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Crafitti Consulting

Kaizen Blitz Project Report

KAIZEN BLITZ
Crafitti Consulting Private Limited |www.crafitti.com

© Crafitti Consulting Private Limited www.crafitti.com Kaizen Blitz Report May 24, 2011 1
Background
Facilitated Kaizen Blitz

A focused 2-10 days (usually 5 comprehensive days of work) special event involving every member of the team
for crafting radical change in a process. It has following phases

– Training on Lean principles and concepts of value stream, flow and pull (ranging from half day to full day
based on awareness level of the team)
– Value stream mapping for the relevant processes which includes sequence of all activities and cycle times
and also the demand arrival rates which help in Takt time computations
– Analysis of VSM to find out Non-value adding (NVA) activities and capacity planning using queuing analysis
(Identifying problems)
– Brainstorming with the teams to eliminate NVA and maximizing flow
– Implementing changes in the process as per the flow based cycle time and Takt time
– Final report (Kaizen Blitz Diary) and possible routes to solve problems as they emerge in future

Schedule and Deliverables

Topic Details Method


Preliminary meeting (Day 0) A meeting with the stakeholder and key members of the team One hour meeting
to discuss the process and understand the drivers for Kaizen
Blitz
Lean Thinking Workshop (Day 1) Training on Lean principles in a workshop setting – relevance Half day to one day
and variation in non-manufacturing for example Information workshop on Lean
Technology and software development scenarios (if relevant) Principles and concepts of
VSM, Flow, Pull, etc.
Value Stream Mapping (Day 2 – Day 4) • Value Stream Mapping of Key Processes Activity – Mapping the
(1-3 days) • Cycle time and Takt time production line as is

Analysis and Brainstorming (Day 5 – Day • Identification of NVA and Capacity computation using Brainstorming sessions
6) (1-2 days) queuing analysis resulting in various ideas
• Focused Ideation to eliminate NVA and build process flow and solutions
Implementing solutions (Day 7 – Day 8) • Make process changes as per the ideas and solutions Changing the processes –
(1-2 days) generated in previous phase may be little chaotic

Results, final report and further solution • Observing the results based on changes that can be Observation,
directions (Day 9- Day 10) (1-2 days) implementing summarization and
• High level plan of action to make changes that will take recommendation report
more time (typically 1-3 pages report)

This report is the output of the Facilitated Kaizen Blitz conducted from 29th October 2008 to 10th November 2008
with the available1 IT security team members.

1
The IT Security team has 5 team members and 2 interns. Only one relatively new team member (less than a month old in
the security role) and manager (2 months old as manager) were available for the duration under observation. One senior

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st
team member was available only for the first two days (30th and 31 October 2008). Effectiveness of this report needs to
be judged and evaluated based on observations on the work done by these members.

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Introduction

This is the report of findings and activities carried out between 29th October 2008 and 11th November 2008 for
the IT Security Team of a large Telecom Equipment Provider MNC as part of a Kaizen Blitz event. The report is
organized in the following sections.

Section 2 briefly explains the need for such a study and provides the existing organization structure of the IT
Security Team. Section 3 gives an overview of findings during pre-observation meeting with the team. Section 4
provides the system load based on data analysis. In Section 5 and Section 6 Value Stream Mapping activities and
cycle times for all the streams are described. In Section 7 details about the audit report work carried out by the
IT Security team is given. This was not part of the study; however, the information is included to account for
workload on the system. In Section 8 the results in terms of the needed capacity are provided combining all
value streams. Section 9 describes the results of two brainstorming sessions conducted using Crafitti’s Process
and Crafitti’s Ideation cards. Finally in Section 10 conclusions and points of observations are given.

2. Existing Organization Structure

The IT application security team is part of the Chief Information Officer (CIO)’s organization and report into
Senior Manager Application Infrastructure. The organization structure of application security team is given
below. The team primarily provides following services for the users of IT applications to maintain data and
information security consistent with the needs of the organization as per regulatory and business guidelines:

a. User requests/access modifications


b. Enhancements within existing applications
c. Projects
d. Security Driven Projects
e. Audit Reports for monthly data and for regulatory needs

Main answer that the organization is seeking is the number of resources needed by the IT Security Team for the
workload that the team is supposes to take up.

3. Pre Value Stream Meeting

An initial brainstorming meeting with the available team members on 29 th October 2008 resulted in
identification of key challenges and pain points – in the overall context - as expressed by the team. The
mindmap below high-lights some key points:

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a. Team does three main categories of work – production support, projects and various audit
reports
b. The awareness and visibility of work especially projects is minimal which leads to crisis mode of
operations
c. Workflow is not streamlined and up to 30% of requests come through emails and hallway
conversations despite the availability of channels such as Broadway and Remedy. This results in
too much time spent (read time wasted; typically unaccounted as there is no systemic way of
capturing it) on understanding the needs.
d. There is an uneven distribution of load on the team members and there is also a feeling of non-
cohesiveness in the team.

