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Chapter 4
THE SERIES RESONANT CONVERTER
he objective of this chapter is to describe the operation of the series resonant converter in detail. The concepts developed in chapter 3 are used to derive closedform solutions for the output characteristics and steadystate control characteristics, to determine operating mode boundaries, and to find peak component stresses. General results are presented, for every continuous and discontinuous conduction mode using frequency control. The origin of the discontinuous conduction modes is explained. These results are used to consider three design problems. First, the variation of peak component stresses with the choice of worstcase operating point is investigated, and some guidelines regarding the choice of transformer turns ratio and tank characteristic impedance are discussed. Second, the effects of variations in input line voltage and output load current are examined using the converter output characteristics. Finally, switching frequency variations are considered, and the tradeoff between transformer size and tank capacitor voltage is exposed. Q3 Vg
+
T
D3
D1
Q1 iS
+
vT L C

D5
I

Q4
D4
D2
+
Q2 vS
+ 
D6 D8
+
V R
vR D7 CF
Fig. 4.1. Series resonant converter schematic.

Principles of Resonant Power Conversion
4 . 1 . Subintervals and Modes The series resonant converter, Fig. 2.1, is reproduced in Fig. 4.1. It can be seen that the instantaneous voltage vT(t) applied across the tank circuit is equal to the difference between the switch voltage vS(t) and the rectifier voltage vR(t): vT(t) = vS(t) – vR(t) (41)
These voltages, in turn, depend on the conducting state of the controlled switch network and uncontrolled rectifier network. A subinterval is defined as a length of time for which the conducting states of all of the semiconductor switches in the converter remain fixed; during each subinterval, vS(t), vR(t), and vT(t) are constant. For example, consider the case where transistors Q1 and Q4 conduct, and iL(t) is positive so that diodes D5 and D8 also conduct, as in Fig. 4.2a. In this case, we have vs = +Vg vR = +V vT = Vg – V (a) The applied tank voltage is therefore constant and equal to Vg–V. In normalized form, one obtains MT = VT = 1 – M Vg (43) Vg + + vT (42)
+ vC iL > 0 L C CF
+
V R
Hence, according to section 3.3, the normalized state plane trajectory for this subinterval is a circular arc centered at MT = 1M, as shown in Fig. 4.2b. The radius depends on the initial conditions. Note that, since we have assumed that iL(t) is positive and diodes D5 and D8 conduct, this particular switch conducting state can occur only in the upper halfplane (jL > 0). For negative jL, diodes D6 and D7 would conduct instead, MT
direction of current flow vT = Vg  V (b)

jL > 0
would be changed, and an arc centered at a MT = 1  M 1 mC different location would be obtained. A subinterval utilizing the switch conduction state described Fig. 4.2 Q1 conduction subinterval, in which Q1 and Q4 conduct, and iL > 0 so above and in Fig. 4.2 is referred to in shorthand that D5 and D8 conduct: a) circuit; form as subinterval Q1. b) normalized state plane trajectory.
2
.
Chapter 4.
The Series Resonant Converter
(a)
+
+ vC L C
vT

(a)
+
vT

+ vC C CF
Vg + 
iL < 0
+
V R
direction of CF current flow vT = Vg + V

Vg + 
iL < 0
L
+
V
direction of current flow vT = Vg + V
jL
(b) jL 1
jL < 0 MT = 1  M mC
(b) 1 MT = 1 + M
.
.
mC
jL < 0 Fig. 4.3 D1 conduction subinterval, in which iL < 0 such that diodes D1, D4, D6, and D7 conduct: a) circuit; b) normalized state plane trajectory. + vT (a) + vC iL > 0 L C CF direction of current flow VT = Vg  V (b)
Fig. 4.4 Q2 conduction subinterval, in which Q2 and Q3 conduct, and iL < 0 so that D6 and D7 conduct: a) circuit; b) normalized state plane trajectory. Many other switch conduction states can occur. Subinterval D1 is similar to subinterval Q 1, except that the tank current iL(t) is negative. The conducting devices are antiparallel diodes D1 and D 4, and output rectifier diodes D6 and D 7. The applied tank voltage is therefore VT = Vg+V, or in normalized form,
+
V
Vg + 

The circuit and state plane trajectory for this mC subinterval are summarized in Fig. 4.3. Note that MT = 1  M 1 this switch conduction state can only occur in the negative halfplane (jL < 0). Fig. 4.5 D2 conduction subinterval, in Symmetrical switch conduction states Q2 which iL > 0, such that diodes D2, D3, (Fig. 4.4) and D2 (Fig. 4.5) can also occur, in D5 and D8 conduct: a) circuit; b) normalized state plane trajectory. which iL, vS, vR, and vT have the opposite polarity from states Q1 and D1 respectively. These correspond to MT = 1+M (Q2) and MT = 1M (D2).
