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UTILIZATION OF THE DUALISM BETWEEN DETERMINATE TRUSSES AND MECHANISMS Dr. Offer Shai Department of Mechanics Material and Systems Tel Aviv University ABSTRACT Current paper presents a continuation of a previously published one, in which a mutual duality connection between determinate trusses and mechanisms has been established and proved. The dualism argued in these papers states that for every determinate truss there exists a corresponding dual mechanism and vice versa. This results in coincidence of the statical analysis procedure of the former with the kinematical analysis procedure of the latter. The new relation has opened up new ways of research and practical application, to which the current paper is dedicated. Among the applications presented in the paper there are: Establishing connections between known methods in statics and kinematics; Deriving new methods in structural mechanics from machine theory: a method for truss decomposition to components, dual vector resolution method, methods for checking the stability of structures; Deriving methods in machine theory from structural analysis: dual Henneberg’s method, a method for checking the mobility of mechanisms and new systematic design techniques based on the dualism connection. Keywords: duality relation, trusses, structural analysis, mechanisms, Multidisciplinary Combinatorial Approach INTRODUCTION This paper shows applications of one of the aspects of the Multidisciplinary Combinatorial Approach (MCA) currently being carried out and studied by the author. The idea behind MCA is to build discrete mathematical representations, called Combinatorial Representations (CR), with which diverse engineering systems are then represented. Afterwards, combinatorial theorems embedded in the CR together with the properties derived from the connections between the CR are all applied to analyze the represented engineering systems. The combinatorial representations are based on graph theory, matroid theory and discrete linear programming. Up until today, MCA has been applied to the following engineering fields: structural analysis (Shai 2001c), machine theory (Shai 2001a), integrated engineering systems (Shai 2001b), representations in Artificial Intelligence (Shai and Preiss 1999) and more for which the reports are currently being in preparation. The current paper is based on one of the most significant accomplishments of MCA, which is the establishment of the mutual duality relation between determinate trusses and mechanisms. This new relation was derived from the properties embedded in two CR Flow Graph Representation (FGR) and Potential Graph Representation (PGR) that are used to represent determinate trusses and mechanisms respectively. These two CR were proved to be dual (Shai 2001a), and thus it was concluded and proved that determinate trusses and mechanisms are dual as well. It is noteworthy that employing MCA has also enabled to establish another duality the duality between two known engineering analysis methods – Force and Displacement methods of structural mechanics (Shai 2001c). graph theory,

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called “vector resolution”. The duality relation lies on the fact that for each determinate truss there exists a dual mechanism and vice versa. Table 1 summarizes the two combinatorial representations (CR) called Flow Graph Representation (FGR) and Potential Graph Representation (PGR) and their relations to determinate trusses and mechanisms. pp. For example. Same technique may yield results also when it is applied in the opposite manner. which is also based on the dualism. Another example is given. where V is the vertex set and E is the edge set. and adding two connected rods at a time.formed by connecting two or more simple trusses together. 2002. Doing so exposes the fact that some methods in machine theory are dual to the known methods in structural analysis. 1307-1323. Section 3 employs knowledge and known methods from structural mechanics to machine theory. Complex truss – is a truss that cannot be classified as being either simple or compound. The dualism is also used to develop methods for checking the stability of structures on the basis of the mobility of their dual mechanisms. Section 4 introduces a new technique in design. The result of analysis of both systems yields that the forces in the truss rods are equal to the relative velocities of the corresponding links in the dual mechanism. Definition 1. on the basis of the stability of its dual truss. Network graph – is a directed graph G = <V. Each rod in the truss has a corresponding link in the dual mechanism. Subtraction of the potential of the tail vertex from the potential of the head vertex for a specific edge is called the ‘potential difference’ . the approach enables to derive new methods in structural analysis. 11. the image velocity diagram for kinematical analysis of a mechanism is actually the same as the Maxwell-Cremona diagram for its dual determinate truss. Following is the review of the principal definitions and theorems required for understanding and utilizing the duality relations between mechanisms and determinate trusses. Definitions and signs Current paper employs classification of determinate trusses into three types (Hibbeler 1985): Simple trusses – constructed by starting with a basic triangular element. Section 2 employs methods from machine theory in structural analysis. Applying the technique introduced in this section. where there is a need to design a truss possessing some special statical properties.∆(e) of that edge. It presents a case. The vertex upon which the arrow is directed is called the ”head vertex” and the other is called the “tail vertex”. E>. r r 2 . 1 SUMMARY OF THE DUALITY RELATION BETWEEN TRUSSES AND MECHANISMS. Vol. Each edge e is assigned a vector called ‘flow’ F(e) and each vertex v r is assigned a vector called ‘potential’ π( v) . Moreover. It explains how to represent mechanisms with PGR and trusses with FGR and proves briefly the mutual duality relation between them. No. November. Compound truss . showing a way of checking the mobility of the mechanism in a given position. The paper is organized in the following manner: Section 1 provides the reader with a brief review on the results obtained in (Shai 2001a). the design is derived from the existent mechanism with similar kinematical properties. This issue is demonstrated by deriving a new method for kinematical analysis of mechanisms consisting of high order Assur groups dual to Henneberg’s method for complex truss analysis. 37.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. This is demonstrated by introducing a new method for truss analysis on the basis of its dual method from machine theory. All can be found in greater detail in (Shai 2001a).