4. Data Analysis

4.1 System Load for various streams

Preliminary data analysis for the months of July-September 2008 shows the following workload on the
team.

Stream Total Number Requested Average load per month


for 3 months (Number of requests)

Broadway User Requests (Production Requests) 1483 494

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Remedy Terminations 968 323

Remedy Creation ESS/MSS Account 93 31

Remedy Role Dev Security Enhancement 54 18

Remedy User Access Changes 401 134

Remedy Project 4 1

Besides the above streams the team is engaged in Audit reports creation. This is predominantly handled by the
senior security consultant in the team who has been part of the system for more than a decade. All others
members are relatively new to the IT Security team.

4.2 Arrival Rates (λ) and Variation

Stream Average Arrival Rate (λ) = Worst case scenario


numbers arrived per unit time (maximum load per unit time)

Broadway User Requests (Production 23 requests per day = 2.64 per 84 requests per day = 10 per
Requests) working hour = 0.04 per working working hour = 0.164 per
minute working minute

Remedy Terminations 67 requests per day = 8 per


15 per day = 1.73 per working working hour = 0.131 per
hour = 0.029 per working minute working minute

1.4 requests per day = 0.17 per 8 requests per day = 0.94 per
working hour = 0.003 per working hour = 0.016 per
Remedy Creation ESS/MSS Account working minute working minute

Many requests may be there


where the team is working at
Remedy Role Dev Enhancement 1 request per day the same time

6 requests per day = 0.71 per Many requests may be there


working hour = 0.012 per where the team is working at
Remedy User Access Changes working minute the same time

Remedy Project 1 per month 2 per month

5. Broadway Value Stream Analysis

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Broadway requests are typically created by end users for modification to the access needs or creation of a
new user. These requests then go through an approver before reaching the IT Security team as a
Production Request.

5.1 Broadway Requests – System Load

There were 1504 Broadway requests in the period July-September 2008. As one can see from the tables below,
on Saturdays and Sundays there are negligible requests. If one takes only weekdays number of requests per day
comes out to be 23.

7/1/2008 43 8/1/2008 7 9/2/2008 35


7/2/2008 12 8/4/2008 35 9/3/2008 11
7/3/2008 10 8/5/2008 35 9/4/2008 13
7/7/2008 38 8/6/2008 22 9/5/2008 12
7/8/2008 30 8/7/2008 20 9/8/2008 13
7/9/2008 52 8/8/2008 50
9/9/2008 53
7/10/2008 35 8/9/2008 2
9/10/2008 4
7/11/2008 37 8/11/2008 23
7/14/2008 31 8/12/2008 3
9/11/2008 13
7/15/2008 10 8/13/2008 84 9/12/2008 3
7/16/2008 30 8/14/2008 33 9/15/2008 24
7/17/2008 4 8/15/2008 7 9/16/2008 7
7/18/2008 22 8/18/2008 15 9/17/2008 21
7/21/2008 17 8/19/2008 25 9/18/2008 6
7/22/2008 37 8/20/2008 5 9/19/2008 9
7/23/2008 22 8/21/2008 17 9/22/2008 9
7/24/2008 39 8/22/2008 16 9/23/2008 83
7/25/2008 65 8/25/2008 6 9/24/2008 3
7/27/2008 3 8/26/2008 8 9/25/2008 1
7/28/2008 5 8/27/2008 35
9/26/2008 13
7/29/2008 26 8/28/2008 72
7/30/2008 14
9/29/2008 9
8/29/2008 12
7/31/2008 27 8/31/2008 9 (blank) 9/30/2008 12
Grand Total 609 Grand Total 541 Grand Total 354
Mean 26.5 Mean 23.5 Mean 16.9
stdev 15.9 stdev 21.4 stdev 19.3

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Three Months Average
number of
days 13 14 13 13 13 13 13
Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun
avgs 17.3 29.1 24.2 22.3 19.5 0.2 0.9
sum 225.0 407.0 315.0 290.0 253.0 2.0 12.0

5.2 Value Stream Mapping

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SRoleSForm
Open User Validate User Search for users Validate user Create
Production Request Requested Credentials (HR (Find Exact demographic User - if Assign Simulate Compose Update Notify Total Time
(30. Oct 2008) System Records) User) info not found License for risk Add Role Msg own excel Requester (minutes)
PR 1 1.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 11
PR 2 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 5
PR 3 2.00 1.00 1.00 4
PR 4 1.00 1.00 1.00 3
PR 5 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4
PR 6 2.00 4.00 1.00 1.00 8
Observed
Avg 6
In 90 minutes 11 requests completed 8.2 Avg 8
Shymoly's
i/ps 10
5.3 Spaghetti Diagram