3
.
jL > 0
MT = 1 + M
(44)
Principles of Resonant Power Conversion
(a)
+
vT
oo
(a)
o
+ iL > 0
vT L C

Vg + 
iL > 0 L
C
open circuit
oo
+
V Vg + 
+
V

direction of current flow vT = V

(b) jL (b)
jL jL > 0
jL = 0 mC does not change
.
mC
MT = M
.
mC
Fig. 4.6 Subinterval X, in which all four rectifier diodes D5, D6, D7 and D8 are reversebiased. The inductor current remains at zero, and the tank capacitor voltage does not change: a) one possible circuit topology; b) normalized state plane trajectory.
Fig. 4.7 Subinterval P1, in which D2 and Q4 (or Q1 and D3) conduct, and iL > 0 so that D5 and D8 also conduct: a) circuit; b) normalized state plane trajectory. + (a)
o
vT L

+ vC C CF
Under certain conditions, it is possible for all four uncontrolled rectifier diodes (D5, D 6, + D 7, D8) to become simultaneously reverse Vg biased. When this occurs, the circuit topology is as given in Fig. 4.6. The tank inductor is then zero, and the tank capacitor voltage remains at its (b) initial value. This switch conduction state is denoted “X”. When phase control is used, two other subintervals can occur: P 1 , which occurs for i L > 0, is summarized in Fig. 4.7, and P 2 , which occurs for iL < 0, is summarized in Fig. 4.8.
iL < 0
+
V
direction of current flow vT = V jL MT = M

.
mC
jL < 0
An operating mode is defined by a Fig. 4.8 Subinterval P2, in which D1 and Q3 (or Q2 and D4) conduct, and iL < 0 so that sequence of subintervals which combine to form D6 and D7 conduct: a) circuit; b) normalized state plane trajectory. a complete switching period. Discontinuous
4
Chapter 4.
The Series Resonant Converter
conduction modes contain at least one X subinterval, while continuous conduction modes contain no X subintervals. As seen later in this chapter, the different modes cause the series resonant converter to exhibit widely varying terminal characteristics.
5
at ω0t = β. At time ω0t = β+α ≡ γ (one half switching period). with the inductor current iL(t) positive. and applied tank voltage vT(t) waveforms are diagrammed in Fig. it begins at ω0t = 0 with some initial values of tank inductor current and capacitor voltage.V γ β α β γ α ωT γ= 0 S 2 subinterval : Q1 D1 Q2 D2 Fig. Subinterval Q2 begins. the switching period begins when the control circuit switches transistors Q1 and Q4 on. The output bridge rectifiers then switch. The state plane trajectory for this subinterval is given in Fig. tank capacitor voltage.10c. capacitor voltage vC(t).9 for the k=1 continuous conduction mode. the trajectory continues along a circular arc centered at MT = 1+M until the inductor current again reaches zero. 4.V Vg + V Vg . The tank rings with a circular state plane trajectory centered at MT = 1–M until. 4. The normalized state plane trajectory then follows a circular arc centered at MT = 1+M. 4.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 4 . and as shown in Fig. and applied tank voltage vT waveforms. and Q1 and Q4 on. for the k = 1 continuous conduction mode. the control circuit switches transistors Q1 and Q4 off.9 Typical tank inductor current iL. 2 . This mode is defined by the subinterval sequence Q1D1Q2D2. and subinterval D1 begins. and the tank waveforms are 6 ω0 t v C (t) +VC1 VC1 v T(t) Vg + V Vg . 4. In this mode. and subinterval D2 begins. If the converter operates in equilibrium. and Q2 and Q3 are switched on. The switching period ends when the control circuit switches Q2 and Q3 off. . The trajectory follows an arc centered at MT = 1M for the remainder of the switching period. State Plane and Charge Arguments for the k=1 Continuous Conduction Mode i L(t) State plane trajectory Typical inductor current iL(t).10a. vC. then the trajectory begins and ends at the same point in the state plane. the inductor current rings negative.
