You are on page 1of 34

Wellbore Calculations

Home > Theory and Equations > Wellbore Calculations

Wellbore Calculations
Multiphase Flow Definitions
Input Volume Fraction
The input volume fractions are defined as:

We can also write this as:

Where: = gas formation volume factor = input gas volume fraction = input liquid volume fraction = gas flow rate (at standard conditions) = liquid flow rate (at prevailing pressure and temperature) = superficial gas velocity = superficial liquid velocity = mixture velocity ( + ) * is the gas rate at the prevailing pressure

Note: is the liquid rate at the prevailing pressure and temperature. Similarly, and temperature. The input volume fractions, multiphase correlations. and

, are known quantities, and are often used as correlating variables in empirical

In-Situ Volume Fraction (Liquid Holdup)
The in-situ volume fraction, (or ), is often the value that is estimated by multiphase correlations. Because of "slip" between phases, the "holdup" ( ) can be significantly different from the input liquid fraction ( ). For example, a single-phase gas can

http://www.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM]

Wellbore Calculations

percolate through a wellbore containing water. In this situation = 0 (single-phase gas is being produced), but > 0 (the wellbore contains water). The in-situ volume fraction is defined as follows:

Where: = cross-sectional area occupied by the liquid phase A = total cross-sectional area of the pipe

Liquid Holdup Effect
When two or more phases are present in a pipe, they tend to flow at different in-situ velocities. These in-situ velocities depend on the density and viscosity of the phase. Usually the phase that is less dense will flow faster than the other. This causes a "slip" or holdup effect, which means that the in-situ volume fractions of each phase (under flowing conditions) will differ from the input volume fractions of the pipe.

Mixture Density
The mixture density is a measure of the in-situ density of the mixture, and is defined as follows:

Where: = in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup) = in-situ gas volume fraction = mixture density = liquid density = gas density Note: The mixture density is defined in terms of in-situ volume fractions ( input volume fractions ( ). ), whereas the no-slip density is defined in terms of

Mixture Velocity
Mixture Velocity is another parameter often used in multiphase flow correlations. The mixture velocity is given by:

Where: = mixture velocity = superficial liquid velocity = superficial gas velocity

Mixture Viscosity
The mixture viscosity is a measure of the in-situ viscosity of the mixture and can be defined in several different ways. In general, unless otherwise specified, m is defined as follows.

http://www.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM]

Wellbore Calculations

W here: = in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup) = in-situ gas volume fraction = mixture viscosity = liquid viscosity = gas viscosity Note: The mixture viscosity is defined in terms of in-situ volume fractions ( of input volume fractions ( ). ), whereas the no-slip viscosity is defined in terms

No-Slip Density
The "no-slip" density is the density that is calculated with the assumption that both phases are moving at the same in-situ velocity. The no-slip density is therefore defined as follows:

Where: = input liquid volume fraction = input gas volume fraction = no-slip density = liquid density = gas density Note: The no-slip density is defined in terms of input volume fractions ( in-situ volume fractions ( ). ), whereas the mixture density is defined in terms of

No-Slip Viscosity
The "no-slip" viscosity is the viscosity that is calculated with the assumption that both phases are moving at the same in-situ velocity. There are several definitions of "no-slip" viscosity. In general, unless otherwise specified, is defined as follows.

Where: = input liquid volume fraction = input gas volume fraction = no-slip viscosity = liquid viscosity = gas viscosity

Superficial Velocity
http://www.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM]

Bbl/MMscf) The oil. and ) are used to convert the flow rates from standard (or stock tank) conditions to the prevailing pressure and temperature conditions in the pipe. Since the actual cross-sectional area occupied by each phase is less than the cross-sectional area of the entire pipe the superficial velocity is always less than the true in-situ velocity of each phase.fekete.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. Therefore: and Where: = gas formation volume factor D = inside diameter of pipe = measured gas flow rate (at standard conditions) = liquid flow rate (at prevailing pressure and temperature) = superficial gas velocity = superficial liquid velocity Since the liquid phase accounts for both oil and water solution gas going in and out of the oil as a function of pressure( as: and the gas phase accounts for the ).Wellbore Calculations The superficial velocity of each phase is defined as the volumetric flow rate of the phase divided by the cross-sectional area of the pipe (as though that phase alone was flowing through the pipe).65psia and 60F) = liquid flow rate (oil and water at prevailing pressure and temperature) = oil formation volume factor = water formation volume factor = gas formation volume factor = solution gas/oil ratio WC = water of condensation (water content of natural gas. water and gas formation volume factors ( . the superficial velocities can be rewritten Where: = oil flow rate (at stock tank conditions) = water flow rate in (at stock tank conditions) = gas flow rate (at standard conditions of 14. http://www.

