Data Modeling and Database Design

Volume One Student Guide

ORACLE Enabling the Information Age ™

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Data Modeling and Database Design
Student Guide • Volume One

June 1992 M00475 ORACLE

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Data Modelling and Database Design Contributors: Ann Horton Howard Benbrook Dean Dameron Art Hetherington Jeff Jacobs Steve Strickland Publishing: Copyright © Oracle Corporation, 1992 All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. This software/documentation contains proprietary information of Oracle Corporation; it is provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and is also protected by copyright law. Reverse engineering of the software is prohibited. If this software/documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency of the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with Restricted Rights and the following legend is applicable: Restricted Rights Legend Use, duplication or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions for commercial computer software and shall be deemed to be Restricted Rights software under Federal law and as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of DFARS 252.2277013, Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software (October 1988). Use, duplication, or disclosure is subject to restrictions stated in your contract with Oracle Corporation. If this software/documentation is delivered to a U.S. Government Agency not within the Department of Defense, then it is delivered with "Restricted Rights." as defined in FAR 52.227-14, Rights in Data-General, including Alternate III (June 1987). The information in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing to Oracle Corporation. 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores. CA 94065-9815. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error free. ORACLE, SQL*Plus, SQL*Connect, SQL*Net, SQL*DBA, SQL*Report, SQL*ReportWriter, SQL*Forms, SQL*Menu, SQL*Loader, Easy*SQL, Pro*C, Pro*COBOL, Pro*Ada, Pro*Fortran, Pro*PL/I, Pro*Pascal, SQL*Calc, SQL*QMX, Oracle Financials, and CASE*Dictionary are registered trademarks. Oracle General Ledger. Oracle Assets. Oracle Payables and Oracle Purchasing. Oracle*Mail, SQL*TextRetrieval, PL/SQL, Oracle Graphics, Hyper*SQL, Oracle Card. CASE*Designer, and CASE*Generator are trademarks of Oracle Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. Macintosh and HyperCard are registered trademarks and HyperTalk is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. dBase is a trademark of Ashton-Tate Corporation. IBM. MVS. DB2, SQL/DS, and IBM PC are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks and Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Paintbrush is a trademark of Zsoft Corporation. Scott Knudtson Kathy Andronica Pete Cassidy Claudia Herzog Bill Hopkins Cliff Longman Tom Traver Rich Marinaccio

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CONTENTS
CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................. 4

1 INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................9
COURSE OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 10 ORACLE OVERVIEW ......................................................................................................... 11 ORACLE'S CASE APPROACH .......................................................................................... 13 CASE*METHOD DEVELOPMENT CYCLE.................................................................... 14

2 OVERVIEW OF DATABASE DEVELOPMENT..................................15
SECTION OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 16 DATABASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ........................................................................ 17 BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS .............................................................. 18 CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING OVERVIEW ....................................................... 19 DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW .................................................................................... 20 DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW....................................................................................... 21 DATABASE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT ..................................................... 22

3 BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING......................................23
SECTION OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................... 24 CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING ............................................................................... 25 ENTITIES ............................................................................................................................... 29 IDENTIFY AND MODEL ENTITIES ................................................................................. 33 EXERCISE 3-1 ....................................................................................................................... 36 RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................................................. 37 EXERCISE 3-2 ....................................................................................................................... 41 EXERCISE 3-3 ....................................................................................................................... 42

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........ 84 EXERCISE 3-10 ..... 55 DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S DEGREE ........................................................................................................................................................ 64 DISTINGUISH ATTRIBUTES AND ENTITIES ................................................................................................................................ 83 EXERCISE 3-9 ...........................................................EXERCISE 3-4 ................................................ 69 ATTRIBUTE OPTIONALITY............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 LAY OUT THE E-R DIAGRAM ..................................... 86 REVIEW: BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING......... 56 VALIDATE THE RELATIONSHIP............................. 58 EXERCISE 3-6 ................................................................. 57 EXERCISE 3-5 .. 48 ANALYZE AND MODEL RELATIONSHIPS ...................... 71 IDENTIFY ATTRIBUTES...........................................92 SECTION OBJECTIVES.............................. 62 ATTRIBUTES ........................................................................................... 51 NAME THE RELATIONSHIP.......................... 44 USING A RELATIONSHIP MATRIX............................................................................ 73 EXERCISE 3-7 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 98 5 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 4 ADVANCED CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING................................................................................................ 94 EXERCISE 4-1 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 53 DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S OPTIONALITY.................................... 93 NORMALIZE THE DATA MODEL .................................. 75 ASSIGN UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS ...................................................................... 43 RELATIONSHIP TYPES .......................................................................... 77 EXERCISE 3-8 ...................................................... 50 DETERMINE A RELATIONSHIP'S EXISTENCE ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

..................................... 136 EXERCISE 4-9 .......................... 138 5 RELATIONAL DATABASE CONCEPTS....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 109 MODEL RECURSIVE RELATIONSHIPS ................................................................................................................................................................................. 112 EXERCISE 4-4 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 128 EXERCISE 4-6 ......................................... 108 MODEL HIERARCHICAL DATA ................... 117 MODEL ROLES WITH RELATIONSHIPS ............. 153 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW ....................................................... 126 MODEL DATA OVER TIME........................................................ 132 MODEL COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS ............................................................................................................................................................ 149 6 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN ....................................................................................... 140 RELATIONAL DATABASE OVERVIEW ...... 143 FOREIGN KEYS ..151 SECTION OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 124 EXERCISE 4-5 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 120 MODEL EXCLUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS ..................................................................................................RESOLVE M:M RELATIONSHIPS ......................................... 107 EXERCISE 4-3 ......................... 133 EXERCISE 4-7 .................................................................................................................................................. 118 MODEL SUBTYPES ................... 147 DATA INTEGRITY.................................139 SECTION OBJECTIVES................ 141 PRIMARY KEYS ........................................................................................................................... 135 EXERCISE 4-8 ................................................ 99 EXERCISE 4-2 .................................................................................................... 152 DATABASE DESIGN ............................................................................................................................................... 155 6 .......................................................

........................................................................................................................................... 206 CONVERT TO THIRD NORMAL FORM....... 170 EXERCISE 6-2 ............................................................................................................................... 202 NORMALIZE TABLES .............................................................................. 208 EXERCISE 7-1 ........................................................................................................................................ 183 CHOOSE SUBTYPE OPTIONS ..................................................................................................217 SECTION OBJECTIVES.............. 218 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN ............................................................................................ 187 EXERCISE 6-6 ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 161 MAP RELATIONSHIPS TO FOREIGN KEYS .... 163 REVIEW: MAPPING SIMPLE E-R MODELS TO TABLES ..................... 219 7 .................................................................................................................. 204 CONVERT TO FIRST NORMAL FORM...................................................MAP SIMPLE ENTITIES.................................................... 176 MAP COMPLEX E-R MODELS TO TABLES ................................................................................... 214 8 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN.................... 169 EXERCISE 6-1 ........................................................................................................... 174 EXERCISE 6-4 ............................................................................................................................................................. 158 MAP ATTRIBUTES TO COLUMNS.............................................................. 210 NORMALIZE DURING DATA MODELLING......................................................................................................................................................... 203 RECOGNIZE UNNORMALIZED DATA .......... 196 REVIEW: INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN ............................................................... 172 EXERCISE 6-3 .............................................................................................................................................. 159 MAP UID'S TO PRIMARY KEYS ............... 205 CONVERT TO SECOND NORMAL FORM..................................................... 179 EXERCISE 6-5 .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200 7 TABLE NORMALIZATION...................................201 SECTION OBJECTIVES............

......................................................................................................................... 227 DENORMALIZE THE DATABASE DESIGN............SPECIFY REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY........................................................ 238 SUMMARY: DATABASE DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................................... 222 ESTABLISH VIEWS ...................................................................................... 230 PLAN PHYSICAL STORAGE USAGE..................................................................................... 237 SUMMARY: DATABASE DESIGN ........................................... 239 DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW....... 240 8 .................................. 220 DESIGN INDEXES ..............................................................................

1 INTRODUCTION 9 .

you will be able to: 1 Analyze user information requirements and develop an entity-relationship model to express those requirements. 2 Develop a rela tional database design from an entity-relationship model. 10 .COURSE OBJECTIVES At the end of this course.

ORACLE OVERVIEW 11 .

ORACLE Overview .cont'd * Data Modelling and Database Design are techniques for analyzing information requirements and designing relational databases. 12 .

ORACLE'S CASE APPROACH Oracle's CASE (Computer-Aided Systems Engineering) approach provides a full-suite of CASE methods. Business Requirements Operational System 13 . techniques and tools.

14 .CASE*METHOD DEVELOPMENT CYCLE Data modeling and database design support the first three stages of the CASE*Method Development cycle.

2 OVERVIEW OF DATABASE DEVELOPMENT 15 .

Understand the parallel phases of the Application Development Process. 16 .SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Explain what Conceptual Data Modelling and Database Design involve. you will be able to: 1 2 3 Understand the phases of the Database Development Process.

17 . systematic approach that transforms business information requirements into an operational database. The Database Development Process is a vertical slice of the CASE*Method Development Cycle.DATABASE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS Database development is a top-down.

and the employees each manager manages. • Information requirements are tightly coupled with business function requirements. accounting is 10 and sales are 30. We need to keep information about each of our company's employees. We need to know the department responsible for each employee and the department's location. Some of the employees are managers. sales. the Human Resources Department's business function requirements include Manage employee information. Each employee is assigned to a department-for example. accounting. job or position. We need to know each employee's manager. or development. Each department has a unique number. and salary. last name." Quick Notes • The scope of a set of information requirements may vary from the needs of a department to the needs of a total company. hire date. Each employee is assigned a unique employee number.BUSINESS INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS Top-down database development begins with the information requirements of the business. we also need to track their potential commission. 18 . For any employees on commission. For example. Our company is divided into departments. for example. Example Here is a set of information requirements: "I manage the Human Resources Department for a large company. We need to track each employee's first name.

and the relationships between them. 19 . define and model the things of significance about which the business needs to know or hold information.CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING OVERVIEW In Conceptual Data Modelling. Example The following entity-relationship model represents the information requirements of the Human Resources Department. An Entity-Relationship Data Model should accurately model the organization's information needs and support the functions of the business.

map the information requirements reflected in an Entity-Relationship Model into a relational database design. U 10 20 30 40 50 NN ACCOUNTING RESEARCH SALES OPERATIONS DEVELOPMENT NN NEW YORK DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON ATLANTA DNAME LOC The Table Instance Chart for each relational table identifies the table's columns.FEB-81 80 30 12 7902 7566 6000 7698 1000 7839 0 5000 HIREDATE SA COM L M MGR FK1 DEPTN O FK2 NN 20 50 30 30 10 N MANAGER 01. Example A design for the Human Resources database is shown in the following table instance charts.DEC-81 22.81 50 50 Table Name: DEPARTMENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data DEPTNO PK NN.NOV. 20 .MAY-81 51 28 PRESIDEN 17. and any foreign keys and provides a visual view of sample data. U 7369 7902 7521 7698 7839 FNAM LNAME JOB E NN MARY HENR SUE BOB BOB NN SMITH FORD WARD BLAKE KING CLERK ANALYST SALESMA NN 17. primary key.DEC-80 03. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data EMPN O PK NN.DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW In Database Design.

21 . create physical relational database tables to implement the database design. SQL> 2 3 4 SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CREATE TABLE DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL REFERENCES DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO) ). The Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to create and manipulate relational databases. HIREDATE DATE NOT NULL.2).DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW In Database Build. CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE (EMPNO NUMBER (5) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. 2). COMM NUMBER (7. MGR CHAR(4) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE(EMPNO). DNAME CHAR(20) NOT NULL. LOC CHAR 115) NOT NULL ). Example The following Structured Query Language (SQL) statements will create the DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE tables. FNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL. JOB CHAR(9). SAL NUMBER (7. LNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL.

22 .DATABASE AND APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT The Database Development Process is tightly coupled with the Application Development Process.

3 BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING 23 .

Identify and model entities. 2. 4. Analyze and model attributes.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Develop a basic entity-relationship model from a statement of information requirements and user interviews. 24 . Identify unique identifiers for each entity. 5. Analyze and model the relationships between entities. you will be able to: 1. 3.

CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING Conceptual Data Modelling is the first step of the top-down Database Development Process. and is performed during the Strategy and Analysis stages of the System Development Cycle. 25 .

26 . Attributes-the specific information. Relationships-how the things of significance are related.Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd The goal of Conceptual Data Modeling is to develop an entity-relationship model that represents the information requirements of the business.the things of significance about which information needs to be held. Example The following entity-relationship model represents the information requirements of the Human Resources Department. Entity-Relationship Model Components • • • Entities . which needs to be held.

and/or purchased application packages.Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd An entity-relationship model is an effective means for collecting and documenting an organization's information requirements. development projects. Requirements changes during later stages of the development life-cycle can be extremely expensive. Robust Syntax • An E-R Model documents an organization's information requirements in a clear. User Communication • Users can easily understand the pictorial form of an E-R Model. Ease of Development • An E-R Model can be easily developed and refined. 27 . • Use views or subsets of an E-R Model as a communication aide. precise format. Quick Notes • Be sure to fully establish an organization's information requirements during the conceptual data modelling stage. Definition of Scope • An E-R Model provides a clear picture of the scope of an organization's information requirements. Integration of Multiple Applications • An E-R Model provides an effective framework for integrating multiple applications.

or relational database.Conceptual Data Modelling-cont'd Conceptual Data Modelling is independent of the hardware or software to be used for implementation. network. An E-R Model can be mapped to a hierarchical. 28 .

29 . which need to be known. and location Quick Note • An entity must have attributes that need to be known from the business's viewpoint or it is not an entity within the scope of the business's requirements. number.ENTITIES An entity is a thing of significance about which information needs to be known or held. Examples Possible attributes for the entity EMPLOYEE are: badge number. Alternate Entity Definitions • • • An object of interest to the business. date of birth. and salary Possible attributes for the entity DEPARTMENT are: Name. An entity is a named thing. An entity is a class or category of thing. Examples The following might be things of significance about which a business needs to hold information: EMPLOYEE DEPARTMENT PROJECT Attributes describe entities and are the specific pieces of information. name.

cont'd Entity Diagramming Conventions • • • • • Soft box with any dimensions Singular. 30 .Entities . unique entity name Entity name in upper case Optional synonym name (in parentheses) Attribute names in all lower case Examples Quick Notes • • A synonym is an alternate name for an entity. Synonyms are useful when two groups of users have different names for the same thing of significance.

cont'd Each entity must have multiple occurrences or instances. The entity DEPARTMENT has one occurrence for each department in the company: The Finance Department.g.g. badge number 1322. Examples The entity EMPLOYEE has one occurrence for each employee in the business: Jim Brown. Juan Gomez. Example The entity EMPLOYEE has attributes of name. the employee Jim Brown. EMPLOYEE. Quick Notes • • • Instances are sometimes mistaken for entities.Entities . date of birth 15-MAR-50. and the Development Department are all instances of the entity DEPARTMENT. The instance Jim Brown has the following values: name Jim Brown. Mary Jones. An instance is a specific thing . An entity is a class or category of thing .e.e. the Sales Department. and salary. and Jill Judge are all occurrences of the entity EMPLOYEE. and salary $55. Each entity instance has specific values for the entity's attributes. badge number. 31 .000. date of birth.