Table 1. interpreted as the force in the corresponding truss element. 37.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. 1307-1323. The potential is interpreted as the linear velocity of the joint. r r Q(G F ) ⋅ F (G F ) = 0 r r B (G ∆ ) ⋅ ∆ (G ∆ ) = 0 Represented engineering Determinate truss. Finally. circuit of G∆ is equal to zero. Link in the mechanism. Flow Graph Representation FGR r r Q(G ) = B(G*) mutual dualism Potential Graph Representation PGR Represents Represents Determinate trusses mutual dualism Mechanisms Figure 1.there is a link in the mechanism for each rod. pp. Pinned joint of the truss Joint in the mechanism. The external force in the truss. 11. Given a flow graph GF execute the following steps: build its dual graph G * . Thus for every determinate truss there exists a dual mechanism satisfying: . From the duality between the flow and potential graph representations one can deduce the duality relation between trusses and mechanisms.The vector sum of Potential law – The vector sum of the flows in every cutset of GF is the potential differences in every equal to zero. F Thus. equate the potential differences in the edges of G * to F F the flows in the corresponding edges of GF. Truss element: rod.GF Potential Graph Representation. Flow and Potential graphs and their usage. It then follows from the properties of dual graphs (Swamy and Thulasiraman. it can be postulated that for F each flow graph GF there exists a dual potential graph G∆ and vice versa. Combinatorial Representations (CR) Flow Graph Representation . system Engineering Edge interpretation of the graph elements Vertex Mechanism. 1981) that these potential differences satisfy the potential law in G * . 3 . reaction. potential difference is interpreted as the relative velocity between the The flow in the edge is end joints of the link. mobile support reaction or external force in the truss. Diagram explaining the mutual dualism between trusses and mechanisms.G∆ (FGR) (PGR) Main property Flow law . as is outlined in the diagram in Figure 1. G * can be considered as a valid potential graph G∆. Vol. November. No. Duality between flow and potential graphs (Shai 2001a). 2002.

Vol.6) the forces (relative velocities) in 4’(4) and 5’(5) are found. 1307-1323. This algorithm can be applied to the corresponding dual trusses. The mechanism (truss) presented in Figure 2a(b) can be solved as follows: the equations of force equilibrium (compatibility of relative velocities) at joint I‘ (contour 1. This subsection employs the fact that when the dual mechanism is decomposable into certain Assur groups. the primal truss is decomposable to their dual groups upon which efficient algorithms are then applied. Next section. at each iteration of the truss analysis (force equilibrium at a pinned joint) there are only two rods whose internal forces are unknown. One of such cases is when the dual mechanism can be decomposed exclusively into dyads. 4 . For this type of mechanisms there are several known analysis methods.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. Since each contour in the mechanism corresponds to a pinned joint in the truss.3. 2.1 Applying Assur groups decomposition mechanisms to truss analysis. According to the terminology adopted in this paper. Therefore. on the other hand.5. 11.6. such trusses can be analyzed sequentially by solving the force equilibrium at one pinned joint at a time. Current section uses the duality connection between mechanisms and structures for obtaining structural analysis methods from machine theory. of One of the known methods for decomposition of mechanisms into kinematical groups.4. carries out an opposite task: it utilizes methods from structural analysis in machine theory. such trusses are called ‘simple trusses’. 2002. This issue is important and useful since it enables developing specific algorithms for each type of kinematical Assur group.7) give the forces (relative velocities) at 6’(6) and 7’(7) and finally from equilibrium at joint III’ (contour 3.start with the dyad that forms a contour (a circle) with the driving link and the ground. 37. all of which having the following form: . Same statements can also be formulated in the vice versa form 2 EMPLOYING METHODS FROM MACHINE THEORY IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS. pp. No. November.continue the process each time taking the dyad forming a contour exclusively with those links.2) provide the forces (relative velocities) in rods (links) 2’ (2) and 3’ (3) . then equations for joint II’ (contour 2. . . Its rather simple analysis gives the relative velocities of its links.the vector of the relative velocity of each mechanism link is equal to the vector of the force acting in the corresponding element in the truss. whose relative velocities are known. is called Assur Groups decomposition (Manolescu 1968).