downhill. the value at 100 F is used. linear interpolation is used. linear interpolation is used. Once the correction factor becomes zero (at about 3977 psia). many of the published correlations are applicable for "vertical flow" only. If the temperature is less than 68 F. http://www. the value at 68 F is used. However a value is required for use in calculating certain dimensionless numbers used in some of the pressure drop correlations. while others apply for "horizontal flow" only. Hough and by Beggs. Wellbore Correlations Beggs and Brill Correlation For multiphase flow. the value at 74 F is used. Where: P = pressure (psia) The interfacial tension becomes zero at miscibility pressure. namely uphill.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . The Beggs and Brill (1973) correlation. 1 dyne/cm is used for calculations.Wellbore Calculations Surface Tension The surface tension (interfacial tension) between the gas and liquid phases has very little effect on two-phase pressure drop calculations.fekete. It was developed using 1" and 1-1/2" sections of pipe that could be inclined at any angle from the horizontal. The dead oil interfacial tension is corrected for this by multiplying by a correction factor. For intermediate temperatures. Empirical relationships for estimating the gas/oil interfacial tension and the gas/water interfacial tension were presented by Baker and Swerdloff. is one of the few published correlations capable of handling all these flow directions. For intermediate temperatures. the value at 280 F is used. horizontal. the gas/oil interfacial tension is reduced. As pressure is increased and gas goes into solution. Gas/Water Interfacial Tension The gas/water interfacial tension at temperatures of 74 F and 280 F is given by: Where: = interfacial tension at 74 F (dynes/cm) = interfacial tension at 280 F (dynes/cm) P = pressure (psia) If the temperature is greater than 280 F. inclined and vertical flow. and for most systems this will be at any pressure greater than about 5000 psia.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. Not many correlations apply to the whole spectrum of flow situations that may be encountered in oil and gas operations. If the temperature is less than 74 F. Gas/Oil Interfacial Tension The dead oil interfacial tension at temperatures of 68 F and 100 F is given by: Where: = interfacial tension at 68 F (dynes/cm) = interfacial tension at 100 F (dynes/cm) API = gravity of stock tank oil (API) If the temperature is greater than 100 F.

Since the original flow pattern map was created. A two-phase friction factor is calculated based on the "input" gas-liquid ratio and the Fanning friction factor. and hence.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. the in-situ density of the gas-liquid mixture is then calculated according to the appropriate flow regime. Where: D = inside pipe diameter (ft) = Froude Mixture Number (unitless) g = acceleration of gravity (32.Wellbore Calculations The Beggs and Brill multiphase correlation deals with both the friction pressure loss and the hydrostatic pressure difference. Flow Pattern Map The Beggs and Brill correlation requires that a flow pattern be determined. to obtain the hydrostatic pressure difference. The liquid holdup.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .2 ft/s 2 ) = mixture velocity (ft/s) SEGREGATED flow if and or and INTERMITTENT flow if and or and DISTRIBUTED flow http://www. We have used this modified flow pattern map for our calculations.fekete. where . First. Intermittent or Distributed) is determined. it has been modified. The transition lines for the modified correlation are defined as follows: Where: = liquid input volume fraction The flow type can then be readily determined either from a representative flow pattern map or according to the following conditions. the appropriate flow regime for the particular combination of gas and liquid rates (Segregated. From this the frictional pressure loss is calculated using "input" gas-liquid mixture properties.