Example What attributes might uniquely identify the following entities? Quick Notes • • If an entity cannot be uniquely identified. 32 . Badge number is a candidate for the entity UID. it may not be an entity.Entities . which uniquely identify an entity and are part of the entity's UID are tagged with #*. Example Each employee has a unique badge number.cont'd Each instance must be uniquely identifiable from other instances of the same entity. Attributes. An attribute or set of attributes that uniquely identify an entity is called a Unique Identifier (UID). EMPLOYEE'S Look for attributes that uniquely identify an entity.

Are they things of significance? Name each entity. Quick Note • Do not disqualify a candidate entity too soon. Additional attributes of interest to the business may be uncovered later. • • • • Examine the nouns." • Diagram each entity and a few of its attributes. 33 . Is there information of interest about the entitiy that the-business needs to hold? Is each instance of the entity uniquely identifiable? Which attribute or attributes could serve as its UID? • Write a description of it. For example. John Brown and Mary Smith are EMPLOYEES.IDENTIFY AND MODEL ENTITIES Follow the steps below to identify and model entities from a set of interview notes. "An EMPLOYEE has significance as a paid worker at the company.

Introduction to UNIX and C Programming-are two of our more popular courses. We track each instructor's name and phone number. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. and many of them do this. The students can take several courses over time.Identify and Model Entities . each of which has a code. Each course is taught by only one instructor. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. 34 .cont'd Example Identify and model the entities in the following set of information requirements. a name. We create a course and then line up an instructor. We teach many courses. and a fee. "I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques. An instructor can teach several courses. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number.

cont'd Solution The following entities model the Training Company's information requirements. Jamie Brown. • A STUDENT has significance as a participant in one or more COURSES. For example. Introduction to UNIX and C Programming. 35 . • An INSTRUCTOR has significance as a teacher of one or more COURSES. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales.Identify and Model Entities . Entity Descriptions • A COURSE has significance as a training event offered by the Training Company. For example. For example.

We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. and each tape is always a copy of a single. suspense. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. A customer may check out multiple videotapes at any given time. they must have good credit. 1. Then we need to keep track of what videotapes each customer currently has checked out. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular. current phone number. Our tapes are very long and we don't have any movies.g." 36 . And. We have over 3. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory. A tape may be either Beta or VHS format.000 videotapes that we need to keep track of. Show at least two attributes for each entity.EXERCISE 3-1 Identify and model entities. we need to know its title and category (e. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. or sci-fi). We just track current rentals. We don't keep track of any rental histories. For each movie. war. and then track which movie a tape contains. "I'm the owner of a small video store. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club. and current address. Each of our videotapes has a tape number." To belong to our club. Write a brief description of each entity. comedy. Not all of our movies have star actors. We give each movie a specific id. Identify and model the entities in the following set of information requirements. specific movie. which require multiple tapes. action. we’d like to keep his/her first and last name. drama. Yes. So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. of course each club member has a membership number. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. For each club member. We have lots of customers.

significant association between two entities. A degree of 0 is addressed by may be.RELATIONSHIPS A relationship is a two-directional.e.. or between an entity and itself.either must be or may be. taught by or assigned to.either one and only one or one or more. Relationship Syntax Example The relationship between INSTRUCTOR and COURSE is: Each COURSE may be taught by one and only one INSTRUCTOR.g. Quick Notes • • Cardinality is a synonym for the term degree. a degree . 37 . an optionality . Each INSTRUCTOR may be assigned to one or more courses. Each direction of a relationship has: • • • a name .

Relationships .cont'd Diagramming Conventions • • • • A line between two entities Lower case relationship names Optionality Degree 38 .

Relationship from Right to Left (partial diagram) Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES.cont'd First read a relationship in one direction. 39 . Example Read the relationship between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT. Relationship from Left to Right (partial diagram) Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT.Relationships . and then from right to left. Read this relationship first from left to right. and then read the relationship in the other direction.

Relationships .cont'd Example Read the relationship between STUDENT and COURSE. Each PAYCHECK must be for one and only one EMPLOYEE. Example Read the relationship between PAYCHECK and EMPLOYEE. Each COURSE may be taken by one or more STUDENTS. 40 . Each EMPLOYEE may be the receiver of one or more PAYCHECKs. Each STUDENT may be enrolled in one or more COURSES.

41 . Write the relationship sentences for this E-R diagram.EXERCISE 3-2 Read relationships. 1.

c. Each ACTIVITY may be performed by one or more EMPLOYEES.EXERCISE 3-3 Draw an Entity-Relationship Diagram. b. 42 . Each EMPLOYEE may be assigned to one or more ACTIVITIES. Draw an Entity-Relationship diagram to represent the following: a. Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT. d. Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. 1.

Draw an Entity-Relationship diagram to represent the following: a. 1. * Some operating systems may allow a file to span disks. e. c. Each DISK may be the host for one or more FILEs. Each TABLESPACE must be made up of one or more FILEs. f. Each ORACLE DATABASE must be made up of one or more TABLESPACEs. i. Each SEGMENT must be included in one and only one TABLESPACE. h.EXERCISE 3-4 Optional Exercise Draw an Entity-Relationship Diagram. g. Each TABLESPACE must be part of one and only one ORACLE DATABASE. 43 . Each EXTENT must be composed of one or more BLOCKs. Each EXTENT must be included in one and only one SEGMENT. * l. k. Each SEGMENT must be inclusive of one or more EXTENTS. b. Each BLOCK must be part of one and only one EXTENT. Each TABLESPACE may be divided into one or more SEGMENTS. Each FILE must be resident on one and only one DISK. Each FILE may be part of one and only one TABLESPACE. j. d.

44 . Relationship Types • • • Many to One Relationships Many to Many Relationships One to One Relationships All relationships should represent the information requirements and rules of the business.RELATIONSHIP TYPES There are three types of relationships.

cont'd A Many to One Relationship (M to 1 or M:1) has a degree of one or more in one direction and a degree of one and only one in the other direction. M:1 relationships that are mandatory in both directions are rare. 45 . Quick Notes • • M:1 relationships are very common. Each CUSTOMER must be visited by one and only one SALES REPRESENTATIVE.Relationship Types . Each SALES REPRESENTATIVE may be assigned to visit one or more CUSTOMERS. Example There is a M:1 relationship between CUSTOMER and SALES REPRESENTATIVE.

cont'd A Many to Many Relationship (M to M or M:M) has a degree of one or more in both directions. although a Many to Many Relationship may be optional in just one direction. Many to Many relationships are usually optional in both directions. Each STUDENT may be enrolled in one or more COURSES. 46 . There is a M:M relationship between EMPLOYEE and JOB. Examples There is a M:M relationship between STUDENT and COURSE. Quick Notes • • Many to Many Relationships are very common.Relationship Types . Each COURSE may be taken by one or more STUDENTS. Each JOB may be carried out by one or more EMPLOYEES. Each EMPLOYEE may be assigned to one or more JOBs.

Each MOTHERBOARD may be incorporated into one and only one MICROCOMPUTER. Each MICROCOMPUTER must be the host for one and only one MOTHERBOARD. Example There is a 1:1 relationship between MICROCOMPUTER and MOTHERBOARD. Quick Notes • • • 1:1 Relationships are rare. A 1:1 Relationship that is mandatory in both directions is very rare.Relationship Types . 47 . Entities. which seem to have a 1:1 relationship. may really be the same entity.cont'd A One to One Relationship (1 to 1 or 1:1) has a degree of one and only one in both directions.

CUSTOMER is related to ORDER and the name of the relationship is the originator of. then a long dash is shown in the intersection box. • If a row entity is not related to a column entity. Example The following relationship matrix shows a set of relationships between four entities. • Each relationship above the diagonal line is the inverse or mirror image of a relationship below the line. 48 . ORDER is related to CUSTOMER and the name of the relationship is originated by. • Recursive relationships (between an entity and itself) are represented by the boxes on the diagonal. Relationship Matrix Conventions • A relationship matrix shows if and how each row entity on the left-hand side of the matrix is related to each column entity shown across the top of the matrix. • • All the entities are listed along both the left-hand side of the matrix and the top of the matrix. then the name of that relationship is shown in the intersection box. If a row entity is related to a column entity.USING A RELATIONSHIP MATRIX Use a relationship matrix as an aide for the initial collection of information about the relationships between a set of entities.

write-in the relationship's name. and add each relationship's optionality and degree. Draw a softbox for each entity and add the entity's attributes. Draw a relationship line for each relationship. Example Map the following relationship matrix to an E-R diagram.Using a Relationship Matrix .cont'd Map the contents of a relationship matrix to an E-R diagram. 49 .

Read the relationship aloud to validate it. 50 . Determine the degree of each direction of the relationship.ANALYZE AND MODEL RELATIONSHIPS Follow a series of five steps to analyze and model relationships. Steps • • • • • Determine the existence of a relationship. Name each direction of the relationship. Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship.

DETERMINE A RELATIONSHIP'S EXISTENCE Determine the existence of a relationship. Is there a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY? No. 51 . Example Consider the entities DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY. there is a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. there is not a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and ACTIVITY. Examine each pair of entities to determine if a relationship exists. Ask About a Relationship's Existence • Does a significant relationship exist between ENTITY A and ENTITY B? Example Consider the entities DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. Is there a significant relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE? Yes.

cont'd Use a relationship matrix to systematically examine each pair of entities. DEPARTMENT. The check marks indicate that a relationship exists. Example Log the relationships among ACTIVITY. and EMPLOYEE on a relationship matrix. 52 .Determine a Relationship's Existence .

How is a DEPARTMENT related to an EMPLOYEE? Each DEPARTMENT is responsible for an EMPLOYEE. How is an EMPLOYEE related to a DEPARTMENT? Each EMPLOYEE is assigned to a DEPARTMENT. Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. Example Log the relationship names for the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. log the relationship names in a relationship grid. Optionally. 53 . Ask a Relationship's Name • How is an ENTITY A related to an ENTITY B? An ENTITY A is relationship name an ENTITY B.NAME THE RELATIONSHIP Name each direction of a relationship. • How is an ENTITY B related to an ENTITY A? An ENTITY B is relationship name an ENTITY A.

0.Name the Relationship . Useful Relationship Name Pairs • • • • • • based on bought from description of operated by represented by responsible for the basis for the supplier of for the operator for the representation of the responsibility of Quick Note • Do not use related to or associated with as relationship names.cont'd Use a list of relationship name pairs to assist in naming relationships. page C-10 54 . 5456-V1. For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling.

Example 55 . Draw the relationship lines.DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S OPTIONALITY Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship. Must an EMPLOYEE be assigned to a DEPARTMENT? Always? Is there any situation in which an EMPLOYEE will not be assigned to a DEPARTMENT? No. a DEPARTMENT does not have to be responsible for an EMPLOYEE. with the relationship names. an EMPLOYEE must always be assigned to a DEPARTMENT. Ask About a Relationship's Optionality • • Must ENTITY A be relationship name ENTITY B? Must ENTITY B be relationship name ENTITY A? Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE. Must a DEPARTMENT be responsible for an EMPLOYEE? No.

May an EMPLOYEE be assigned to more than one DEPARTMENT? No. a DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES. May a DEPARTMENT be responsible for more than one EMPLOYEE? Yes. Example 56 . an EMPLOYEE must be assigned to only one DEPARTMENT. Ask About a Relationship's Degree • May ENTITY A be relationship name more than one ENTITY B? • May ENTITY B be relationship name more than one ENTITY A? Example Consider the relationship between DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE.DETERMINE RELATIONSHIP'S DEGREE Determine the degree of the relationship in both directions. Add the relationship degrees to the E-R Diagram.

Each EMPLOYEE must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT.VALIDATE THE RELATIONSHIP Re-examine the E-R Model and validate the relationship. Read the Relationship Aloud • Relationships must be readable and make business sense. Example Read the relationship represented by the following diagram. 57 . Each DEPARTMENT may be responsible for one or more EMPLOYEES.

1. "I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques." 58 . Introduction to UNIX and C Programming are two of our more popular courses. An instructor can teach several courses. Use a relationship matrix to track the existence of relationships between the entities. a name. The students can take several courses over time. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. We create a course and then line up an instructor. and a fee.EXERCISE 3-5 Analyze and model relationships. each of which has a code. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. Analyze and model the relationships in the following set of information requirements. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. Each course is taught by only one instructor. Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number. We track each instructor's name and phone number. We teach many courses. and many of them do this.

Exercise 3-5 . 59 .cont'd The following entities were previously modelled.

g. "I'm the owner of a small video store. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular. So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. and each tape is always a copy of a single. A customer may check out multiple videotapes at any given time. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. Our tapes are very long. We don't keep track of any rental histories. we'd like to keep their first and last name. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club.EXERCISE 3-6 Analyze and model relationships. and current address. We just track current rentals. of course each club member has a membership number. For each club member. Analyze and model the relationships in the following set of information requirements from Exercise 3-1.000 videotapes that we need to keep track of. war. Each of our videotapes has a tape number. action. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. or sci-fi). drama. And. 1. they must have good credit. We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. Not all of our movies have star actors. and we don't have any movies. Then we need to keep track of what videotapes each customer currently has checked out. For each movie. A tape may be either Beta or VHS format. we need to know its title and category (e. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. specific movie." To belong to our club. suspense. Yes. comedy. We give each movie a specific id. which require multiple tapes. Use a relationship matrix to track the existence of relationships between the entities. We have over 3. and then track which movie a tape contains. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory. We have lots of customers." 60 . current phone number.

cont'd The following entities were modelled earlier in Exercise 3-1.Exercise 3-6 . 61 .

which is easier to follow when relationship lines must cross. Unambiguous Text • • • • • Make all text unambiguous. Use an angle of 30° to 60°. 62 .LAY OUT THE E-R DIAGRAM Make an E-R Diagram easy to read and applicable to the people who need to work with it. Add adjectives to improve understanding. Avoid the use of many closely parallel lines. Draw relationship lines straight and either horizontal or vertical. Avoid abbreviations and jargon. Align text horizontally. Stretch or shrink entity boxes to help the layout of the dia gram. Do not draw an E-R Diagram on a grid. Memorable Shapes • • • Make the E-R Diagram memorable. Put relationship names at the ends of the line and on opposite sides of the line. Use plenty of white space to avoid the look of congestion. Neat and Tidy • • • • • Line entity boxes up. which are difficult to follow. People remember shapes and patterns.

more volatile entities toward the top and left of the diagram. 3-16 and 3-17. Position lower volume. 5456-V1. For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling. pp. at least one end of the relationship will point down or to (he right.0.Lay Out the E-R Diagram . Quick Note • Until an M:M relationship is resolved. 63 . less volatile entities toward the bottom and right of the diagram. Position higher volume.cont'd Draw crowsfeet pointing up or to the left. Layout Rules • • • Try to position a crowsfoot on the left end or the top end of the relationships line.

