Data Modeling and Database Design

Volume One Student Guide

ORACLE Enabling the Information Age ™

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Data Modeling and Database Design
Student Guide • Volume One

June 1992 M00475 ORACLE

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Data Modelling and Database Design Contributors: Ann Horton Howard Benbrook Dean Dameron Art Hetherington Jeff Jacobs Steve Strickland Publishing: Copyright © Oracle Corporation, 1992 All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. This software/documentation contains proprietary information of Oracle Corporation; it is provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and is also protected by copyright law. Reverse engineering of the software is prohibited. If this software/documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency of the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with Restricted Rights and the following legend is applicable: Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions for commercial computer software and shall be deemed to be Restricted Rights software under Federal law and as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of DFARS 252.2277013, Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software (October 1988). Use, duplication, or disclosure is subject to restrictions stated in your contract with Oracle Corporation. If this software/documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency not within the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with "Restricted Rights." as defined in FAR 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, including Alternate III (June 1987). The information in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing to Oracle Corporation. 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores. CA 94065-9815. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error free. ORACLE, SQL*Plus, SQL*Connect, SQL*Net, SQL*DBA, SQL*Report, SQL*ReportWriter, SQL*Forms, SQL*Menu, SQL*Loader, Easy*SQL, Pro*C, Pro*COBOL, Pro*Ada, Pro*Fortran, Pro*PL/I, Pro*Pascal, SQL*Calc, SQL*QMX, Oracle Financials, and CASE*Dictionary are registered trademarks. Oracle General Ledger. Oracle Assets. Oracle Payables and Oracle Purchasing. Oracle*Mail, SQL*TextRetrieval, PL/SQL, Oracle Graphics, Hyper*SQL, Oracle Card. CASE*Designer, and CASE*Generator are trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Macintosh and HyperCard are registered trademarks and HyperTalk is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. dBase is a trademark of Ashton-Tate Corporation. IBM. MVS. DB2, SQL/DS, and IBM PC are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Paintbrush is a trademark of Zsoft Corporation. Scott Knudtson Kathy Andronica Pete Cassidy Claudia Herzog Bill Hopkins Cliff Longman Tom Traver Rich Marinaccio

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CONTENTS
CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................. 4

1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................9
COURSE OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 10 ORACLE OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................... 11 ORACLE'S CASE APPROACH .......................................................................................... 13 CASE*METHOD DEVELOPMENT CYCLE.................................................................... 14

2 OVERVIEW OF DATABASE DEVELOPMENT..................................15
SECTION OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 16 DATABASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ........................................................................ 17 BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS .............................................................. 18 CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING OVERVIEW ....................................................... 19 DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW .................................................................................... 20 DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW....................................................................................... 21 DATABASE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT ..................................................... 22

3 BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING......................................23
SECTION OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 24 CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING ............................................................................... 25 ENTITIES ............................................................................................................................... 29 IDENTIFY AND MODEL ENTITIES ................................................................................. 33 EXERCISE 3-1 ....................................................................................................................... 36 RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................................................. 37 EXERCISE 3-2 ....................................................................................................................... 41 EXERCISE 3-3 ....................................................................................................................... 42

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..... 64 DISTINGUISH ATTRIBUTES AND ENTITIES ....................... 60 LAY OUT THE E-R DIAGRAM ........................................................................ 51 NAME THE RELATIONSHIP........................................................................................................................................... 77 EXERCISE 3-8 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 43 RELATIONSHIP TYPES ...........................................................................EXERCISE 3-4 .............................................. 94 EXERCISE 4-1 ................................................................................................ 84 EXERCISE 3-10 .................................................................................................................................................. 88 4 ADVANCED CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING........... 83 EXERCISE 3-9 ............................................... 53 DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S OPTIONALITY......................................... 75 ASSIGN UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS ................................................................................. 98 5 .......... 73 EXERCISE 3-7 .............................. 58 EXERCISE 3-6 ................................................................... 57 EXERCISE 3-5 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 ATTRIBUTE OPTIONALITY................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 55 DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S DEGREE ................................................................................................................ 93 NORMALIZE THE DATA MODEL .............92 SECTION OBJECTIVES............................................ 86 REVIEW: BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING......................................................................................................... 48 ANALYZE AND MODEL RELATIONSHIPS ......... 62 ATTRIBUTES ................................................................................................................... 44 USING A RELATIONSHIP MATRIX............................................................................................................................ 50 DETERMINE A RELATIONSHIP'S EXISTENCE ..................................................................................................................... 71 IDENTIFY ATTRIBUTES..................... 56 VALIDATE THE RELATIONSHIP...............

..................................................................................................... 140 RELATIONAL DATABASE OVERVIEW ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 133 EXERCISE 4-7 ......................139 SECTION OBJECTIVES................................................................................ 141 PRIMARY KEYS ..... 128 EXERCISE 4-6 ................................ 124 EXERCISE 4-5 .. 155 6 ......................................................................... 152 DATABASE DESIGN .................................................................................................................................... 143 FOREIGN KEYS ................................ 112 EXERCISE 4-4 .................. 126 MODEL DATA OVER TIME................. 107 EXERCISE 4-3 ........... 149 6 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN ......................................................................................................... 135 EXERCISE 4-8 ....................................................................................................... 117 MODEL ROLES WITH RELATIONSHIPS .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 109 MODEL RECURSIVE RELATIONSHIPS .........................151 SECTION OBJECTIVES................................................................................................................................................ 147 DATA INTEGRITY.......................................................................................................................... 99 EXERCISE 4-2 .... 138 5 RELATIONAL DATABASE CONCEPTS..................................................RESOLVE M:M RELATIONSHIPS ............................................................................................................................ 118 MODEL SUBTYPES ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 120 MODEL EXCLUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS ............................................ 108 MODEL HIERARCHICAL DATA ........................................... 136 EXERCISE 4-9 ................. 132 MODEL COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS ............................... 153 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 218 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN ...................................................................................................... 179 EXERCISE 6-5 ................................................................................................................................................. 170 EXERCISE 6-2 ................................................................ 196 REVIEW: INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN ......................201 SECTION OBJECTIVES................ 158 MAP ATTRIBUTES TO COLUMNS......................................... 174 EXERCISE 6-4 ........................................................................... 205 CONVERT TO SECOND NORMAL FORM........................................................................................................... 169 EXERCISE 6-1 ........................ 203 RECOGNIZE UNNORMALIZED DATA ........................................ 161 MAP RELATIONSHIPS TO FOREIGN KEYS .. 202 NORMALIZE TABLES ............................................................................................................ 204 CONVERT TO FIRST NORMAL FORM..................................................... 159 MAP UID'S TO PRIMARY KEYS ................................................................................................... 172 EXERCISE 6-3 ....................................................................... 200 7 TABLE NORMALIZATION................................................ 183 CHOOSE SUBTYPE OPTIONS ................................ 176 MAP COMPLEX E-R MODELS TO TABLES ..................................................................................................................................... 219 7 ........................................................................ 210 NORMALIZE DURING DATA MODELLING.......................217 SECTION OBJECTIVES.............................. 206 CONVERT TO THIRD NORMAL FORM...............................................MAP SIMPLE ENTITIES..................................................................... 163 REVIEW: MAPPING SIMPLE E-R MODELS TO TABLES ........................................................................................... 214 8 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN................................................................................ 208 EXERCISE 7-1 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 187 EXERCISE 6-6 .......................................................................

238 SUMMARY: DATABASE DEVELOPMENT ....................................SPECIFY REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY.................... 237 SUMMARY: DATABASE DESIGN .... 240 8 ............................. 220 DESIGN INDEXES ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 230 PLAN PHYSICAL STORAGE USAGE............................................................................... 227 DENORMALIZE THE DATABASE DESIGN................................................ 222 ESTABLISH VIEWS ................................................................................. 239 DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW........................................................................................................

1 INTRODUCTION 9 .

COURSE OBJECTIVES At the end of this course. 10 . 2 Develop a rela tional database design from an entity-relationship model. you will be able to: 1 Analyze user information requirements and develop an entity-relationship model to express those requirements.

ORACLE OVERVIEW 11 .

cont'd * Data Modelling and Database Design are techniques for analyzing information requirements and designing relational databases.ORACLE Overview . 12 .

techniques and tools. Business Requirements Operational System 13 .ORACLE'S CASE APPROACH Oracle's CASE (Computer-Aided Systems Engineering) approach provides a full-suite of CASE methods.

14 .CASE*METHOD DEVELOPMENT CYCLE Data modeling and database design support the first three stages of the CASE*Method Development cycle.

2 OVERVIEW OF DATABASE DEVELOPMENT 15 .

16 . Explain what Conceptual Data Modelling and Database Design involve. Understand the parallel phases of the Application Development Process. you will be able to: 1 2 3 Understand the phases of the Database Development Process.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section.

The Database Development Process is a vertical slice of the CASE*Method Development Cycle. systematic approach that transforms business information requirements into an operational database.DATABASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Database development is a top-down. 17 .

for example. We need to know the department responsible for each employee and the department's location. sales. and the employees each manager manages. hire date. last name. accounting. the Human Resources Department's business function requirements include Manage employee information. or development. Example Here is a set of information requirements: "I manage the Human Resources Department for a large company. Some of the employees are managers.BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS Top-down database development begins with the information requirements of the business. We need to track each employee's first name." Quick Notes • The scope of a set of information requirements may vary from the needs of a department to the needs of a total company. Each employee is assigned a unique employee number. Our company is divided into departments. Each department has a unique number. • Information requirements are tightly coupled with business function requirements. 18 . We need to know each employee's manager. For any employees on commission. Each employee is assigned to a department-for example. and salary. we also need to track their potential commission. For example. We need to keep information about each of our company's employees. accounting is 10 and sales are 30. job or position.

An Entity-Relationship Data Model should accurately model the organization's information needs and support the functions of the business. 19 . and the relationships between them. Example The following entity-relationship model represents the information requirements of the Human Resources Department.CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING OVERVIEW In Conceptual Data Modelling. define and model the things of significance about which the business needs to know or hold information.

U 7369 7902 7521 7698 7839 FNAM LNAME JOB E NN MARY HENR SUE BOB BOB NN SMITH FORD WARD BLAKE KING CLERK ANALYST SALESMA NN 17. and any foreign keys and provides a visual view of sample data. map the information requirements reflected in an Entity-Relationship Model into a relational database design.81 50 50 Table Name: DEPARTMENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data DEPTNO PK NN.DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW In Database Design.DEC-81 22.FEB-81 80 30 12 7902 7566 6000 7698 1000 7839 0 5000 HIREDATE SA COM L M MGR FK1 DEPTN O FK2 NN 20 50 30 30 10 N MANAGER 01. 20 . Example A design for the Human Resources database is shown in the following table instance charts.MAY-81 51 28 PRESIDEN 17. U 10 20 30 40 50 NN ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS DEVELOPMENT NN NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA DNAME LOC The Table Instance Chart for each relational table identifies the table's columns.DEC-80 03. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data EMPN O PK NN. primary key.NOV.

LOC CHAR 115) NOT NULL ). Example The following Structured Query Language (SQL) statements will create the DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE tables. FNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL. 2). DNAME CHAR(20) NOT NULL. DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL REFERENCES DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO) ). SAL NUMBER (7. COMM NUMBER (7. SQL> 2 3 4 SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CREATE TABLE DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. LNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL. 21 . create physical relational database tables to implement the database design. MGR CHAR(4) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE(EMPNO).DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW In Database Build. HIREDATE DATE NOT NULL.2). CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE (EMPNO NUMBER (5) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. The Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to create and manipulate relational databases. JOB CHAR(9).

DATABASE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT The Database Development Process is tightly coupled with the Application Development Process. 22 .

3 BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING 23 .

you will be able to: 1. Identify unique identifiers for each entity. 3.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. 4. Identify and model entities. Analyze and model attributes. 2. 24 . Develop a basic entity-relationship model from a statement of information requirements and user interviews. 5. Analyze and model the relationships between entities.

and is performed during the Strategy and Analysis stages of the System Development Cycle. 25 .CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING Conceptual Data Modelling is the first step of the top-down Database Development Process.

Entity-Relationship Model Components • • • Entities .Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd The goal of Conceptual Data Modeling is to develop an entity-relationship model that represents the information requirements of the business.the things of significance about which information needs to be held. Example The following entity-relationship model represents the information requirements of the Human Resources Department. 26 . Relationships-how the things of significance are related. Attributes-the specific information. which needs to be held.

and/or purchased application packages. Integration of Multiple Applications • An E-R Model provides an effective framework for integrating multiple applications. Quick Notes • Be sure to fully establish an organization's information requirements during the conceptual data modelling stage.Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd An entity-relationship model is an effective means for collecting and documenting an organization's information requirements. Ease of Development • An E-R Model can be easily developed and refined. 27 . Robust Syntax • An E-R Model documents an organization's information requirements in a clear. Definition of Scope • An E-R Model provides a clear picture of the scope of an organization's information requirements. precise format. User Communication • Users can easily understand the pictorial form of an E-R Model. Requirements changes during later stages of the development life-cycle can be extremely expensive. • Use views or subsets of an E-R Model as a communication aide. development projects.

network. or relational database.Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd Conceptual Data Modelling is independent of the hardware or software to be used for implementation. 28 . An E-R Model can be mapped to a hierarchical.

and salary Possible attributes for the entity DEPARTMENT are: Name. An entity is a class or category of thing. which need to be known. Examples The following might be things of significance about which a business needs to hold information: EMPLOYEE DEPARTMENT PROJECT Attributes describe entities and are the specific pieces of information. Alternate Entity Definitions • • • An object of interest to the business. An entity is a named thing.ENTITIES An entity is a thing of significance about which information needs to be known or held. number. name. 29 . and location Quick Note • An entity must have attributes that need to be known from the business's viewpoint or it is not an entity within the scope of the business's requirements. date of birth. Examples Possible attributes for the entity EMPLOYEE are: badge number.

unique entity name Entity name in upper case Optional synonym name (in parentheses) Attribute names in all lower case Examples Quick Notes • • A synonym is an alternate name for an entity.Entities .cont'd Entity Diagramming Conventions • • • • • Soft box with any dimensions Singular. 30 . Synonyms are useful when two groups of users have different names for the same thing of significance.

the employee Jim Brown. and salary $55. and salary. Juan Gomez.Entities . Example The entity EMPLOYEE has attributes of name. Examples The entity EMPLOYEE has one occurrence for each employee in the business: Jim Brown. 31 . The instance Jim Brown has the following values: name Jim Brown.e.g. date of birth. Quick Notes • • • Instances are sometimes mistaken for entities.000. and the Development Department are all instances of the entity DEPARTMENT. the Sales Department. An entity is a class or category of thing . Each entity instance has specific values for the entity's attributes. Mary Jones.e. EMPLOYEE. and Jill Judge are all occurrences of the entity EMPLOYEE. date of birth 15-MAR-50. badge number 1322. The entity DEPARTMENT has one occurrence for each department in the company: The Finance Department. An instance is a specific thing .g. badge number.cont'd Each entity must have multiple occurrences or instances.