pp. (a) Mechanism and its decomposition. 5 . it can be concluded that the image velocity can be used to perform the static analysis of a truss. (b) The dual truss. Once the image velocity diagram of a mechanism is constructed. 2002. This process becomes clear when summarizing all the properties of the image velocity diagram while simultaneously rewriting them in the terminology of structural analysis . (b) The dual truss and the corresponding decomposition 2. the relative velocities of every mechanism link can be measured directly from it. one can build the diagram directly from the truss. An example of Assur group decomposition of a more complicated mechanism and the corresponding groups in the dual truss appear in Figure 3. No. without even considering its dual mechanism as is explained in the current subsection. Vol. Image velocity diagram is a known graphical method for velocity analysis of mechanisms (Norton 1992). 1307-1323. 37.2 The mutual dualism between MaxwellCremona and image velocity diagrams. Example of decomposing a mechanism and its dual truss into dyads. a) Mechanism.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. 5 4 III 6 3 II I 1 2 7 4’ 5’ III' r r V = P1' 1 1’ 3’ 6’ r V 1 (a) I' 2’ (b) II' 7’ Figure 2. VII' 2 r V1 1 8 6 10 O 12 III 16 II 13 17 I 15 14 VIII 9 11 IV VII 7 V 5 4 3 VI 7’ 2’ 3’ V' 8’ VI' 5’ 6’ 1’ 10’ VIII' 4’ r r P1 ' = V11 11’ 9’ 12’ IV' 16’ 17’ II' 13’ I' 15’ III' (a) 14’ (b) Figure 3. Knowing that the relative velocities in the mechanism links are equal to the internal forces in the rods of the dual truss. 11. Example of a dual truss decomposition into Assur groups. as is done in Table 2. Furthermore. November.

Properties of the image velocity diagram in the terminology of both mechanisms and the dual trusses. in the truss closed by truss elements. Consequently. its dual truss and the image velocity diagram.II (b) r r VA / 0 = P' 2 (c) O Figure 4. Image velocity properties In mechanism terminology In terminology of the dual truss Each point corresponds to a joint in a Each point corresponds to a non-bisected area mechanism. The line connects the points corresponding to the areas separated by the external force. it follows that the image velocity method completely coincides with the known Maxwell-Cremona diagram algorithm for static analysis of determinate structures (Timoshenko and Young 1969). The driving link is represented by a line in its velocity direction and length proportional to its velocity value. 6 . 2002.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. The line connects the points corresponding to the end joints of the link.I 1 B. November. No. Table 2. connecting the points which connects the points corresponding to corresponding to the areas separated by it. namely its MaxwellCremona diagram. the end joints of the link. Vol. (b) Its dual truss. B A 1 2 r VA / 0 r P' O I II 1’ 2’ O (a) A. pp. From Table 2. 1307-1323. (c) The image velocity/ Maxwell-Cremona diagram. Maxwell-Cremona and Image velocity methods are mutually dual methods. Figure 4 presents a four bar chain. (a) The four bar chain. The external force is represented by a line in its direction with length proportional to its magnitude. The relative velocity of a link is represented The axial force in a rod is represented by a by a line parallel to the link relative velocity. The correspondence between image velocity and Maxwell-Cremona diagrams. A more compound demonstration of the correspondence between image velocity and MaxwellCremona diagrams is given in Figure 5. One can verify that this diagram also presents the static analysis diagram of the dual truss. line parallel to the rod. 11. 37.