Attribute names should be specific . First name and last name qualify an EMPLOYEE. identifying. classifying. Example What are some attributes of the entity EMPLOYEE? • • • • • Badge number or payroll number identify an EMPLOYEE.. Payroll category (e. e. an attribute's name should not include its entity's name. on leave. date of contact. or quantity purchased? Always clarify a date attribute with a descriptor or verb phrase.g.ATTRIBUTES Attributes are information about an entity that needs to be known or held. 64 . John is a value of the attribute first name of EMPLOYEE. Example 77506 and 763111 are values of the attribute badge number. Attributes describe an entity by qualifying. weekly or salary) classifies an EMPLOYEE. Therefore. An attribute should only be assigned to a single entity. terminated) expresses the status of an EMPLOYEE. Age quantifies an EMPLOYEE.e.e. quantifying or expressing the state of the entity. Employment status (e.g. quantity returned. not codified for the developer.g. code of COURSE.g. Quick Notes • • • • • Attribute names should be clear to the user. date ordered.g. not an instance. Attributes represent a type of description or detail.. active. is it quantity. The entity's name is always a qualifier of the attribute name .

Attributes .cont'd Diagramming Conventions • • Attribute names are singular and shown in lower case. Example 65 . List attribute names in their entity's soft box.

vendor.Attributes . 66 .cont'd Always break attributes down into their lowest meaningful components. Examples The name of a PERSON can be broken down into last name and first name. Break down aggregate attributes and embedded code fields into simple attributes. • The level of attribute decomposition will depend upon the business requirements. Alternative ly it can be decomposed into multiple attributes: apartment/suite. state. times. Quick Notes • • Attributes containing dates. and zip code. city. and item number. An attribute of address is frequently left as an aggregate and then decomposed during Design. social security numbers. street address. and zip codes are generally not decomposed further. The number of an ITEM consists of type.

and the business needs to keep all dates of contact. Example Are the attributes of CLIENT single -valued? No.cont'd Verify that each attribute has a single value for each entity instance. 67 .Attributes . The entity CONTACT is missing. a CLIENT may be contacted multiple times. A multi-valued attribute or repeating group is not a valid attribute. Quick Note • A repeated attribute indicates a missing entity.

68 .g.g. Common Derived Data • • • • Counts (e. Redundant data can lead to inconsistent data values. The derived data must be revised whenever the attributes upon which it is based are revised.Attributes .g. a salesman's commission calculated at 10% of sales) Do not include derived attributes in an E-R Model. statistics on the sales of a group of salesmen) Other calculations (e. • Address the option of storing derived data during Database Design. the total number of each salesman's monthly sales) Max/Min/Average (e.cont'd Verify that an attribute is not derived or calculated from the existing values of other attributes. Quick Notes • • Derived attributes are redundant. the number of salesman in a region) Totals (e.g.

and became an entity with a relationship to VEHICLE. Number of dependents is an attribute of EMPLOYEE. Color scheme then had attributes of its own. then DEPENDENT becomes an entity. Quick Notes • • Entities have attributes. the user defined the requirement to track the paint color. Attributes have no attributes on their own. but if it is necessary to keep each dependent's name and age. paint type. Example Determine if all the attributes of EMPLOYEE are attributes. Example Determine if all of the attributes of VEHICLE are really attributes.DISTINGUISH ATTRIBUTES AND ENTITIES If an attribute has attributes of its own. Number of dependents can now be derived. 69 . Later. Initially the user identified color scheme as an attribute of VEHICLE. and trim color for each color scheme. then it is really an entity.

cont'd All entities are nouns. Entity Characteristics Anything about which information must be held Possesses one or more attributes Does not possess attribute (s) of its own Attribute Characteristics Qualifies an entity If an entity has no attributes. Attributes for that entity may appear later. Instances of entities and attributes are also nouns. but not all nouns are entities.Distinguish Attributes and Entities . 70 . then it is an entity or have no signific ance Has a single value for each entity occurrence (no repeating groups) Quick Notes • • Do not disqualify a candidate entity too quickly. it may be only an attribute May have multiple occurrences associated with another entity via a relationship If an attribute has an attribute.

Optional Attributes • • A value may be known for each entity occurrence. The title and weight attributes are optional. Example Identify the attributes for the PERSON entity. Determine their optionality. Tagged with *. 71 .ATTRIBUTE OPTIONALITY Identify each attribute's optionality using an attribute tag. Mandatory Attributes • • A value must be known for each entity occurrence. Tagged with o. The remaining attributes are mandatory.

cont'd Use sample attribute instance data to validate attribute Optionality. 72 .Attribute Optionality . Entity Name: PERSON Attribute Name Tags Sample Data code * 110 301 134 340 589 name * Jones Smith Gonzales Johnson Brown title o President Treasurer Secretary sex * F M F M M weight o 210 110 195 Quick Note • An Entity Instance Chart is useful for logging sample attribute data. Example Are the mandatory and optional attribute tags for the PERSON entity correct? Use an Entity Instance Chart to validate that the mandatory and optional attribute tags for the PERSON entity are correct.

Attributes may appear in interview notes as: • • • • Descriptive words and phrases.IDENTIFY ATTRIBUTES Identify attributes by examining interview notes and by asking the user questions. Prepositional phrases (e. Nouns.g. Salary amount for each employee). Employee's name). Questions to Ask the User • • What information do you need to know or hold about entity x? What information would you like displayed or printed about entity x? 73 .g. Possessive nouns and pronouns (e.

Identify Attributes .0. 74 . Paper Forms Headings Prompts Computer Reports Fields Headings Sort Orders Computer Files Record layouts File Dumps Questions to Ask the User • Is this attribute really needed? Quick Notes • • Beware of obsolete requirements left over from previous systems. pp. 5456-V1. 5-6 and 5-7.cont'd Examine documentation on existing manual procedures or automated systems to discover additional attributes and omissions. Beware of derived data. For further information on the subject see: CASE*Method Entity Relationship Modelling.

We number each set of comments. and any comments on the event. and Storage Tech. an optional description of the event. We collect dues on a yearly basis. Be sure to tag each attribute with its optionality. We're an all volunteer organization. EG&G. the November Meeting. For example. and we frequently get multiple sets of comments for an event. type of membership (individual or corporate). Some of our annual events include the September Meeting. We also like to know which company a member works for. Some of our members are really active. address. how much money we spent on it. We need an information system to help us keep track of all our affairs. and our April Meeting. and everyone's dues are due in January. Develop an E-R Diagram for the following situation. "Our regional Oracle User's Group has grown to include over 200 members. (continued) 75 . Our members come from many different companie s including Coors. A few of our members are unemployed. we held a special CASE day last May. office phone number. Redrocks Community College. We only keep the main company address for each company. title. and D. came and spoke. We also track which members attended which events. For each company. For each member. we keep the company name. We definitely need to automate our membership records. We have a standard set of type of business codes. We hold various events during the year. A set of comments is just a free form text statement of any length. and our records are a mess. We also hold specia l events each year.U. and type of business. We hold our events at several different locations around town including AT&T. and we'd like to track information about each event. we need to keep the member's name.EXERCISE 3-7 Develop an E-R Diagram. and Richard Barker from ORACLE U. where it was held. mailing address. and others attend very infrequently or just enjoy receiving our newsletter. but keeping this information current is a real chore because our members are always changing companies. We'd like to track each event's date.K. number of attendees. and whether or not the member is current on dues. the annual Training Day in January. We treat all comments as if they came from an anonymous submitter. We only try to track a single current employer for each member. 1.

accounting. and 080 is for other Unix platforms. 003 is for VAX/VMS. 002 is for IBM/VM.cont'd "We also need to track what type of computer platforms our members are using. oil and gas. human resources." 76 . pharmaceuticals. three-digit system identification tag for each type of platform. We have a unique. For example.Exercise 3-7 . 001 is for IBM/MVS. We also like to track which application areas each member is interested in. 030 is for PC/DOS: 050 is for Sun Unix. For example. 020 is for OS/2. and health systems. The applications should be portable. so we don't need to know which platforms they run on.

The UID for the entity DEPARTMENT is the attribute number. Quick Notes • • All components of a UID must be mandatory *.ASSIGN UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS A Unique Identifier (UID) is any combination of attributes and/or relationships that serve to uniquely identify an occurrence of an entity. An entity must have a UID. 77 . Example For a small theatre. Example In a business. The UID for the entity THEATRE TICKET is the combination of the two attributes date of performance and seat number. each occurrence of DEPARTMENT is uniquely identified by its department number. Each entity occurrence must be uniquely identifiable. Tag each UID attribute with #*. or it is not an entity. each ticket is uniquely identified by its date of performance and its seat number.

Example The UID bar indicates that the relationship with BANK is part of the UID of ACCOUNT. Example In the banking industry. Within a bank. each bank is assigned a unique bank number. each account has a unique account number. Use a UID bar to indicate that a relationship is part of the entity's UID. What is the UID of the entity ACCOUNT? ACCOUNT is uniquely identified by its attribute number and the specific BANK the account is related to. Quick Note • A relationship included in a UID must be mandatory and one and only one in the direction that participates in the UID. 78 .Assign Unique Identifiers .cont'd An entity can be uniquely identified through a relationship.

79 . Quick Note • Both relationships are mandatory and one and only one in the direction included in the UID. and the date assigned.Assign Unique Identifiers . Example A business needs to track the work assignments of its employees.cont'd An entity may be uniquely identified through multiple relationships. What is the UID of the entity WORK ASSIGNMENT? A WORK ASSIGNMENT is uniquely identified by the EMPLOYEE the WORK ASSIGNMENT is for. Employees are given work assignments to projects. the PROJECT the WORK ASSIGNMENT is to. An employee may be given multiple assignments to a single project. each with a different date of assignment.

Select one candidate UID to be the primary UID.Assign Unique Identifiers . first name/last name Are they all unique? The first name/last name combination is probably not unique. Quick Notes • • Either tag Secondary UIDs as (#). badge number 2. 80 . and the others to be secondary UIDs. CASE*Dictionary can document multiple secondary UIDs. payroll number 3. Example What uniquely identifies an EMPLOYEE? Candidate UIDs include: 1.cont'd An entity may have more than one UID. or do not tag them.

Quick Notes • • Artificial attributes are used often for UIDs. However. artificial attributes to help identify each entity. 81 . Create an artificial attribute called CUSTOMER code which will be unique for each instance of CUSTOMER. there could be two CUSTOMERS with the same name.Assign Unique Identifiers .cont'd Consider creating unique. Define an artificial code when the business does not have a natural attribute which uniquely identifies an entity. Example What uniquely identifies a CUSTOMER entity? Possibly the CUSTOMER'S first and last name could be a UID.

Does the selected combination of attributes and relationships uniquely identify each instance of an entity? • Are all the attributes and relationships that are included in the UID mandatory? 82 . • • Does an attribute uniquely identify the entity? What combinations of attributes uniquely identify the entity? Consider the Relationships • • • • Which of the relationships help identify the entity? Are there missing relationships that help identify the entity? Does the relationship help uniquely identify the entity? Is the relationship mandatory and one and only one in the direction from the entity? Validate the UID • Examine sample data.cont'd Search for attributes and relationships to identify each entity. Consider creating artificial attributes for identification. Evaluate the Attributes • What mandatory attributes identify the entity? Seek out additional attributes that help identify the entity.Assign Unique Identifiers .

Introduction to UNIX and C Programming are two of our more popular courses. We teach many courses. An instructor can teach several courses. The students can take several courses over time." E-R Model from Exercise 3-5 83 . and a fee. and identify a UID for each entity. Jamie Brown from AT&T took every course we offer! We track each student's name and phone number. We track each instructor's name and phone number. For the Training Company situation and E-R model from Exercise 3-5. and many of them do this. Paul Rogers and Maria Gonzales are two of our best teachers. We create a course and then line up an instructor. 1. each of which has a code. Courses vary in length from one day to four days. supply attribute tags for each attribute. Each course is taught by only one instructor. "I'm the manager of a training company that provides instructor-led courses in management techniques. Some of our students and instructors do not give us their phone numbers. Add these attribute tags and UID's to the E-R model. a name.EXERCISE 3-8 Identify UIDs.

and current address. we need to know its title and category (e.g. So we'd like to keep track of the star actors appearing in each movie. We have lots of customers. we do have multiple copies of many of our movies. and then track which movie a tape contains. comedy. We have over 3. "I'm the owner of a small video store. 1. Our tapes are very long. We are frequently asked for movies starring specific actors. We track only actors who appear in the movies in our inventory. and we don't have any movies. We don't keep track of any rental histories. we’d like to keep his or her first and last name. specific movie. Customers like to know each actor's "real" birth name and date of birth. We give each movie a specific id. or sci-fi)." 84 . A tape may be either Beta or VHS format. We just track current rentals. action. supply attribute tags for each attribute. Not all of our movies have star actors. war." To belong to our club. Then we need to keep track of what video tapes each customer currently has checked out. drama. and each tape is always a copy of a single. current phone number. Yes.EXERCISE 3-9 Identify UIDs. For each movie. John Wayne and Katherine Hepburn are always popular. of course each club member has a membership number. Each of our video tapes has a tape number. Also. For each club member. suspense. And. We always have at least one tape for each movie we track. identify a UID for each entity and add these UIDs to the E-R model. which require multiple tapes. For the Video Store situation and E-R Model from Exercise 3-6. We only rent videos to people who have joined our "video club.000 video tapes that we need to keep track of. they must have good credit. A customer may check out multiple video tapes at any given time.

cont'd E-R Model from Exercise 3-6 85 .Exercise 3-9 .

EXERCISE 3-10 Identify UIDs. We have a standard set of type of business codes. the November Meeting. and whether or not the member is current on dues.U. For each company. Our members come from many different companies including Coors. title. and Richard Barker from ORACLE U.K. For each member. office phone number. "Our regional Oracle User's Group has grown to include over 200 members. We hold various events during the year. and any comments on the event. and our records are a mess. how much money we spent on it. We also track which members attended which events. Redrocks Community College. We only try to track a single current employer for each member. We only keep the main . A set of comments is just a free form text statement of any length. came and spoke. number of attendees. and we frequently get multiple sets of comments for an event. and type of business. 1. we need to keep the member's name. and Storage Tech. We're an allvolunteer organization. and others attend very infrequently or just enjoy receiving our newsletter. an optional description of the event. we held a special CASE day last May. address. we keep the company name. For example. and we'd like to track information about each event. identify a UID for each entity and add these UIDs to the E-R Model.company address for each company. and D. where it was held. For the Oracle User's Group situation and E-R Model from Exercise 3-7. but keeping this information current is a real chore because our members are always changing companies. We also hold special events each year. We definitely need to automate our membership records. We'd like to track each event's date. We number each set of comments. (continued) 86 . We hold our events at several different locations around town including AT&T. and our April Meeting. Some of our members are really active. We treat all comments as if they came from an anonymous submitter. Some of our annual events include the September Meeting. We also like to know which company a member works for. We need an information system to help us keep track of all our affairs. the annual Training Day in January. type of membership (individual or corporate). We collect dues on a yearly basis and everyone's dues are due in January. A few of our members are unemployed. EG&G. mailing address.

oil and gas. 002 is for IBM/VM.Exercise 3-10 . accounting. 003 is for VAX/VMS. 030 is for PC/DOS. pharmaceuticals.cont'd We also need to track what type of computer platforms our members are using. human resources. We have a unique. 001 is for IBM/MVS. 020 is for OS/2. The applications should be portable. 050 is for Sun Unix. and 080 is for other Unix platforms. For example. and health systems. so we don't need to know which platforms they run on.." E-R Model from Exercise 3-7 87 . "We also like to track which application areas each member is interested in. For example. three-digit system identification tag for each type of platform.

