ABSTRACT

This is a simple experiment to study the diffraction of a laser beam by a plane transmission grating. A photodiode detector studies intensity distribution. An ADC converts the analog input from the photo-detector into digital data and stores it into an 8085 microprocessor. For accurate analysis of variation of intensity distribution with distance we made a small form of optical bench on which photo-detector could move. The use of photo-detector makes it possible to measure the intensity of central and subsidiary maxima, which is not possible in conventional method using a spectrometer.

Submitted by: PRANAV SHARMA (1520) RIDHIKA AGGARWAL (1518) NISHANT (1509)

CONTENTS .

the source and the screen or telescope (through which the image is viewed) are placed at a infinity or effectively at infinity. This deviation is more pronounced when the dimension of the aperture or obstacle is comparable to the wavelength of light. There are two main types of gratings: 1. Fraunhoffer s diffraction: In this case of diffraction. Reflection type: the example of this type is the concave grating. . no lenses are used for making the rays parallel or convergent. Fraunhoffer was first to use it in 1821 with about 310 narrow slits to an inch by sketching fine wires over screws. DIFFRACTION GRATING The arrangement of a large number of equidistant narrow rectangular slits of equal width placed side by side parallel to one another is known as grating. wavefront which is incident on the aperture is plane. 2. On account of bending light penetrates into the geometrical shadow of the obstacle. Types of diffraction: 1. Fresnel s diffraction: In this type of diffraction the source and the screen are placed at finite distances from the obstacle. 2.DIFFRACTION Diffraction of light is the phenomenon of bending of light around the corners or boundaries of an obstacle or aperture in the path of light. The incident wavefront are either spherical or cylindrical. The light thus deviates from its linear path. In this case. Transmission type: The examples are plane transmission grating and the echelon grating. In this case.

then (a+b) is the grating element. If number of ruled lines on a grating is N per inch. then the grating element is equal to 2. FORMATION OF DIFFRACTION PATTERN BY A GRATING .54/N cm. If a be the width of each clear space and ruled space and b be the width of each opaque part.The Grating Element: The distance consisting of one clear space and one ruled on the grating is called the grating element.

the lower the energy of the photons. The electron-hole pairs drift apart. The holes and the electrons. The photodiode behaves as a current source when illuminated. this current is distributed between the internal shunt resistance and external load resistor. Modern day photodiodes are made by using planar diffusion or ion-implantation methods. the photodiode becomes an ideal current source. normally a p-on-n type configuration.PHOTODIODE A silicon photodiode is a device that converts incident light into electric current. a voltage develops which creates a forward bias. It consists of a shallow diffused p-n junction. the deeper they are absorbed. BASIC PHOTODIODE PHYSICS The p-n junction and the depletion region are of major importance to the operation of a photodiode. doped with donor impurities (excess electrons). each experiencing a lower potential on the opposite side of the junction. When photons of energy greater than 1. which has an electric field opposite and equal to the low potential field. If the two sides are electrically connected. In this mode. If the created minority carriers of that region recombine with the bulk carriers of that region before reaching the junction field. they are swept across by the electric field. comes into contact with the n-type silicon. This charge movement establishes a depletion region. and hence no more current flows. they are absorbed and electron-hole pairs are created. The equivalent circuit of a photodiode is shown in the figure below. begin to flow across the junction into their respective lower potential areas. thus reducing its ability to remain a constant current source. When operated without bias. These photodiode regions are created when the p-type dopant with acceptor impurities (excess holes). When operated with a reverse voltage bias.1 eV (the bandgap of silicon) fall on the device. The depth at which the photons are absorbed depends upon their energy. . an external current flows through the connection. and when the minority carriers reach the junction. the carriers are lost and no external current flows.

In the photovoltaic mode. Photodiodes exhibit their fastest switching speeds when operated in the photoconductive mode. an external reverse bias is applied.Photodiode Equivalent Circuit MODES OF OPERATION A silicon photodiode can be operated in either the photovoltaic or photoconductive mode. and the amount of dark current that is tolerable. The op-amp functions as a simple current to voltage converter. while for the photoconductive mode. . the photodiode is unbiased. In the photovoltaic mode. dark current is at a minimum. Mode selection depends upon the speed requirements of the application. Photodiodes and Op-Amps can be coupled such that the photodiode operates in a short circuit current mode.

ADD B. SC and ALE are shorted and given a short pulse during the program execution. CLOCK is given a 10 KHz TTL signal.ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER (ADC0808) ADC0808 PINOUT Where. So ADD A. GND and Vref are given 0V. ADD C all three are kept at ground (0V). IN0 IN7 = Input Channels D0 D3 = Data Lines SC = Start of Conversion pin EOC = End of Conversion pin ALE = Address Latch Enable pin We used only one input channel IN0. . Vcc and +Vref are given 5V. We didn t use EOC.