First the liquid holdup for horizontal flow.fekete. Beggs and Brill divided the liquid holdup calculation into two parts. SEGREGATED INTERMITTENT DISTRIBUTED TRANSITION Where: Once the horizontal in situ liquid volume fraction is determined. inclined flow. is determined. assigned a value of must be greater than or equal to . . . the actual inclined liquid holdup. is and therefore when for each flow type.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . by an inclination factor. and then this holdup is modified for is smaller than .is obtained by multiplying http://www.Wellbore Calculations if or and and TRANSITION flow if and Hydrostatic Pressure Difference Once the flow type has been determined then the liquid holdup can be calculated. There is a separate .

is defined as: Where: = superficial liquid velocity (ft/s) = liquid velocity number (unitless) = liquid density (lb/ft 3 ) = gas/liquid surface tension (dynes/cm) For UPHILL flow: SEGREGATED INTERMITTENT DISTRIBUTED http://www. the direction of inclination of the pipe (uphill flow or downhill flow).htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations Where: = Inclination factor (unitless) = horizontal liquid holdup (unitless) = inclined liquid holdup (unitless) = Beggs and Brill coefficient (unitless) = angle of inclination from the horizontal (degrees) is a function of flow type. and the Froude Mixture Number ( ). the liquid velocity number ( ).fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.

assume = 0. Where: S = Beggs and Brill coefficient (unitless) (unitless) Note: Severe instabilities have been observed when these equations are used as published.Wellbore Calculations For DOWNHILL flow: ALL flow types Note: must always be greater than or equal to 0. The value of S is governed by the following conditions: otherwise. in turn. Our implementation has modified them so that the instabilities have been eliminated. Once the inclined liquid holdup ( . it is used to calculate the mixture density.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. S. The mixture density is. if a negative value is calculated for ) is calculated. Where: g c = conversion factor = pressure change due to hydrostatic head (psi) = elevation change (ft) = mixture density (lb/ft 3 ) Friction Pressure Loss The first step to calculating the pressure drop due to friction is to calculate the empirical parameter.fekete.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . Therefore. A ratio of friction factors is then defined as follows: http://www. used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head ( ) of the vertical component of the pipe or well. .

using the following standard equations. The no-slip Reynolds Number. is also used.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.2 ft/s 2 ) L = length of pipe section (ft) V = average velocity (ft/s) http://www. calculated using the Chen equation. However.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . is: Where: L = length of pipe section (ft) = frictional pressure loss (psi) Fanning Gas Correlation (Multi-Step Cullender and Smith) The Fanning Gas Correlation is the name used in this document to refer to the calculation of the hydrostatic pressure difference ( ) and the friction pressure loss ( ) for single-phase gas flow. is defined as follows: .Wellbore Calculations Where: = no-slip friction factor (unitless) = two phase friction factor (unitless) We use the Fanning friction factor. and it Where: = no-slip Reynold's Number (unitless) = no-slip viscosity (cp) = no-slip density (lb/ft 3 ) Finally. Friction Pressure Loss The Fanning equation is as follows: Where: D = inside diameter of pipe (in) f = Fanning friction factor (function of Reynolds number) g = acceleration of gravity (32. it is implemented as a multi-segment procedure instead of a 2 segment calculation. the expression for the pressure loss due to friction. This formulation for pressure drop is applicable to pipes of all inclinations. When applied to a vertical wellbore it is equivalent to the Cullender and Smith method.

Hydrostatic Pressure Difference The calculation of hydrostatic head is different for a gas than for a liquid. Where: k = absolute roughness (in) k/D = relative roughness (unitless) Re = Reynold’s number (unitless) The single-phase friction factor clearly depends on the Reynold’s number.Wellbore Calculations = pressure loss due to friction effects (psi) = density (lb/ft 3 ) This correlation can be used either for single-phase gas (Fanning Gas) or for single-phase liquid (Fanning Liquid). the Reynolds number can be rewritten for viscosity in centipoise.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. and 1 cp = 1488 lb/ft×s. viscosity.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . as their very different properties are taken into account in the definition of Reynold’s number. Single-Phase friction factor ( ) The single-phase friction factor can be obtained from the Chen (1979) equation. Either way the hydrostatic pressure difference is given by: Where: g c = conversion factor = pressure change due to hydrostatic head (psi) = elevation change (ft) = gas density (lb/ft 3 ) http://www. whereas for a liquid a constant density can be safely assumed. Where: = viscosity (lb/ft×s) Since viscosity is usually measured in "centipoise". which is representative of the Fanning friction factor chart. velocity and pipe diameter. The friction factor is valid for single-phase gas or liquid flow. which is a function of the fluid density. because gas is compressible and its density varies with pressure and temperature.