Entities . which uniquely identify an entity and are part of the entity's UID are tagged with #*. EMPLOYEE'S Look for attributes that uniquely identify an entity. Attributes. Example What attributes might uniquely identify the following entities? Quick Notes • • If an entity cannot be uniquely identified. Example Each employee has a unique badge number. it may not be an entity.cont'd Each instance must be uniquely identifiable from other instances of the same entity. 32 . Badge number is a candidate for the entity UID. An attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identify an entity is called a Unique Identifier (UID).

Quick Note • Do not disqualify a candidate entity too soon." • Diagram each entity and a few of its attributes.IDENTIFY AND MODEL ENTITIES Follow the steps below to identify and model entities from a set of interview notes. 33 . John Brown and Mary Smith are EMPLOYEES. • • • • Examine the nouns. Additional attributes of interest to the business may be uncovered later. Are they things of significance? Name each entity. "An EMPLOYEE has significance as a paid worker at the company. For example. Is there information of interest about the entitiy that the-business needs to hold? Is each instance of the entity uniquely identifiable? Which attribute or attributes could serve as its UID? • Write a description of it.

Identify and Model Entities . Each course is taught by only one instructor. each of which has a code. We track each instructor's name and phone number. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. The students can take several courses over time. "I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques. Introduction to UNIX and C Programming-are two of our more popular courses.cont'd Example Identify and model the entities in the following set of information requirements. and many of them do this. a name. We teach many courses. and a fee. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. 34 . Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. We create a course and then line up an instructor. An instructor can teach several courses.

Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales. Introduction to UNIX and C Programming. • A STUDENT has significance as a participant in one or more COURSES.Identify and Model Entities .cont'd Solution The following entities model the Training Company's information requirements. For example. • An INSTRUCTOR has significance as a teacher of one or more COURSES. Entity Descriptions • A COURSE has significance as a training event offered by the Training Company. For example. 35 . For example. Jamie Brown.

suspense. A customer may check out multiple videotapes at any given time. specific movie. of course each club member has a membership number. We have lots of customers. Our tapes are very long and we don't have any movies. Show at least two attributes for each entity.g. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. or sci-fi). So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. "I'm the owner of a small video store. We don't keep track of any rental histories. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory. Each of our videotapes has a tape number. and each tape is always a copy of a single. We just track current rentals. We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. For each club member. A tape may be either Beta or VHS format. Yes. drama. and then track which movie a tape contains. action. war. and current address. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. they must have good credit. we’d like to keep his/her first and last name. which require multiple tapes. We give each movie a specific id. And. comedy." To belong to our club. For each movie. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular.EXERCISE 3-1 Identify and model entities. Then we need to keep track of what videotapes each customer currently has checked out. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club." 36 . current phone number. Not all of our movies have star actors. 1. Identify and model the entities in the following set of information requirements. Write a brief description of each entity. we need to know its title and category (e. We have over 3.000 videotapes that we need to keep track of.

. Each INSTRUCTOR may be assigned to one or more courses.g. taught by or assigned to.e. or between an entity and itself. Each direction of a relationship has: • • • a name . 37 . A degree of 0 is addressed by may be. significant association between two entities.either one and only one or one or more.RELATIONSHIPS A relationship is a two-directional. a degree . an optionality . Relationship Syntax Example The relationship between INSTRUCTOR and COURSE is: Each COURSE may be taught by one and only one INSTRUCTOR. Quick Notes • • Cardinality is a synonym for the term degree.either must be or may be.

cont'd Diagramming Conventions • • • • A line between two entities Lower case relationship names Optionality Degree 38 .Relationships .

and then read the relationship in the other direction.Relationships .cont'd First read a relationship in one direction. Relationship from Left to Right (partial diagram) Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT. and then from right to left. Relationship from Right to Left (partial diagram) Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. Example Read the relationship between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT. Read this relationship first from left to right. 39 .

Relationships . Each EMPLOYEE may be the receiver of one or more PAYCHECKs. Each STUDENT may be enrolled in one or more COURSES.cont'd Example Read the relationship between STUDENT and COURSE. Example Read the relationship between PAYCHECK and EMPLOYEE. 40 . Each COURSE may be taken by one or more STUDENTS. Each PAYCHECK must be for one and only one EMPLOYEE.

EXERCISE 3-2 Read relationships. 1. Write the relationship sentences for this E-R diagram. 41 .

42 . Each ACTIVITY may be performed by one or more EMPLOYEES. Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. c. b. Each EMPLOYEE may be assigned to one or more ACTIVITIES. Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT. d.EXERCISE 3-3 Draw an Entity-Relationship Diagram. Draw an Entity-Relationship diagram to represent the following: a. 1.

Each FILE may be part of one and only one TABLESPACE. 1. 43 . Each EXTENT must be composed of one or more BLOCKs. Each SEGMENT must be included in one and only one TABLESPACE. c. Each SEGMENT must be inclusive of one or more EXTENTS. Each BLOCK must be part of one and only one EXTENT. e. Each DISK may be the host for one or more FILEs. b. Draw an Entity-Relationship diagram to represent the following: a. Each TABLESPACE may be divided into one or more SEGMENTS. Each TABLESPACE must be part of one and only one ORACLE DATABASE. h. Each EXTENT must be included in one and only one SEGMENT. * l. d. k. i. f. Each ORACLE DATABASE must be made up of one or more TABLESPACEs. j. Each FILE must be resident on one and only one DISK. Each TABLESPACE must be made up of one or more FILEs.EXERCISE 3-4 Optional Exercise Draw an Entity-Relationship Diagram. * Some operating systems may allow a file to span disks. g.

44 .RELATIONSHIP TYPES There are three types of relationships. Relationship Types • • • Many to One Relationships Many to Many Relationships One to One Relationships All relationships should represent the information requirements and rules of the business.

45 . Quick Notes • • M:1 relationships are very common.Relationship Types .cont'd A Many to One Relationship (M to 1 or M:1) has a degree of one or more in one direction and a degree of one and only one in the other direction. Each CUSTOMER must be visited by one and only one SALES REPRESENTATIVE. Each SALES REPRESENTATIVE may be assigned to visit one or more CUSTOMERS. Example There is a M:1 relationship between CUSTOMER and SALES REPRESENTATIVE. M:1 relationships that are mandatory in both directions are rare.

Each STUDENT may be enrolled in one or more COURSES. 46 . Each COURSE may be taken by one or more STUDENTS. Many to Many relationships are usually optional in both directions.cont'd A Many to Many Relationship (M to M or M:M) has a degree of one or more in both directions.Relationship Types . Each EMPLOYEE may be assigned to one or more JOBs. although a Many to Many Relationship may be optional in just one direction. Examples There is a M:M relationship between STUDENT and COURSE. Each JOB may be carried out by one or more EMPLOYEES. Quick Notes • • Many to Many Relationships are very common. There is a M:M relationship between EMPLOYEE and JOB.

Each MOTHERBOARD may be incorporated into one and only one MICROCOMPUTER. may really be the same entity. Quick Notes • • • 1:1 Relationships are rare.cont'd A One to One Relationship (1 to 1 or 1:1) has a degree of one and only one in both directions. which seem to have a 1:1 relationship. A 1:1 Relationship that is mandatory in both directions is very rare. Each MICROCOMPUTER must be the host for one and only one MOTHERBOARD. 47 .Relationship Types . Example There is a 1:1 relationship between MICROCOMPUTER and MOTHERBOARD. Entities.

ORDER is related to CUSTOMER and the name of the relationship is originated by. • Recursive relationships (between an entity and itself) are represented by the boxes on the diagonal.USING A RELATIONSHIP MATRIX Use a relationship matrix as an aide for the initial collection of information about the relationships between a set of entities. then the name of that relationship is shown in the intersection box. CUSTOMER is related to ORDER and the name of the relationship is the originator of. • Each relationship above the diagonal line is the inverse or mirror image of a relationship below the line. Example The following relationship matrix shows a set of relationships between four entities. • If a row entity is not related to a column entity. Relationship Matrix Conventions • A relationship matrix shows if and how each row entity on the left-hand side of the matrix is related to each column entity shown across the top of the matrix. 48 . If a row entity is related to a column entity. then a long dash is shown in the intersection box. • • All the entities are listed along both the left-hand side of the matrix and the top of the matrix.

Using a Relationship Matrix . write-in the relationship's name. and add each relationship's optionality and degree. Example Map the following relationship matrix to an E-R diagram. Draw a relationship line for each relationship. Draw a softbox for each entity and add the entity's attributes.cont'd Map the contents of a relationship matrix to an E-R diagram. 49 .

Read the relationship aloud to validate it. Determine the degree of each direction of the relationship.ANALYZE AND MODEL RELATIONSHIPS Follow a series of five steps to analyze and model relationships. 50 . Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship. Name each direction of the relationship. Steps • • • • • Determine the existence of a relationship.

Examine each pair of entities to determine if a relationship exists. Is there a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE? Yes. Ask About a Relationship's Existence • Does a significant relationship exist between ENTITY A and ENTITY B? Example Consider the entities DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. Example Consider the entities DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY. 51 . there is a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE.DETERMINE A RELATIONSHIP'S EXISTENCE Determine the existence of a relationship. Is there a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY? No. there is not a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY.

cont'd Use a relationship matrix to systematically examine each pair of entities. and EMPLOYEE on a relationship matrix. The check marks indicate that a relationship exists. DEPARTMENT.Determine a Relationship's Existence . Example Log the relationships among ACTIVITY. 52 .

NAME THE RELATIONSHIP Name each direction of a relationship. log the relationship names in a relationship grid. Ask a Relationship's Name • How is an ENTITY A related to an ENTITY B? An ENTITY A is relationship name an ENTITY B. Optionally. How is an EMPLOYEE related to a DEPARTMENT? Each EMPLOYEE is assigned to a DEPARTMENT. Example Log the relationship names for the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. • How is an ENTITY B related to an ENTITY A? An ENTITY B is relationship name an ENTITY A. How is a DEPARTMENT related to an EMPLOYEE? Each DEPARTMENT is responsible for an EMPLOYEE. Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. 53 .

For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling.cont'd Use a list of relationship name pairs to assist in naming relationships. Useful Relationship Name Pairs • • • • • • based on bought from description of operated by represented by responsible for the basis for the supplier of for the operator for the representation of the responsibility of Quick Note • Do not use related to or associated with as relationship names.Name the Relationship . 5456-V1. page C-10 54 .0.

Must an EMPLOYEE be assigned to a DEPARTMENT? Always? Is there any situation in which an EMPLOYEE will not be assigned to a DEPARTMENT? No.DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S OPTIONALITY Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship. Draw the relationship lines. Must a DEPARTMENT be responsible for an EMPLOYEE? No. with the relationship names. Example 55 . a DEPARTMENT does not have to be responsible for an EMPLOYEE. an EMPLOYEE must always be assigned to a DEPARTMENT. Ask About a Relationship's Optionality • • Must ENTITY A be relationship name ENTITY B? Must ENTITY B be relationship name ENTITY A? Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE.

an EMPLOYEE must be assigned to only one DEPARTMENT. Add the relationship degrees to the E-R Diagram. a DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. Ask About a Relationship's Degree • May ENTITY A be relationship name more than one ENTITY B? • May ENTITY B be relationship name more than one ENTITY A? Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. May an EMPLOYEE be assigned to more than one DEPARTMENT? No. May a DEPARTMENT be responsible for more than one EMPLOYEE? Yes. Example 56 .DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S DEGREE Determine the degree of the relationship in both directions.

VALIDATE THE RELATIONSHIP Re-examine the E-R Model and validate the relationship. Read the Relationship Aloud • Relationships must be readable and make business sense. 57 . Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT. Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. Example Read the relationship represented by the following diagram.

Introduction to UNIX and C Programming are two of our more popular courses. Use a relationship matrix to track the existence of relationships between the entities. "I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques. We create a course and then line up an instructor. a name. Each course is taught by only one instructor. Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number. An instructor can teach several courses. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. Analyze and model the relationships in the following set of information requirements. each of which has a code.EXERCISE 3-5 Analyze and model relationships. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. 1. We teach many courses." 58 . and many of them do this. The students can take several courses over time. We track each instructor's name and phone number. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. and a fee.

cont'd The following entities were previously modelled. 59 .Exercise 3-5 .

Not all of our movies have star actors. of course each club member has a membership number. suspense. Then we need to keep track of what videotapes each customer currently has checked out. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular. Yes. or sci-fi). and each tape is always a copy of a single. Use a relationship matrix to track the existence of relationships between the entities. action. For each club member. current phone number. For each movie. We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. "I'm the owner of a small video store.000 videotapes that we need to keep track of. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club. Each of our videotapes has a tape number. and then track which movie a tape contains. and we don't have any movies. Analyze and model the relationships in the following set of information requirements from Exercise 3-1.g. they must have good credit. we'd like to keep their first and last name. We just track current rentals. And. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. We have lots of customers." 60 . we need to know its title and category (e. A tape may be either Beta or VHS format. A customer may check out multiple videotapes at any given time. 1. We have over 3. drama. comedy. which require multiple tapes. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. war." To belong to our club. We don't keep track of any rental histories. We give each movie a specific id. specific movie. So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. Our tapes are very long.EXERCISE 3-6 Analyze and model relationships. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. and current address.

cont'd The following entities were modelled earlier in Exercise 3-1. 61 .Exercise 3-6 .

which is easier to follow when relationship lines must cross. Draw relationship lines straight and either horizontal or vertical. Add adjectives to improve understanding. Neat and Tidy • • • • • Line entity boxes up. Avoid the use of many closely parallel lines. Use an angle of 30° to 60°. 62 . which are difficult to follow. People remember shapes and patterns. Unambiguous Text • • • • • Make all text unambiguous.LAY OUT THE E-R DIAGRAM Make an E-R Diagram easy to read and applicable to the people who need to work with it. Use plenty of white space to avoid the look of congestion. Put relationship names at the ends of the line and on opposite sides of the line. Align text horizontally. Avoid abbreviations and jargon. Memorable Shapes • • • Make the E-R Diagram memorable. Stretch or shrink entity boxes to help the layout of the dia gram. Do not draw an E-R Diagram on a grid.

cont'd Draw crowsfeet pointing up or to the left. Position lower volume. 63 . For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling. Layout Rules • • • Try to position a crowsfoot on the left end or the top end of the relationships line. Quick Note • Until an M:M relationship is resolved. 3-16 and 3-17. at least one end of the relationship will point down or to (he right. more volatile entities toward the top and left of the diagram. less volatile entities toward the bottom and right of the diagram.0. 5456-V1.Lay Out the E-R Diagram . Position higher volume. pp.

g.ATTRIBUTES Attributes are information about an entity that needs to be known or held. classifying. active. quantifying or expressing the state of the entity. an attribute's name should not include its entity's name. date ordered. Attributes describe an entity by qualifying. quantity returned. Employment status (e. Age quantifies an EMPLOYEE. Attributes represent a type of description or detail. First name and last name qualify an EMPLOYEE.e. or quantity purchased? Always clarify a date attribute with a descriptor or verb phrase. on leave. Quick Notes • • • • • Attribute names should be clear to the user. Payroll category (e.e. terminated) expresses the status of an EMPLOYEE.g. John is a value of the attribute first name of EMPLOYEE. e. The entity's name is always a qualifier of the attribute name .g. Attribute names should be specific . Example What are some attributes of the entity EMPLOYEE? • • • • • Badge number or payroll number identify an EMPLOYEE. Example 77506 and 763111 are values of the attribute badge number. is it quantity. An attribute should only be assigned to a single entity. identifying. not codified for the developer. not an instance.. weekly or salary) classifies an EMPLOYEE. code of COURSE. Therefore. 64 .g. date of contact..g.