Face flow can be thought of as a multidimensional generalization of the “mesh current” in electrical circuits (Balabanian and Bickart 1969). an additional relation between variables of trusses and those of their dual mechanisms is derived. 37. As it was explained above. No. (c) The mechanism and its image velocity diagram. 2002. each joint in a mechanism corresponds to a non-bisected area (face) closed by the truss elements. (b). 7 II' 5 6 IV' II 5’ 4 r V1 I' 2 I III' 3 6’ 4’ 2’ O1 1 r P' III IV 7’ O3 3’ O (a) I' I (b) r r V1 = P' V2 V5 F2’ IV' r P F5’ IV V7 V3 V6 O III F7’ F3’ F6' 0 III' V4 II' F4’ II (c) (d) Figure 5. 2. the potential associates with the so-called “face flow” – flow in the corresponding graph face.3 The dual vector resolution method in statics. Furthermore. which is equal to the velocity of the corresponding joint. each vertex in the potential graph is associated with the proper potential. 1307-1323. 11.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. that are equal to the linear velocities of the corresponding joints in the dual mechanism (Figure 6(b)). In the dual graph (FGR). or the “face force” in the corresponding face of the represented truss. Vol. Complex example for the relation between image velocity and Maxwell-Cremona diagrams. November. Consequently. (a). pp. 7 .(d) The dual truss and its Maxwell-Cremona diagram. the force of each truss element equals the difference between the forces in the faces separated by it. In this section. Figure 6(a) shows an example of a set of face forces in a truss.

The principle underlying the method is as follows: Let AB be a mechanism link and A and B be its end joints. (b) The corresponding dual mechanism. No. The dualism between joint potentials in a mechanism and the face forces in the dual truss. 8 .Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. should be equal to the projection of the linear velocity of joint B on that line.1 Utilization of the vector resolution method for truss analysis. 2002. pp. is then as follows: a) One of the faces is chosen to be the – “reference face” and its face force is set to zero. November. then the projection of the linear velocity of the joint A on AB (or its continuation).: r r VA|AB = VB|AB r VA / O VA| ( 1) This property is outlined in Figure 7. b) For each face which has a rod common with the reference face. i. therefore the joint velocities are its primary variables. 2.e. Employing the explanations given above and equation 1 to the dual trusses yields: for each truss element that separates two arbitrary faces A and B.3. The principle underlying the vector resolution method. i. r P O’ IV' VI' r r VVI ' = P O’ O IV VI O’ III' II' III I V II I' V' O’ Figure 6. 1307-1323. Vol.: r r FA|⊥AB = FB|⊥AB ( 2) The dual vector resolution analysis algorithm based on the above principle. (a) The primal truss and its face forces. the direction of its face force is known: it is the direction of the rod. The vector resolution method for mechanism analysis is based on the properties of the joint velocities in the mechanism. VB| AB B A r VB / O AB Figure 7. 11. where the highlighted segments are supposed to be equal. 37.e. the projections of the face forces of faces A and B on the line perpendicular to the rod AB are equal.

37.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. pp. 2002. No. 1307-1323. but which is adjacent to two faces whose face force vectors are known. whose magnitude and direction are unknown. then Fu can be calculated by employing twice equation 2. An example for applying this algorithm to analyze a truss is given in Table 3. Vol. c) Let FK and FD be the face forces in two adjacent faces such that the magnitude and direction of FK and the direction of FD are known. Then. November. 11. employing equation 2 gives the magnitude of force FD . d) Let Fu be a face force. r r r r r r r 9 .

10 . II r FII is found by raising a perpendicular from r the projection FI |⊥3 to the line of rod 2. November. Simple truss and division to faces: Step 1 – Rod 2 separates faces O and II r FIII r FIII r FI 3 4 5 5 r FI 3 4 r FII 6 6 r P r Fo 1 2 r FII r FIV r P r Fo 1 2 r FII r FIV 7 7 r r r r 2) FI = P since P separates I and O. 4) FIV is obtained by raising up a r r r r 2) FIV |⊥5 = FIII |⊥5 since 5 separates faces IV and III. Analyzing simple determinate truss using the dual vector resolution method. 1) F0 = 0 by definition. pp. 3) FI |⊥ 4 = FIII |⊥ 4 since 4 separates faces I and III. perpendicular from the projection r r Table 3.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. r 2) FIV || 7 since 7 separates IV and O. 11. 1) FI and FIV are known from previous steps. Vol. Step 2 – Rod 6 separates faces II and IV r FIII r FI 3 4 Step 3 – Face III is adjacent to faces IV and I r FIV r FIII 5 4 r FIII 5 r FII 6 r P r Fo 1 2 r FIV r FII 7 r FIV r FI 1 2 3 r FII 6 r FIV r P r Fo 7 r 1) FII is known from step 1. No. 4) FIII is found in the intersection of the perpendiculars to the projections FIII |⊥5 and FI |⊥4 . 37. r r 3) FII |⊥6 = FIV |⊥6 since 6 separates IV and II. r r r r r FII |⊥6 to the line of rod 7. 1307-1323. 2002. r r 4) ( FI − FII ) || 3 since 3 separates I and r r FII |⊥3 = FI |⊥3 . r 3) FII || 2 since 2 separates II and O.