Where: k = absolute roughness (in) k/D = relative roughness (unitless) Re = Reynold’s number (unitless) The method for calculating the Fanning friction factor is the same for single-phase gas or single-phase liquid.Wellbore Calculations Since pressure. These charts are also often referred to as the Moody charts. The Fanning Liquid Correlation is the name used in this program to refer to the calculation of the hydrostatic pressure difference ( equations.Hydrostatic Pressure Difference The calculation of hydrostatic head is different for a gas than for a liquid.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . using the following standard Fanning Liquid . We use the equation form of the Fanning friction factor as published by Chen (1979). varies with pressure.fekete. For liquid.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. which are functions of Reynold’s number and relative pipe roughness. Fanning Liquid .Friction Pressure Loss The Fanning equation is widely thought to be the most generally applicable single-phase equation for calculating frictional pressure loss. The Fanning equation is as follows: Where: D = inside diameter of pipe (in) f = Fanning friction factor (function of Reynolds number) g = acceleration of gravity (32. the hydrostatic pressure difference is given by: http://www. because gas is compressible and its density varies with pressure and temperature. It utilizes friction factor charts (Knudsen and Katz. whereas for a liquid a constant density can be safely assumed. the calculation must be done sequentially in small steps to allow the density to vary with Fanning Liquid Correlation The Fanning friction factor pressure loss ( ) can be combined with the hydrostatic pressure difference ( ) to give the total pressure loss. ) and the frictional pressure loss ( ) for single-phase liquid flow.2 ft/s 2 ) L = length of pipe section (ft) V = average velocity (ft/s) = pressure loss due to friction effects (psi) = density (lb/ft 3 ) This correlation can be used either for single-phase gas (Fanning Gas) or for single-phase liquid (Fanning Liquid). 1958).

1978).E. Gray Correlation The Gray correlation was developed by H. in combination. To correct the pressure drop for situations with a horizontal component. This effective roughness is then used in conjunction with a constant Reynolds Number of to calculate the Fanning friction factor. a constant value can be used for the entire length of the pipe. The in-situ liquid volume fraction is then used to calculate the mixture density. the in-situ liquid volume fraction is calculated.Wellbore Calculations Where: g c = conversion factor = pressure change due to hydrostatic head (psi) =elevation change (ft) = liquid density (lb/ft 3 ) Since does not vary with pressure. Gray (Gray. the hydrostatic head has only been applied to the vertical component of the pipe while friction is applied to the entire length of pipe.2 ft/s 2 ) http://www. we have implemented it in both vertical. and inclined pipe pressure drop calculations. to predict the in situ liquid volume fraction. These three dimensionless numbers are: And: Where: D = inside diameter of pipe (in) g = gravitational acceleration (32. First. Gray: Hydrostatic Pressure Difference The Gray correlation uses three dimensionless numbers (shown below). The input gas liquid mixture properties are used to calculate an "effective" roughness of the pipe.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .fekete. which is in turn used to calculate the hydrostatic pressure difference. specifically for wet gas wells. The pressure difference due to friction is calculated using the Fanning friction pressure loss equation. Although this correlation was developed for vertical flow.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.

fekete.00220462.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. used to calculate the pressure change due to the hydrostatic head of the vertical component of the pipe or well.Wellbore Calculations = Ratio of superificial liquid velocity of superficial gas velocity (unitless) = mixture velocity (ft/s) = superficial gas velocity (ft/s) = superficial liquid velocity (ft/s) = gas density (lb/ft 3 ) = liquid density (lb/ft 3 ) = no-slip density (lb/ft 3 ) = gas / liquid surface tension ( They are then combined as follows: ) Where: = input liquid volume fraction (unitless) = in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup) (unitless) Once the liquid holdup ( ) is calculated it is used to calculate the mixture density ( ). The mixture density is. We have implemented them using with units of ) dynes/cm and have converted the equations by multiplying by 0.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . in turn.00220462dynes/cm = 1 Gray: Friction Pressure Loss The Gray Correlation assumes that the effective roughness of the pipe ( ) is dependent on the value of (defined http://www. (0. Where: g c = conversion factor = pressure change due to hydrostatic head (psi) = elevation change (ft) = mixture density (lb/ft 3 ) Note: For the equations found in the Gray correlation. is given in .