Attributes . Example 65 .cont'd Diagramming Conventions • • Attribute names are singular and shown in lower case. List attribute names in their entity's soft box.

city. An attribute of address is frequently left as an aggregate and then decomposed during Design. and zip code. state. • The level of attribute decomposition will depend upon the business requirements. vendor. and zip codes are generally not decomposed further. social security numbers. The number of an ITEM consists of type. Break down aggregate attributes and embedded code fields into simple attributes. street address. and item number. times.cont'd Always break attributes down into their lowest meaningful components.Attributes . Alternative ly it can be decomposed into multiple attributes: apartment/suite. Quick Notes • • Attributes containing dates. Examples The name of a PERSON can be broken down into last name and first name. 66 .

cont'd Verify that each attribute has a single value for each entity instance. and the business needs to keep all dates of contact. 67 .Attributes . a CLIENT may be contacted multiple times. Quick Note • A repeated attribute indicates a missing entity. The entity CONTACT is missing. Example Are the attributes of CLIENT single -valued? No. A multi-valued attribute or repeating group is not a valid attribute.

g. a salesman's commission calculated at 10% of sales) Do not include derived attributes in an E-R Model. The derived data must be revised whenever the attributes upon which it is based are revised. the number of salesman in a region) Totals (e.g. the total number of each salesman's monthly sales) Max/Min/Average (e. 68 .cont'd Verify that an attribute is not derived or calculated from the existing values of other attributes.g. • Address the option of storing derived data during Database Design. Redundant data can lead to inconsistent data values.g. Common Derived Data • • • • Counts (e.Attributes . Quick Notes • • Derived attributes are redundant. statistics on the sales of a group of salesmen) Other calculations (e.

and trim color for each color scheme. then it is really an entity.DISTINGUISH ATTRIBUTES AND ENTITIES If an attribute has attributes of its own. Example Determine if all the attributes of EMPLOYEE are attributes. and became an entity with a relationship to VEHICLE. 69 . Attributes have no attributes on their own. paint type. Example Determine if all of the attributes of VEHICLE are really attributes. Later. Quick Notes • • Entities have attributes. Initially the user identified color scheme as an attribute of VEHICLE. then DEPENDENT becomes an entity. Number of dependents is an attribute of EMPLOYEE. Color scheme then had attributes of its own. Number of dependents can now be derived. but if it is necessary to keep each dependent's name and age. the user defined the requirement to track the paint color.

Attributes for that entity may appear later. it may be only an attribute May have multiple occurrences associated with another entity via a relationship If an attribute has an attribute. but not all nouns are entities. then it is an entity or have no signific ance Has a single value for each entity occurrence (no repeating groups) Quick Notes • • Do not disqualify a candidate entity too quickly.Distinguish Attributes and Entities . Instances of entities and attributes are also nouns. 70 .cont'd All entities are nouns. Entity Characteristics Anything about which information must be held Possesses one or more attributes Does not possess attribute (s) of its own Attribute Characteristics Qualifies an entity If an entity has no attributes.

Determine their optionality. Tagged with *. Mandatory Attributes • • A value must be known for each entity occurrence. The remaining attributes are mandatory. Example Identify the attributes for the PERSON entity. Optional Attributes • • A value may be known for each entity occurrence. Tagged with o.ATTRIBUTE OPTIONALITY Identify each attribute's optionality using an attribute tag. 71 . The title and weight attributes are optional.

Example Are the mandatory and optional attribute tags for the PERSON entity correct? Use an Entity Instance Chart to validate that the mandatory and optional attribute tags for the PERSON entity are correct. Entity Name: PERSON Attribute Name Tags Sample Data code * 110 301 134 340 589 name * Jones Smith Gonzales Johnson Brown title o President Treasurer Secretary sex * F M F M M weight o 210 110 195 Quick Note • An Entity Instance Chart is useful for logging sample attribute data.cont'd Use sample attribute instance data to validate attribute Optionality.Attribute Optionality . 72 .

g. Possessive nouns and pronouns (e.g. Employee's name). Questions to Ask the User • • What information do you need to know or hold about entity x? What information would you like displayed or printed about entity x? 73 . Prepositional phrases (e.IDENTIFY ATTRIBUTES Identify attributes by examining interview notes and by asking the user questions. Nouns. Salary amount for each employee). Attributes may appear in interview notes as: • • • • Descriptive words and phrases.

Paper Forms Headings Prompts Computer Reports Fields Headings Sort Orders Computer Files Record layouts File Dumps Questions to Ask the User • Is this attribute really needed? Quick Notes • • Beware of obsolete requirements left over from previous systems. Beware of derived data. 5456-V1.cont'd Examine documentation on existing manual procedures or automated systems to discover additional attributes and omissions. pp.Identify Attributes . 74 . 5-6 and 5-7. For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling.0.

office phone number. and type of business. and our records are a mess. and Richard Barker from ORACLE U. Some of our members are really active. EG&G. the November Meeting. A few of our members are unemployed. We'd like to track each event's date. 1. We definitely need to automate our membership records. "Our regional Oracle User's Group has grown to include over 200 members. and we frequently get multiple sets of comments for an event. and Storage Tech. We have a standard set of type of business codes. and our April Meeting. Develop an E-R Diagram for the following situation. (continued) 75 . where it was held. how much money we spent on it. Some of our annual events include the September Meeting. We hold various events during the year. and everyone's dues are due in January. Our members come from many different companie s including Coors. We treat all comments as if they came from an anonymous submitter. address. we keep the company name. We only keep the main company address for each company. We also track which members attended which events. We only try to track a single current employer for each member. title. We also like to know which company a member works for. We also hold specia l events each year. the annual Training Day in January.U.EXERCISE 3-7 Develop an E-R Diagram. We number each set of comments. number of attendees. Redrocks Community College.K. type of membership (individual or corporate). and D. we held a special CASE day last May. and we'd like to track information about each event. mailing address. We're an all volunteer organization. We collect dues on a yearly basis. Be sure to tag each attribute with its optionality. For example. and any comments on the event. We hold our events at several different locations around town including AT&T. we need to keep the member's name. and others attend very infrequently or just enjoy receiving our newsletter. A set of comments is just a free form text statement of any length. and whether or not the member is current on dues. For each company. For each member. but keeping this information current is a real chore because our members are always changing companies. an optional description of the event. came and spoke. We need an information system to help us keep track of all our affairs.

Exercise 3-7 . oil and gas. so we don't need to know which platforms they run on. 003 is for VAX/VMS. The applications should be portable. For example. 001 is for IBM/MVS. We also like to track which application areas each member is interested in. 030 is for PC/DOS: 050 is for Sun Unix. For example. We have a unique. 002 is for IBM/VM. and health systems. pharmaceuticals. 020 is for OS/2.cont'd "We also need to track what type of computer platforms our members are using. accounting. and 080 is for other Unix platforms. human resources. three-digit system identification tag for each type of platform." 76 .

Quick Notes • • All components of a UID must be mandatory *. The UID for the entity THEATRE TICKET is the combination of the two attributes date of performance and seat number. An entity must have a UID.ASSIGN UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS A Unique Identifier (UID) is any combination of attributes and/or relationships that serve to uniquely identify an occurrence of an entity. 77 . The UID for the entity DEPARTMENT is the attribute number. each occurrence of DEPARTMENT is uniquely identified by its department number. each ticket is uniquely identified by its date of performance and its seat number. Example For a small theatre. Each entity occurrence must be uniquely identifiable. or it is not an entity. Tag each UID attribute with #*. Example In a business.

Quick Note • A relationship included in a UID must be mandatory and one and only one in the direction that participates in the UID. What is the UID of the entity ACCOUNT? ACCOUNT is uniquely identified by its attribute number and the specific BANK the account is related to. Within a bank. Example The UID bar indicates that the relationship with BANK is part of the UID of ACCOUNT. 78 . each bank is assigned a unique bank number. each account has a unique account number. Example In the banking industry.cont'd An entity can be uniquely identified through a relationship. Use a UID bar to indicate that a relationship is part of the entity's UID.Assign Unique Identifiers .

cont'd An entity may be uniquely identified through multiple relationships. each with a different date of assignment. Example A business needs to track the work assignments of its employees. the PROJECT the WORK ASSIGNMENT is to. 79 . An employee may be given multiple assignments to a single project. Employees are given work assignments to projects. What is the UID of the entity WORK ASSIGNMENT? A WORK ASSIGNMENT is uniquely identified by the EMPLOYEE the WORK ASSIGNMENT is for. and the date assigned. Quick Note • Both relationships are mandatory and one and only one in the direction included in the UID.Assign Unique Identifiers .

first name/last name Are they all unique? The first name/last name combination is probably not unique. payroll number 3. or do not tag them.Assign Unique Identifiers .cont'd An entity may have more than one UID. Select one candidate UID to be the primary UID. Example What uniquely identifies an EMPLOYEE? Candidate UIDs include: 1. CASE*Dictionary can document multiple secondary UIDs. 80 . Quick Notes • • Either tag Secondary UIDs as (#). badge number 2. and the others to be secondary UIDs.

Create an artificial attribute called CUSTOMER code which will be unique for each instance of CUSTOMER.cont'd Consider creating unique.Assign Unique Identifiers . Define an artificial code when the business does not have a natural attribute which uniquely identifies an entity. there could be two CUSTOMERS with the same name. Quick Notes • • Artificial attributes are used often for UIDs. artificial attributes to help identify each entity. 81 . Example What uniquely identifies a CUSTOMER entity? Possibly the CUSTOMER'S first and last name could be a UID. However.

Evaluate the Attributes • What mandatory attributes identify the entity? Seek out additional attributes that help identify the entity. Does the selected combination of attributes and relationships uniquely identify each instance of an entity? • Are all the attributes and relationships that are included in the UID mandatory? 82 . • • Does an attribute uniquely identify the entity? What combinations of attributes uniquely identify the entity? Consider the Relationships • • • • Which of the relationships help identify the entity? Are there missing relationships that help identify the entity? Does the relationship help uniquely identify the entity? Is the relationship mandatory and one and only one in the direction from the entity? Validate the UID • Examine sample data.Assign Unique Identifiers . Consider creating artificial attributes for identification.cont'd Search for attributes and relationships to identify each entity.

"I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques. a name. and a fee. Introduction to UNIX and C Programming are two of our more popular courses." E-R Model from Exercise 3-5 83 .EXERCISE 3-8 Identify UIDs. Each course is taught by only one instructor. supply attribute tags for each attribute. and many of them do this. and identify a UID for each entity. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. The students can take several courses over time. We teach many courses. For the Training Company situation and E-R model from Exercise 3-5. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. We create a course and then line up an instructor. each of which has a code. Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number. Add these attribute tags and UID's to the E-R model. An instructor can teach several courses. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. 1. We track each instructor's name and phone number.

Yes. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular.g. and we don't have any movies.000 video tapes that we need to keep track of. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. Our tapes are very long. and each tape is always a copy of a single. which require multiple tapes. comedy. current phone number. We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. identify a UID for each entity and add these UIDs to the E-R model. we’d like to keep his or her first and last name. Each of our video tapes has a tape number. specific movie. Not all of our movies have star actors. and then track which movie a tape contains. Also. A customer may check out multiple video tapes at any given time. suspense. 1. of course each club member has a membership number. And. We have lots of customers. "I'm the owner of a small video store. So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. we need to know its title and category (e. A tape may be either Beta or VHS format. drama. We just track current rentals. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club. For the Video Store situation and E-R Model from Exercise 3-6. For each movie. war. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory." To belong to our club. or sci-fi). they must have good credit. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. supply attribute tags for each attribute. Then we need to keep track of what video tapes each customer currently has checked out.EXERCISE 3-9 Identify UIDs. We give each movie a specific id. We have over 3. action. and current address. For each club member. We don't keep track of any rental histories." 84 .

cont'd E-R Model from Exercise 3-6 85 .Exercise 3-9 .

"Our regional Oracle User's Group has grown to include over 200 members. and type of business. We only try to track a single current employer for each member. and we'd like to track information about each event.U. Redrocks Community College. but keeping this information current is a real chore because our members are always changing companies. title. type of membership (individual or corporate).company address for each company. where it was held. and others attend very infrequently or just enjoy receiving our newsletter. and our April Meeting. We treat all comments as if they came from an anonymous submitter. Some of our annual events include the September Meeting. came and spoke. and D. an optional description of the event. We definitely need to automate our membership records.K.EXERCISE 3-10 Identify UIDs. We hold our events at several different locations around town including AT&T. We collect dues on a yearly basis and everyone's dues are due in January. We have a standard set of type of business codes. and Storage Tech. mailing address. We also like to know which company a member works for. we need to keep the member's name. number of attendees. and any comments on the event. and our records are a mess. We're an allvolunteer organization. 1. office phone number. We also hold special events each year. We need an information system to help us keep track of all our affairs. how much money we spent on it. and Richard Barker from ORACLE U. and we frequently get multiple sets of comments for an event. For the Oracle User's Group situation and E-R Model from Exercise 3-7. the annual Training Day in January. For each company. and whether or not the member is current on dues. address. For each member. Some of our members are really active. For example. We hold various events during the year. we keep the company name. identify a UID for each entity and add these UIDs to the E-R Model. We'd like to track each event's date. EG&G. We also track which members attended which events. We only keep the main . A few of our members are unemployed. the November Meeting. (continued) 86 . Our members come from many different companies including Coors. A set of comments is just a free form text statement of any length. We number each set of comments. we held a special CASE day last May.

so we don't need to know which platforms they run on. and health systems. For example. We have a unique.. human resources. pharmaceuticals. 002 is for IBM/VM. 001 is for IBM/MVS. 050 is for Sun Unix. For example. "We also like to track which application areas each member is interested in. 030 is for PC/DOS." E-R Model from Exercise 3-7 87 . The applications should be portable. 003 is for VAX/VMS. three-digit system identification tag for each type of platform. and 080 is for other Unix platforms.Exercise 3-10 . 020 is for OS/2. accounting. oil and gas.cont'd We also need to track what type of computer platforms our members are using.

