steam to act on it.
The force generated pushes the valve in the downward position and thus balances the upward
force of the escaping steam.

Modified High Lift Safety Valve

The valve is provided with a manually operated lever which can be used to open the valve at
times of emergency. Many modifications have been made till now to achieve a higher life as
quick as possible. Most of this modifications are seen around the lower spring carrier, which
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comprises of a piston shaped arrangement for the steam to act on it underside. Rubber rings are
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provided around the cylinder to act as a sealing agent and a containing cylinder. The guide plate

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is provided with steam ports for the escape of the spring. The steam released due to the opening
of the main valve acts on the underside of the piston to give it a higher lift. Once the pressure is
relieved a bit, the spring force closes the valve quickly. The arrangement is so made that a bit of
air is trapped in between the valve seat and the valve in order to create a cushion of steam.

A drain pipe, which opens outside, is also provided to release any condensed steam generated in
the valve, in order to prevent any obstacle in opening or closing of the valve due to accumulation
of the condensate.

(31) Describe the testing of boiler


Testing of boilers:
 Setting of safety valve
 Hydraulic pressure test of boilers
 Check all safety cut outs
 Internal inspection of furnace ,steam and water drum
 Inspection and condition of all boiler mountings
Refer Maintenance & Repairs – C9
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