BLOCK DIAGRAM .

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM APPARATUS SET UP .

03906 0.3 26.9 29 29.11719 0.8 27.07813 0.03906 0.4 29.3 29.11719 0.2 26.11719 0.7 27.11719 0.OBSERVATION TABLE Distance (cm) 26 26.4 27.9 28 28.15625 0.11719 0.6 26.6 ADC Output 2 2 6 6 4 6 8 6 8 2 6 6 12 54 78 6 6 8 6 2 0 2 4 6 4 8 2 6 4 4 2 8 2 6 2 2 6 Voltage (volts) 0.03906 0.5 27.4 26.2 27.8 28.8 26.11719 0.03906 0.4 28.11719 0.11719 0.5 28.03906 0.07813 0.11719 0.6 28.3 28.11719 .7 28.6 27.1 26.2 29.11719 0.1 29.15625 0.3 27.03906 0.05469 1.07813 0.1 28.15625 0.03906 0.52344 0.7 26.5 29.2 28.15625 0.03906 0 0.03906 0.1 27.11719 0.15625 0.9 27 27.11719 0.07813 0.23438 1.07813 0.5 26.03906 0.

8 30.6 30.03906 0.6 32.03906 0.6 33.03906 0.52344 0.78125 0.29.03906 0 0.35156 0.4 33.11719 0.66406 1.1 33.1 31.03906 0.11719 0.03906 0 0.07813 0.11719 0.07813 0.2 32.4 30.7 31.27344 .9 31 31.27344 0.9 2 6 8 12 14 18 34 98 254 254 74 40 18 16 10 4 2 0 6 4 6 4 6 6 2 4 2 2 0 2 2 6 4 4 6 4 6 4 12 102 78 14 14 0.07813 0.4 32.19531 0.1 30.2 33.3125 0.96094 4.8 29.7 32.07813 0.8 32.11719 0.8 33.9 30 30.7 33.11719 0.3 32.03906 0.7 30.27344 0.5 31.11719 0.91406 4.5 30.2 30.23438 1.3 33.7 29.5 32.9 32 32.07813 0.4 31.23438 0.3 31.44531 0.15625 0.1 32.9 33 33.6 31.3 30.2 31.5 33.07813 0.99219 1.35156 0.11719 0.96094 1.07813 0.8 31.11719 0.07813 0.

03906 0.2 cm Grating has 15000 lines per inch .1 34.07813 0 0.19531 0 0.34 34.7 34.03906 0.03906 0.3 34.03906 0.07813 0.03906 0.4 34.5 34.9 35 10 0 2 2 2 2 4 4 0 2 2 0.2 34.03906 Distance between the detector and grating = 7.8 34.6 34.

4)/2 = 3.6933 x 10-4cm x 0.53 x 10-7 cm 669 nm According to datasheet laser emits wavelength in the range 630 675 nm hence = 23.3954 For 1st order maximum.6933 x 10-4cm Position of 1st order maximum 1 = 27.1 cm Distance between grating and detector = 7. tan = 3. = (a+b)sin = 1.2 cm And sin = 0.294 degree .2 cm Therefore.6 cm Mean distance between central and 1st order maximum = (33.55cm Position of 1st order maximum 2 = 33.6 27.54/15000 cm = 1.4 cm Position of central maximum = 30.CALULATION Grating element (a+b) =2.1/7.3954 = 669.

APPENDIX ADC PROGRAM MEMORY ADDRESS 2000 2001 2002 MNEMONIC MVI A HEX CODE 3E 90 D3 COMMENTS Move Immediately to Accumulator Control word Send data towards the address that follows Address of the control register A HIGH for SC and ALE Address of port B. SC and ALE are HIGH A LOW for SC and ALE SC and ALE are now LOW Create DE pair Initialize DE pair Call delay OUT 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 200A 200B 200C 200D 200E 200F 2010 2011 2012 MVI A 03 3E 01 D3 01 3E 00 D3 01 11 00 00 CD BC 03 DB OUT PORT B MVI A OUT PORT B LXI D CALL IN 2013 2014 PORT A STA 00 32 Take data from the input port and store it in the accumulator Address of port A Store data of the accumulator into the memory address that follows 20015 00 .

2016 2017 JMP 22 C3 Data stored in 2200 Unconditional Jump to the address that follows Control jumps to 2004 and the entire program is reexecuted 2018 2019 04 20 .

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