REVIEW: BASIC CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING An entity is a thing of significance about which information needs to be known or held. Write a description of it. Is each instance of the entity uniquely identifiable? Which attribute or attributes could serve as its UID? 5. John Brown and Mary Smith are EMPLOYEES. unique name Name in upper case Optional synonym name (in parentheses) Any dimensions Identify and Model Entities 1. Are they things of significance? 2. Diagramming Conventions • • • • • Soft box Singular. 88 . "An EMPLOYEE has significance as a paid worker at the company. Name each entity." 6. For example. Is there information of interest about the entity that the business needs to hold? 4. Diagram each entity and a few of its attributes. Examine the nouns. 3.

Relationship Syntax Diagramming Conventions Crows always fly east or south! Analyze and Model the Relationships Between Entities 1. Name each direction of the relationship.cont'd A relationship is a two-directional. 89 . Determine the existence of a relationship. 3. Determine the degree of each direction of the relationship. significant association between two entities. Model the relationship. or between an entity and itself. 2.Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . 5. 4. Determine the optionality of each direction of the relationship.

3. Analyze and Model Attributes 1. 6. Validate that the attribute is really an attribute and not an entity. 90 . Name the attribute.Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . Diagramming Conventions • • Attribute names are singular. lower case. Break down aggregate attributes. Verify that an attribute is not derived. Identify a candidate attribute. 7.cont'd Attributes are information about an entity that needs to be known or held. 2. Associate the attribute with an entity. 4. 8. Determine the optionality of the attribute. Verify that an attribute is single valued. and do not include the entity's name. Attribute tags: * for mandatory and o for optional. 5.

3. Define the UID for the entity. A Unique Identifier (UID) is any combination of attributes and/or relationships that serve to uniquely identify an occurrence of an entity. Determine the entity's dependence upon other related entities. 2.Review: Basic Conceptual Data Modelling . Identify UIDs for Each Entity 1. 91 . Seek out candidate attributes that help identify an entity.cont'd Each entity must be uniquely identifiable. Diagramming Conventions • # indicates an attribute is part of an entity's UID. • The UID bar indicates a relationship is part of the UID.

4 ADVANCED CONCEPTUAL DATA MODELLING 92 .

and exclusive relationships.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. subtypes. 2. Resolve many-to-many relationships with intersection entities. Identify and model advanced data constructs including recursive relationships. 93 . you will be able to: 1. 3. Validate that an attribute is properly placed based upon its dependence on its entity's UID.

NORMALIZE THE DATA MODEL Normalization is a relational database concept. • Higher normal forms are not widely used. No non-UID attribute can be dependent on another non-UID attribute. but its principles apply to Conceptual Data Modelling. 94 . A normalized entity-relationship data model automatically translates into a normalized relational database design. Quick Notes • Third normal form is the generally accepted goal for a database design that eliminates redundancy. Validate each attribute's placement using the rules of normalization. Normal Form Rule First Normal Form (1NF) Second Normal Form (2NF) Third Normal Form (3NF) Description All attributes must be single -valued An attribute must be dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier.

Validation Check: • Validate that each attribute has a single value for each occurrence of the entity. create an additional entity and relate it to the original entity with a M:1 relationship.Normalize the Data Model . No attribute should have repeating values. If an attribute has multiple values. how could it be converted to 1NF? The attribute date contacted has multiple values. 95 .cont'd First Normal Form Rule: All attributes must be single-valued. Example Does the entity CLIENT comply with 1NF? If not. therefore the entity CLIENT is not in 1NF Create an additional entity CONTACT with a M:1 relationship to CLIENT.

but not on account number. 96 . • Validate that an attribute is not dependent upon only part of it's entity's UID. The attribute bank location is misplaced. It should not be an attribute of ACCOUNT. If an attribute is not dependent on its entity's entire UID. it is misplaced and must be moved. Example Validate the placement of the attributes for the ACCOUNT and BANK entities. Validation Check: • Validate that each attribute is dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier. Example Validate the placement of the COURSE entity's attributes.cont'd Second Normal Form Rule: An attribute must be dependent upon it entity's entire unique identifier. Each specific instance of the UID must determine a single in stance of each attribute.Normalize the Data Model . Each instance of a BANK and account number determine specific values of balance and date opened for each account. The attributes are properly placed. Each instance of a course code determines a specific value for name duration and fee. It is dependent on BANK.

cont'd Third Normal Form Rule: No non-UID attribute can be dependent on another non-UID attribute. Quick Note • If an attribute is dependent upon a non-UID attribute. Move any non-UID attribute that is dependent upon another non-UID attribute. move both the dependent attribute and the attribute it is dependent upon to a new. Validation Checks: • • Validate that each non-UID attribute is not dependent upon another non-UID attribute.Normalize the Data Model . Create another entity called CUSTOMER with a UID of customer id. related entity. 97 . Example Are any of the non-UID attributes for this entity dependent upon another non-UID attribute? The attributes customer name and state are dependent upon the customer id. and place the attributes accordingly.

identify the misplaced attribute.EXERCISE 4-1 Normalize an E-R Model 1. 2. For the following E-R Model. and explain what rule of normalization each misplaced attribute violates. Optionally. re-draw the E-R diagrams in third normal form. 98 . evaluate each entity against the rules of normalization.

If attributes describe a relationship.RESOLVE M:M RELATIONSHIPS Attributes may seem to be associated with a M:M Relationship. 99 . Attributes only describe entities. the relationship must be resolved. Resolve that M:M relationship by adding an intersection entity with those attributes. What is the current price of a specific PRODUCT from a specific VENDOR? current price seems to be an attribute of the relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR. Example Consider the M:M relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR.

• • • The relationships from the intersection entity are always mandatory. Quick Notes • An Intersection Entity is frequently identified by its two originating relationships . They tend to be high volume and volatile entities. Intersection entities frequently represent real-world business entities. the requirement for additional attributes of CATALOG ITEM surfaced: package quantity and unit of measure are also attributes of CATALOG ITEM.Resolve M:M Relationships . Current price is really an attribute of the entity CATALOG ITEM.cont'd Replace or resolve a M:M Relationship with a new Intersection Entity and two M:1 relationships. Example The M:M relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR can be resolved by adding the intersection entity CATALOG ITEM. Once the entity CATALOG ITEM is defined. The UID for CATALOG ITEM is composed of its two relationships. 100 .note the two UID bars. Intersection entit ies usually contain consumables like quantity used and dates.

cont'd Position Intersection Entities to allow the crowsfeet to point up or to the left.Resolve M:M Relationships . 101 . the layout of the entire diagram may need to be shuffled. When M:M relationships are resolved. M:M Relationship Layout Intersection Entity Layout Quick Notes • • A Reference Entity is an entity that has no mandatory rela tionship ends connected to it.

and grade. The UID of ENROLLMENT is made up of its relationships to STUDENT and COURSE. Quick Note • This model only tracks the last date the student enrolled in a specific course. If multiple enrollments need to be kept. 102 . include the attribute date enrolled as part of the UID. and the student's grade.cont'd The UID of an intersection entity is frequently composed of its relationships to the two originating entities. the date the student completed the course. Example Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate these additional requirements: "Track the date each student enrolled in a course." Solution Add the intersection entity ENROLLMENT and two M:1 relationships. ENROLLMENT has attributes of date enrolled. date completed.Resolve M:M Relationships .

with different assignment dates. the related PROJECT. and the attribute date assigned. and the duration of that assignment. WORK ASSIGNMENT is partially identified by its relationships to EMPLOYEE and PROJECT." Add an intersection entity called WORK ASSIGNMENT with attributes date assigned and duration.Resolve M:M Relationships .cont'd An intersection entity's relationships to the two originating entities may not be adequate to uniquely define each occurrence of the intersection entity. the UID of WORK ASSIGNMENT must include the related EMPLOYEE. but those two relationships are not enough to uniquely identify a WORK ASSIGNMENT. Therefore. An employee may have multiple assignments to a project. 103 . Example Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate these additional requirements: "Track the date each employee is assigned to a project.

Resolve the following M:M relationship to accommodate this additional requirement. What other information needs to be known about a VENDOR ITEM? "We also need to know the package quantity and unit of measure of each VENDOR ITEM.cont'd Once an intersection entity is identified. search for additional attributes which describe the intersection entity." 104 .Resolve M:M Relationships . Add the intersection entity VENDOR ITEM with an attribute of current price. Example What information needs to be known about the relationship between PRODUCT and VENDOR? "We need to track the current price of a specific PRODUCT from a specific VENDOR.

105 . Example How do you identify each VENDOR ITEM? Do you use the combination of the related VENDOR code and the PRODUCT id? "No.cont'd Search for attributes which identify. or help to identify an intersection entity." According to the rules of the business. each VENDOR ITEM has a unique catalog number.Resolve M:M Relationships . So the attribute catalog number should be the UID of VENDOR ITEM. we have a catalog of all orderable VENDOR ITEMs. and each VENDOR ITEM has a unique catalog number.

Resolve the M:M relationship with an Intersection Entity with no attributes. An Intersection Entity with no attributes is the exception to the rule that an entity must have attributes to be an entity. the user has not identified any attributes that are associated with the M:M relationship. This forced resolution may result in an Intersection Entity with no attributes. the following M:M relationship was defined. The UID for an empty Intersection Entity is always composed of the relationships of the two entities from which it or iginated.cont'd Resolve all M:M relationships by the end of the Analysis phase.Resolve M:M Relationships . At the end of the Analysis Stage. 106 . Quick Notes • • • An Intersection Entity with no attributes is just a two-way cross-reference list between occurrences of the entities. Example In the Video Store situation.

1. In the E-R Model for the Oracle User's Group from Exercise 3-10. For example. one member might already have a large accounting application system that they developed in house. Additional Requirements "We would also like to keep a brief description of each member's interest in each specific application area. Resolve that M:M relationship based upon the following additional requirements.EXERCISE 4-2 Resolve a M:M relationship." 107 . Another member might be interested in an application area without describing that interest. a M:M relationship was initially modelled between the MEMBER entity and the APPLICATION AREA entity.

1. and price. 108 . Add the attributes date ordered. Resolve the following M:M Relationship between CUSTOMER and PRODUCT. quantity ordered.EXERCISE 4-3 Resolve a M:M relationship.

MODEL HIERARCHICAL DATA Represent hierarchical data as a set of many to one relationships. Quick Note • Oracle's E-R Diagram layout rule Crows fly east or south causes hierarchies to be drawn upside-down or sideways! 109 . Example Model a company's hierarchical organization structure as a set of M:1 relationships.

and ROOM? The UID of ROOM is the room id and the SUITE it is located within. SUITE.Model Hierarchical Data .cont'd The UID's for a set of hierarchical entities may be propagated through multiple relationships. The UID of SUITE is the suite number and the FLOOR it is located on. 110 . Example What are the UIDs of the entities FLOOR. The UID of FLOOR is the floor number and the BUILDING it is contained in.

Model Hierarchical Data . Example In a typical organization structure. and TEAM? Each TEAM could be identified based upon its DEPARTMENT. artificial identification code. use independent artificial identifiers. what could uniquely identify instances of the entities DIVISION. Or each entity could have a unique. artificial identification codes tend to be shorter in length. If the hierarchical structure changes often. 111 . independent. independent.cont'd Consider creating artificial attributes to help identify entities in a hierarchical relationship. DEPARTMENT. DIVISION. and COMPANY. Quick Notes • • Unique.

112 .MODEL RECURSIVE RELATIONSHIPS A Recursive Relationship is a relationship between an entity and itself. The loop can appear on any side of the entity's box. Each EMPLOYEE may be managed by one and only one EMPLOYEE. Example Read the recursive relationship in the following E-R Diagram. but remember that crows always fly east or south. Quick Notes • • The E-R diagramming convention that shows a recursive relationship is known as a pig's ear. Each EMPLOYEE may be the manager of one or more EMPLOYEES.

• 113 . If each ORGANIZATION ELEMENT must be within another ORGANIZATION ELEMENT. A recursive relationship must be optional in both directions. the entities at each level of the hierarchy would have the same attributes.Model Recursive Relationships . Example A business hierarchy can be drawn as a recursive relationship. the organization hierarchy would have to be infinite. Ideally. A recursive organization model cannot handle a mandatory relationship. Quick Notes • • • The single recursive entity must include all of the attributes of each individual entity.cont'd Consider representing a hierarchy as a recursive relationship. A recursive organization model can readily accommodate the addition or subtraction of organization layers.

114 . assemblies. Example An automobile manufacturing organization needs to track elementary parts. The following E-R diagram models this data by considering each of these part categories as an entity. subassemblies.cont'd Bill of Materials data can be modelled with multiple entities for each category of "part" and a set of relationships between each of those entities. and products.Model Recursive Relationships .

115 .Model Recursive Relationships .cont'd Model Bill of Materials data as a many to many recursive relationship. Each COMPONENT may be made up of one or more COMPONENTS. consider all elementary parts. Then the previous complex E-R Model can be remodelled as a simple recursive relationship. subassemblies. Example For the automobile manufacturing organization. and products as instances of an entity called COMPONENT. Each COMPONENT may be a part of one or more COMPONENTS. assemblies.