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. Next. 1994). The relative roughness of the pipe is then calculated by dividing the effective roughness by the diameter of the pipe. If bubble flow does not exist then the original Hagedorn and Brown correlation is used to calculate the in-situ liquid volume fraction. The conditions are as follows: if then if then Where: k = absolute roughness of the pipe = effective roughness of the pipe (in) The effective roughness ( ) must be larger than or equal to 2. the mixture density is calculated using the in-situ volume fraction and used to calculate the hydrostatic pressure difference. If the in-situ volume fraction is smaller than the input volume fraction. ) is given in units of Hagedorn and Brown Correlation Experimental data obtained from a 1500ft deep.77 10-5. We used a conversion factor of 0. although the correlation was developed strictly for vertical wells. Hagedorn and Brown: Hydrostatic Pressure Difference http://www. and the entire pipe length to calculate friction.007). the in-situ fraction is set to equal the input fraction ( = ).htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . In this case the Griffith correlation is also used to calculate the pressure drop due to friction. Finally. A wide range of liquid rates and gas/liquid ratios were used. Once the in-situ volume fraction is determined.0007 instead of 0. the expression for the Where: = two-phase friction factor L = length of pipe (ft) = pressure change due to friction (psi) Note: The original publication contained a misprint (0.00220462 dynes/cm = 1 .Wellbore Calculations previously). the surface tension ( . If bubble flow exists the Griffith correlation is used to calculate the in-situ volume fraction. Pressures were measured for flow in tubing sizes that ranged from 1 " to 1 ½" OD. our software will calculate pressure drops for horizontal and inclined flow using the Hagedorn and Brown correlation.fekete. instrumented vertical well was used in the development of the Hagedorn and Brown correlation. The Fanning friction factor is obtained using the Chen equation and assuming a Reynolds Number of friction pressure loss is: . The pressure difference due to friction is calculated using a combination of "in-situ" and "input" gas-liquid mixture properties. Also. The Hagedorn and Brown method has been modified for the Bubble Flow regime (Economides et al. As with the Gray correlation. The software uses only the vertical depth to calculate the pressure loss due to hydrostatic head. it is compared with the input volume fraction.

the third curve is a plot of fraction. the in-situ liquid volume . which is denoted by .com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. These four numbers are: Where: D = inside pipe diameter (ft) = superficial liquid velocity (ft/s) = superficial gas velocity (ft/s) = liquid viscosity (cp) = liquid density (lb/ft 3 ) = gas / liquid surface tension (dynes/cm) Various combinations of these parameters are then plotted against each other to determine the liquid holdup( ). For the purposes of programming. . these curves were converted into equations. Finally. . .htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . The first curve provides a value for value is then used to calculate a dimensionless group. another dimensionless group of numbers. is calculated by: Where: = in-situ liquid volume fraction (liquid holdup) (unitless) = Hagedorn and Brown Correctionfactor (unitless) The hydrostatic head is once again calculated by the standard equation: http://www. This vs.Wellbore Calculations The Hagedorn and Brown correlation uses four dimensionless numbers to correlate liquid holdup. Therefore. can then be obtained from a plot of vs.fekete.

htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations And: Where: g = gravitational acceleration (32.fekete.2 ft/s 2 ) g c = conversion factor = pressure change due to hydrostatic head (psi) = elevation change (ft) = gas density (lb/ft 3 ) = mixture density (lb/ft 3 ) Hagedorn and Brown: Friction Pressure Loss The friction factor is calculated using the Chen equation and a Reynolds number equal to: Note: In the Hagedorn and Brown correlation the mixture viscosity is given by: Where: = mixture velocity (ft/s) = gas viscosity (cp) = liquid viscosity (cp) = mixture viscosity (cp) = no-slip density (lb/ft 3 ) The pressure loss due to friction is then given by: And: http://www.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.