this is true throughout the k=1 continuous conduction mode.10 Construction of the state plane trajectory for one complete switching period. The tank 7 . Otherwise. in the k=1 CCM: a) subinterval Q1. we need to solve the geometry of this closed path. c) subinterval Q2. and the waveforms become periodic. 4. Capacitor charge arguments The inductor current waveform of Fig. mC D1 subinterval Fig. and follows a different path in the state plane.9 contains only one positivegoing and one negativegoing zero crossing per switching period. 4. .1. .Chapter 4. β 1 .M . a transient occurs in which the trajectory for each switching period begins at a different point. d) subinterval D2. (36). b) subinterval D1. In consequence.M + MA1 mC . . the discussion of section 3. regarding tank capacitor charge variation. jL (a) Q1 subinterval jL (c) ω0 t = 0 radius MA1 1M . To find the converter steadystate characteristics. and to relate it to the load current using charge arguments. ω0 t = γ + β α radius MA2 1 . mC (b) jL (d) D2 subinterval jL ω0 t = γ + α + β = 2γ 1+M radius MA2 ω0 t = α + β = γ . The Series Resonant Converter periodic. then the trajectory eventually converges to a single closed path. If the circuit is stable. ω0 t = β ω0 t = γ + β 1 + M β radius MA1 ω0 t = γ Q2 subinterval . applies directly to this case and leads to a result nearly identical to Eq. . α ω0 t = β mC .
During the half switching period where iL(t) is positive. or average value. and charge quantity q in the series resonant converter for k=1 CCM. 4. we have: i L(t) q = C (2VC1) (45) This q is also directly related to the dc load current I. Fig. load current I. The total change in vC is the peaktopeak value 2VC1. We can now eliminate q from Eqs.11. 8 . This corresponds to a total increase in charge q on the capacitor. (46) is equal to the charge q. we can now find the circle radii directly in terms of the normalized load voltage and current M and J. of the rectified tank inductor current  iL : I = <  iL  > 1T s 2 area = q ω0 t v C (t) +VC1  iL(τ)  dτ (46) = 1 1 T 2 s 2q Ts 0 = since the integral in Eq. This is a useful result. and hence the tank capacitor voltage vC(t) increases when the inductor current iL(t) is positive. 4. in normalized form: MC1 = Jγ 2 (48) (47) VC1 area = q i L(t) I=<iL> where MC1 = VC1 / Vg.11 Use of charge arguments to relate the peak capacitor voltage VC1. and solve for VC1: VC1 = ITs 4C or. because it allows us to relate the load current to the peak capacitor voltage. area = q Hence.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion inductor current coincides with the tank capacitor current in the series tank. the capacitor voltage increases from its negative peak VC1 to its positive peak +VC1. (45) and (46). given by the integral of the positive portion of the iL as shown in Fig. In the normalized state plane. The load current is the dc component.
current J. At time ω0t = β. there is a unique set of values of γ. and the control input. In steadystate.12. it is desired to find a closedform expression that relates the steadystate output voltage. redrawn in Fig. β. 4. can now be found. 1+M MC1 = ω0 t = β . 3 . α. Finally. . Jγ 2 mC radius MA2 ω0 t = γ Q2 subinterval Fig. i. and control input γ (or switching frequency fs = π f0 / γ). and MA2 which cause this 9 . D2 subinterval jL Q1 subinterval ω0 t = 2γ ω0 t = 0 MC1 ω0 t = γ + β . for steadystate operation in the k=1 CCM.M . it can be seen that the radius MA1 of the Q1 subinterval is MA1 = (MC1) – (1–M) = and the radius MA2 of the D1 subinterval is MA2 = (MC1) – (1+M) = Jγ –1–M 2 (410) Jγ –1+M 2 (49) So we know the radii and centers of the circular arcs in terms of the normalized output voltage M. MA1.. The Series Resonant Converter 4 . α 1 . and γ.12 D1 subinterval Complete normalized stateplane trajectory.Chapter 4. J. Solution of the k=1 Continuous Conduction Mode Characteristics The radii MA1 and MA2 of the state plane trajectory. . 4. we want to directly relate M.e. β 1 + M 1M radius MA1 . the endpoint of the state plane plot after one switching interval ( at time ω 0 = 2γ = ω0Ts) coincides with the initial point (at time ω0t = 0). output current. For a given M and J in the k=1 CCM. and the trajectory is closed.