This may happen due to both topological and geometrical factors. In many cases. pp. since it enables one to employ known theorems from machine theory. 2. one can build its dual mechanism and to check its mobility. instead of checking the stability of the truss. In this section it is suggested to employ the duality relation between trusses and mechanisms. No. Hence. Having found all the face forces of the truss. This issue is based on the main outcome of the duality relation saying that the result of the static analysis of a truss is precisely the result obtained from the kinematical analysis of its dual mechanism. Vol. in which it is not sufficient to use the mobility criterion (Timoshenko and Young 1965) in order to verify the stability of determinate trusses. the following rule is derived: The dualism validity rule: determinate truss is valid if and only if its dual mechanism is valid. From the fact that the static (kinematic) analysis of the truss (mechanism) is a necessary and sufficient criterion for the validness of trusses and mechanisms. that the mobility criterion returns zero degrees of freedom. the truss may still be unstable. 1307-1323. despite the fact. 11. in other words: determinate truss is stable if and only if its dual mechanism is in a mobile position. November. Consider as an example the two trusses presented in Figures 8a and 8b. checking the instant mobility of mechanisms can be carried out more efficiently.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. thus transforming the problem of checking the truss stability to problem of checking the mobility of its dual mechanism.4 Applying Machine theory methods to checking stability of trusses. In some cases. 11 . 2002. 37. There are many cases. the forces in the truss rods can be found by simply subtracting the face forces of the two faces separated by a rod.

1307-1323. from the dualism validity rule it follows that the primal truss is mobile. 37. in the mechanism in Figure 8d. i. pp. as is done in the current section. On the contrary. Vol. therefore it can move. No. whose stability is checked using their dual mechanisms. 12 . not stable. 3 USING METHODS FROM STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN MACHINE THEORY. Example of trusses. 11.e. the links 1’ and 3’ are not located on the same line. methods from machine theory were applied to structural analysis. In the latter section. Thus. 2002. (a.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory.d) and their dual mechanisms. Since the duality relation between trusses and mechanisms is mutual. Only an exhaustive analysis procedure can reveal whether these two trusses are stable or not.b) The primal trusses (c. since links 1’ and 3’ are on the same line. November. methods from structural analysis can be as well applied to machine theory. On the other hand. r P 2 5 r P 2 5 1 6 8 9 11 7 4 3 1 4 3 6 7 9 11 10 10 8 (a) (b) 2' r r VP ' = P P' 5' 4' r r V' = P P’ 2’ 5’ 1' 6' 7' 3' 1’ 6’ 4’ 3’ 7’ 8’ 9’ 10’ 8' 9' 10' 11’ 11’ R’ (c) (d) R’ Figure 8. the dual mechanism of Figure 8c is obviously locked. which means that their primal truss (Figure 8b) is stable.