5.4 Queuing Analysis and Estimation of Full Time Employees Needed

Three Months Average


number of days 13 14 13 13 13 13 13
Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun
avgs 17.3 29.1 24.2 22.3 19.5 0.2 0.9
sum 225.0 407.0 315.0 290.0 253.0 2.0 12.0

Arrival Rates per


minute (λ) 0.033937 0.057003 0.047511 0.043741 0.03816 0.000302 0.00181
Service Rates (per
minute) (μ) 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Enggs Needed 0.34 0.57 0.48 0.44 0.38 0.00 0.02


Number of Hours of
work per day 2.9 4.8 4.0 3.7 3.2 0.0 0.2

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Worst Case
Scenario (Number However we have seen the worst case scenario is followed by lull periods for 1-2
of arrivals) 84 days
Arrival rate (λ) 0.164706
Enggs Needed 1.647059
Hence 0.5 FTE per day is more than sufficient to take care of Broadway Requests

6. Change Requests (CRQs) Analysis


Similar analysis was carried out for the CRQs value streams. Some of the value streams were actually
observed and some were estimated or reconstructed from email traces.

6.1 Value Stream Maps for all CRQ streams

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July Aug Sep
CRQ 478 553 478 Time (minutes)
Terminations 282 349 337 10
Creation ESS/MSS Account 39 37 17 20
Role Development/Security
Enhancements 12 12 30 660
User Access Changes (Non P01 Requests) 143 155 103 200
Project 2 0 2 6000
Average %ages
% Terminations 59 63 71 64
% ESS 8 7 4 6
% Role Development 3 2 6 4
% User Access Changes 30 28 22 26

Total Time (Minutes) 52120 43150 56110


Total Time (Hours) 869 719 935
Total Time (Person days) 109 90 117
Number of FTEs 5 4 5 5

7. Audit and Other Reports (Observations from the team – Not Observed During the study)

 Approximately 32 security development or user/system clean-up work requests that are on HOLD
or partially in process (due to lack of resources)

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 Work-in-Process for role changes and projects (per remedy tickets) to date is about 35 not
including user requests. Completed work is 100 requests from the beginning of the calendar year.
 There are 23 audited reports to be run monthly. There are several others which we run, but don't
submit for audits.
 Logically, audit activities year round consume full time efforts of one resource.
 Purchased tools which will improve our efficiency (e.g. Access Enforcer), however inadequate time
to do the planning, discovery and implementation.
 Many in the team work in excess of 50 hours per week on a fairly regular basis.

8. Full Time Employees Needed if we continue to do the way we are working

The load on the team taking into account all the factors demands 6.5 Full Time Employees to be staffed for
this work. This however is only based on the existing value streams.

However there are sufficient indications to reduce the NVA substantially if certain systemic changes are
explored. Further technology solutions can be explored to automate some of the processes.

Value Stream FTE Observed during this study


needed
Audit Reports/Monthly Not observed – estimated based on reports
1.0
Reports and past data
Broadway (P01) 0.5 Observed and estimated during this study
Terminations Observed and estimated during this study
Creation ESS/MSS Observed and estimated during this study
Account
Role Estimated based on studying past data
Development/Security 5.0
Enhancements
User Access Changes Estimated based on studying past data
(Non P01)
Project Estimated based on studying past data

9. Brainstorming on Key pain-points using Crafitti brainstorming process and Crafitti Ideation cards

Two brainstorming sessions were carried out with cross-functional teams to look at the key problems of the
issues and process of the ticket based workflow system – Remedy and second was to look at the process of IT
projects in general with specific focus on security tasks in IT projects.

9.1 Brainstorming Session (05 November 2008) The production workflow – Remedy at the center

Remedy (The ticket workflow system)

Remedy Terminations (Bulk of CRQs 60-70%)

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For each termination they have to check SAP, Agile and Portal and change the status there if the
candidate has access
• For each Ticket 5-10 minutes are spent on closing the ticket by filling up closure information for audit
purposes – This inflates the actual work by almost 100%
• Lot of information to be filled manually (almost as much time as the actual work) – ranges from 5-10
minutes
• Many time tickets created after the work for audit purpose – this also takes up substantial amount of
time
Remedy ESS/Portal Id Creation (4-8% of CRQs)
• For each id creation about 10 minutes (50%) are spent on doing the work and 10 minutes in creating and
closing the Remedy ticket (50% time)
• For each Ticket about 10 minutes are spent on creating and closing the ticket by filling up closure
information for audit purposes – This inflates the actual work by almost 100%
• Lot of information (for creating the ticket 8 tabs with 21 fields and 6 dates to be filled through a tedious
process of copy and paste) to be filled manually (almost as much time as the actual work)

Remedy access is painfully slow and may be the VPN connection bandwidth also needs to be looked at.