13 is formed. and is given by π – (π – α) – (π – β) = γ – π (411) since γ = α + β. J. whose solution yields the converter steadystate characteristics. and does not depend separately on α or β. the triangle of Fig. The remaining angle can be found knowing that the three angles of the triangle must sum to π.2bc cosΘ a Fig. 4. The lengths of the two radii are already known. π−α 1−Μ .14 The Law of Cosines c The included angles can be found using simple geometry. One obtains: (2)2 = (Jγ – 1 – M)2 + (Jγ – 1 + M)2 2 2 Jγ Jγ – 2( – 1 – M)( – 1 + M) cos(γ–π) 2 2 10 (412) . With these values. and hence to find how M and J depend on γ. Θ b a2 = b2 + c2 . The two angles adjacent to the base are (π – α) and (π – β). Hence. and the length of the triangle base is the distance between the and D2 Q1 jL π − (π − α) − (π − β) = γ − π Α Jγ MA2 = __ 2 1M M 1 A J_γ_ = 2 1 + M C α B π−β −1 − Μ 2 Fig. β mC subinterval centers. and which can be found by solving the geometry of the state plane. or 2. the lengths of the three sides of the triangle are known. 4. The Law of Cosines. which are functions of the unknowns α and β. Fig. and are functions of only M. 4.13 . 4. Note that this is a function of the control input γ alone.14. 4. for the solution of steadystate conditions.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion to happen. Magnification of Fig. and γ.12. can now be used to relate the top angle and the three sides.
4. Also.15. bridge rectifier does not allow I < 0 third.16. Output characteristics At a given switching frequency fs.Chapter 4. corresponding to a given γ = π f0 / fs. with valid passive load requires a passive load. J (Eq. with frequency control. (415) shows that the relation between M and J is an ellipse. A typical ellipse is plotted in Fig. M≥1. no solutions The uncontrolled output J for M ≥ 1 rectifier diodes do not allow the (DCM instead) load current to be negative. the k=1 discontinuous conduction mode occurs for M=1.4 Fig. 4. Also. 4. polarity 1 Hence. and fourth quadrants are not valid physical solutions. it is shown in section 4. Hence. that the solution is not valid for for a given γ in the k = 1 CCM. 415). Hence. instead. the solution is valid only for 0 ≤ M < 1 and J > 0. the output voltage (or M) decreases. The Series Resonant Converter Simplification yields: 4 = 2( Jγ Jγ – 1)2 + 2M2 + 2[( – 1)2 – M2] cos(γ) 2 2 1 + cos γ 1 – cos γ + M2 2 2 (413) which can be rearranged to obtain: 1 = (Jγ – 1)2 2 (414) Trigonometric identities can now be used to obtain: M2 sin2 γ Jγ γ + ( – 1)2 cos2 = 1 2 2 2 (415) This is the desired closedform solution for the series resonant converter operating in the k=1 continuous conduction mode. It can be seen that as the load current (or J) is increased. centered at M = 0 and J = 2/γ. so we must have J > 0. the portions of the M ellipse that lie in the second. the output impedance of the openloop converter is substantial. It is instructive to examine some limiting cases. Eq. 11 .15 Elliptical output characteristic M vs. Equation (415) is plotted in Fig. M must be solutions I and V to have same positive when J is positive.
(415). and the converter operates as a voltage source.8 1 M Fig. and γ = π / 0.0 (resonance): Then fs = f0.5 < F < 1.5 f0. For 0. becomes M 2 ⋅ 0 + ( π J – 1) 2 ⋅ 1 = 1 (416) or.4 0. 4. (half resonance): At F = 0.5 Then fs = 0.5 = 2π. becomes M 2 ⋅ 1 + ( J π – 1) 2 ⋅ 0 = 1 2 (418) or.925 J 3 2 F = 0. 2/π ≤ J < ∞. Eq.8 F = 0. J = 2/π (417) which is independent of M.5 0. Eq.2 0. and the converter operates as a current source.6 0. The ellipse collapses to a vertical line. The output characteristic. (415).7 1 2 π 0 0 F = 0. solutions not shown here for J > 6.95 F = 1. At F = 1. Solutions occur over the range 0 ≤ M <1.0 4 F = 0. The ellipse collapses to a horizontal line.9 F = 0.16 Output characteristics of the series resonant converter. operating in the k = 1 continuous conduction mode. the converter operates as neither a voltage source nor a current source.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 5 F = 0. M = 1 (419) which is independent of J. The output characteristic. and γ = π / 1 = π.6 F = 0. 12 .
Chapter 4.7 0.9 1 F The characteristics of a given load can be Fig. 4. Eq. switching frequency. characteristics.6 0.8 0. for J less than this value. and Eq.5 0. Output short circuit current J S C When M = 0. allowing graphical determination of output voltage vs. 13 . 4. (415) yields γ 1 – sin2 2 2 = 1 (J2π – 1) = (γ ≠ π) (420) γ cos2 2 or. in superimposed on the converter output the k=1 CCM. 4.17 Normalized shortcircuit output current JSC vs. in normalized form. 4. The intersection of this load line with the converter elliptical output characteristic is the steadystate operating point for a given switching frequency. and the operating point determined graphically. nonlinear load characteristics can also be superimposed. with a linear resistive load. I = V/R or.17. (415) is not valid.19. As shown in the example of Fig. Equation (425) describes a line with slope Q. except at resonance. switching frequency. The Series Resonant Converter Value of J when M = 1 The critical minimum value of J occurs when M = 1. J = MQ (425) (424) with Q = R0 / R. J = 4/γ (4−21) which varies between 2 / π and 4 / π for F between 0. It can be seen that the converter shortcircuit current is inherently limited. 10 8 6 Jsc 4 2 0 0. the converter does not operate in k = 1 CCM.5 and 1.18. Plugging M = 1 into Eq. (415) becomes γ (422) (JSC γ – 1)2 cos2 2 = 1 2 Solve for JSC: γ JSC = 2 (1 +  sec ) = 2F (1 +  sec π ) 2 2F γ π (423) Equation (423) is plotted in Fig. For example. as shown in Fig.
Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 5 F = 0.95 F = 1.2 0.0 4 F = 0. 4.6 F = 0.9 2 F = 0.9 2 l load ine F = 0.19 Nonlinear load characteristic superimposed over the converter output characteristics.8 1 M Fig.925 J 3 F = 0.8 F = 0.5 0.7 F = 0.0 4 F = 0.8 1 M Fig.2 R0 R 0.4 F = 0.6 0.6 0.5 0. 4.4 0.95 F = 1. 14 .7 lo ad lin e 1 2 π 0 0 F = 0.8 1 2 π 0 0 F = 0.925 J 3 F = 0. 5 F = 0.18 Resistive load line superimposed over the converter output characteristics.6 Q= 0.
Doing so requires knowledge of the load characteristics. (428). Eq.9 1 Fig.2 0 0. In the case of a resistive load satisfying V = I R.Chapter 4.8 Q=2 0. 4.5 0. Eq.6 0. normalized switching frequency F.4 Q=5 Q = 20 0.20 Steadystate control characteristics M vs. so that J can be eliminated from Eq. F for various values of Q = R0/R in the k=1 continuous conduction mode. (415).7 F 0. (415). 15 .6 M 0. The Series Resonant Converter Control plane characteristics It is also instructive to plot the voltage conversion ratio M vs. (425) can be substituted into Eq. yielding: M2 sin2 Now solve for M: M2 [sin2 γ Qγ 2 2 γ + cos 2 2 2 γ ] – M Qγ cos2 2 γ + (cos2 – 1) = 0 2 γ MQγ γ +( – 1)2 cos2 = 1 2 2 2 (426) (427) Use of the quadratic formula yields: Qγ 2 M = γ Qγ tan2 + 2 2 1 2 1± 1+ 2 Qγ 2 γ γ (tan2 2 ) (tan2 2 + Qγ 2 2 ) (428) Q=1 0.8 0.
The transistor off time. Equation (428). or “γ control”). Loading the converter causes the output voltage to decrease. is a closedform representation of the control characteristics M vs. together with the identity γ = π / F = π f0 / fs. the plus sign should be used. (415). 4. corresponding to heavy loading. and is plotted in Fig. or load resistance R. Equation (431) describes the output characteristics under α control. A timing circuit then causes the transistors to switch on after a delay which is proportional to a control voltage. is therefore proportional to the control voltage. or “α control”. Control of diode conduction angle α Another popular scheme for controlling the series resonant converter when it operates below resonance is known as diode conduction angle control. The switching frequency varies indirectly. F for the k=1 CCM. and to determine the α control characteristics. 4. and depends on both α and the load current. and M > cos(α). It is plotted in Fig. Rather than using a voltage controlled oscillator to cause the switching frequency and γ to be directly dependent on a control signal (known as frequency control. the α controller causes the diode conduction time and angle α to be directly dependent on the control signal. which coincides with the diode conduction time. 4.21. To understand the converter characteristics under α control. As R is decreased. the Q is increased.20 for various values of Q. It can be seen that the output characteristics resemble hyperbolae. in which M > 0. Application of the Law of Cosines. using the included angle at vertex C. in favor of α. Equations (430) and (415) can now be used to eliminate γ. Eq. we need to eliminate γ from the k=1 CCM solution. The result is J = (1 + M) (1 – cos( α)) sin(α) (M – cos(α)) π – tan–1 M – cos(α) (431) where 0 ≤ tan–1(•) ≤ π/2. yields Jγ –1+M 2 2 = 22 + Jγ –1–M 2 2 – 2 (2) Jγ – 1 – M cos(π–α) 2 (429) This equation can be solved for γ: (1 + M) (1 – cos( α)) γ = 2 J (M – cos(α)) (430) This describes how the switching frequency varies for a given range of α and load. This control scheme requires a current monitor circuit which senses the zero crossings of the tank current waveform.13. This can be done by again referring to Fig.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion To obtain the correct solution. with vertical asymptotes 16 . and results in a peaked characteristic near resonance.