so that the truss becomes simple. The idea of this method is to transform a complex truss into two simple trusses. pp. and from the analysis of the these two trusses to obtain the solution of the original one. one of the rods in the truss designated by t and referred here as the 'transformed rod’. 3. The truss and its dual mechanism to be analyzed with the Henneberg’s method. The resulting forces (velocities) are designated F'i ( V 'i ) . whereas Fi ' = Vi ' due to the duality property.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. it follows that its dual mechanism is decomposable into dyads. 13 . creating a simple transformed truss whose corresponding dual mechanism is accordingly decomposable into dyads. 2002. 3’ 5’ 5 4 10 2 4’ 6' 10’ 9’ 2’ 7’ 7 6 9 1’ r r V1' = P r P (b) 3 (a) Figure 9. Vol. Since the transformed truss is simple.1 Henneberg’s method theory. another rod designated by v and called ‘the virtual rod’ is inserted instead at such a location. A possible transformation is shown in Figure 10. (a) Original complex truss. (b) The dual mechanism (Stephenson type II mechanism). Figure 9 presents the original truss and its dual mechanism. 11. Current section introduces the method dual to this method. No. is removed. 1307-1323. applied to machine Henneberg’s method (Timoshenko and Young 1965) is a known method in structural analysis that enables to facilitate the static analysis process of compound and complex trusses. Now the analysis can be performed either on the mechanism or on the truss – both are simple. November. The rod 9 (transformed rod) was removed and rod v was added instead. which is widely used for different industrial purposes (Erdman and Sandor 1997). At the first stage of the solution. this time applied to analyze the known mechanism called: “Stephenson mechanism type II”. 37.

November.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. 14 . b) The dual mechanism. The transformation and its dual mechanism are presented in Figure 11. the dual mechanism has a new driving link. No. labeled 9”. Now. The second step is to remove the original external force from the truss and to insert back the transformed rod 9. The first transformation of Henneberg’s method and its dual mechanism. 2002. Vol. pp. while this time a unit internal force is applied in the transformed rod. its relative velocity also equals unity. whereas Fi ' ' = Vi ' ' again due to the duality property. 37. a) Simple truss. Then the calculation is performed again. The resulting forces/velocities are designated Fi ' ' / Vi ' ' . 11. In this configuration the mechanism can also be decomposed into dyads. 1307-1323. 3’ 2’ 5 4 10 2 4’ 5’ 6’ 1’ 7’ v’ 10’ 6 7 v r r V'1 = P 3 r r P' = P (b) (a) Figure 10.

the relative velocities in the dual mechanism are calculated by the same equation. 2002. Current subsection demonstrates the converse possibility: it checks the mobility of a mechanism. is analyzed as a linear combination of solutions of two simple mechanisms (decomposable to dyads). 1307-1323.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. we have obtained a method.3 has employed the principle. November. pp. a) The transformed truss with a unity force in its transformed rod 9. as follows: Vi = Vi '+ αVi ' ' α=− V' v V' ' v V' t = 0 V' '1 = 0 In conclusion. through the stability of its dual truss. Consider for example the mechanism presented in Figure 12: 15 . 3. The principle was used for checking the stability of trusses by checking the mobility of their dual mechanisms instead. According to the Henneberg’s method the forces in the primal truss are calculated by the following equation: Fi = Fi '+ αFi ' ' α=− F' v F' ' v F' t = 0 F' '1 = 0 Accordingly. b) the dual mechanism. This idea was derived on the basis of the example of Stephenson type II mechanism and can be applied to any of its positions and geometries. No. 11.2 Checking the mobility of mechanisms by structural analysis methods Subsection 2. 5 4 10 9 2 5’ 4’ 3’ 10’ 6’ 9’ v’ 6 7 V9 ' = 1 " 2’ F9" = 1 v 3 7’ (b) (a) Figure 11. by which a mechanism known to be nondecomposable into dyads. The second transformation of Henneberg’s method and its dual mechanism. In the same way the method can be developed for a very wide range of compound and complex mechanisms. Vol. 37. that a truss is valid if and only if its dual mechanism is also valid.

4’. 11. This is done by first finding a known mechanism having similar velocity characteristics. Thus. In the following example the idea is employed to solve a static design problem. locked. ENGINEERING SYSTEMS USING THE DUALITY The duality connection between mechanisms and trusses can be applied for synthesis of new engineering systems. r r V11 = P' 8 9 6 7 2 5 13 14 15 1 4 3 10 11 r r P' = V11 11’ 9’ 10’ 7’ 12 6’ 8’ 2’ 5’ 14’ 15’ 13’ 1’ 12’ 3’ 4’ (a) (b) Figure 12. a) A mechanism in a locking position due to geometrical reasons (b) The dual truss whose non-stability is due to topological reasons.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory.e. such that when a small force is applied to one of its joints. 2002. namely. a much greater force is produced in one of its rods. According to the duality property. The main idea behind this approach lies in the fact that if a mechanism possesses some special engineering properties. 1307-1323. One of many known mechanisms satisfying this requirement is presented on Figure 13a.3'. Vol. 4 DESIGN OF RELATION. The truss dual to this mechanism is presented in Figure 13b. It is very difficult to decide whether the mechanism in Figure 12a is mobile or locked.5'. the truss possesses the same force characteristics as the velocity characteristics of the mechanism. No.e. so its external part lacks rods and hence the whole truss is unstable. Suppose one needs to design a static system.2'. Example of revealing a mechanism mobility problem through the topology of its dual truss. 16 .6'). a small external force P causes a much greater force in rod 1. 37. while for the dual truss (Figure 12b) it is obvious to deduce that it is not stable by just checking its topology. a mechanism that for a small relative velocity in its driving link produces in its other link a much greater relative velocity. November. i. employing the dual validity rule yields that the original mechanism is not valid. This truss obviously possesses redundancy in its internal part (rods 1'. i. This is one of the interesting cases where a geometric problem in the mechanism is transformed into a topological problem in the dual truss. then its dual truss possesses the exact same properties. The velocity of link 1 of this mechanism is considerably larger than that of the link 5. Such a static system can be obtained immediately by using the duality between trusses and mechanisms. pp.