Is there information of interest about the entity that the business needs to hold? 4. unique name Name in upper case Optional synonym name (in parentheses) Any dimensions Identify and Model Entities 1. 88 . Write a description of it. Diagram each entity and a few of its attributes." 6. "An EMPLOYEE has significance as a paid worker at the company. 3. Are they things of significance? 2. Name each entity.REVIEW: BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING An entity is a thing of significance about which information needs to be known or held. John Brown and Mary Smith are EMPLOYEES. For example. Diagramming Conventions • • • • • Soft box Singular. Examine the nouns. Is each instance of the entity uniquely identifiable? Which attribute or attributes could serve as its UID? 5.

5. 4.Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . Determine the degree of each direction of the relationship. 3. Determine the existence of a relationship. Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship. 89 . Name each direction of the relationship. 2.cont'd A relationship is a two-directional. Relationship Syntax Diagramming Conventions Crows always fly east or south! Analyze and Model the Relationships Between Entities 1. Model the relationship. or between an entity and itself. significant association between two entities.

Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . 3. 7.cont'd Attributes are information about an entity that needs to be known or held. Determine the optionality of the attribute. 4. 5. Validate that the attribute is really an attribute and not an entity. 8. lower case. Verify that an attribute is not derived. Identify a candidate attribute. and do not include the entity's name. Diagramming Conventions • • Attribute names are singular. Attribute tags: * for mandatory and o for optional. Name the attribute. 2. Associate the attribute with an entity. Verify that an attribute is single valued. 6. 90 . Break down aggregate attributes. Analyze and Model Attributes 1.

Define the UID for the entity. Diagramming Conventions • # indicates an attribute is part of an entity's UID.cont'd Each entity must be uniquely identifiable. Determine the entity's dependence upon other related entities.Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . 91 . 3. 2. Seek out candidate attributes that help identify an entity. Identify UIDs for Each Entity 1. • The UID bar indicates a relationship is part of the UID. A Unique Identifier (UID) is any combination of attributes and/or relationships that serve to uniquely identify an occurrence of an entity.

4 ADVANCED CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING 92 .

SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. and exclusive relationships. Validate that an attribute is properly placed based upon its dependence on its entity's UID. 3. subtypes. Resolve many-to-many relationships with intersection entities. Identify and model advanced data constructs including recursive relationships. 93 . 2. you will be able to: 1.

NORMALIZE THE DATA MODEL Normalization is a relational database concept. 94 . • Higher normal forms are not widely used. No non-UID attribute can be dependent on another non-UID attribute. but its principles apply to Conceptual Data Modelling. Validate each attribute's placement using the rules of normalization. Normal Form Rule First Normal Form (1NF) Second Normal Form (2NF) Third Normal Form (3NF) Description All attributes must be single -valued An attribute must be dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier. A normalized entity-relationship data model automatically translates into a normalized relational database design. Quick Notes • Third normal form is the generally accepted goal for a database design that eliminates redundancy.

Example Does the entity CLIENT comply with 1NF? If not. No attribute should have repeating values. Validation Check: • Validate that each attribute has a single value for each occurrence of the entity. If an attribute has multiple values. how could it be converted to 1NF? The attribute date contacted has multiple values.Normalize the Data Model . 95 . therefore the entity CLIENT is not in 1NF Create an additional entity CONTACT with a M:1 relationship to CLIENT. create an additional entity and relate it to the original entity with a M:1 relationship.cont'd First Normal Form Rule: All attributes must be single-valued.

Each instance of a BANK and account number determine specific values of balance and date opened for each account. but not on account number.cont'd Second Normal Form Rule: An attribute must be dependent upon it entity's entire unique identifier. it is misplaced and must be moved. Example Validate the placement of the attributes for the ACCOUNT and BANK entities.Normalize the Data Model . If an attribute is not dependent on its entity's entire UID. • Validate that an attribute is not dependent upon only part of it's entity's UID. Each instance of a course code determines a specific value for name duration and fee. Example Validate the placement of the COURSE entity's attributes. Each specific instance of the UID must determine a single in stance of each attribute. Validation Check: • Validate that each attribute is dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier. It is dependent on BANK. The attributes are properly placed. It should not be an attribute of ACCOUNT. The attribute bank location is misplaced. 96 .

related entity. 97 . Validation Checks: • • Validate that each non-UID attribute is not dependent upon another non-UID attribute.cont'd Third Normal Form Rule: No non-UID attribute can be dependent on another non-UID attribute.Normalize the Data Model . Move any non-UID attribute that is dependent upon another non-UID attribute. Quick Note • If an attribute is dependent upon a non-UID attribute. Example Are any of the non-UID attributes for this entity dependent upon another non-UID attribute? The attributes customer name and state are dependent upon the customer id. move both the dependent attribute and the attribute it is dependent upon to a new. and place the attributes accordingly. Create another entity called CUSTOMER with a UID of customer id.

and explain what rule of normalization each misplaced attribute violates. For the following E-R Model. identify the misplaced attribute. Optionally. 98 .EXERCISE 4-1 Normalize an E-R Model 1. re-draw the E-R diagrams in third normal form. evaluate each entity against the rules of normalization. 2.

Attributes only describe entities. Example Consider the M:M relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR. the relationship must be resolved. If attributes describe a relationship. What is the current price of a specific PRODUCT from a specific VENDOR? current price seems to be an attribute of the relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR.RESOLVE M:M RELATIONSHIPS Attributes may seem to be associated with a M:M Relationship. Resolve that M:M relationship by adding an intersection entity with those attributes. 99 .

note the two UID bars. Once the entity CATALOG ITEM is defined. • • • The relationships from the intersection entity are always mandatory. Quick Notes • An Intersection Entity is frequently identified by its two originating relationships . the requirement for additional attributes of CATALOG ITEM surfaced: package quantity and unit of measure are also attributes of CATALOG ITEM.Resolve M:M Relationships . 100 . Intersection entities frequently represent real-world business entities. Example The M:M relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR can be resolved by adding the intersection entity CATALOG ITEM. Current price is really an attribute of the entity CATALOG ITEM. The UID for CATALOG ITEM is composed of its two relationships. They tend to be high volume and volatile entities.cont'd Replace or resolve a M:M Relationship with a new Intersection Entity and two M:1 relationships. Intersection entit ies usually contain consumables like quantity used and dates.

cont'd Position Intersection Entities to allow the crowsfeet to point up or to the left. M:M Relationship Layout Intersection Entity Layout Quick Notes • • A Reference Entity is an entity that has no mandatory rela tionship ends connected to it. When M:M relationships are resolved. 101 .Resolve M:M Relationships . the layout of the entire diagram may need to be shuffled.

102 .Resolve M:M Relationships . The UID of ENROLLMENT is made up of its relationships to STUDENT and COURSE.cont'd The UID of an intersection entity is frequently composed of its relationships to the two originating entities. Quick Note • This model only tracks the last date the student enrolled in a specific course." Solution Add the intersection entity ENROLLMENT and two M:1 relationships. Example Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate these additional requirements: "Track the date each student enrolled in a course. the date the student completed the course. and the student's grade. ENROLLMENT has attributes of date enrolled. If multiple enrollments need to be kept. include the attribute date enrolled as part of the UID. date completed. and grade.

Therefore. the UID of WORK ASSIGNMENT must include the related EMPLOYEE. WORK ASSIGNMENT is partially identified by its relationships to EMPLOYEE and PROJECT. the related PROJECT.Resolve M:M Relationships . Example Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate these additional requirements: "Track the date each employee is assigned to a project. with different assignment dates. and the duration of that assignment." Add an intersection entity called WORK ASSIGNMENT with attributes date assigned and duration. An employee may have multiple assignments to a project. but those two relationships are not enough to uniquely identify a WORK ASSIGNMENT.cont'd An intersection entity's relationships to the two originating entities may not be adequate to uniquely define each occurrence of the intersection entity. 103 . and the attribute date assigned.

cont'd Once an intersection entity is identified. What other information needs to be known about a VENDOR ITEM? "We also need to know the package quantity and unit of measure of each VENDOR ITEM. search for additional attributes which describe the intersection entity." 104 .Resolve M:M Relationships . Example What information needs to be known about the relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR? "We need to track the current price of a specific PRODUCT from a specific VENDOR. Add the intersection entity VENDOR ITEM with an attribute of current price. Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate this additional requirement.

Resolve M:M Relationships . each VENDOR ITEM has a unique catalog number. Example How do you identify each VENDOR ITEM? Do you use the combination of the related VENDOR code and the PRODUCT id? "No. or help to identify an intersection entity. and each VENDOR ITEM has a unique catalog number. 105 . So the attribute catalog number should be the UID of VENDOR ITEM.cont'd Search for attributes which identify. we have a catalog of all orderable VENDOR ITEMs." According to the rules of the business.

106 .Resolve M:M Relationships . Quick Notes • • • An Intersection Entity with no attributes is just a two-way cross-reference list between occurrences of the entities. The UID for an empty Intersection Entity is always composed of the relationships of the two entities from which it or iginated. the user has not identified any attributes that are associated with the M:M relationship. At the end of the Analysis Stage. the following M:M relationship was defined.cont'd Resolve all M:M relationships by the end of the Analysis phase. Resolve the M:M relationship with an Intersection Entity with no attributes. Example In the Video Store situation. An Intersection Entity with no attributes is the exception to the rule that an entity must have attributes to be an entity. This forced resolution may result in an Intersection Entity with no attributes.

Additional Requirements "We would also like to keep a brief description of each member's interest in each specific application area. In the E-R Model for the Oracle User's Group from Exercise 3-10. Another member might be interested in an application area without describing that interest. 1.EXERCISE 4-2 Resolve a M:M relationship. one member might already have a large accounting application system that they developed in house. a M:M relationship was initially modelled between the MEMBER entity and the APPLICATION AREA entity. Resolve that M:M relationship based upon the following additional requirements." 107 . For example.

and price. quantity ordered. Resolve the following M:M Relationship between CUSTOMER and PRODUCT.EXERCISE 4-3 Resolve a M:M relationship. 108 . 1. Add the attributes date ordered.

Example Model a company's hierarchical organization structure as a set of M:1 relationships.MODEL HIERARCHICAL DATA Represent hierarchical data as a set of many to one relationships. Quick Note • Oracle's E-R Diagram layout rule Crows fly east or south causes hierarchies to be drawn upside-down or sideways! 109 .

cont'd The UID's for a set of hierarchical entities may be propagated through multiple relationships. Example What are the UIDs of the entities FLOOR.Model Hierarchical Data . 110 . The UID of SUITE is the suite number and the FLOOR it is located on. and ROOM? The UID of ROOM is the room id and the SUITE it is located within. The UID of FLOOR is the floor number and the BUILDING it is contained in. SUITE.

artificial identification codes tend to be shorter in length. independent. use independent artificial identifiers.cont'd Consider creating artificial attributes to help identify entities in a hierarchical relationship. and TEAM? Each TEAM could be identified based upon its DEPARTMENT.Model Hierarchical Data . If the hierarchical structure changes often. what could uniquely identify instances of the entities DIVISION. independent. DIVISION. and COMPANY. artificial identification code. 111 . Quick Notes • • Unique. DEPARTMENT. Or each entity could have a unique. Example In a typical organization structure.

112 . Example Read the recursive relationship in the following E-R Diagram. The loop can appear on any side of the entity's box. but remember that crows always fly east or south. Quick Notes • • The E-R diagramming convention that shows a recursive relationship is known as a pig's ear. Each EMPLOYEE may be managed by one and only one EMPLOYEE. Each EMPLOYEE may be the manager of one or more EMPLOYEES.MODEL RECURSIVE RELATIONSHIPS A Recursive Relationship is a relationship between an entity and itself.

Example A business hierarchy can be drawn as a recursive relationship. A recursive organization model can readily accommodate the addition or subtraction of organization layers. If each ORGANIZATION ELEMENT must be within another ORGANIZATION ELEMENT.cont'd Consider representing a hierarchy as a recursive relationship.Model Recursive Relationships . Quick Notes • • • The single recursive entity must include all of the attributes of each individual entity. the entities at each level of the hierarchy would have the same attributes. the organization hierarchy would have to be infinite. A recursive relationship must be optional in both directions. A recursive organization model cannot handle a mandatory relationship. Ideally. • 113 .

subassemblies. 114 . and products.Model Recursive Relationships . The following E-R diagram models this data by considering each of these part categories as an entity. assemblies.cont'd Bill of Materials data can be modelled with multiple entities for each category of "part" and a set of relationships between each of those entities. Example An automobile manufacturing organization needs to track elementary parts.

subassemblies. 115 . Each COMPONENT may be made up of one or more COMPONENTS. and products as instances of an entity called COMPONENT.cont'd Model Bill of Materials data as a many to many recursive relationship. consider all elementary parts. Example For the automobile manufacturing organization. assemblies. Then the previous complex E-R Model can be remodelled as a simple recursive relationship.Model Recursive Relationships . Each COMPONENT may be a part of one or more COMPONENTS.

cont'd Resolve a recursive M:M relationship with an intersection entity and two M:1 relationships to different instances of the original entity. This model will track information about which components are part of a fan. ASSEMBLY RULE will have an attribute of quantity. Example Consider the recursive model of a Bill of Materials structure. But if a washer is part of a fan. the ASSEMBLY RULE instance for washers to fan will have a M:1 relationship to the COMPONENT instance for washer and a second M:1 relationship to the COMPONENT instance for fan. The two M:1 relationships from an instance of ASSEMBLY RULE will be associated with different instances of the COMPONENT entity. will it also track how many washers are parts of a fan? The attribute quantity seems to be associated with the recursive relationship. 116 .Model Recursive Relationships . Resolve this M:M recursive relationship by adding the intersection entity ASSEMBLY RULE and two M:1 relationships back to the COMPONENT entity. which are a part of a single fan. For example. The ASSEMBLY RULE entity will record the quantity of washers.