5 M Fig. It can also be seen that.6π α = . 6 5 4 J 3 2 α = . and fs→0. we have studied only the k=1 continuous conduction mode. the lengths of the D1 and D2 subintervals) vanishes as the switching frequency approaches resonance.3π α = . 4.Chapter 4. As stated previously. comparison with Fig.5f0 as α→π.. decreasing the switching 17 .21 k=1 CCM output plane characteristics. the diode conduction angle α and transistor conduction angle β both approach π. Decreasing α causes M and/or J to increase. Likewise. Increasing the switching frequency beyond resonance must therefore cause a different subinterval sequence to occur. The Series Resonant Converter M = cos(α). 4.75 1 α = . or a complete resonant halfperiod. the converter shortcircuit current is not inherently limited. characterized by the subinterval sequence Q1–D1–Q2–D2.2π α=0 Mode boundaries. Therefore. as fs approaches 0. no ringing subinterval can extend through an angle of more than π radians. 4. Also. diode conduction angle control.e. The state plane diagram of Fig. for α < π/2.7π 2/π 0 0 α=π 0. For the series resonant converter.5π α = . the diode conduction angle α (i. because the state plane centers and output diode switching boundary both lie on the jL = 0 axis. 0.4π α = . k=1 CCM So far.5f0.25 0.16 reveals that the switching frequency approaches resonance (fs →f0) as α→0.12 and the succeeding analysis are both based on the assumption that the transistors and diodes conduct in the order given by this sequence.
is: I = < iL > = Ts/2 (432) q = 0 iL (t) dt (433) The average input current is: Ts/2 < ig > = 1 1 2T s iL (t) dt 0 (434) since ig = iL when Q1 conducts. Substitution of Eqs. The four bridge rectifier diodes then become reversebiased. as shown in the next section. As shown in Fig. shown in Fig. the k=1 CCM and Eq. 4. most likely with a different range of switching frequencies. If it is desired to operate the converter at light loads corresponding to J < 2/π. By examination of Fig. 4 . the k=1 CCM is restricted to the range 0 ≤ M < 1.16. Discontinuous Conduction Modes At light loads.5f0 must cause new subintervals to occur. Hence. (415) are restricted in validity to the range 0. depending on the load current.22. the dc load current I is given by: 2q Ts where q. all four bridge rectifier diodes can become reversebiased during part of the switching period. then a different mode must be used. The k=1 discontinuous conduction mode This mode is defined by the subinterval sequence Q1XQ2X. 4.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion frequency below fs = 0. causing the converter to operate in a discontinuous conduction mode. Each of these is characterized by a sequence of subintervals ending in subinterval X. In addition.22. and subinterval X occurs for the remainder of the half switching period. Fig. it can be seen that the k=1 CCM solutions do not extend beyond the range J ≥ 2/π. 4.6. (434) yields: < ig > = 2q = I Ts (435) 18 . More that one discontinuous conduction mode is possible. 4 . (432) and (433) into Eq.5f0 ≤ fs ≤ f0. transistor Q1 conducts for a complete tank halfperiod. As in the k=1 continuous conduction mode. 4.
During the Q1 conduction subinterval. in normalized form: MC1 = Jγ 2 (440) Equation (440) happens to be identical to the result for the k=1 CCM. (48). This mode cannot occur above resonance. (435) yields: Vg = V or: M = 1 (437) VC1 vT : Vg V q Vg +V q Hence. If the converter is lossless and operates in equilibrium. this does not occur for all other operating modes. Hence: q = C · (2VC1) (438) iL <iL> ω 0t Elimination of q using Eq. The usual tank capacitor charge arguments can be used to complete the solution and compute the peak tank capacitor voltage VC1. Hence. 4. or. the converter dc conversion ratio M is unity.23 Tank inductor current and capacitor voltage waveforms for the k = 1 DCM. 4. Eq. the charge on the tank capacitor changes by an amount q.Chapter 4.23). Beware. The switching period must be long enough that the tank can ring through one complete Q1 subinterval of length π during each half switching period of length γ. then the input and output powers must be equal. corresponding to an increase in voltage of 2VC1 (see Fig. The Series Resonant Converter Q1 X Q2 X iL q So the converter dc input and output currents are equal. a necessary condition for the occurrence of the k=1 DCM is: 19 . and is independent of the values of load current and switching frequency. this implies that the voltages are also equal: Pin = Vg < ig > = Pout = V I ω 0t π vC VC1 γ−π q (436) Use of Eq. in the k=1 DCM. (432) yields: I Ts VC1 = 4C (439) Fig.