This model will track information about which components are part of a fan. But if a washer is part of a fan. The two M:1 relationships from an instance of ASSEMBLY RULE will be associated with different instances of the COMPONENT entity.cont'd Resolve a recursive M:M relationship with an intersection entity and two M:1 relationships to different instances of the original entity.Model Recursive Relationships . the ASSEMBLY RULE instance for washers to fan will have a M:1 relationship to the COMPONENT instance for washer and a second M:1 relationship to the COMPONENT instance for fan. 116 . Example Consider the recursive model of a Bill of Materials structure. will it also track how many washers are parts of a fan? The attribute quantity seems to be associated with the recursive relationship. Resolve this M:M recursive relationship by adding the intersection entity ASSEMBLY RULE and two M:1 relationships back to the COMPONENT entity. ASSEMBLY RULE will have an attribute of quantity. The ASSEMBLY RULE entity will record the quantity of washers. which are a part of a single fan. For example.

and Utah-New Mexico. For example. Each district is made up of sales territories.EXERCISE 4-4 Model hierarchical and recursive relationships." 117 . and has a specific sales quota. 1. We identify all our sales personnel by their employee ids. Develop one as a hierarchical structure. Then each sales territory is broken down into sales areas. The Pacific Coast District is composed of two territories: the California and Nevada territories. We don't overlap our employees' responsibilities . Pacific Coast. So we've divided the U. The northwest District is made up of two territories: The Washington and Oregon-Idaho territories. For example. managers. Colorado is made up of two sales areas: the Front Range and the Western Slope sales areas. and our managers and director's responsibilities don't overlap. Each salesperson is responsible for one or more sales areas. "Our company sells products throughout the United States. and Pacific Districts. into four major sales regions: the Northern. The Rocky Mountain District is composed of three territories: Wyoming-Montana. the Western Region is divided into the Rocky Mountain. Colorado. and directors will be on leave or special assignments arid will not have sales turf responsibilities. Each sales manager is responsible for the territories within his districts. Each territory has a unique territory code.a sales area is always the responsibility of a single salesperson. The Pacific District includes the Hawaii territory and the Alaska territory. Sometimes our salespersons. Each sales area has a unique sales area code. and Western Regions.S. Develop two E-R diagrams to represent the following situation. Each sales region has a unique region code. and sales directors who are responsible for one or more sales regions. and one as a recursive structure. Southern. Eastern. Each district has a unique district code. Northwest. Each sales region is then divided into sales districts. We also have sales managers who are responsible for one or more sales districts.

Example In the E-R Model for the Training Company. we defined an INSTRUCTOR entity and a STUDENT entity. This model works fine if an INSTRUCTOR is never a STUDENT. which represent roles. and a STUDENT is never an INSTRUCTOR. 118 . But what if an INSTRUCTOR is also a STUDENT? Entities.MODEL ROLES WITH RELATIONSHIPS Beware of entities that represent roles. may share overlapping instances.

define a PERSON entity. Relationships allow a single entity instance to assume multiple roles.cont'd Use relationships to model roles. Example For the Training Company. which may take on the roles of instructor and/or student.Model Roles with Relationships . 119 .

120 . For the exempt employees. track each employee's badge number." Create an EMPLOYEE supertype with two subtypes. For the non-exempt employees. and membership in a union.the subtype/supertype construct is incorrect in those instances. For all employees. Quick Note • Beware of instances that could be both subtypes . Example "A business has defined two types of employees: exempt and non-exempt. and assigned department. overtime rate. also track employee salary. last name. first name. Each EMPLOYEE is either an EXEMPT EMPLOYEE or a NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE.MODEL SUBTYPES Use subtypes to model exclusive entity types which have common attributes and common relationships. track the employee's hourly rate.

121 . A supertype may be split into two or more mutually exclusive subtypes. but not both. EMPLOYEES Each subtype may have its own attributes and relationships. Example All EMPLOYEES must have the attributes badge number. The NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype has attributes of hourly rate and overtime rate. and a relationship with the entity UNION. Example The EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype has an attribute of salary.cont'd A supertype is an entity that has subtypes. Quick Note • A subtype with no attributes or relationships of its own may be a synonym for the supertype entity and not a subtype. Example An EMPLOYEE is either an EXEMPT EMPLOYEE or a NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE. A supertype may have attributes and relationships shared by its subtypes. first name. and last name. All must be assigned to one and only one DEPARTMENT.Model Subtypes .

which is a type of supertype.." Example "... Supertype Reading Rules "Each supertype entity must be either a subtype 1 or a subtype2" Example "Each JOB must be either a MANUAL JOB." Subtype Reading Rules ". but there might be a few exceptions. or OTHER JOB." Always use the subtype OTHER when unsure about the set's completeness. a job is either a MANUAL JOB or a CLERICAL JOB.CLERICAL JOB... Example In general.Model Subtypes ... Subtypes must form a complete set with no overlaps. which is a type of JOB. a CLERICAL JOB.subtype.cont'd All instances of the supertype entity must belong to one and only one of the subtype entities.. 122 ...

Model Subtypes . AIRPLANE. AIRPLANE is a subtype of AIRCRAFT and a supertype of POWERED AIRPLANE and GLIDER. and AIRCRAFT. Example Define further subtypes for the subtype entity AIRPLANE. JET PLANE inherits the attributes and relationships of POWERED AIRPLANE.cont'd Subtypes can be further subtyped. 123 . Normally two or three levels of nesting are adequate.

MODEL EXCLUSIVE RELATIONSHIPS Model two or more mutually exclusive relationships from the same entity using an arc. Use an arc to model this relationship. or all optional. An entity may have multiple arcs. 124 . Exclusive Relationship Reading Rules "Each entityA either relationship1 entity1 or relationship2 entity2. An arc belongs to a single entity. Arc Modelling Conventions • • • • The relationships in an arc frequently have the same relationship name." Example Each BANK ACCOUNT either must be owned by one and only one INDIVIDUAL or must be owned by one and only one COMPANY. Example A BANK ACCOUNT either must be owned by an INDIVIDUAL or must be owned by a COMPANY. but a specific relationship can only participate in a single arc. The relationships in an arc must be either all mandatory. and must only include relationships originating from that entity.

A break in the arc indicates a relationship.cont'd Choose between two conventions for drawing arcs. which is not included in the arc. Drawing Convention 2 . Drawing Convention 1 .Model Exclusive Relationships .An Arc with Optional Dots A dot on the arc is used to signify that a relationship belongs to the arc.An Arc without Dots Any relationship crossed by the arc belongs to the arc. 125 .

" Each office also has a unique three-digit office number. The central office oversees the vehicle distribution. Develop an E-R Model for the following information requirements. and whether or not it has a working radio. Our corporate sales group handles all that information separately. and expiration date of its registration. Each rental office has an office name like "Littleton Right-Way. 10' trucks. We have five different types of vehicles: 36' trucks. but a rental agreement can either be for an individual or for a company. Most of our rental agreements are for individual customers.EXERCISE 4-5 Develop an E-R Model. and then again when it is returned. "The Right-Way Rental Truck Company rents small moving trucks and trailers for local and one-way usage. 24' trucks. We also keep each office's address. customers really prefer a radio. and 6' open trailers. we need to track the last maintenance date. we don't need to worry about any additional infor mation about a company. and a license plate registration number. the gas tank capacity. Each office is a home office for some of our vehicles. We have 34 7 rental offices across the western United States. Yes. we need to know the current odometer reading. 1. 8' covered trailers. Each rental e office rents vehicles that they have in stock to customers ready to take possession of the vehicle. state of registration. and directs transfers of vehicles from one rental office to another. We do rent a small percentage of our trucks to companies. or speculate on when the customer will return rented vehicles. (Continued) 126 . We don't take reservations. We assign each company an identifying company number and track the company's name and address.780 vehicles including various types of trucks and trailers. For long moves. For all our vehicles. Each vehicle has a vehicle id. Our rental stock includes a total of 5. No. We log the current mileage just before we rent a truck. we do have a vehicle type code. For our trucks. and each vehicle is based out of a single home office. We need to implement a system to track our rental agreements and our vehicl assignments.

just our rental agreement tracking and vehicle assignment functions. the originating rental office. and the quoted rate per mile. Yes. abandoned it. then we tag the customer as a poor risk. We only allow a single individual or company for a given rental agreement. or didn't fully pay the bill. We also need to track the rental date. the anticipated duration of the rental. address." 127 . We like to keep track of all our customers. and we write a separate rental agreement for each vehicle. No. number. and driver's license state. and won't rent to that customer again. the quoted daily rental rate. we don't need to automate the financial side of our business. we record the customer's name. we do have customers rent two or more vehicles at the same time.Exercise 4-5 . and expiration date. Each rental agreement is identified by the originating rental office number and a rental agreement number. there isn't a mileage charge. If a customer damaged a vehicle. the amount of the deposit paid. home phone. Of course for the trailers. the drop-off rental office.cont'd "For each individual customer.

128 . Ask the User: • • • • • Is an audit trail required? Can attribute values change over time? Can relationships change over time? Do you need to query older data? Do you need to keep previous versions? Quick Note • Validate any requirements for storing historical data with the user.MODEL DATA OVER TIME Add additional entities and relationships to the E-R model to accommodate historical data. Storing unnecessary historical data can be costly.

cont'd Create an additional entity to track an attribute's values over time. closed.) Initially the following CONTRACT entity was modelled. The UID of the STATUS entity is the related CONTRACT and the effective date. To model status values over time add a STATUS entity. the contract's status (e. or suspended.g. and was suspended. open. Quick Note • Use a single entity to record the values over time of multiple attributes associated with an entity (such as CONTRACT). was closed. The above CONTRACT entity supports a single current status value for CONTRACT. The law Firm wants to track the dates each contract was opened. 129 . Example A consulting firm needs to keep information about its contracts. Each contract has a unique contract id.Model Data Over Time . and they need to keep a description of the contract.

cont'd Add a new entity to accommodate a relationship that may change over time. Add the entity RENTAL HISTORY ENTRY to capture the values of the rental relationship over time.Model Data Over Time .) The following E-R Model will only track the current renter of an APARTMENT. Example An apartment owner wants to track the tenants in each of his apartments. 130 . (The apartment only writes rental contracts with a single person. not multiple people.

Example A professional society wants to track the companies that its members have been employed by over time and the term of each employment (e. By including the attribute from date in the UID of EMPLOYMENT HISTORY ENTRY. 131 .g. There is an M:M rela tionship between each member and each company. which changes over time. from date and to date).cont'd An intersection entity is frequently used to track information about a relationship. to track each employee's employments over time and the dates of those employments. this model will track any multiple terms of employment at a single company by a single employee. Add an intersection entity.Model Data Over Time . EMPLOYMENT HISTORY ENTRY.

Keeping this rental history will allow us to analyze the pattern of our rentals. so we don't need to keep a due date. we really need to keep a history of all our rentals." 132 . We will also know how many times a particular tape has been used. Modify the Video Store E-R Model to accommodate the following additional requirements.EXERCISE 4-6 Model data over time. We will also be able to analyze our customers' movie preferences. 1. and will then know when to retire each tape. All our tapes are due back the next day. "You know. we would like to keep the rental date/time and the return date/time. We will be able to determine how many tapes each customer rents and how many times a customer has returned a tape late. Each time a customer rents a tape.

Example Develop an E-R model for employment history.MODEL COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS Beware of a ring of M:M relationships. So resolve each of the M:M relationships. track the position held. and the dates the posit ion was held. For each person. Which intersection entity are the dates of the position attributes of? All of them? None of them? 133 . the company worked for. The dates of the position seem to be an attribute of a relationship. A person may hold a specific position within the same company multiple times during their career. Initially the following E-R Model was defined.

follow the rules of basic E-R Modelling to name the entity.Model Complex Relationships . • Consider its mandatory relationships as candidates for inclusion in its UID. and POSITION entities. and to analyze and model its relationships.cont'd Model a relationship between three or more entities as an Intersection Entity with mandatory relationships with those entities. Example A person's employment history is really a 3-way relationship between the PERSON. Use a single intersection entity called EMPLOYMENT HISTORY to model this relationship. COMPANY. A complex relationship is a relationship between three or more entities. and its UID. • For an intersection entity representing a complex relationship. Quick Notes • An intersection entity for a complex relationship always has mandatory relationships back to the entities to which it relates. its attributes. 134 .

we don't need to keep the specific version of each product.) each member is using on which computer platforms. just the general product name. Financials. 1. a M:M relationship was initially modelled between the MEMBER entity and the COMPUTER PLATFORM entity. Revised Requirements "No. etc. Revise that relationship based upon the following revised requirements. CASE. SQL*Forms. Instead." 135 . SQL*TextRetrieval. Pro*C. No. we really don't need to know what computer platform each member is using.EXERCISE 4-7 Model a complex relationship. In the E-R Model for the Oracle User's Group from Exercise 3-10. what we really need to know is which Oracle products (RDBMS.

etcetera. Attorneys are also assigned to a particular department. We assign reopened cases new case numbers. Events have special codes like O for Open. T for Trial. After a case has been closed. and each case is assigned to a particular department for administrative purposes.EXERCISE 4-8 Optional Exercise Develop a complex E-R Model. "I am the senior partner in a large. My firm Bailey and Associates. L for Lost." Our firm is made up of departments such as litigation. but we need to tie the new case number to the previous case number. We have retained a database administrator to organize and track various data because the firm grew faster than we had imagined and now there are "cases lying all over the place. Cases have to be identifiable by a unique number which appears on a list with every event date and event description. Develop an E-R Model for the following business. civil suits. handles a wide variety of cases including traffic violations. We need a list of events for a given case (essentially a history of the case) that includes a log of events and the date the event became effective. and there must always be an event status for every case. it may be reopened at some future date. homicide. domestic disputes. and homicide cases. (continued) 136 . We want to keep track of important information associated with a case including the department to which it is assigned and a brief description (such as Jones vs. but this is only for billing/payroll purposes since an attorney can work on cases in other departments. diversified law firm. 1. Jones).

and we'd like to know about all four. Jones may be a judge on one case and an eyewitness on another. For example. there are four people who are parties to this case. a judge presiding over the case. of course. and some kind of unique numbering system.Exercise 4-8 . and we're working for the defendant. assume that a given party can serve in different roles in different cases. but simply as party to a case. and there is. We are only interested in keeping track of parties and the roles that they play in the context of a particular case. eyewitnesses (EW). we have a murder case.The kinds of people that may be involved in cases include judges (JG). but a party can only serve in one role on a given case. There is also an eyewitness. In this context.One attorney is assigned to the case. Parties should be identified by their name and date of birth. Thus. we are not tracking the attorney in terms of billing. For example.cont'd Attorneys can be party to multiple cases the same way a number of people can be party to multiple cases. defendants (DE) and of course attorneys (AT). To elaborate on the varying roles that people can play." 137 .

then it's gonna cost 'em more. CA. Develop an E-R Model for the following business." and each one has a specific passenger capacity and registry. Registry is the country that it is registered with." 138 . which has a certain length and number of ports. unless it's not full and that passenger wants to share with someone else. So. and so on. Yes. eleven and fourteen day cruises. some people want to go on only the newer ships. as well as Anchorage. If the cabin can hold four people.huh? Oh. "Goodsky. so I guess that's why you're here. three. for each cruise we also have different ports that we stop at. no not boats. What? The ports of Los Angeles. always on the second day of the cruise. No. seven. we'll have two ships. Every cruise has a name. the Miami cruises go to the Bahamas and the Virgin Islands: and the Anchorage cruises make stops all through Alaska. the LA cruises go down to Mexico ports like Cabo San Lucas and Mexico City. 1. and Miami. Yes. See. then we can pay the travel agent who made the reservation their commission. That depends on the number of people in the cabin and the "class" of the cabin. Each year we put out a brochure with the information on each cruise that we offer. Huh? Whenever we book a cabin under the manual system we remove the cabin from the availability board. FL. boats can fit onto ships. and we'll probably expand to 5 or 6 by 1995. we can then price them. I guess we would need the age of each ship. We vary ports depending on where the cruise originates. We've decided that our manual system of booking passengers onto our ships won't hold up when we get our new ship. A three day cruise will have only one stop. length in number of days ." and the new one. Each cruise also has a specific ship assigned to it. Each one has the name "Goodsea. we don't need to worry about tonnage or draft or anything else about the ship." "Goodwind. and which cruise they pick will tell us which cabins are available. AK. each cruise will make port calls on different days out. Once passengers are booked. and they are travelling alone.EXERCISE 4-9 Optional Exercise Develop a complex E-R Model. Once they choose from what is available. Passengers who sail with us will pick a given cruise. Depending upon the length of each cruise. and we get a deposit from them. a seven day cruise will stop at three ports. "I'm Phil Sales with Shipmore Cruises.