1. For example. and sales directors who are responsible for one or more sales regions.EXERCISE 4-4 Model hierarchical and recursive relationships. Northwest. and Pacific Districts. and our managers and director's responsibilities don't overlap. For example. and Western Regions. "Our company sells products throughout the United States. Develop two E-R diagrams to represent the following situation. Each district is made up of sales territories. Eastern. Each salesperson is responsible for one or more sales areas. and has a specific sales quota. Pacific Coast. and Utah-New Mexico.S." 117 . Each sales area has a unique sales area code.a sales area is always the responsibility of a single salesperson. Each sales manager is responsible for the territories within his districts. the Western Region is divided into the Rocky Mountain. We identify all our sales personnel by their employee ids. Colorado is made up of two sales areas: the Front Range and the Western Slope sales areas. The Pacific Coast District is composed of two territories: the California and Nevada territories. Each sales region has a unique region code. Colorado. and one as a recursive structure. So we've divided the U. into four major sales regions: the Northern. Each sales region is then divided into sales districts. The Pacific District includes the Hawaii territory and the Alaska territory. Southern. Each territory has a unique territory code. The northwest District is made up of two territories: The Washington and Oregon-Idaho territories. and directors will be on leave or special assignments arid will not have sales turf responsibilities. The Rocky Mountain District is composed of three territories: Wyoming-Montana. Then each sales territory is broken down into sales areas. Sometimes our salespersons. We don't overlap our employees' responsibilities . managers. We also have sales managers who are responsible for one or more sales districts. Develop one as a hierarchical structure. Each district has a unique district code.

which represent roles. 118 . This model works fine if an INSTRUCTOR is never a STUDENT. and a STUDENT is never an INSTRUCTOR. Example In the E-R Model for the Training Company. we defined an INSTRUCTOR entity and a STUDENT entity. may share overlapping instances. But what if an INSTRUCTOR is also a STUDENT? Entities.MODEL ROLES WITH RELATIONSHIPS Beware of entities that represent roles.

Relationships allow a single entity instance to assume multiple roles. 119 . Example For the Training Company.Model Roles with Relationships . which may take on the roles of instructor and/or student. define a PERSON entity.cont'd Use relationships to model roles.

the subtype/supertype construct is incorrect in those instances. also track employee salary. and membership in a union. overtime rate.MODEL SUBTYPES Use subtypes to model exclusive entity types which have common attributes and common relationships." Create an EMPLOYEE supertype with two subtypes. Example "A business has defined two types of employees: exempt and non-exempt. track each employee's badge number. 120 . last name. first name. For all employees. Each EMPLOYEE is either an EXEMPT EMPLOYEE or a NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE. and assigned department. For the exempt employees. Quick Note • Beware of instances that could be both subtypes . For the non-exempt employees. track the employee's hourly rate.

EMPLOYEES Each subtype may have its own attributes and relationships. and a relationship with the entity UNION. 121 .Model Subtypes . Example An EMPLOYEE is either an EXEMPT EMPLOYEE or a NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE. A supertype may have attributes and relationships shared by its subtypes. but not both. Example The EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype has an attribute of salary. A supertype may be split into two or more mutually exclusive subtypes. The NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype has attributes of hourly rate and overtime rate.cont'd A supertype is an entity that has subtypes. Quick Note • A subtype with no attributes or relationships of its own may be a synonym for the supertype entity and not a subtype. and last name. first name. All must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT. Example All EMPLOYEES must have the attributes badge number.

. a job is either a MANUAL JOB or a CLERICAL JOB. but there might be a few exceptions.. which is a type of supertype. a CLERICAL JOB. Supertype Reading Rules "Each supertype entity must be either a subtype 1 or a subtype2" Example "Each JOB must be either a MANUAL JOB." Subtype Reading Rules ". Subtypes must form a complete set with no overlaps.CLERICAL JOB... or OTHER JOB. which is a type of JOB.. Example In general... 122 ." Always use the subtype OTHER when unsure about the set's completeness...cont'd All instances of the supertype entity must belong to one and only one of the subtype entities.subtype." Example ".Model Subtypes ..

AIRPLANE is a subtype of AIRCRAFT and a supertype of POWERED AIRPLANE and GLIDER.Model Subtypes . AIRPLANE. JET PLANE inherits the attributes and relationships of POWERED AIRPLANE. Normally two or three levels of nesting are adequate. Example Define further subtypes for the subtype entity AIRPLANE.cont'd Subtypes can be further subtyped. and AIRCRAFT. 123 .

Use an arc to model this relationship. 124 . An arc belongs to a single entity. The relationships in an arc must be either all mandatory. Exclusive Relationship Reading Rules "Each entityA either relationship1 entity1 or relationship2 entity2. but a specific relationship can only participate in a single arc. and must only include relationships originating from that entity. Example A BANK ACCOUNT either must be owned by an INDIVIDUAL or must be owned by a COMPANY. Arc Modelling Conventions • • • • The relationships in an arc frequently have the same relationship name.MODEL EXCLUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS Model two or more mutually exclusive relationships from the same entity using an arc. An entity may have multiple arcs. or all optional." Example Each BANK ACCOUNT either must be owned by one and only one INDIVIDUAL or must be owned by one and only one COMPANY.

Model Exclusive Relationships .An Arc without Dots Any relationship crossed by the arc belongs to the arc. Drawing Convention 1 . 125 .An Arc with Optional Dots A dot on the arc is used to signify that a relationship belongs to the arc.cont'd Choose between two conventions for drawing arcs. A break in the arc indicates a relationship. which is not included in the arc. Drawing Convention 2 .

and then again when it is returned. Our rental stock includes a total of 5.EXERCISE 4-5 Develop an E-R Model. 24' trucks. We also keep each office's address. For our trucks." Each office also has a unique three-digit office number. We log the current mileage just before we rent a truck. we need to track the last maintenance date. 10' trucks. state of registration.780 vehicles including various types of trucks and trailers. or speculate on when the customer will return rented vehicles. We have 34 7 rental offices across the western United States. 1. Most of our rental agreements are for individual customers. and each vehicle is based out of a single home office. (Continued) 126 . customers really prefer a radio. the gas tank capacity. and 6' open trailers. For all our vehicles. and directs transfers of vehicles from one rental office to another. and a license plate registration number. Each vehicle has a vehicle id. The central office oversees the vehicle distribution. but a rental agreement can either be for an individual or for a company. We assign each company an identifying company number and track the company's name and address. we don't need to worry about any additional infor mation about a company. We have five different types of vehicles: 36' trucks. Develop an E-R Model for the following information requirements. 8' covered trailers. Each rental e office rents vehicles that they have in stock to customers ready to take possession of the vehicle. and expiration date of its registration. We do rent a small percentage of our trucks to companies. "The Right-Way Rental Truck Company rents small moving trucks and trailers for local and one-way usage. Each office is a home office for some of our vehicles. Each rental office has an office name like "Littleton Right-Way. For long moves. we need to know the current odometer reading. Our corporate sales group handles all that information separately. No. We don't take reservations. we do have a vehicle type code. Yes. and whether or not it has a working radio. We need to implement a system to track our rental agreements and our vehicl assignments.

the anticipated duration of the rental. the drop-off rental office. just our rental agreement tracking and vehicle assignment functions. No. abandoned it.Exercise 4-5 . Of course for the trailers. home phone. address. and expiration date. We like to keep track of all our customers. and the quoted rate per mile. and we write a separate rental agreement for each vehicle. Each rental agreement is identified by the originating rental office number and a rental agreement number. we record the customer's name. we don't need to automate the financial side of our business. there isn't a mileage charge. the amount of the deposit paid. We only allow a single individual or company for a given rental agreement. or didn't fully pay the bill." 127 . and driver's license state. We also need to track the rental date. and won't rent to that customer again. If a customer damaged a vehicle. the quoted daily rental rate.cont'd "For each individual customer. the originating rental office. then we tag the customer as a poor risk. Yes. we do have customers rent two or more vehicles at the same time. number.

Storing unnecessary historical data can be costly. 128 .MODEL DATA OVER TIME Add additional entities and relationships to the E-R model to accommodate historical data. Ask the User: • • • • • Is an audit trail required? Can attribute values change over time? Can relationships change over time? Do you need to query older data? Do you need to keep previous versions? Quick Note • Validate any requirements for storing historical data with the user.

Quick Note • Use a single entity to record the values over time of multiple attributes associated with an entity (such as CONTRACT). Example A consulting firm needs to keep information about its contracts. open.cont'd Create an additional entity to track an attribute's values over time. The above CONTRACT entity supports a single current status value for CONTRACT. was closed. closed. Each contract has a unique contract id. and was suspended. or suspended.Model Data Over Time . and they need to keep a description of the contract.g. 129 . The UID of the STATUS entity is the related CONTRACT and the effective date. To model status values over time add a STATUS entity.) Initially the following CONTRACT entity was modelled. The law Firm wants to track the dates each contract was opened. the contract's status (e.

Add the entity RENTAL HISTORY ENTRY to capture the values of the rental relationship over time.Model Data Over Time .) The following E-R Model will only track the current renter of an APARTMENT. not multiple people.cont'd Add a new entity to accommodate a relationship that may change over time. (The apartment only writes rental contracts with a single person. Example An apartment owner wants to track the tenants in each of his apartments. 130 .

from date and to date). Add an intersection entity. By including the attribute from date in the UID of EMPLOYMENT HISTORY ENTRY.Model Data Over Time . which changes over time. this model will track any multiple terms of employment at a single company by a single employee.cont'd An intersection entity is frequently used to track information about a relationship. Example A professional society wants to track the companies that its members have been employed by over time and the term of each employment (e. 131 .g. There is an M:M rela tionship between each member and each company. to track each employee's employments over time and the dates of those employments. EMPLOYMENT HISTORY ENTRY.

we would like to keep the rental date/time and the return date/time. we really need to keep a history of all our rentals. All our tapes are due back the next day. Modify the Video Store E-R Model to accommodate the following additional requirements." 132 . and will then know when to retire each tape. 1. We will also know how many times a particular tape has been used. "You know.EXERCISE 4-6 Model data over time. Keeping this rental history will allow us to analyze the pattern of our rentals. We will be able to determine how many tapes each customer rents and how many times a customer has returned a tape late. Each time a customer rents a tape. so we don't need to keep a due date. We will also be able to analyze our customers' movie preferences.

A person may hold a specific position within the same company multiple times during their career.MODEL COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS Beware of a ring of M:M relationships. Which intersection entity are the dates of the position attributes of? All of them? None of them? 133 . track the position held. For each person. So resolve each of the M:M relationships. The dates of the position seem to be an attribute of a relationship. and the dates the posit ion was held. Initially the following E-R Model was defined. the company worked for. Example Develop an E-R model for employment history.

follow the rules of basic E-R Modelling to name the entity. • For an intersection entity representing a complex relationship. and POSITION entities. and to analyze and model its relationships. and its UID.cont'd Model a relationship between three or more entities as an Intersection Entity with mandatory relationships with those entities. its attributes. Use a single intersection entity called EMPLOYMENT HISTORY to model this relationship. COMPANY. • Consider its mandatory relationships as candidates for inclusion in its UID. A complex relationship is a relationship between three or more entities.Model Complex Relationships . Quick Notes • An intersection entity for a complex relationship always has mandatory relationships back to the entities to which it relates. 134 . Example A person's employment history is really a 3-way relationship between the PERSON.

EXERCISE 4-7 Model a complex relationship. Revised Requirements "No. Financials. No. just the general product name. In the E-R Model for the Oracle User's Group from Exercise 3-10. what we really need to know is which Oracle products (RDBMS.) each member is using on which computer platforms." 135 . we really don't need to know what computer platform each member is using. Instead. Revise that relationship based upon the following revised requirements. a M:M relationship was initially modelled between the MEMBER entity and the COMPUTER PLATFORM entity. SQL*TextRetrieval. Pro*C. we don't need to keep the specific version of each product. SQL*Forms. CASE. 1. etc.

and there must always be an event status for every case.EXERCISE 4-8 Optional Exercise Develop a complex E-R Model. but we need to tie the new case number to the previous case number. We assign reopened cases new case numbers. it may be reopened at some future date. My firm Bailey and Associates. and each case is assigned to a particular department for administrative purposes. etcetera. and homicide cases. Develop an E-R Model for the following business. domestic disputes. We want to keep track of important information associated with a case including the department to which it is assigned and a brief description (such as Jones vs. but this is only for billing/payroll purposes since an attorney can work on cases in other departments. 1. Attorneys are also assigned to a particular department. diversified law firm. We need a list of events for a given case (essentially a history of the case) that includes a log of events and the date the event became effective. L for Lost. Events have special codes like O for Open. After a case has been closed. homicide. T for Trial. Jones). "I am the senior partner in a large." Our firm is made up of departments such as litigation. civil suits. (continued) 136 . handles a wide variety of cases including traffic violations. We have retained a database administrator to organize and track various data because the firm grew faster than we had imagined and now there are "cases lying all over the place. Cases have to be identifiable by a unique number which appears on a list with every event date and event description.

cont'd Attorneys can be party to multiple cases the same way a number of people can be party to multiple cases. there are four people who are parties to this case. of course. There is also an eyewitness. we are not tracking the attorney in terms of billing. In this context. defendants (DE) and of course attorneys (AT). assume that a given party can serve in different roles in different cases. For example. and some kind of unique numbering system. Jones may be a judge on one case and an eyewitness on another. we have a murder case. but simply as party to a case." 137 . Parties should be identified by their name and date of birth.The kinds of people that may be involved in cases include judges (JG). a judge presiding over the case. and we're working for the defendant. but a party can only serve in one role on a given case. Thus. For example. and there is. and we'd like to know about all four. To elaborate on the varying roles that people can play. eyewitnesses (EW).One attorney is assigned to the case. We are only interested in keeping track of parties and the roles that they play in the context of a particular case.Exercise 4-8 .

a seven day cruise will stop at three ports. we don't need to worry about tonnage or draft or anything else about the ship. That depends on the number of people in the cabin and the "class" of the cabin. Registry is the country that it is registered with. What? The ports of Los Angeles. no not boats. Yes. Each year we put out a brochure with the information on each cruise that we offer. some people want to go on only the newer ships. So. and which cruise they pick will tell us which cabins are available. then it's gonna cost 'em more. 1. for each cruise we also have different ports that we stop at. three. We've decided that our manual system of booking passengers onto our ships won't hold up when we get our new ship. "Goodsky. always on the second day of the cruise. A three day cruise will have only one stop. Huh? Whenever we book a cabin under the manual system we remove the cabin from the availability board. Develop an E-R Model for the following business. boats can fit onto ships. FL. I guess we would need the age of each ship. If the cabin can hold four people. seven." "Goodwind. unless it's not full and that passenger wants to share with someone else." and each one has a specific passenger capacity and registry. we'll have two ships. AK. and so on." and the new one. No. Once passengers are booked. as well as Anchorage. the LA cruises go down to Mexico ports like Cabo San Lucas and Mexico City. We vary ports depending on where the cruise originates.huh? Oh. Each cruise also has a specific ship assigned to it. and Miami. the Miami cruises go to the Bahamas and the Virgin Islands: and the Anchorage cruises make stops all through Alaska. Every cruise has a name. which has a certain length and number of ports. Once they choose from what is available. See.EXERCISE 4-9 Optional Exercise Develop a complex E-R Model. Each one has the name "Goodsea. Yes. each cruise will make port calls on different days out. then we can pay the travel agent who made the reservation their commission. "I'm Phil Sales with Shipmore Cruises. Depending upon the length of each cruise. Passengers who sail with us will pick a given cruise. length in number of days . we can then price them." 138 . and they are travelling alone. and we get a deposit from them. and we'll probably expand to 5 or 6 by 1995. so I guess that's why you're here. CA. eleven and fourteen day cruises.