We have already shown that V = Vg in this mode (Eq. As a result. (441). At ω0t = π. then the bridge rectifier will switch from vR = +V to vR = –V. iL reaches zero. So initially.22. Reason for occurrence of the k=1 DCM Why does the tank stop ringing at the end of the Q1 subinterval? As suggested previously. diL/dt is positive and iL increases. Note that it is possible for this voltage to be either positive or negative at ω0t = π. vS = V g.1. 20 . At ω0t = 0. which cannot occur if vL is positive (since iL(π)=0). These arguments also have a very simple stateplane interpretation. would then become: vL = L diL = Vg + V – vC = 2Vg – vC dt (445) for subinterval D1. in terms of F: F>1 (441) (442) An additional necessary condition for occurrence of the k=1 DCM is given in the next subsection. and so vL becomes vL = L diL = – vC dt (444) for subinterval Q1.23. vL(t) passes through zero. Can the inductor current iL continue to decrease for ω0t ≥ π? This is possible only if the applied inductor voltage vL continues to be negative. and vR = V. Eq. as shown in Fig. the reason is that all four bridge rectifier diodes become reversebiased at this instant. diodes D6 and D7 cannot turn on at ω0t = π: doing so would require that iL become negative. Physical arguments are used in this subsection to prove this assertion. the voltage applied to the tank inductor vL is: vL = L diL = vS – vC – vR dt (443) During subinterval Q 1. this is a positive quantity since. depending on whether or not VC1 is greater than 2Vg. and subinterval D1 will occur. 4. with vC(π) = VC1. vC(0) = VC1. all four bridge rectifier diodes become reversebiased. As seen in Fig. and iL begins to decrease. vL(t) is plotted in Fig. Instead.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion γ>π or. if iL rings negative. The applied tank inductor voltage. At ω0t = π/2. (437)). Note that. and to derive the conditions on load current and frequency which lead to operation in this mode. 2Vg–VC1 is a positive quantity. In the k=1 discontinuous conduction mode. 4. 4.
The inductor voltage and current remain at zero for the rest of the halfswitchingperiod. 4. the requirement for the k=1 DCM to occur is: Vg + V – vC(π) = 2Vg – vC(π) > 0 In normalized form.23. The Series Resonant Converter iL k = 1 DCM iL k = 1 CCM ω 0t ω 0t vC VC1 Q1 X Q2 X vC Q1 D1 Q2 D2 VC1 vL Vg VvC(t) Vg+VVC1 > 0 vL Vg VvC(t) Vg +VvC(t) 2Vg 2V 2Vg Vg +VvC(t) Fig.23 2V Vg +VvC(t) Comparison of tank waveforms of the k=1 continuous and discontinuous conduction modes. Inductor voltage and current waveforms for the k=1 DCM and k=1 CCM are compared in Fig. Hence. 4.Chapter 4. this can be written: 21 (446) .
clockwise direction about the center mC = (1+M).. Trajectory A is impossible. A simple state plane interpretation The above arguments can be given a simple geometrical interpretation in the state plane. (437) and (440) into this expression yields: J < 4 γ (447) (448) This is the basic condition for operation in this mode. MC1 > (1+M). and instead an X subinterval occurs (as described in Fig. since such a subinterval would involve a trajectory centered at mC = (1+M). It can be seen that the k=1 DCM occurs at light load. trajectories A and B are impossible.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 1 + M – MC1 > 0 Substitution of Eqs. (b) Thus.4. 4. so that for negative jL the trajectory is able to evolve in the Fig. Note that a D1 subinterval cannot occur for ω0t > π. because subinterval D1 cannot occur except for negative jL. with MC1 < (1+M). jL reaches zero and mC = MC1.24c. as shown in (c) jL (a) jL Q1 Q1 D1 (1M) (1+M) mC mC = MC1 at ω0 t = π D1 B ? jL Q1 . (1M) (1+M) MC1 In contrast. 4.24b. D1 A ? (b) (1M) . Trajectory B is also impossible. At ω0t = π. trajectory gives a simple interpretation of the with MC1 > (1+M). the geometry of the state plane actual k=1 DCM trajectory. X MC1 (1+M) mC Q1 Fig. .. a CCM trajectory is shown in D1 Fig.24a. and given either by hypothetical trajectory A or B. Q1 D1 mC . . Hence.24 Hypothetical state plane trajectories: (a) for MC1 < (1+M)..6) in which mC remains constant and equal to MC1. there can be no D1 subinterval. The figure is drawn for the case MC1 < (1+M). 4. As shown in chapter 3. 4. boundary condition between the continuous and discontinuous conduction modes. In this case. Consider the hypothetical state plane trajectories of Fig. . for the series tank circuit the state plane trajectories evolve in the clockwise direction about the applied tank voltage. 22 . because it does not travel clockwise about the center mC = (1+M). (c) actual k=1 CCM trajectory.