Phase I: Problem Definition and Exploration

How the system looks in time and space by using the 9-windows operator?


Super-system

GSC
• Communication
• Server
• Remedy User Groups
• Remedy Users • Reduced Usage
• Applications • Wrong inputs for
Management Reports
Remedy 6.5 Remedy ITSM 7.1 impacting Organization-
wide decisions
system

• Life cycle was simple • Time Spent on Filling up • User Frustration, will
• Client on the PC unnecessary mandatory stop using the system
• No dependency on task fields • More Resources needed
and change • Complex Ticket Life-cycle • Productivity reduced
• Change and Task • Business impact
Sub-system

Dependencies • SLA
• Slow Web Link • More email
conversations

Past Present Future

What is the function performed by the system?

• Keeping Track of Work/Task (Start-Finish)


• Assignment of a request to appropriate User Group
• Reporting (Workload, total time, audit, SLA)

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• Implement Change Management Process

What is the IDEAL FINAL RESULT – so that the function is achieved with no cost, no extra resources and no
harm to the system?

(Appropriate/Needed) information capture should happen without manual intervention

Phase II: The Intuition and Emotional Connect with the problem

Very strong emotional disconnect with the existing ticket creation process and use of
remedy. The perception that current process is complex and cumbersome as
reflected in the emotional response here needs to be addressed very quickly.

Phase III: The Ideation – solution directions and ideas

How can we achieve the Ideal Final Result?

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How can we reduce the number of Termination CRQs?

9.2 Brainstorming Session (06 November 2008) The IT Project Management Process

Team spends a lot of time on doing Projects, which

 Can be initiated by the team


 Can be an impact of other IT projects

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The problem is about the awareness about project requirements

The Security Projects – How to do them – Right now these are done in a very ad-hoc manner – in a sense they
happen rather than defined and designed – which leads to lot of waste and rework

Phase I: Problem Definition and Exploration

IDEAL FINAL RESULT:

 Efficiently Executed Projects on Time without Defects


 Ideal Execution of Security tasks for projects
 No impact on current security, but allow user to achieve the new functionality and within allowed
business best practices

The Ideal World

• Deliver projects that

• Don’t require ongoing maintenance - Reusability


• Meet customer requirements – Needs must be written down
• Cost less than the budget – don’t add scope
• Without defects – requirements must be written down and agreed too
• Has a measurable outcome
• Reduce cost to deliver products and services
• Deliver project with only the needed effort to achieve the result (people, process and
technology)
• Need a Quality Assurance (QA) Function

Ideal way for IT Security Team

• Upfront awareness of actions needed for projects


• Timely delivery of requirements
• Inclusion in key project phases
• Appropriate testing and acceptance signoffs upon delivery
• Allocating dedicated resources for project tasks
• Planning ahead with appropriate time for discovery
• Knowledge transition and ongoing training
• Productivity Tools (GRC, VPC, IE7, etc)

Phase II: The Ideation – solution directions and ideas

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10. Final Points and Further Areas of Exploration

IT Security team has been tasked to ensure information security for main IT applications. This is done through
access controls. Further they ensure compliance to regulatory and audit needs. Due to the inherent nature of
work, team is forced to work in a reactive manner which leads to a situation of moving from one crisis to
another – Continuous Stress. Due to uneven distribution of work and uneven capabilities there are instances
when one member is extremely overloaded and others have less work. Due to ad-hoc, unplanned and ill-
defined requirements – many times the team gets into rework scenarios – these rework loops create hidden
waste which doesn’t get reflected in the work.

CAVEATS

 The IT Security team has 5 team members and 2 interns. Only one relatively new team member (less
than a month old in the security role) and manager (2 months old as manager) were available for the
duration under observation. One senior team member was available only for the first two days (30th
and 31st October 2008). Effectiveness of this report needs to be judged and evaluated based on
observations on the work done by these members.
 There was a general freeze on the systems due to year-end cycles which led to very less inflow of
production requests such as ESS/Portal id creation, User access and Role changes

CONCLUSIONS

 The IT Security team needs 6.5 Full Time Employees as opposed to its current strength of 5

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 The Ticket Workflow process and the way Remedy is used and integrated needs to be relooked in
comprehensive details. In fact, the idea of using SOA based solution to integrate all apps may actually
reduce the effort needed for manual rework by more than 50%.
 The IT Project Management process needs an end-to-end relook and study and may well help
streamline some of the security projects or tasks related to IT Projects
 In the true spirit of LEAN THINKING, frontline troops should be geared-up and trusted to solve
problems without many approvals. Kaizen should become regular day-to-day approach!

*****

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