5 RELATIONAL DATABASE CONCEPTS 139 .

SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Define what primary keys and foreign keys are. you will be able to: • • • Understand what a relational database is. Understand the concept of data integrity. 140 .

Example The relational table below contains employee data.RELATIONAL DATABASE OVERVIEW A relational database is a database that is perceived by the user as a collection of relations or two-dimensional tables. 141 . its data must be accurate and consistent. Quick Notes • • Relational database tables are simple but disciplined. A relational database must possess data integrity.. i.e.

• A relational database can support a full set of relational operations. dept_no FROM employee WHERE dept_no = 10. Relational operations manipulate sets of data values. Rela tional operations can be nested. use the following SQL statement. Tables can be operated on to create other tables.cont'd Relational databases are manipulated a set at a time rather than a record at a time. Example To select all employees who work in Department 10. Quick Notes • The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has established SQL as the standard language for operating upon relational databases. 142 . SQL> 2 3 SELECT emp_no.Relational Database Overview . EMP_NO -----100 210 LNAME ----SMITH BROWN FNAME ----JOHN JIM DEPT_NO ------10 10 The Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to manipulate relational databases. fname. lname.

and a primary key must be unique. An entity's UID will map to a Primary Key in its corresponding table.PRIMARY KEYS A Primary Key (PK) is a column or set of columns that uniquely identifies each row in a table. Each table must have a primary key. The primary key must be unique. Example The primary key for the EMPLOYEE table consists of the EMP_NO column. 143 . Quick Notes • • • No duplicates are allowed in a Primary Key. Primary keys generally cannot be changed. Each row in the table is uniquely identified by its EMP_NO value.

Each row in the table is uniquely identified by its BANK NO and ACCOUNT NO values. no duplicates are allowed.cont'd A Primary Key consisting of multiple columns is called a Composite Primary Key or a Compound Primary Key. 144 .Primary Keys . but in combination. Quick Note • The columns of a composite primary key must be unique in combination. Example The composite primary key for the ACCOUNT table consists of the combination of the BANK_NO and ACCOUNT_NO columns. The individual columns can have duplicates.

Therefore EMP_NO must be defined as NOT NULL. Example How does the ACCOUNT table violate the rules of Primary Keys? Two of the rows contain NULL values in part of the composite PK. Both BANK_NO and ACCOUNT_NO must be defined as NOT NULL.Primary Keys . Example EMP_NO is the primary key of the EMPLOYEE table.cont'd No part of a primary key may be NULL. 145 .

in the EMPLOYEE Table. Person names are not normally candidate keys because their uniqueness cannot be guaranteed. The other candidates become Alternate Keys (or Unique Keys).Primary Keys . 146 . the combination LNAME/ FNAME would probably not be a candidate key. Example Quick Notes • • • All Candidate Keys must be Unique and NOT NULL. For example. Secondary UIDs map to Alternate Keys. Example What are the candidate keys for the EMPLOYEE table? EMP_NO and PAYROLL_ID are candidate keys.cont'd A table can have more than one column or combination of columns that can serve as the table's primary key. Select one candidate key to be the Primary Key for the table. Each of these is called a Candidate Key.

and refers to values in the DEPT_NO column of the DEPARTMENT Table. Example DEPT_NO is a FK in the EMPLOYEE Table. Foreign keys are based on data values and are purely logical. Quick Notes • • Foreign keys are used to join tables.FOREIGN KEYS A Foreign Key (FK) is a column or combination of columns in one table that refers to a primary key in the same or another table. .

Foreign Keys - cont'd
A foreign key must match an existing primary key value (or else be NULL). Example
The FK DEPT_NO in the EMPLOYEE table refers to values of the PK DEPT_NO in the DEPARTMENT table.

If a Foreign Key is part of a Primary Key, that FK cannot be NULL. Example
In the ACCOUNT table, the FK BANK_NO must be NOT NULL because it is part of the PK.

DATA INTEGRITY
Data Integrity refers to the accuracy and consistency of the data. Data Integrity Constraints
Data integrity constraints define the relationally correct state for a database. Data integr ity constraints ensure that users perform only operations which leave the database in a correct, consistent state. Constraint Type Entity Integrity Referential Integrity Explanation No part of a primary key can be NULL. A foreign key must match an existing primary key value (or else be NULL). Column Integrity A column must contain only values consistent with the defined data format of the column. User-Defined Integrity The data stored in a database must comply with the rules of the business.

All data integrity constraints should be enforced by the DBMS or the application software. Quick Note
• Data is inconsistent if multiple copies of an entry exist, and not all copies have been updated. An inconsistent database can supply incorrect or contradictory information to its users.

Data Integrity - cont'd
The rules of a business can also determine the correct state for a database. Such business rules are called User-Defined Data Integrity Constraints. Example
A business has the following user-defined data integrity constraints.
An exempt employee is not paid for the tirst 5 hours of overtime worked. An employee in the Finance Department cannot have a title of: "Programmer". A Salesman's commission cannot exceed 50% of salary.

Quick Notes
• User-defined data integrity constraints can be set by management policy or be required by government laws. • • Frequently these business rules are completely arbitrary, or at least seem to be arbitrary. User-defined data integrity constraints may involve multiple columns and tables.

6 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN

Explain how Database Design fits into the Database Development Process. . you will be able to: 1. 3. Translate an entity-relationship data model into a relational database design.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Document a database design using Table Instance Charts. 2.

DATABASE DESIGN
Database Design is performed during the Design Stage of the System Development Cycle and is performed concurrently with Application Design.

Database Design - cont'd
Database Design is performed in two distinct activities. Database Design Activities
1. Map the E-R Model to relational tables to produce an initial design. 2. Refine the initial design to produce a complete database design.

Database Design Deliverable
The Database Design Stage produces design specifications for a relational database including definitions for relational tables, indexes, views, and storage space.

INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW
Document each relational table on a Table Instance Chart. Table Instance Chart
Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column EMPNO Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 7369 Data 7902 7521 7698 7839 MARY SMITH CLERK ANALYST 17- DEC-80 800 03- DEC-81 3000 7902 7566 7698 20 50 30 30 10 NN, U NN NN NN NN PK FK1 FK2 FNAME LNAME JOB HIREDATE SAL COMM MGR DEPTNO

HENRY FORD SUE BOB BOB WARD BLAKE KING

SALESMAN 22- FEB-81 1250 6000 MANAGER

01- MAY-81 2850 10000 7839

PRESIDENT 17- NOV- 81 5000 5000

Quick Notes
• • The valid Key Types are PK for a Primary Key column, and FK for a Foreign Key column. Use suffixes to distinguish between multiple FK columns in a single table, for example, FK1 and FK2. Label multiple column keys with the same suffix. • • • • • Use NN for a column that must be defined NOT NULL. Use U for a column that must be unique. If multiple columns must be unique in combination, label them with a suffix, for example U1. Label a single column PK as NN, U. Label a multiple column PK as NN, U1 or possibly as NN, U1 and U.

Initial Database Design Overview - cont'd
This familiar Training Company E-R Model will be used to illustrate the activities of Initial Database Design. Training Company E-R Model

Map unique identifiers to primary keys. Map relationships to foreign keys. Steps in Initial Database Design 1. 3. 5. 4. 2. Choose subtype options. 6. . Choose arc options.Initial Database Design Overview . Map attributes to columns and document sample data.cont'd Follow a set of steps to map an E-R Model to a set of relational tables producing an initial database design. Map the simple entities to tables.

The plural of the entity name is sometimes used because the table will contain a set of rows. Create a Table Instance Chart for the new table. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Quick Notes • The table name should be easy to trace back to the entity name. • A simple entity is not a subtype or supertype. the designer must decide how to map a supertype/subtype construct to tables. Record only the name of the table. . Name the table INSTRUCTOR. In Step 6.MAP SIMPLE ENTITIES Map each simple entity to a table. Example Create a Table Instance Chart for the INSTRUCTOR entity.

will Number be abbreviated as NO or NUM. Since id. For example. first name. Map mandatory attributes to NOT NULL (NN) columns. Is it DEPTNO or DEPTNUM? • Short column names will reduce the time required for SQL command parsing. NUMBER. Example Map the attributes of the entity INSTRUCTOR to columns in the INSTRUCTOR table. Use consistent abbreviations to avoid programmer and user confusion. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data NN NN NN INST_ID FNAME LNAME PHONENO For each attribute. . select a short but meaningful column name. Quick Notes • • • Column names should be easily traced o the E-R model. designate their columns as NOT NULL.for example. and last name are mandatory attributes.MAP ATTRIBUTES TO COLUMNS Map each attribute to a column in its entity's table. Avoid the use of SQL reserved words as column names .

Example Document sample data for the columns of the INSTRUCTOR table.Map Attributes to Columns .cont'd Document sample rows of data in each table's Table Instance Chart. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 10 81 73 95 301 NANCY MARIA PETE KATHY ERIC HALL GONZALES CASSIDY ANDRONICA CAMPLIN 798-2251 756-4891 301-2291 483-9221 535-3166 NN NN NN INST_ID FNAME LNAME PHONENO Sources for Sample Data • • • • • User interview notes Entity Instance Charts Current computer systems Other analysis stage documentation Additional conversations with the user .

Quick Notes • • All columns labeled PK must also be labeled NN and U.MAP UID'S TO PRIMARY KEYS Map any attribute(s). Label those columns NN and U1 . which includes multiple attributes to a composite PK. Example The attribute id is the UID of the entity INSTRUCTOR. Label the columns PK. so make the corresponding column INST_ID the PK of the INSTRUCTOR table. U 10 81 73 95 301 NN NANCY MARIA PETE KATHY ERIC NN HALL GONZALES CASSIDY ANDRONICA CAMPLIN 798-2251 756-4891 301-2291 483-9221 535-3166 LNAME PHONENO A key type of PK indicates a primary key column. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name INST_ID FNAME Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data PK NN. Map a UID. which are part of the entity's UID to PK column(s).

cont'd If an entity's UID includes a relationship. and FK. Example The UID of the ENROLLMENT entity is composed of its relationship to COURSE and its relationship to STUDENT. use suffixes to distinguish between them. Quick Notes • • Choose a unique name for each FK column. . NN. FK1 and FK2. Add sample data for the FK columns. If multiple FK columns exist in a table.Map UID's to Primary Keys . and label the column(s) PK. • • Composite PK's must be unique in combination and should be labeled VI. Label multiple column keys with the same suffix. for example. add foreign key columns to the table and mark them as part of the primary key. Add two FK columns to the ENROLLMENT table for the PK of the COURSE table and the PK of the STUDENT table.

take the PK at the one end and put it in the table at the many end. and put it in the table COURSE at the many end. Table Name: COURSE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data COURSE_ CODE PK NN. For must be relationships. and label the column (s) FK. Supply sample data. . label the column NN.MAP RELATIONSHIPS TO FOREIGN KEYS For M:1 relationships. Example Take the PK INST_ID at the one end. U 344 974 401 717 659 NN SQL*FORMS SQL*RW DB DESIGN DBA SOL*PLUS 1000 400 400 900 400 5 2 2 3 2 81 73 95 73 301 NAME FEE DUR INST_ID FK Go with the many! Quick Notes • • • Choose a unique name for the FK column.

.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . Example The PK for the ENROLLMENT table included both the foreign key COURSE_CODE and the foreign key ST_ID. and do not need to be added to support the relationships. Therefore. the FK columns to support the relationship may have been added in Step 3.cont'd If the table's PK includes a foreign key. these two columns already exist.

place the FK for the relationship in the PERSONAL_COMPUTER table and label it NOT NULL. U PK POWER_ MB_ID SUPPLY FK Table Name: MOTHERBOARD Column MB_ID PROC_ PROC_ COPROC_ Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 9978 Data 4517 4773 4579 8731 486 386 486 33 40 25 N Y N N Y NN. Table Name: PERSONAL COMPUTER Column INV_NUM CASE_TYPE Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 1045 Data 0437 1458 1223 1088 BABY AT BABY AT TOWER TOWER 150 200 220 220 4579 8731 4773 9978 4517 NN.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . U NN NN NN. place the unique FK in the table at the mandatory end and use the NOT NULL constraint to enforce the mandatory condition.cont'd For a mandatory 1:1 relationship. MB_ID is the FK column added. Example Since the relationship from PERSONAL COMPUTER is mandatory. The FK is labeled U to enforce the 1:1 relationship. U NN NN NN PK CHIP SPEED CHIP 386SX 25 386 33 MINITOWER 200 .

Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . The B_NUM column is added to the SHIP table. the FK column could also be placed either in the BERTH or SHIP table.cont'd If a 1:1 relationship is optional in both directions. . and labeled Unique to enforce the 1:1 relationship. place the FK in the table at either end of the relationship. Example For the optional 1:1 relationship between BERTH and SHIP.

add an FK column to the EMPLOYEE table for each employee's manager. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data EMP_ID PK NN.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . Example For this 1:M recursive relationship. Name the FK column name to reflect the relationship. U 7450 5579 6714 9451 3040 NN MARY LESLIE JANET BILL JUAN NN SMITH STERNE GENTRY ABLE GOMEZ 7450 5579 7450 9451 FNAME LNAME MGR_ID FK Quick Notes • • • The FK column refers to a row in the same table.1. . 1. This FK column will refer to values of the PK column.1. A recursive FK will never be NOT NULL. Name the column MGR_ID to reflect the relationship.cont'd For a 1:M recursive relationship. add a FK column to the single table.

U1 NN NN FK U1 PERS_ID FNAME LNAME SPOUSE_ID SUSAN JONES JANET BILL JERRY GENTRY JONES JOHNSON Quick Notes • The combination of the PK and FK columns must always be unique in order to ensure the 1:1 relationship. • • A recursive FK will never be NOT NULL The additional constraint that a PERSON cannot be married to him/herself would have to be implemented separately by the application programs or stored procedures. add a unique FK to the table. This FK column will refer to values of the PK column.cont'd For a 1:1 recursive relationship. Example For this 1:1 recursive relationship.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . Table Name: PERSON Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 7450 5379 6714 9451 3040 MARY SMITH 9451 3040 5579 6714 PK NN. add a unique column to the PERSON table. .