5 RELATIONAL DATABASE CONCEPTS 139 .

140 . Understand the concept of data integrity. Define what primary keys and foreign keys are.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. you will be able to: • • • Understand what a relational database is.

141 . i..e. Quick Notes • • Relational database tables are simple but disciplined. Example The relational table below contains employee data.RELATIONAL DATABASE OVERVIEW A relational database is a database that is perceived by the user as a collection of relations or two-dimensional tables. A relational database must possess data integrity. its data must be accurate and consistent.

Relational Database Overview . EMP_NO -----100 210 LNAME ----SMITH BROWN FNAME ----JOHN JIM DEPT_NO ------10 10 The Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to manipulate relational databases. • A relational database can support a full set of relational operations. lname. Relational operations manipulate sets of data values. SQL> 2 3 SELECT emp_no. use the following SQL statement. 142 . Example To select all employees who work in Department 10. Quick Notes • The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has established SQL as the standard language for operating upon relational databases. Tables can be operated on to create other tables. dept_no FROM employee WHERE dept_no = 10. Rela tional operations can be nested. fname.cont'd Relational databases are manipulated a set at a time rather than a record at a time.

PRIMARY KEYS A Primary Key (PK) is a column or set of columns that uniquely identifies each row in a table. An entity's UID will map to a Primary Key in its corresponding table. and a primary key must be unique. Example The primary key for the EMPLOYEE table consists of the EMP_NO column. 143 . Each row in the table is uniquely identified by its EMP_NO value. The primary key must be unique. Quick Notes • • • No duplicates are allowed in a Primary Key. Each table must have a primary key. Primary keys generally cannot be changed.

but in combination. no duplicates are allowed. Quick Note • The columns of a composite primary key must be unique in combination. Each row in the table is uniquely identified by its BANK NO and ACCOUNT NO values. Example The composite primary key for the ACCOUNT table consists of the combination of the BANK_NO and ACCOUNT_NO columns.Primary Keys .cont'd A Primary Key consisting of multiple columns is called a Composite Primary Key or a Compound Primary Key. The individual columns can have duplicates. 144 .

Therefore EMP_NO must be defined as NOT NULL. Example EMP_NO is the primary key of the EMPLOYEE table. Both BANK_NO and ACCOUNT_NO must be defined as NOT NULL. Example How does the ACCOUNT table violate the rules of Primary Keys? Two of the rows contain NULL values in part of the composite PK.Primary Keys . 145 .cont'd No part of a primary key may be NULL.

Person names are not normally candidate keys because their uniqueness cannot be guaranteed. 146 .cont'd A table can have more than one column or combination of columns that can serve as the table's primary key.Primary Keys . Secondary UIDs map to Alternate Keys. the combination LNAME/ FNAME would probably not be a candidate key. Select one candidate key to be the Primary Key for the table. Each of these is called a Candidate Key. The other candidates become Alternate Keys (or Unique Keys). in the EMPLOYEE Table. For example. Example Quick Notes • • • All Candidate Keys must be Unique and NOT NULL. Example What are the candidate keys for the EMPLOYEE table? EMP_NO and PAYROLL_ID are candidate keys.

. Quick Notes • • Foreign keys are used to join tables. and refers to values in the DEPT_NO column of the DEPARTMENT Table.FOREIGN KEYS A Foreign Key (FK) is a column or combination of columns in one table that refers to a primary key in the same or another table. Foreign keys are based on data values and are purely logical. Example DEPT_NO is a FK in the EMPLOYEE Table.

Foreign Keys - cont'd
A foreign key must match an existing primary key value (or else be NULL). Example
The FK DEPT_NO in the EMPLOYEE table refers to values of the PK DEPT_NO in the DEPARTMENT table.

If a Foreign Key is part of a Primary Key, that FK cannot be NULL. Example
In the ACCOUNT table, the FK BANK_NO must be NOT NULL because it is part of the PK.

DATA INTEGRITY
Data Integrity refers to the accuracy and consistency of the data. Data Integrity Constraints
Data integrity constraints define the relationally correct state for a database. Data integr ity constraints ensure that users perform only operations which leave the database in a correct, consistent state. Constraint Type Entity Integrity Referential Integrity Explanation No part of a primary key can be NULL. A foreign key must match an existing primary key value (or else be NULL). Column Integrity A column must contain only values consistent with the defined data format of the column. User-Defined Integrity The data stored in a database must comply with the rules of the business.

All data integrity constraints should be enforced by the DBMS or the application software. Quick Note
• Data is inconsistent if multiple copies of an entry exist, and not all copies have been updated. An inconsistent database can supply incorrect or contradictory information to its users.

Data Integrity - cont'd
The rules of a business can also determine the correct state for a database. Such business rules are called User-Defined Data Integrity Constraints. Example
A business has the following user-defined data integrity constraints.
An exempt employee is not paid for the tirst 5 hours of overtime worked. An employee in the Finance Department cannot have a title of: "Programmer". A Salesman's commission cannot exceed 50% of salary.

Quick Notes
• User-defined data integrity constraints can be set by management policy or be required by government laws. • • Frequently these business rules are completely arbitrary, or at least seem to be arbitrary. User-defined data integrity constraints may involve multiple columns and tables.

6 INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN

Translate an entity-relationship data model into a relational database design. Document a database design using Table Instance Charts. . 2. 3.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Explain how Database Design fits into the Database Development Process. you will be able to: 1.

DATABASE DESIGN
Database Design is performed during the Design Stage of the System Development Cycle and is performed concurrently with Application Design.

Database Design - cont'd
Database Design is performed in two distinct activities. Database Design Activities
1. Map the E-R Model to relational tables to produce an initial design. 2. Refine the initial design to produce a complete database design.

Database Design Deliverable
The Database Design Stage produces design specifications for a relational database including definitions for relational tables, indexes, views, and storage space.

INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN OVERVIEW
Document each relational table on a Table Instance Chart. Table Instance Chart
Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column EMPNO Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 7369 Data 7902 7521 7698 7839 MARY SMITH CLERK ANALYST 17- DEC-80 800 03- DEC-81 3000 7902 7566 7698 20 50 30 30 10 NN, U NN NN NN NN PK FK1 FK2 FNAME LNAME JOB HIREDATE SAL COMM MGR DEPTNO

HENRY FORD SUE BOB BOB WARD BLAKE KING

SALESMAN 22- FEB-81 1250 6000 MANAGER

01- MAY-81 2850 10000 7839

PRESIDENT 17- NOV- 81 5000 5000

Quick Notes
• • The valid Key Types are PK for a Primary Key column, and FK for a Foreign Key column. Use suffixes to distinguish between multiple FK columns in a single table, for example, FK1 and FK2. Label multiple column keys with the same suffix. • • • • • Use NN for a column that must be defined NOT NULL. Use U for a column that must be unique. If multiple columns must be unique in combination, label them with a suffix, for example U1. Label a single column PK as NN, U. Label a multiple column PK as NN, U1 or possibly as NN, U1 and U.

Initial Database Design Overview - cont'd
This familiar Training Company E-R Model will be used to illustrate the activities of Initial Database Design. Training Company E-R Model

Initial Database Design Overview . 5. Map unique identifiers to primary keys. Map relationships to foreign keys. Steps in Initial Database Design 1. 6. Map attributes to columns and document sample data. 3. 2.cont'd Follow a set of steps to map an E-R Model to a set of relational tables producing an initial database design. Choose subtype options. . Choose arc options. 4. Map the simple entities to tables.

In Step 6. Record only the name of the table.MAP SIMPLE ENTITIES Map each simple entity to a table. Example Create a Table Instance Chart for the INSTRUCTOR entity. . Create a Table Instance Chart for the new table. the designer must decide how to map a supertype/subtype construct to tables. The plural of the entity name is sometimes used because the table will contain a set of rows. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Quick Notes • The table name should be easy to trace back to the entity name. • A simple entity is not a subtype or supertype. Name the table INSTRUCTOR.

NUMBER. Example Map the attributes of the entity INSTRUCTOR to columns in the INSTRUCTOR table. Since id. first name. Avoid the use of SQL reserved words as column names .MAP ATTRIBUTES TO COLUMNS Map each attribute to a column in its entity's table. Is it DEPTNO or DEPTNUM? • Short column names will reduce the time required for SQL command parsing. . For example. and last name are mandatory attributes. Quick Notes • • • Column names should be easily traced o the E-R model. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data NN NN NN INST_ID FNAME LNAME PHONENO For each attribute. designate their columns as NOT NULL. will Number be abbreviated as NO or NUM. Map mandatory attributes to NOT NULL (NN) columns. select a short but meaningful column name. Use consistent abbreviations to avoid programmer and user confusion.for example.

Map Attributes to Columns . Example Document sample data for the columns of the INSTRUCTOR table.cont'd Document sample rows of data in each table's Table Instance Chart. Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 10 81 73 95 301 NANCY MARIA PETE KATHY ERIC HALL GONZALES CASSIDY ANDRONICA CAMPLIN 798-2251 756-4891 301-2291 483-9221 535-3166 NN NN NN INST_ID FNAME LNAME PHONENO Sources for Sample Data • • • • • User interview notes Entity Instance Charts Current computer systems Other analysis stage documentation Additional conversations with the user .

Table Name: INSTRUCTOR Column Name INST_ID FNAME Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data PK NN. Label those columns NN and U1 . which are part of the entity's UID to PK column(s). Example The attribute id is the UID of the entity INSTRUCTOR. Label the columns PK. Quick Notes • • All columns labeled PK must also be labeled NN and U. which includes multiple attributes to a composite PK. so make the corresponding column INST_ID the PK of the INSTRUCTOR table. U 10 81 73 95 301 NN NANCY MARIA PETE KATHY ERIC NN HALL GONZALES CASSIDY ANDRONICA CAMPLIN 798-2251 756-4891 301-2291 483-9221 535-3166 LNAME PHONENO A key type of PK indicates a primary key column. Map a UID.MAP UID'S TO PRIMARY KEYS Map any attribute(s).

FK1 and FK2. use suffixes to distinguish between them. Example The UID of the ENROLLMENT entity is composed of its relationship to COURSE and its relationship to STUDENT. If multiple FK columns exist in a table. NN. .cont'd If an entity's UID includes a relationship. Label multiple column keys with the same suffix. Add sample data for the FK columns. Quick Notes • • Choose a unique name for each FK column. Add two FK columns to the ENROLLMENT table for the PK of the COURSE table and the PK of the STUDENT table. and label the column(s) PK. and FK. • • Composite PK's must be unique in combination and should be labeled VI. add foreign key columns to the table and mark them as part of the primary key. for example.Map UID's to Primary Keys .

For must be relationships.MAP RELATIONSHIPS TO FOREIGN KEYS For M:1 relationships. take the PK at the one end and put it in the table at the many end. label the column NN. and label the column (s) FK. Example Take the PK INST_ID at the one end. Supply sample data. U 344 974 401 717 659 NN SQL*FORMS SQL*RW DB DESIGN DBA SOL*PLUS 1000 400 400 900 400 5 2 2 3 2 81 73 95 73 301 NAME FEE DUR INST_ID FK Go with the many! Quick Notes • • • Choose a unique name for the FK column. . Table Name: COURSE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data COURSE_ CODE PK NN. and put it in the table COURSE at the many end.

Therefore. these two columns already exist.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . the FK columns to support the relationship may have been added in Step 3. Example The PK for the ENROLLMENT table included both the foreign key COURSE_CODE and the foreign key ST_ID. and do not need to be added to support the relationships. .cont'd If the table's PK includes a foreign key.

The FK is labeled U to enforce the 1:1 relationship. U NN NN NN PK CHIP SPEED CHIP 386SX 25 386 33 MINITOWER 200 . place the unique FK in the table at the mandatory end and use the NOT NULL constraint to enforce the mandatory condition. U NN NN NN. Table Name: PERSONAL COMPUTER Column INV_NUM CASE_TYPE Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 1045 Data 0437 1458 1223 1088 BABY AT BABY AT TOWER TOWER 150 200 220 220 4579 8731 4773 9978 4517 NN. U PK POWER_ MB_ID SUPPLY FK Table Name: MOTHERBOARD Column MB_ID PROC_ PROC_ COPROC_ Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample 9978 Data 4517 4773 4579 8731 486 386 486 33 40 25 N Y N N Y NN.cont'd For a mandatory 1:1 relationship. Example Since the relationship from PERSONAL COMPUTER is mandatory. place the FK for the relationship in the PERSONAL_COMPUTER table and label it NOT NULL.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . MB_ID is the FK column added.

and labeled Unique to enforce the 1:1 relationship.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . The B_NUM column is added to the SHIP table. Example For the optional 1:1 relationship between BERTH and SHIP. .cont'd If a 1:1 relationship is optional in both directions. place the FK in the table at either end of the relationship. the FK column could also be placed either in the BERTH or SHIP table.

Map Relationships to Foreign Keys .cont'd For a 1:M recursive relationship. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data EMP_ID PK NN. add an FK column to the EMPLOYEE table for each employee's manager. U 7450 5579 6714 9451 3040 NN MARY LESLIE JANET BILL JUAN NN SMITH STERNE GENTRY ABLE GOMEZ 7450 5579 7450 9451 FNAME LNAME MGR_ID FK Quick Notes • • • The FK column refers to a row in the same table. Example For this 1:M recursive relationship.1. A recursive FK will never be NOT NULL. Name the FK column name to reflect the relationship. 1. add a FK column to the single table. . Name the column MGR_ID to reflect the relationship. This FK column will refer to values of the PK column.1.

cont'd For a 1:1 recursive relationship. This FK column will refer to values of the PK column.Map Relationships to Foreign Keys . add a unique column to the PERSON table. Example For this 1:1 recursive relationship. . U1 NN NN FK U1 PERS_ID FNAME LNAME SPOUSE_ID SUSAN JONES JANET BILL JERRY GENTRY JONES JOHNSON Quick Notes • The combination of the PK and FK columns must always be unique in order to ensure the 1:1 relationship. Table Name: PERSON Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 7450 5379 6714 9451 3040 MARY SMITH 9451 3040 5579 6714 PK NN. • • A recursive FK will never be NOT NULL The additional constraint that a PERSON cannot be married to him/herself would have to be implemented separately by the application programs or stored procedures. add a unique FK to the table.

4. Document each table design on a Table Instance Chart. 3.REVIEW: MAPPING SIMPLE E-R MODELS TO TABLES Map a simple Entity-Relationship model to an initial database design using the following four steps: Steps 1. 2. Map attributes to columns and document sample data. 5. . Map relationships to Foreign Keys. Map UID's to Primary Keys. Map simple entities to tables.

Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts.EXERCISE 6-1 Create an initial database design. 1. Create sample data as required. Follow the first four steps of Initia l Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. .

cont'd Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .Exercise 6-1 .

EXERCISE 6-2
Create an initial database design.
1. Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts. Create sample data as required.

Exercise 6-2 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample

EXERCISE 6-3
Create an initial database design.
1. Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied set of Table Instance Charts. Create sample data as required.

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Exercise 6-3 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample

EXERCISE 6-4
Optional Exercise Create an initial database design.
1 Follow the first four steps of Initial Database Design to map this E-R Model to a set of initial table designs. Document your table designs on the supplied Table Instance Charts. Use the interview notes on the following page to select sample data for the Table Instance Charts.

Exercise 6-4 - cont'd
Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data

Exercise 6-4 - cont'd
2 Use the following interview notes to select sample data for the Table Instance Charts. "Our company sells products throughout the United States. So we've divided the U.S. into four major sales regions: the Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western Regions. Each sales region has a unique region code. Each sales region is then divided into sales districts. For example, the Western Region is divided into the Rocky Mountain, Northwest, Pacific Coast, and Pacific Districts. Each district has a unique district code. Each district is made up of sales territories. The Rocky Mountain District is composed of three territories: Wyoming-Montana, Colorado, and Utah-New Mexico. The northwest District is made up of two territories: The Washington and Oregon-Idaho territories. The Pacific Coast District is composed of two territories: the California and Nevada territories. The Pacific District includes the Hawaii territory and the Alaska territory. Each territory has a unique territory code. Then each sales territory is broken down into sales areas. For example, Colorado is made up of two sales areas: the Front Range and the Western Slope sales areas. Each sales area has a unique sales area code. Each salesperson is responsible for one or more sales areas, and has a specific sales quota. We also have sales managers who are responsible for one or more sales districts, and sales directors who are responsible for one or more sales regions. Each sales manager is responsible for the territories within his districts. We don't overlap our employees' responsibilities - a sales area is always the responsibility of a single salesperson, and our managers and director's responsibilities don't overlap. Sometimes our salespersons, managers, and directors will be on leave or special assignments and will not have sales turf responsibilities. We identify all our sales personnel by their employee ids."

MAP COMPLEX E-R MODELS TO TABLES Follow the following additional steps to map a complex Entity-Relationship Model to an initial database design. Additional Steps 5 6 Choose Arc Options Choose Subtype Options .

CHOOSE ARC OPTIONS Arcs represent a kind of multiple alternative foreign key. The OFFICE SUITE entity has an arc across the many ends of three relationships. and corresponding FK columns must be added to the OFFICE_SUITE table. Use either an Explicit Arc Design or a Generic Arc Design to add these multiple alternative foreign keys. Quick Notes • Also use an Explicit Arc Design or a Generic Arc Design to implement multiple foreign keys when an arc spans a set of 1:1 relationships. • Arcs can only span relationship ends that are either all mandatory or all optional. Alternative Designs • • Explicit Arc Design Generic Arc Design Example This E-R Model will map to four tables. Choose between two alternative designs for mapping arcs to foreign keys. .

For example. Table Name: OFFICE_SUITE Column Name BLDG_ ID SUITE_NUM INDIV_I PARTNER_ CODE D Key Type PK PK NN. Example The following E-R Model contains four simple entities. FKs must be added to the OFFICE_SUITE table. and will be mapped to four separate tables. create a FK column for each rela tionship.Choose Arc Options . U1 Sample Data 1024 512 977 3041 2371 Quick Notes • The Explicit Arc Design will support multiple Foreign keys with different formats. . PARTNER_CODE. Therefore. Using an Explicit Arc Design. U1 101 210 144 510 430 54532 10844 54101 30045 A4431 FK1 FK2 FK3 COMPANY_ NUMBER Nulls/ Unique NN. The arc spans the many end of three relationships. and COMPANY_ID could all have a different column format.cont'd The Explicit Arc Design creates a foreign key column for each relationship included in the arc. INDIV_ID. • Application software must enforce relationship exclusivity between the foreign keys.

U1 1111 2111 14 510 430 FK NN 30045 A4431 54532 10844 541111 NN 1 P 1 C C Quick Notes • • If the relationships under the arc are mandatory. create four separate tables for this E-R Model . . Since the relationships are exclusive. and C for COMPANY. make both added columns NOT NULL. P for PARTNERSHIP. create a single foreign key column. Table Name: OFFICE_SUITE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data BLDG_ID SUITE_NUM RENTER _ID RENTER_ TYPE PK NN.Choose Arc Options . The foreign keys must share the same format for all referenced tables.cont'd The Generic Arc Design creates a single foreign key column and one relationship flag column for the arc. and add a type column to indicate which of the three tables is referenced by the FK column in each row. only one FK value will exist for each row in the table. add the to the OFFICE_SUITE table.one for each entity. J for INDIVIDUAL. For example. Example Again. Since the arc spans the many end of the relationships. U1 11124 512 977 MM 2371 PK NN. Using the Generic Arc Design.

1 Using an Explicit Arc Design. Table Name: STUDENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data . Document your design on the provided Table Instance Charts.EXERCISE 6-5 Map arc structures to tables. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model.

Exercise 6-5 .cont'd Table Name: COUNTY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: OTHER STATE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: FOREIGN COUNTRY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 6-5 . develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model.cont'd 2 Using a Generic Arc design. Document your design on the provided Table Instance Charts. Table Name: STUDENT Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 6-5 .cont'd Table Name: COUNTY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: OTHER STATE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: FOREIGN COUNTRY Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

EXEMPT EMPLOYEE. Subtype Table Mapping Options • • • Single Table Design Separate Tables Design Arc Implementation (see Appendix E. p. two. the EMPLOYEE. and NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE entities may be mapped to one. depending upon the subtype table mapping option selected.CHOOSE SUBTYPE OPTIONS Choose from three options for mapping subtypes to tables. or three tables. . E-4) Example In the following supertype/subtype construct.

a TYPE column to identify which subtype each row belongs to.Single Table Subtype Design Map the subtypes onto a single table for the supertype.Choose Subtype Options . a column for each of the supertype's attributes. FK columns for each of the supertype's relationships. FK columns for each of the subtype's relationships.cont'd Option 1 . a column for each of the subtype's attributes. The single table will contain instances of all sub types. . Create • • • • • • single table for the supertype. Use a single table design when the subtypes have few subtype-specific attributes and relationships.

50 12.50 10.00 9.75 12.75 201 150 201 201 180 4579 6631 1190 370 800 7147 6794 941 1020 3500 FNAME LNAME EMP_ TYPE EE_ SALARY NE_ HOURLY_ RATE NE_ _ RATE NE_ _NUM FK1 FK2 NN 40 35 40 30 35 35 30 45 30 45 DEPT_ CODE OVERTIME UNION Nulls/ Unique NN.cont'd Option 1 .Choose Subtype Options .Single Table Subtype Design Example Map the EMPLOYEE supertype and its subtypes onto a single EMPLOYEE table. Table Name: EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_ NUM Key Type Sample Data PK NN JAMES KAREN MICHAEL MARIA TERRY JOE JULIA HARRY JOSE CLYDE NN JOYCE NN E 29000 25000 42700 44050 38450 8.50 18.50 6. U DIDONATO E WEINTER PENA SMITH SMITH WALKER KAPLIN GOMEZ JONES E E E NF NE NE NE NE .15 15.75 11.00 16.

.cont'd Option 1 . The EMP_TYPE column was added to the EMPLOYEE table for this purpose. Entity Type Supertype Subtype Columns for Attribtues BADGE_NUM FNAME LNAME EE_SALARY. NE_HOURLY_RATE.Choose Subtype Options . NE_OVERTIME_RATE FK Columns for Relationships DEPT_CODE NE_UNION_NUM Quick Note • The single table subtype design requires that a new type column be created to identify each row's subtype.Single Table Subtype Design The columns of the EMPLOYEE table are derived from the attributes and relationships of the supertype and all its subtypes.

Application logic will have to cater to different sets of attributes. Design Disadvantages • • Subtype NOT NULL requirements cannot be enforced at the database level. Design Advantages • • Access to the supertype is straightforward. depending on TYPE. The subtypes can be accessed and modified using views.Single Table Subtype Design Use the Single Table Subtype Design when there are few subtype-specific attributes and relationships.Choose Subtype Options .cont'd Option 1 . .

cont'd Option 2 . an FK column for each relationship to the supertype in each of the subtype's tables.Separate Tables Subtype Design Map the subtypes onto separate tables . an FK column for each relationship to a subtype in that subtype's table. Create • • • • • a table for each subtype. . a column for each attribute of the supertype in each of the subtype's table.Choose Subtype Options .one for each subtype. Each table will contain only instances of that subtype. a column for each attribute of a subtype in that subtype's table.

one for each subtype.cont'd Option 2 . U 4579 6631 1190 370 800 NN JAMES KAREN MICHAEL MARIA TERRY NN JOYCE NN 29000 LNAME SALARY DEPT_CODE FK NN 40 35 40 30 35 DIDONATO 25000 WEINER PENA SMITH 42700 44050 38450 .Choose Subtype Options . First create a separate table for the EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype. Table Name: EXEMPT_EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_NUM FNAME Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data PK NN.Separate Tables Subtype Design Example Map the EMPLOYEE supertype onto two tables .

15 15.75 11.75 12. Table Name: NON_EXEMPT_EMPLOYEE Column Name BADGE_ NUM FNAME LNAME HOURLY_ RATE OT_RATE UNION_ NUM FK1 NN NN NN NN NN FK2 NN DEPT_ CODE Key Type PK Nulls/ Unique Sample Data 7147 6794 941 1020 3500 JOE JULIA HARRY JOSE CLYDE SMITH WALKER KAPLIN GOMEZ JONES 8.00 9.Choose Subtype Options .50 18.50 12.50 10.50 6.00 16.75 NN.cont'd Option 2 . U 201 150 201 201 180 35 30 45 30 45 .cont'd Then create a separate table for the NON-EXEMPT EMPLOYEE subtype.Separate Tables Subtype Design Example .

.Choose Subtype Options .Separate Tables Subtype Design Use a Separate Tables Subtype Design when there are many subtype-specific attributes or relationships. Design Disadvantages • • • • Access to the supertype requires the UNION operator or a view with the UNION operator. Application program code must be specific to the individual subtype tables. Maintenance of UID's across subtypes is difficult to imple ment.cont'd Option 2 . Views that join the two tables are display only. Design Advantages • • The subtype's attribute optionality is enforced at the database level. Application logic does not require checks for subtypes.

Sample data is not required. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. 1 Using a Single Table Subtype Design.EXERCISE 6-6 Map subtypes to tables. Table Name : PRODUCT Table Name: ORDER . Document your design on the supplied Table Instance Charts.

Exercise 6-6 .cont'd Table Name: ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

cont'd 2 Using a Separate Tables Subtype Design. Sample data is not required. develop a table design for this Entity-Relationship Model. Document your design on the supplied Table Instance Charts. Table Name: PRODUCT Table Name: ORDER .Exercise 6-6 .

cont'd Table Name: PRODUCT_ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: SERVICE_ORDER_LINE Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .Exercise 6-6 .

. Map attributes to columns and document sample data. Choose arc options. Document an initial database design on Table Instance Charts. Steps for Mapping Entity-Relationship Models 1 2 3 4 5 6 Map simple entities to tables. Choose subtype options.REVIEW: INITIAL DATABASE DESIGN Map an Entity-Relationship Model to an initial database design using the following interrelated steps. Map UID's to Primary Keys. Map relationships to Foreign Keys.

7 TABLE NORMALIZATION .

SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. Explain how conceptual data modelling rules ensure normalized tables. . Place tables in Third Normal Form. you will be able to: 1 2 3 Define normalization and explain its benefits.

Second Normal Form (2NF) The table must be in INF. and tables." Why normalize tables? • • Normalization minimizes data redundancy. relationships. "Each non-primary key value MUST be dependent on the key. . • Normalization helps identify missing entities. Update and delete transactions may not be consistently applied to all copies of the data causing inconsistencies in the data. Every non-key column must be dependent on all parts of the primary key.NORMALIZE TABLES Categorize tables according to their degree of normalization. Data redundancy causes integrity problems. The table cannot contain repeating groups. Unnormalized data is redundant. and nothing but the key. Normal Form Rule Description First Normal Form (1NF) The table must be expressed as a set of unordered. the whole key. No non-key column may be functionally dependent on another non-key column. Quick Notes • Third normal form is the generally accepted goal for a database design that eliminates redundancy. • Higher normal forms are not widely used. twodimensional tables. Third Normal Form (3NF) The table must be 2NF.

RECOGNIZE UNNORMALIZED DATA Unnormalized data does not comply with any of the rules of normalization.00 4. and PRICE.75 5.00 65. ITEM DESCRIPTION.00 It contains a repeating group of ITEM NUM.00 10.00 65. Three variable length records are shown . Example Consider the following set of data. First Normal Form prohibits repeating groups. Why is this data unnormalized? ORDER ID 2301 6/23 DATE CUSTOMER ID 101 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite IL STATE ITEM NUM 3786 4011 9132 2302 2303 6/25 6/26 107 110 Herman's We-R-Sports WI MI 5794 4011 3141 ITEM DESCRIP net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY PRIC E 35.one for each ORDER_ID. QUANTITY. .

Create a new ORDERJTEM table with ORDER ID and the repeating group.00 4.00 Remove the repeating group of ITEM NUM.00 4. Example Convert the following set of unnormalized data to First Normal Form.00 65.75 5.75 5.CONVERT TO FIRST NORMAL FORM Remove any repeating groups.00 65. Steps 1 2 Remove the repeating group from the base table. The PK of the remaining table is ORDER ID. ITEM DESCRIPTION. QUA NTITY.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 DATE 6/23 6/25 6/26 CUSTOMER ID 101 107 110 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports ITEM DESCRIP Net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover QUANTITY 3 6 8 4 2 2 STATE IL WI MI PRICE 35. ORDER ID 2301 DATE CUSTOMER ID 101 CUSTOMER NAME Volleyrite STATE ITEM NUM 3786 4011 9132 5794 ITEM DESCRIP net racket 3-pack 6-pack QUANTITY PRICE 6/23 1L 2302 6/25 107 Herman's Wl 3 6 8 4 35. Create a new table with the PK of the base table and the repeating group.00 10.00 ORDER ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 .00 65. and PRICE.00 2303 6/26 110 We-R-Sports MI 4011 3141 racket cover 2 2 65. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 ORDER ID PK.00 10.

Steps 1 2 3 Determine which non-key columns are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key. Remove those columns from the base table. Any value of ORDERJD uniquely determines a single value of each column. all columns are dependent on the PK ORDERJD. Example Put the following table in2NF.CONVERT TO SECOND NORMAL FORM Remove any non-key columns that are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key. Quick Notes • • If each column is not dependent upon the entire primary key. . ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI DATE CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE The ORDER table is already in 2NF. Any table with a single column primary key is automatically in 2NF. Therefore. Create a second table with those columns and the column(s) from the PK that they are dependent upon. the table is not in 2NF.