if then Where: = input liquid volume fraction (no-slip liquid hold up) The second modification involves the use of the Griffith correlation (1961) for the bubble flow regime. The first modification is simply the replacement of the liquid holdup value with the "no-slip" (input) liquid volume fraction if the calculated liquid holdup is less than the "no-slip" liquid volume fraction. If the flow regime is found to be bubble flow then the Griffith correlation is applied. otherwise the original Hagedorn and Brown correlation is used.13 then is set to 0.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.13. Bubble flow exists if where: < < = And: = input gas volume fraction = Parameter which defines boundary between bubble and slug flow (unitless) If the calculated value of is less than 0.Wellbore Calculations Where: f = Fanning friction factor L = length of calculation segment (ft) = pressure change due to friction (psi) Modifications We have implemented two modifications to the original Hagedorn and Brown Correlation.fekete.8 ft/s The in-situ liquid velocity is given by: Where: http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . The Griffith Correlation (Modification to the Hagedorn and Brown Correlation) In the Griffith correlation the liquid holdup is given by: where: = 0.

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. Build Flow Pattern Map. The Reynolds number is then used to calculate the friction factor using the Chen equation. which usually define the Reynolds Number in terms of mixture properties not single phase liquid properties. This is unlike the majority of multiphase correlations. in-situ liquid velocity and liquid viscosity are used to calculate the Reynolds Number. The pressure drop due to friction is also affected by the use of the Griffith correlation because the Reynolds Number via the in-situ liquid velocity ( enters into the calculation of ) . the friction pressure loss is calculated as follows: The liquid density and the in-situ liquid velocity are used to calculate the pressure drop due to friction.fekete. we do the following: Begin with one flow pattern and test for stability.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . Petalas & Aziz Mechanistic Model Determine Flow Pattern To determine a flow pattern. Finally. Example Flow Pattern Map http://www. Check the next pattern.Wellbore Calculations = in-situ liquid velocity (ft/s) The hydrostatic head is then calculated the standard way. The Reynolds Number is calculated using the following format: The single phase liquid density.

fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.Wellbore Calculations Dispersed Bubble Flow Exists if where and if Stratified Flow Exists if flow is downward or horizontal ( 0) Calculate (dimensionless liquid height) Momentum Balance Equations: http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .

Wellbore Calculations where and fG from standard methods where fL from where fsL from standard methods where fi from http://www.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .

Wellbore Calculations where Use Lochhart-Martinelli Parameters where where Geometric Variables: http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.fekete.

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations Solve for h L /D iteratively.02) where and http://www. Stratified flow exists if (Note: when cos 0.fekete.02 then cos = 0.

fekete. else have Stratified Wavy.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.02 then cos = 0.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations (Note: when cos 0.02) Stratified smooth versus Stratified Wavy if where and then have Stratified Smooth. Annular Mist Flow Calculate (dimensionless liquid height) Momentum Balance Equations where and http://www.

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.Wellbore Calculations (1) from standard methods where from standard methods where fi from (2) Use Lochhart-Martinelli Parameters http://www.fekete.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.Wellbore Calculations where where Geometric Variables: http://www.fekete.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .

Annular Mist Flow exists if where from Solve iteratively for Bubble Flow Bubble flow exists if (3) where: C 1 = 0.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.Wellbore Calculations Solve for iteratively.5 = 1.3 d b = 7mm http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .fekete.

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. transition to bubble flow from intermittent flow occurs when where: (see Intermittent flow for additional definitions). Intermittent Flow Intermittent flow exists if where: If EL > 1.fekete. EL = C L and: where is from standard methods where: http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations (4) In addition.

If 3. If 2.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. fm = 1 where is from standard methods where: if 1. Footnotes http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .fekete.Wellbore Calculations for fm < 1. then the flow pattern is designated as Froth. Froth Flow and and then Slug Flow then Elongated Bubble Flow If none of the transition criteria for intermittent flow are met. implying a transitional state between the other flow regimes.