5. . Document each table design on a Table Instance Chart.REVIEW: MAPPING SIMPLE E-R MODELS TO TABLES Map a simple Entity-Relationship model to an initial database design using the following four steps: Steps 1. Map simple entities to tables. Map relationships to Foreign Keys. 4. 2. 3. Map UID's to Primary Keys. Map attributes to columns and document sample data.

Follow the first four steps of Initia l Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Create sample data as required. Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts.EXERCISE 6-1 Create an initial database design. 1. .

cont'd Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .Exercise 6-1 .

EXERCISE 6-2
Create an initial database design.
1. Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts. Create sample data as required.

Exercise 6-2 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample

EXERCISE 6-3
Create an initial database design.
1. Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts. Create sample data as required.

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Exercise 6-3 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample

EXERCISE 6-4
Optional Exercise Create an initial database design.
1 Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied Table Instance Charts. Use the interview notes on the following page to select sample data for the Table Instance Charts.

Exercise 6-4 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Exercise 6-4 - cont'd
2 Use the following interview notes to select sample data for the Table Instance Charts. "Our company sells products throughout the United States. So we've divided the U.S. into four major sales regions: the Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western Regions. Each sales region has a unique region code. Each sales region is then divided into sales districts. For example, the Western Region is divided into the Rocky Mountain, Northwest, Pacific Coast, and Pacific Districts. Each district has a unique district code. Each district is made up of sales territories. The Rocky Mountain District is composed of three territories: Wyoming-Montana, Colorado, and Utah-New Mexico. The northwest District is made up of two territories: The Washington and Oregon-Idaho territories. The Pacific Coast District is composed of two territories: the California and Nevada territories. The Pacific District includes the Hawaii territory and the Alaska territory. Each territory has a unique territory code. Then each sales territory is broken down into sales areas. For example, Colorado is made up of two sales areas: the Front Range and the Western Slope sales areas. Each sales area has a unique sales area code. Each salesperson is responsible for one or more sales areas, and has a specific sales quota. We also have sales managers who are responsible for one or more sales districts, and sales directors who are responsible for one or more sales regions. Each sales manager is responsible for the territories within his districts. We don't overlap our employees' responsibilities - a sales area is always the responsibility of a single salesperson, and our managers and director's responsibilities don't overlap. Sometimes our salespersons, managers, and directors will be on leave or special assignments and will not have sales turf responsibilities. We identify all our sales personnel by their employee ids."

Additional Steps 5 6 Choose Arc Options Choose Subtype Options .MAP COMPLEX E-R MODELS TO TABLES Follow the following additional steps to map a complex Entity-Relationship Model to an initial database design.

Alternative Designs • • Explicit Arc Design Generic Arc Design Example This E-R Model will map to four tables. Use either an Explicit Arc Design or a Generic Arc Design to add these multiple alternative foreign keys. • Arcs can only span relationship ends that are either all mandatory or all optional. . The OFFICE SUITE entity has an arc across the many ends of three relationships. Quick Notes • Also use an Explicit Arc Design or a Generic Arc Design to implement multiple foreign keys when an arc spans a set of 1:1 relationships.CHOOSE ARC OPTIONS Arcs represent a kind of multiple alternative foreign key. and corresponding FK columns must be added to the OFFICE_SUITE table. Choose between two alternative designs for mapping arcs to foreign keys.

Using an Explicit Arc Design. Therefore.Choose Arc Options . U1 101 210 144 510 430 54532 10844 54101 30045 A4431 FK1 FK2 FK3 COMPANY_ NUMBER Nulls/ Unique NN. For example. create a FK column for each rela tionship. . and will be mapped to four separate tables.cont'd The Explicit Arc Design creates a foreign key column for each relationship included in the arc. Example The following E-R Model contains four simple entities. • Application software must enforce relationship exclusivity between the foreign keys. and COMPANY_ID could all have a different column format. PARTNER_CODE. U1 Sample Data 1024 512 977 3041 2371 Quick Notes • The Explicit Arc Design will support multiple Foreign keys with different formats. The arc spans the many end of three relationships. Table Name: OFFICE_SUITE Column Name BLDG_ ID SUITE_NUM INDIV_I PARTNER_ CODE D Key Type PK PK NN. INDIV_ID. FKs must be added to the OFFICE_SUITE table.

cont'd The Generic Arc Design creates a single foreign key column and one relationship flag column for the arc. For example. Since the arc spans the many end of the relationships. make both added columns NOT NULL. only one FK value will exist for each row in the table. The foreign keys must share the same format for all referenced tables.Choose Arc Options . Using the Generic Arc Design.one for each entity. create a single foreign key column. Example Again. create four separate tables for this E-R Model . U1 1111 2111 14 510 430 FK NN 30045 A4431 54532 10844 541111 NN 1 P 1 C C Quick Notes • • If the relationships under the arc are mandatory. . Since the relationships are exclusive. P for PARTNERSHIP. and add a type column to indicate which of the three tables is referenced by the FK column in each row. J for INDIVIDUAL. Table Name: OFFICE_SUITE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data BLDG_ID SUITE_NUM RENTER _ID RENTER_ TYPE PK NN. and C for COMPANY. U1 11124 512 977 MM 2371 PK NN. add the to the OFFICE_SUITE table.

develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. 1 Using an Explicit Arc Design.EXERCISE 6-5 Map arc structures to tables. Document your design on the provided Table Instance Charts. Table Name: STUDENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

cont'd Table Name: COUNTY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: OTHER STATE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: FOREIGN COUNTRY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .Exercise 6-5 .

Exercise 6-5 .cont'd 2 Using a Generic Arc design. Document your design on the provided Table Instance Charts. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. Table Name: STUDENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 6-5 .cont'd Table Name: COUNTY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: OTHER STATE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: FOREIGN COUNTRY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

depending upon the subtype table mapping option selected. two.CHOOSE SUBTYPE OPTIONS Choose from three options for mapping subtypes to tables. E-4) Example In the following supertype/subtype construct. the EMPLOYEE. p. Subtype Table Mapping Options • • • Single Table Design Separate Tables Design Arc Implementation (see Appendix E. EXEMPT EMPLOYEE. and NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE entities may be mapped to one. . or three tables.

.cont'd Option 1 . a column for each of the subtype's attributes. FK columns for each of the supertype's relationships.Choose Subtype Options . a TYPE column to identify which subtype each row belongs to. The single table will contain instances of all sub types. Use a single table design when the subtypes have few subtype-specific attributes and relationships. FK columns for each of the subtype's relationships. a column for each of the supertype's attributes.Single Table Subtype Design Map the subtypes onto a single table for the supertype. Create • • • • • • single table for the supertype.

50 6.15 15.00 9.Choose Subtype Options . U DIDONATO E WEINTER PENA SMITH SMITH WALKER KAPLIN GOMEZ JONES E E E NF NE NE NE NE .50 10.75 11.50 18.Single Table Subtype Design Example Map the EMPLOYEE supertype and its subtypes onto a single EMPLOYEE table.75 12.75 201 150 201 201 180 4579 6631 1190 370 800 7147 6794 941 1020 3500 FNAME LNAME EMP_ TYPE EE_ SALARY NE_ HOURLY_ RATE NE_ _ RATE NE_ _NUM FK1 FK2 NN 40 35 40 30 35 35 30 45 30 45 DEPT_ CODE OVERTIME UNION Nulls/ Unique NN.cont'd Option 1 .50 12.00 16. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_ NUM Key Type Sample Data PK NN JAMES KAREN MICHAEL MARIA TERRY JOE JULIA HARRY JOSE CLYDE NN JOYCE NN E 29000 25000 42700 44050 38450 8.

The EMP_TYPE column was added to the EMPLOYEE table for this purpose.cont'd Option 1 . . NE_HOURLY_RATE.Choose Subtype Options . Entity Type Supertype Subtype Columns for Attribtues BADGE_NUM FNAME LNAME EE_SALARY. NE_OVERTIME_RATE FK Columns for Relationships DEPT_CODE NE_UNION_NUM Quick Note • The single table subtype design requires that a new type column be created to identify each row's subtype.Single Table Subtype Design The columns of the EMPLOYEE table are derived from the attributes and relationships of the supertype and all its subtypes.

Choose Subtype Options . Design Disadvantages • • Subtype NOT NULL requirements cannot be enforced at the database level. . Design Advantages • • Access to the supertype is straightforward.cont'd Option 1 . The subtypes can be accessed and modified using views. Application logic will have to cater to different sets of attributes. depending on TYPE.Single Table Subtype Design Use the Single Table Subtype Design when there are few subtype-specific attributes and relationships.

Each table will contain only instances of that subtype.Choose Subtype Options .Separate Tables Subtype Design Map the subtypes onto separate tables . an FK column for each relationship to the supertype in each of the subtype's tables.one for each subtype. . an FK column for each relationship to a subtype in that subtype's table. Create • • • • • a table for each subtype.cont'd Option 2 . a column for each attribute of the supertype in each of the subtype's table. a column for each attribute of a subtype in that subtype's table.

cont'd Option 2 . Table Name: EXEMPT_EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_NUM FNAME Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data PK NN.Separate Tables Subtype Design Example Map the EMPLOYEE supertype onto two tables .one for each subtype. First create a separate table for the EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype.Choose Subtype Options . U 4579 6631 1190 370 800 NN JAMES KAREN MICHAEL MARIA TERRY NN JOYCE NN 29000 LNAME SALARY DEPT_CODE FK NN 40 35 40 30 35 DIDONATO 25000 WEINER PENA SMITH 42700 44050 38450 .

cont'd Option 2 .cont'd Then create a separate table for the NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype.Choose Subtype Options .50 10.15 15.75 12.75 NN.00 9.Separate Tables Subtype Design Example .50 18.00 16.75 11. Table Name: NON_EXEMPT_EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_ NUM FNAME LNAME HOURLY_ RATE OT_RATE UNION_ NUM FK1 NN NN NN NN NN FK2 NN DEPT_ CODE Key Type PK Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 7147 6794 941 1020 3500 JOE JULIA HARRY JOSE CLYDE SMITH WALKER KAPLIN GOMEZ JONES 8.50 6.50 12. U 201 150 201 201 180 35 30 45 30 45 .

cont'd Option 2 . Views that join the two tables are display only.Choose Subtype Options . Maintenance of UID's across subtypes is difficult to imple ment. Application logic does not require checks for subtypes. Application program code must be specific to the individual subtype tables.Separate Tables Subtype Design Use a Separate Tables Subtype Design when there are many subtype-specific attributes or relationships. Design Advantages • • The subtype's attribute optionality is enforced at the database level. Design Disadvantages • • • • Access to the supertype requires the UNION operator or a view with the UNION operator. .

EXERCISE 6-6 Map subtypes to tables. Table Name : PRODUCT Table Name: ORDER . Document your design on the supplied Table Instance Charts. Sample data is not required. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. 1 Using a Single Table Subtype Design.

Exercise 6-6 .cont'd Table Name: ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Sample data is not required. Table Name: PRODUCT Table Name: ORDER .cont'd 2 Using a Separate Tables Subtype Design. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. Document your design on the supplied Table Instance Charts.Exercise 6-6 .

Exercise 6-6 .cont'd Table Name: PRODUCT_ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: SERVICE_ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Map relationships to Foreign Keys. Steps for Mapping Entity-Relationship Models 1 2 3 4 5 6 Map simple entities to tables. Choose subtype options. Choose arc options. Map UID's to Primary Keys. Map attributes to columns and document sample data.REVIEW: INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN Map an Entity-Relationship Model to an initial database design using the following interrelated steps. Document an initial database design on Table Instance Charts. .

7 TABLE NORMALIZATION .

Place tables in Third Normal Form.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. you will be able to: 1 2 3 Define normalization and explain its benefits. Explain how conceptual data modelling rules ensure normalized tables. .

• Normalization helps identify missing entities. twodimensional tables. relationships. Quick Notes • Third normal form is the generally accepted goal for a database design that eliminates redundancy. Unnormalized data is redundant. Third Normal Form (3NF) The table must be 2NF. and nothing but the key. Update and delete transactions may not be consistently applied to all copies of the data causing inconsistencies in the data.NORMALIZE TABLES Categorize tables according to their degree of normalization. Every non-key column must be dependent on all parts of the primary key. Normal Form Rule Description First Normal Form (1NF) The table must be expressed as a set of unordered. . Second Normal Form (2NF) The table must be in INF. The table cannot contain repeating groups. the whole key. • Higher normal forms are not widely used. No non-key column may be functionally dependent on another non-key column." Why normalize tables? • • Normalization minimizes data redundancy. Data redundancy causes integrity problems. and tables. "Each non-primary key value MUST be dependent on the key.

00 65. Why is this data unnormalized? ORDER ID 2301 6/23 DATE CUSTOMER ID 101 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite IL STATE ITEM NUM 3786 4011 9132 2302 2303 6/25 6/26 107 110 Herman's We-R-Sports WI MI 5794 4011 3141 ITEM DESCRIP net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY PRIC E 35. Three variable length records are shown .00 10.00 It contains a repeating group of ITEM NUM. . First Normal Form prohibits repeating groups. Example Consider the following set of data. ITEM DESCRIPTION. and PRICE.00 65.RECOGNIZE UNNORMALIZED DATA Unnormalized data does not comply with any of the rules of normalization.00 4.75 5.one for each ORDER_ID. QUANTITY.

00 10.00 10. ORDER ID 2301 DATE CUSTOMER ID 101 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite STATE ITEM NUM 3786 4011 9132 5794 ITEM DESCRIP net racket 3-pack 6-pack QUANTITY PRICE 6/23 1L 2302 6/25 107 Herman's Wl 3 6 8 4 35.00 4. The PK of the remaining table is ORDER ID. Steps 1 2 Remove the repeating group from the base table. Example Convert the following set of unnormalized data to First Normal Form.00 65.75 5.00 65.00 Remove the repeating group of ITEM NUM. ITEM DESCRIPTION.00 65. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 ORDER ID PK.00 ORDER ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 . QUA NTITY.75 5.CONVERT TO FIRST NORMAL FORM Remove any repeating groups.00 4. Create a new table with the PK of the base table and the repeating group. and PRICE. Create a new ORDERJTEM table with ORDER ID and the repeating group.00 2303 6/26 110 We-R-Sports MI 4011 3141 racket cover 2 2 65.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 DATE 6/23 6/25 6/26 CUSTOMER ID 101 107 110 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports ITEM DESCRIP Net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover QUANTITY 3 6 8 4 2 2 STATE IL WI MI PRICE 35.

the table is not in 2NF. Steps 1 2 3 Determine which non-key columns are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key. Any value of ORDERJD uniquely determines a single value of each column. Quick Notes • • If each column is not dependent upon the entire primary key.CONVERT TO SECOND NORMAL FORM Remove any non-key columns that are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key. . Remove those columns from the base table. Any table with a single column primary key is automatically in 2NF. Therefore. Example Put the following table in2NF. Create a second table with those columns and the column(s) from the PK that they are dependent upon. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI DATE CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE The ORDER table is already in 2NF. all columns are dependent on the PK ORDERJD.