00 65. but not dependent upon ORDER ID.00 4.FK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 3141 DESCRIPTION PRICE net racket 3-pack 6-pack cover 35. Example Put the following table in 2NF. To convert the table to 2NF.00 4.00 ITEM DESCRIP QUANTITY PRICE The ORDERJTEM table is not in 2NF since PRICE and DESCRIPTION are dependent upon ITEM NUM.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 ITEM NUM PK. remove any partially dependent columns.00 .75 5.Convert to Second Normal Form .00 65.cont'd Remove any non-key columns that are not dependent upon the table's entire primary key.75 5.00 65. Create an ITEM table with those columns and the column from the PK that they are dependent upon. ORDER ITEM ORDER ID ITEM NUM PK. ORDER ITEM ORDER ID PK.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 Net racket 3-pack 6-pack racket cover 3 6 8 4 2 2 35.00 10.00 10.

2 Remove those columns from the base table. Example Put the ORDER table in Third Normal Form. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI DATE CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE CUSTOMER NAME and STATE are dependent upon CUSTOMER ID. Create a second table with those columns and the non-key column that they are dependent upon. the ORDER table is not in 3NF. CUSTOMER ID is not the PK. Steps 1 2 3 Determine which columns are dependent upon another non-key column. Move the dependent non-key columns with the non-key column they depend upon Into a new CUSTOMER table. ORDER ORDER ID PK 2301 2302 2303 6/23 6/25 6/26 DATE CUSTOMER ID FK 101 107 110 PK 101 107 110 Volleyrite Herman's We-R-Sports IL WI MI CUSTOMER CUSTOMER ID CUSTOMER NAME STATE Quick Note • A table is in Third Normal Form if no non-key column is functionally dependent upon another non-key column.CONVERT TO THIRD NORMAL FORM Remove any columns that are dependent upon another non-key column. Therefore. .

Is it in 3NF? Why or why not? ORDER ITEM ORDER ID PK.FK 2301 2301 2301 2302 2303 2303 ITEM NUM PK. and nothing but the key.00 DESCRIPTION PRICE All non-key attributes are dependent on the key.75 5. The ORDERJTEM table is in 3NF. . Example Consider the ITEM table. Example Consider the ORDER JTEM table.FK 3786 4011 9132 5794 4011 3141 3 6 8 4 2 2 QUANTITY All non-key attributes are dependent on the key. the whole key. and nothing but the key.00 4.Convert to Third Normal Form . Is it in 3NF? Why or why not? ITEM ITEM NUM PK 3786 4011 9132 5794 3141 net racket 3-pack 6-pack cover 35.00 65.00 10.cont'd No non-key column can be functionally dependent upon another non-key column. The ITEM table is in 3NF. the whole key.

Second. Three variable length records are shown-one for each EMP_NUM. Put the following data into First.EXERCISE 7-1 Normalize a set of data. 1. and Third Normal Form on the supplied Table Instance Charts. EMPLOYEE First Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Second Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Third Normal Form Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Exercise 7-1 .cont'd Third Normal Form .cont'd Table Name: Column Name Key Type Nulls/ Unique Sample Data .

Create an additional entity and 1 :M relationship to ensure 1 NF. . therefore the entity CLIENT is not in 1NF. how could it be converted to 1NF? The attribute date contacted has multiple values. First Normal Form Rule • A table must contain no repeating groups. Create an additional entity CONTACT with a M:1 relationship to CLIENT. Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • All attributes must be single -valued.NORMALIZE DURING DATA MODELLING Ensure a 3NF table design by following the rules of data modelling. Example Is the entity CLIENT in 1NF? If not.

Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • An attribute must be dependent upon its entity's entire unique identifier. It is dependent upon the UID of BANK. . Move the attribute and place it where it depends upon the UID of it's entity.cont'd Validate each attribute's dependence upon its entity's entire UID. Example Are all of the attributes in the following E-R diagram dependent upon their entity's UID? The attribute bank location is not dependent upon the UID of ACCOUNT.Normalize During Data Modelling . Second Normal Form Rule • Every non-key column must be dependent upon all parts of the primary key.

Example Are any of the non-UID attributes for this entity dependent upon another non-UID attribute? The attributes customer name and state are dependent upon the customer id. Third Normal Form Rule • No non-key column can be functionally dependent upon another non-key column. .cont'd Verify attribute placement to ensure a normalized table design. and place the attributes accordingly. Corresponding Data Modelling Rule • No non-UID attribute can be dependent upon another non-UID attribute. Create another entity called CUSTOMER with a UID of customer id.Normalize During Data Modelling .

8 FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN .

Design indexes. 2.SECTION OBJECTIVES At the end of this section. 4. Understand database views. 3. . you will be able to: 1. Work with your DBA to plan physical storage usage. Specify referential integrity constraints. Evaluate table denormalization. 5.

and refine and extend the initial design to produce a complete database design. Denormalize the database design.FURTHER DATABASE DESIGN Review the default table design against the application module's requirements. . Activities • • • • • Define referential integrity constraints. Design indexes. Plan physical storage usage. Establish views.

.SPECIFY REFERENTIAL INTEGRITY A foreign key column value must match an existing primary key column value (or else be NULL). Use referential integrity constraints to specify how referential integrity is to be maintained. Delete Constraint • What happens if a row containing a referenced primary key is deleted? Update Constraint • What happens if a referenced primary'key is updated? * * Only an issue if the PK is updateable in the first place.

The deletion should be restricted to only DEPARTMENTS without employees.cont'd Specify a Delete Constraint to define what should happen if a row containing a referenced primary key is deleted. RESTRICTED. Options: CASCADE. . or NULLIFY (only if NULLs are allowed) Example Consider the EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT tables.Specify Referential Integrity . The matching EMPLOYEE rows should also be deleted. The foreign key should be nullified (valid only for FK's allowing NULLs) when the referenced PK is deleted.NO for which employees work is deleted from the DEPARTMENT table? Table Name: EMPLOYEE Table Name: DEPARTMENT Option CASCADE RESTRICTED NULLIFY Explanation of Constraint The deletion should cascade to the matching employees. What should happen if a DEPT.

The matching EMPLOYEE rows should also be updated to reflect the new PK value. RESTRICTED NULLIFY The update should be restricted to only DEPARTMENTS without employees.) Options: CASCADE. or NULLIFY (only ifNULLs are allowed) Example What should happen if a DEPT_NO for which employees work is changed to another DEPT_NO? Table Name: EMPLOYEE Table Name: DEPARTMENT Option CASCADE Explanation of Constraint The update should cascade to the matching employees. RESTRICTED. (The Update Rule is only meaningful if the PK is updateable.cont'd Specify an Update Constraint to define what should happen when a referenced primary key is updated. The foreign key should be nullified (valid only for FK's allowing NULLs) when the referenced PK is updated to a new PK value. DESIGN INDEXES An index is associated with a single physical table and contains the values of .Specify Referential Integrity .

one or more columns from that table. Database Design .Table Instance Chart Table Name: COURSE Physical Representations COURSE Table I_COURSES_PRIME Index (Unique) I_COURSES_2 Index (Not Unique) Design Indexes .cont'd .

0 . referenced in the WHERE clause of a SQL statement if the column is not modified For further information on the subject see: SQL Language Reference Manual.Use indexes to significantly improve data access time. Indexes • • • • Provide quick access to rows of data and avoid full table scans Facilitate table joins Ensure uniqueness of a value if defined as unique Are used automatically when. 778-V6.3601-V6.0 ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6.0.

MAY-9 28-JUL-91 05.FK1 NN. Table Design Table Name: ENROLLMENT Column ENROLL_ DATE_ Name DATE COMPLETEC Key Type Nulls/ NN Unique Sample 20-JUL-91 19-AUG.FK2 NN.U1 47592 15402 51394 94572 51394 --A B A 344 401 717 717 401 Physical Tables ENROLLMENT Table ROW ENROLL_ ID DATE 5011 20-JUL-91 5012 05-SEP-91 5015 14-J UN.91 Data 05-SEP-91 14-JUN.MAY-91 GRADE A B A COURSE_ CODE 344 401 717 717 401 ST_ID 47592 15402 51394 94572 51394 I_ENROLL_PRIME Index (Unique) COURSE_ CODE 344 401 401 717 717 ST_ID ROW ID 47592 15402 51394 51394 5011 5012 5014 5015 94572 5013 .91 28-JUL-91 08.MAY-91 GRADE COURSE_ CODE PK.MAY-91 5014 05.Design Indexes . Example The ENROLLMENT table has a composite PK of COURSE_CODE and ST_ID. Create a composite key called I_ENROLL_PRIME on both columns. Map a composite key to a concatenated index.91 28-JUL-91 28-JUL-91 21.91 5013 08.cont'd A concatenated index is an index created on a group of columns in a single table.U1 STJD PK.MAY-9 21.MAY-91 DATE_ COMPLETED 19-AUG.

3601-V6.0.Design Indexes . Be aware that under certain conditions.0 . For further information on the subject see: ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6. Quick Notes • • • A unique index references a column or set of columns that has unique values in the table. indexes are not used by the RDBMS. A non-unique index references a column or set of columns that are not unique in a table.cont'd Use indexes to implement keys and to support application access requirements.0 ORACLE RDBMS Performance Tuning Manual 5317-V6. Build Indexes for • • Primary keys (unique indexes) Foreign keys (generally non-unique indexes) Consider indexing • • • Alternate keys (unique indexes) Any critical non-key columns used in WHERE clauses Any search keys Indexes add storage and update overhead.

Examples A View of the EMP table could be used to restrict users from seeing the employees' salaries. presenting tables to users in any form. pre-joined base tables in SQL*Forms. checking data input. Quick Notes • • A view has no data of its own and merely relays informa tion from underlying tables. pre-packaging complex queries. A view is defined by a SELECT statement that is named and stored in the ORACLE Data Dictionary. providing referential integrity. producing rapid prototypes. designer. .ESTABLISH VIEWS Establish database views to meet application access requirements Views can be used for: • • • • • • • restricting access. Establish Views . A view can be thought of as a predefined window onto the database. • A view is queried as if it were a table.cont'd A View can restrict what the user. or tool sees.

A view defined across both tables could be used to pre-join the tables so the user would only see a single table. .A view can be used to present normalized data in a denormalized form. Example Following the rules of normalization. the ORDER and CUSTOMER tables are separate.

INSERT. UPDATE. .Establish Views . UPDATE. View Limitations • For a view based upon a single table. the SQL INSERT.cont'd Use views with caution. and DELETE commands have no limitations. it is possible to add rows not visible through the view unless the WITH CHECK OPTION is specified. • • For multi-table views with virtual columns. Access through a view is slower because it requires an extra access to the data dictionary. and may cause query optimization to be slower. When accessing tables through a view. and DELETE are restricted.

quick response time. Consider all other options prior to denormalization. Denormalization may be a solution for transactions with performance requirements such as: • • • high throughput.DENORMALIZE THE DATABASE DESIGN Always start with tables in Third Normal Form. . Beware of Denormalization! • • Be extremely reluctant to denormalize the default table design. high frequency. especially adding or changing the index structure. Denormalization can cause data inconsistency problems.

cont'd Combining tables is the most common form of denormalization. a combined table might be worth the data redundancy.Denormalize the Database Design . If high-volume account queries always access the bank name. The ACCOUNT table and the BANK table are combined on BANK_NUM. . Example Consider the ACCOUNT and BANK tables.

Create a view for each CODE_TYPE. Example The following separate codes tables are required for an application system. Combine all the tables into a single table with an additional column. . that defines which set of values the code belongs to.cont'd Individual codes tables may be combined into a reference table for validating and decoding coded values for an entire application system. They are used to provide the SQL*Forms list of values feature and to validate table values for INSERT or UP DATE. CODE_TYPE.Denormalize the Database Design .

Denormalize the Database Design . . The table contains two columns. Example The CHAR_CODE table on the previous page includes four different types of codes. CODE_TYPE and LENGTH. Each of these code types has a different valid length for its code description. Set up a CODE_TYPE table for validating the length of the descriptions.cont'd Establish a companion CODE_TYPE table for validating code description lengths. LENGTH is the maximum description length for each CODE_TYPE.

a repeating group of definite size. Represent vector data as either a set of rows or a set of columns. Column-Wise Table Design (3NF) Row -Wise Table Design .cont'd A vector is a one-dimensional array with a fixed number of values .Denormalize the Database Design .

Changes in the vector length can be easily accommodated.Denormalize the Database Design .. All values can be inserted with a single INSERT statement. Advantages of a Row -Wise Design • • • • On the input form. Advantages of a Column-Wise Design • • SQL group functions act on columns.g.cont'd Choose the table design for vector data based upon the functional access requirements. AVG. . Output reports showing all values horizontally are easy to produce. e. The storage space requirement is lower. SUM. all data values can appear on a single line.

cont'd Reconsider storing derived data in light of the functional access requirements and the capabilities of the software development tools. He frequently queries the total sales quota and sales-to-date for his region.Denormalize the Database Design . Maintaining sales quota data by region would be desirable. Sales data is updated weekly. Example A regional sales manager has 200 salespersons working for him. and maintaining sales-to-date might also be desirable. The sales quotas are established quarterly. .

0.3601-V6. For further information on the subject see: ORACLE RDBMS Database Administrator's Guide Version 6. estimate the amount of disk space required. Decide on the placement of tables and indexes on logically separate tablespaces and physically separate disks.0 . • Define storage allocation parameters based upon the expected patterns of data update and growth. Considerations • • For each table and index.PLAN PHYSICAL STORAGE USAGE Work with the Database Administrator to plan the physical placement of the database tables and indexes.

Activity 1: Initial Database Design • • • • • • Map the simple entities to tables. Denormalize the database design. Map attributes to columns and document sample data. Plan physical storage usage. Add system support tables. . Map unique identifiers to primary keys.SUMMARY: DATABASE DESIGN Database Design is the process of mapping the information requirements reflected in an Entity-Relationship Model into a relational database. Map relationships to foreign keys. Activity 2: Further Database Design • • • • • • Define referential integrity constraints. Establish views. Choose subtype options. Choose arc options. Design indexes.

SUMMARY: DATABASE DEVELOPMENT This course has covered the first two steps of the top-down database development process. The last step is Database Build. .

SQL> 2 3 4 CREATE TABLE DEPARTMENT DEPTNO DNAME LOC NUMBER (2) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. CHAR(20) NOT NULL. SAL NUMBER(7. Example The following Structured Query Language (SQL) statements will create the DEPARTMENT and EMPLOYEE tables. MGR CHAR(4) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE(EMPNO). For further information on the subject attend: Introduction to ORACLE for Developers . COMM NUMBER(7. DEPTNO NUMBER(2) NOT NULL REFERENCES DEPARTMENT (DEPTNO) ).DATABASE BUILD OVERVIEW In Database Build. SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE EMPNO NUMBER (5) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY. HIREDATE DATE NOT NULL. LNAME CHAR(15) NOT NULL. FNAME CHAR (15) NOT NULL. CHAR (15) NOT NULL ) . JOB CHAR(9).2).2). create physical relational database tables to implement the database design.

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