(dyn/cm) Nomenclature A = cross sectional area C 0 = velocity distribution coefficient D = pipe internal diameter E = in situ volume fraction FE = liquid fraction entrained g = acceleration due to gravity h L = height of liquid (stratified flow) L = length P = pressure Re = Reynolds number S = contact perimeter VSG = superficial gas velocity VSL = superficial liquid velocity = liquid film thickness = pipe roughness = pressure gradient weighting factor (intermittent flow) = Angle of inclination = viscosity = density = interfacial (surface) tension = shear stress http://www. (dyn/cm) 6. where: L (lb/ft3). G (lb/ft3). where: L (lb/ft3). where: C (lb/ft3). where: L (lb/ft3). . L (lb/ft3).fekete. (dyn/cm) 5. (dyn/cm) 3. L (cP). . VSG (ft/s). VC (ft/s). . . D C (ft).com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. . (dyn/cm) 4. L (lb/ft3). G (lb/ft3). (dyn/cm) 2. G (lb/ft3). . where: G (lb/ft3). where: D (ft). G (lb/ft3).Wellbore Calculations 1.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .

N. Two forces act on these droplets. The calculation of minimum gas velocity for each follows: Where: G = gas gravity (unitless) k = calculation variable = pressure (psia)A http://www.: "A Mechanistic Model for Multiphase Flow in Pipes. Aziz. If not." ASME 1996 Fluids Engineering Division Conference (1996). (June 2000). Tech. Aziz. The correlation is generally very accurate and was formulated using easily obtained oil field data. the drops are carried to surface..com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. The Turner correlation was formulated for free water production and free condensate production in the wellbore. N. FED-Vol 236. The model was verified to about 130 bbl/MMscf. L.: "A Mechanistic Model for Multiphase Flow in Pipes. 339-350. If the velocity of the gas is sufficient.fekete.: "Unified Mechanistic Model for Steady-State Two-Phase Flow.. Consequently. The theoretical calculations were then compared to field data and a 20% fudge factor was built-in." J. Turner Correlation The Turner correlation assumes free flowing liquid in the wellbore forms droplets suspended in the gas stream.Wellbore Calculations = dimensionless quantity Subscripts b = relating to the gas bubble c = relating to the gas core F = relating to the liquid film db = relating to dispersed bubbles G = relating to gas phase i = relating to interface L = relating to liquid phase m = relating to mixture SG = based on superficial gas velocity s = relating to liquid slug SL = based on superficial liquid velocity wL = relating to wall-liquid interface wG = relating to wall-gas interface C 0 = velocity distribution coefficient References Petalas." Petalas. K. K. they fall and accumulate in the wellbore." SPE Journal (September 2000).. 43-55.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . The first is the force of gravity pulling the droplets down and the second is drag force due to flowing gas pushing the droplets upward. Gomez.: "Development and Testing of a New Mechanistic Model for Multiphase Flow in Pipes. Pet. et al. N. Petalas. 153-159. it has been widely accepted in the petroleum industry. K.E. The correlation was developed from droplet theory. Aziz.

http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . Turner correlation utilizes the cross-sectional area of the flow path when calculating liquid lift rates. use the Turner correlation for water to judge behaviour of a system. Ultimately. the minimum gas rate to lift water and condensate will be calculated using the tubing inside diameter.Wellbore Calculations T = temperature (R) = minimum gas velocity required to lift liquids (ft/s) Z = compressibility factor (unitless) From the minimum gas velocity. the minimum gas flow rate required to lift free liquids can then be calculated using: where: A = cross-sectional area of flow ( = gas flow rate (MMscfd) ) Important Notes If both condensate and water are present. the liquid lift rate calculations are based on the inside diameter (ID) of the tubing or the area of the annulus and not on the casing ID unless flow is up the "casing only". When the tubing depth is higher in the wellbore than the mid-point of perforations (MPP) in a vertical well.fekete.com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. the Turner correlation does not consider the rate required to lift liquids between the MPP and the end of the tubing. For example. if the flow path is through the tubing.

calculate total gas production ( calculate component gas production ( Using component mass balance: calculate new sorbed gas composition ( ) http://www. calculate free gas mole fraction ( Given and and using deliverability equation: ).fekete.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] . . ). ( initial pressure is known ( ) ) ).com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations.Wellbore Calculations For each time step: sorbed gas composition is known.

com/software/cbm/media/webhelp/c-te-calculations. http://www.htm[24/5/2011 3:33:11 PM] .Wellbore Calculations Using MBE: calculate new average reservoir pressure. ( ) and average water saturation ( ) Copyright © 2011 Fekete Associates Inc.fekete.