00 65.00 65.00 .00 65.Convert to Second Normal Form .FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 ITEM NUM PK. remove any partially dependent columns.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 Net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover 3 6 8 4 2 2 35. ORDER ITEM ORDER ID PK. Create an ITEM table with those columns and the column from the PK that they are dependent upon. Example Put the following table in 2NF. ORDER ITEM ORDER ID ITEM NUM PK.00 4. To convert the table to 2NF.cont'd Remove any non-key columns that are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key.FK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 3141 DESCRIPTION PRICE net racket 3-pack 6-pack cover 35.00 10.00 4. but not dependent upon ORDER ID.00 ITEM DESCRIP QUANTITY PRICE The ORDERJTEM table is not in 2NF since PRICE and DESCRIPTION are dependent upon ITEM NUM.00 10.75 5.75 5.

CONVERT TO THIRD NORMAL FORM Remove any columns that are dependent upon another non-key column. Create a second table with those columns and the non-key column that they are dependent upon. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI DATE CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE CUSTOMER NAME and STATE are dependent upon CUSTOMER ID. . Steps 1 2 3 Determine which columns are dependent upon another non-key column. Move the dependent non-key columns with the non-key column they depend upon Into a new CUSTOMER table. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 DATE CUSTOMER ID FK 101 107 110 PK 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI CUSTOMER CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE Quick Note • A table is in Third Normal Form if no non-key column is functionally dependent upon another non-key column. Therefore. Example Put the ORDER table in Third Normal Form. the ORDER table is not in 3NF.2 Remove those columns from the base table. CUSTOMER ID is not the PK.

the whole key.75 5.00 10.00 DESCRIPTION PRICE All non-key attributes are dependent on the key. and nothing but the key. the whole key.00 65. The ITEM table is in 3NF. The ORDERJTEM table is in 3NF. Example Consider the ITEM table. Is it in 3NF? Why or why not? ORDER ITEM ORDER ID PK. Is it in 3NF? Why or why not? ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 3141 net racket 3-pack 6-pack cover 35.00 4. . and nothing but the key. Example Consider the ORDER JTEM table.Convert to Third Normal Form .FK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY All non-key attributes are dependent on the key.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 ITEM NUM PK.cont'd No non-key column can be functionally dependent upon another non-key column.

EMPLOYEE First Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data . 1.EXERCISE 7-1 Normalize a set of data. Put the following data into First. Second. Three variable length records are shown-one for each EMP_NUM. and Third Normal Form on the supplied Table Instance Charts.

Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Second Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Third Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

cont'd Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Third Normal Form .

Create an additional entity and 1 :M relationship to ensure 1 NF. Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • All attributes must be single -valued. therefore the entity CLIENT is not in 1NF.NORMALIZE DURING DATA MODELLING Ensure a 3NF table design by following the rules of data modelling. Example Is the entity CLIENT in 1NF? If not. Create an additional entity CONTACT with a M:1 relationship to CLIENT. First Normal Form Rule • A table must contain no repeating groups. . how could it be converted to 1NF? The attribute date contacted has multiple values.

Example Are all of the attributes in the following E-R diagram dependent upon their entity's UID? The attribute bank location is not dependent upon the UID of ACCOUNT. Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • An attribute must be dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier. It is dependent upon the UID of BANK.Normalize During Data Modelling . Second Normal Form Rule • Every non-key column must be dependent upon all parts of the primary key. . Move the attribute and place it where it depends upon the UID of it's entity.cont'd Validate each attribute's dependence upon its entity's entire UID.

Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • No non-UID attribute can be dependent upon another non-UID attribute. Example Are any of the non-UID attributes for this entity dependent upon another non-UID attribute? The attributes customer name and state are dependent upon the customer id. Create another entity called CUSTOMER with a UID of customer id. . Third Normal Form Rule • No non-key column can be functionally dependent upon another non-key column.Normalize During Data Modelling . and place the attributes accordingly.cont'd Verify attribute placement to ensure a normalized table design.

8 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN .

Work with your DBA to plan physical storage usage. Design indexes. 5. you will be able to: 1.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. 4. . 3. Understand database views. Evaluate table denormalization. 2. Specify referential integrity constraints.

FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN Review the default table design against the application module's requirements. . Activities • • • • • Define referential integrity constraints. and refine and extend the initial design to produce a complete database design. Establish views. Denormalize the database design. Design indexes. Plan physical storage usage.

SPECIFY REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY A foreign key column value must match an existing primary key column value (or else be NULL). Use referential integrity constraints to specify how referential integrity is to be maintained. Delete Constraint • What happens if a row containing a referenced primary key is deleted? Update Constraint • What happens if a referenced primary'key is updated? * * Only an issue if the PK is updateable in the first place. .

cont'd Specify a Delete Constraint to define what should happen if a row containing a referenced primary key is deleted. What should happen if a DEPT. or NULLIFY (only if NULLs are allowed) Example Consider the EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT tables. Options: CASCADE. The matching EMPLOYEE rows should also be deleted.NO for which employees work is deleted from the DEPARTMENT table? Table Name: EMPLOYEE Table Name: DEPARTMENT Option CASCADE RESTRICTED NULLIFY Explanation of Constraint The deletion should cascade to the matching employees. The foreign key should be nullified (valid only for FK's allowing NULLs) when the referenced PK is deleted. .Specify Referential Integrity . RESTRICTED. The deletion should be restricted to only DEPARTMENTS without employees.

or NULLIFY (only ifNULLs are allowed) Example What should happen if a DEPT_NO for which employees work is changed to another DEPT_NO? Table Name: EMPLOYEE Table Name: DEPARTMENT Option CASCADE Explanation of Constraint The update should cascade to the matching employees. DESIGN INDEXES An index is associated with a single physical table and contains the values of . RESTRICTED.Specify Referential Integrity . (The Update Rule is only meaningful if the PK is updateable.) Options: CASCADE. The foreign key should be nullified (valid only for FK's allowing NULLs) when the referenced PK is updated to a new PK value. The matching EMPLOYEE rows should also be updated to reflect the new PK value.cont'd Specify an Update Constraint to define what should happen when a referenced primary key is updated. RESTRICTED NULLIFY The update should be restricted to only DEPARTMENTS without employees.

Table Instance Chart Table Name: COURSE Physical Representations COURSE Table I_COURSES_PRIME Index (Unique) I_COURSES_2 Index (Not Unique) Design Indexes .cont'd . Database Design .one or more columns from that table.

0 . referenced in the WHERE clause of a SQL statement if the column is not modified For further information on the subject see: SQL Language Reference Manual.Use indexes to significantly improve data access time. Indexes • • • • Provide quick access to rows of data and avoid full table scans Facilitate table joins Ensure uniqueness of a value if defined as unique Are used automatically when.0.0 ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6. 778-V6.3601-V6.

Example The ENROLLMENT table has a composite PK of COURSE_CODE and ST_ID. Create a composite key called I_ENROLL_PRIME on both columns.MAY-91 GRADE COURSE_ CODE PK.91 5013 08.FK1 NN.cont'd A concatenated index is an index created on a group of columns in a single table.MAY-91 5014 05.91 28-JUL-91 08.91 28-JUL-91 28-JUL-91 21.U1 STJD PK.91 Data 05-SEP-91 14-JUN.U1 47592 15402 51394 94572 51394 --A B A 344 401 717 717 401 Physical Tables ENROLLMENT Table ROW ENROLL_ ID DATE 5011 20-JUL-91 5012 05-SEP-91 5015 14-J UN.MAY-91 GRADE A B A COURSE_ CODE 344 401 717 717 401 ST_ID 47592 15402 51394 94572 51394 I_ENROLL_PRIME Index (Unique) COURSE_ CODE 344 401 401 717 717 ST_ID ROW ID 47592 15402 51394 51394 5011 5012 5014 5015 94572 5013 .MAY-9 28-JUL-91 05.FK2 NN. Table Design Table Name: ENROLLMENT Column ENROLL_ DATE_ Name DATE COMPLETEC Key Type Nulls/ NN Unique Sample 20-JUL-91 19-AUG.Design Indexes . Map a composite key to a concatenated index.MAY-91 DATE_ COMPLETED 19-AUG.MAY-9 21.

3601-V6.cont'd Use indexes to implement keys and to support application access requirements. For further information on the subject see: ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6. indexes are not used by the RDBMS.0.Design Indexes . Build Indexes for • • Primary keys (unique indexes) Foreign keys (generally non-unique indexes) Consider indexing • • • Alternate keys (unique indexes) Any critical non-key columns used in WHERE clauses Any search keys Indexes add storage and update overhead.0 .0 ORACLE RDBMS Performance Tuning Manual 5317-V6. A non-unique index references a column or set of columns that are not unique in a table. Be aware that under certain conditions. Quick Notes • • • A unique index references a column or set of columns that has unique values in the table.

cont'd A View can restrict what the user.ESTABLISH VIEWS Establish database views to meet application access requirements Views can be used for: • • • • • • • restricting access. or tool sees. . A view is defined by a SELECT statement that is named and stored in the ORACLE Data Dictionary. Establish Views . producing rapid prototypes. • A view is queried as if it were a table. Quick Notes • • A view has no data of its own and merely relays informa tion from underlying tables. Examples A View of the EMP table could be used to restrict users from seeing the employees' salaries. presenting tables to users in any form. pre-joined base tables in SQL*Forms. designer. A view can be thought of as a predefined window onto the database. checking data input. pre-packaging complex queries. providing referential integrity.

Example Following the rules of normalization. the ORDER and CUSTOMER tables are separate.A view can be used to present normalized data in a denormalized form. . A view defined across both tables could be used to pre-join the tables so the user would only see a single table.

it is possible to add rows not visible through the view unless the WITH CHECK OPTION is specified.Establish Views . • • For multi-table views with virtual columns. INSERT. the SQL INSERT. and DELETE are restricted. UPDATE. When accessing tables through a view. UPDATE. and DELETE commands have no limitations.cont'd Use views with caution. View Limitations • For a view based upon a single table. and may cause query optimization to be slower. Access through a view is slower because it requires an extra access to the data dictionary. .

Consider all other options prior to denormalization. quick response time. . especially adding or changing the index structure. Beware of Denormalization! • • Be extremely reluctant to denormalize the default table design. Denormalization may be a solution for transactions with performance requirements such as: • • • high throughput. high frequency.DENORMALIZE THE DATABASE DESIGN Always start with tables in Third Normal Form. Denormalization can cause data inconsistency problems.

cont'd Combining tables is the most common form of denormalization. .Denormalize the Database Design . If high-volume account queries always access the bank name. a combined table might be worth the data redundancy. The ACCOUNT table and the BANK table are combined on BANK_NUM. Example Consider the ACCOUNT and BANK tables.

Combine all the tables into a single table with an additional column. They are used to provide the SQL*Forms list of values feature and to validate table values for INSERT or UP DATE. .cont'd Individual codes tables may be combined into a reference table for validating and decoding coded values for an entire application system. Example The following separate codes tables are required for an application system. that defines which set of values the code belongs to. CODE_TYPE. Create a view for each CODE_TYPE.Denormalize the Database Design .

Set up a CODE_TYPE table for validating the length of the descriptions. The table contains two columns.cont'd Establish a companion CODE_TYPE table for validating code description lengths. Example The CHAR_CODE table on the previous page includes four different types of codes. CODE_TYPE and LENGTH. LENGTH is the maximum description length for each CODE_TYPE.Denormalize the Database Design . . Each of these code types has a different valid length for its code description.

cont'd A vector is a one-dimensional array with a fixed number of values .a repeating group of definite size. Represent vector data as either a set of rows or a set of columns. Column-Wise Table Design (3NF) Row -Wise Table Design .Denormalize the Database Design .

g. all data values can appear on a single line.. . e. Advantages of a Row -Wise Design • • • • On the input form. AVG. Changes in the vector length can be easily accommodated.Denormalize the Database Design .cont'd Choose the table design for vector data based upon the functional access requirements. The storage space requirement is lower. All values can be inserted with a single INSERT statement. Output reports showing all values horizontally are easy to produce. SUM. Advantages of a Column-Wise Design • • SQL group functions act on columns.

The sales quotas are established quarterly.Denormalize the Database Design . He frequently queries the total sales quota and sales-to-date for his region. and maintaining sales-to-date might also be desirable.cont'd Reconsider storing derived data in light of the functional access requirements and the capabilities of the software development tools. Maintaining sales quota data by region would be desirable. Example A regional sales manager has 200 salespersons working for him. . Sales data is updated weekly.

• Define storage allocation parameters based upon the expected patterns of data update and growth.0. Decide on the placement of tables and indexes on logically separate tablespaces and physically separate disks.3601-V6. For further information on the subject see: ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6. estimate the amount of disk space required. Considerations • • For each table and index.0 .PLAN PHYSICAL STORAGE USAGE Work with the Database Administrator to plan the physical placement of the database tables and indexes.

Denormalize the database design. Map attributes to columns and document sample data.SUMMARY: DATABASE DESIGN Database Design is the process of mapping the information requirements reflected in an Entity-Relationship Model into a relational database. . Choose subtype options. Map relationships to foreign keys. Choose arc options. Activity 1: Initial Database Design • • • • • • Map the simple entities to tables. Activity 2: Further Database Design • • • • • • Define referential integrity constraints. Design indexes. Plan physical storage usage. Establish views. Add system support tables. Map unique identifiers to primary keys.

SUMMARY: DATABASE DEVELOPMENT This course has covered the first two steps of the top-down database development process. The last step is Database Build. .

SQL> 2 3 4 CREATE TABLE DEPARTMENT DEPTNO DNAME LOC NUMBER (2) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. SAL NUMBER(7. create physical relational database tables to implement the database design. JOB CHAR(9).2).2). LNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL. FNAME CHAR (15) NOT NULL.DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW In Database Build. CHAR (15) NOT NULL ) . Example The following Structured Query Language (SQL) statements will create the DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE tables. For further information on the subject attend: Introduction to ORACLE for Developers . DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL REFERENCES DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO) ). HIREDATE DATE NOT NULL. MGR CHAR(4) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE(EMPNO). SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE EMPNO NUMBER (5) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. CHAR(20) NOT NULL. COMM NUMBER(7.

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