November. Vol. 1307-1323. r P Mechanisms and determinate trusses are dual 1 The dual problem: find a kinematical system such that the ratio of relative velocities of its two links is large. 17 .Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. No.Driving a static system with special properties from a known mechanism. This is a known problem in the mechanism community. Primal problem: design a static system such that the force acting in rod 1 is highly amplified relative to the external force P. and one of the known mechanisms is: (b) (a) 5' V5 ' 32 O1 B 4' C 32' 1' 2 r P 1 2 4 31 V1' A 5 31' O' (c) (f) The corresponding truss The corresponding PGR O O' 5 4 1 5 4' C 5' O' A2 2 2' B 4 3 2' 32 FCFS 31 PCPS 31' O 32 1 2 FCFS PGR and FGR are dual II 1' A3 II II' I I' I 31 (e) O (d) Figure 13. 37. 11. 2002. pp.

Vol. Mechanism and Machine Theory. NY. there are more combinatorial representations whose interconnections are being investigated.P. John Wiley & Sons. PrenticeHall International. No. and Sandor G. Computing in Civil Engineering. 5 CONCLUSIONS The paper has introduced some of the theoretical and practical contributions of the dualism relation between mechanisms and determinate trusses. 1. McGraw-Hill.G.. 2001(a). 1307-1323. pp.109-144. Theory of Structures. pp. In the general research encompassing this connection. Shai O. establishing a new idea for a systematic method for design of trusses and mechanisms. 15. References Balabanian. 36. Analysis and Manufacturing. 1968. pp. NY... Vol. No.C. “Graph Theory Representations of Engineering Systems and their Embedded Knowledge”. pp. Third edition. 1997. Structural Analysis. S.. thus giving raise to additional practical and theoretical contributions in engineering analysis and design. 1999. 2001(b). Therefore. 11.N. Design of Machinery. Manolescu N. Macmillan Publishing Company.Published in Mechanism and Machine Theory. 2. 1981. 2002. A. Erdman A. Swamy M. 3. Shai O. Shai O. April.. Shai O. D. 3. Hibbeler R. Timoshenko. and Preiss K. 18 . 149-169. No.I. 1969. 1992.. second edition. “The Multidisciplinary Combinatorial Approach and its Applications in Engineering”. and Thulasiraman K. pp. 13. The results that appear in this paper are due only to a connection between the two combinatorial representations corresponding to mechanisms and determinate trusses. Artificial Intelligence in Engineering. J. Vol 15. Mechanisms. McGRAW-HILL..N. 2001. 193-207. July. 3.. 3. 37. pp. 273-284. to derive new methods in a systematic way. November. Graphs: Networks and Algorithms. L. 1985. Norton. where these properties are transparent. and Bickart. No. it is expected that the approach will be expanded and new connections between engineering fields will be systematically revealed.. 343-369. AI for Engineering Design. Mechanism Design – Analysis and Synthesis. Vol. N. NY.. Vol. No. "Combinatorial Representations in Structural Analysis".. T. Vol. “The duality relation between mechanisms and trusses”.H. “For a United Point of View in the Study of the Structural Analysis of Kinematic Chains and Mechanisms”. 1965. John Wiley & Sons. and Young. London. It was shown that this dualism enables to reveal new connections between methods in kinematics and statics. Electrical Network Theory. to reveal special hidden properties through the dual system. R.

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