4. the switching period must be at least as long as twice the tank natural period T0. Hence. 23 . because the output is easily controllable: the converter output behaves as a Q1 iL D1 X Q2 D2 X π π γ π π γ ω0 t vL=LdiL dt Vg VvC Vg +VvC 2V 2Vg 2V Vg VvC(2π) vC VC2 VC1 VC1 Fig. After the two complete halfcycles.25 Tank waveforms for the k=2 discontinuous conduction mode.Chapter 4. The Series Resonant Converter The k=2 discontinuous conduction mode In the k=2 discontinuous conduction mode. the tank rings for two complete halfcycles during each halfperiod of length Ts/2. or F ≤ 1 2 (449) This is a useful mode. 4. For this mode to occur. Waveforms for this mode are given in Fig. the output bridge rectifier diodes become reversebiased. γ ≥ 2π.25.
Hence: 2 VC2 = q C (450) The average output current I is: I = < iL > = 2q Ts (451) Elimination of q from Eqs. Also. 4. which coincides with the tank capacitor current. The tank inductor current iL(t). A disadvantage of this mode is its higher peak transistor currents than in the continuous conduction mode. which represents a change in capacitor charge of q. As is shown in this subsection. This is less of a disadvantage than one might at first think. 4. is re drawn in Fig. with emphasis on total charge flowing through the tank capacitor. lower frequency transformer. so switching losses are low.26 Tank inductor current waveform. because the transformer can be sized to the maximum switching frequency (0. The peaktopeak tank capacitor voltage is 2VC2. iL total charge = q ω0 t Fig. of value controllable by the switching frequency.26. the load current and switching frequency are directly related for the k=2 DCM. and hence higher conduction losses. capacitor charge arguments are used to relate the peak tank capacitor voltage to the dc load current. Analysis First. and hence a wide load current specification implies that the switching frequency must vary over a wide range. The total charge contained in the negative portion of the iL(t) waveform is defined as –q.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion current source.5 f0 ). the switch turnon and turnoff transitions both occur at zero current. Operating point variations that cause the switching frequency to vary below this value do not necessitate use of a larger. (450) and (451) yields: 24 .
The Series Resonant Converter I = 4CVC2 Ts (452) Normalization of Eq. and are given by semicircles in the state plane.27. or 2 = (MC2 – 1 – M) + (MC2 – 1 + M) 25 (454) . 4. . jL) = (+MC1. .Chapter 4. Their radii are MC2–(1M) and MC2–(1+M). jL Q1 D2 MC2 . as indicated on the diagram. Subinterval X ends the half switching period. . The ending point of the D2 subinterval must therefore coincide with the beginning of the Q1 subinterval. in steady state. 4. respectively. The portion of the state plane in the vicinity of this point is magnified in Fig.0). . Subintervals Q1 and D1 are of length π. The converter output characteristics for this mode can be found in a manner similar to that used for the k=1 CCM. .28. as indicated in Fig.(1+M) Fig.27. MC1 (1M) X Q2 (1+M) (1M) X . 4. 4.27 State plane diagram for the k=2 discontinuous conduction mode. with (mC. The state plane diagram for the k=2 DCM is given in Fig. It can be seen that. It states that the peak tank capacitor voltage is proportional to the load current. the sum of the radii of the D2 and Q1 subintervals is equal to the distance between their centers. then the state plane diagram is closed. MC1 (1+M) D1 M C2 ( M 1 ) MC2 = Jγ 2 mC MC2 .0). The switching period begins with (mC. (452) and solution for the normalized peak capacitor voltage MC2 yields: MC2 = Jγ 2 (453) This result is again similar to the k=1 DCM and k=1 CCM cases. jL) = (–MC1. . If the converter operates in steady state.
M k=1 DCM. it can be seen that MC1 is equal to MC2.30 Control plane characteristics. With a resistive load. k=2 DCM boundaries As noted previously. .27. the control plane characteristics (M vs. for a linear resistive load) vary linearly with F. 4. or F ≤ 0. we have J = MQ = 4 F π control plane characteristic: M = 4 F πQ (458) (457) Fig. this restriction also places an upper limit on 26 1 3 k=2 DCM M=4 F πQ Q = 2/ π /π =3 Q 4/π Q= k=1 CCM other modes 1 4 1 2 F Fig. for derivation of the mode boundaries.29.28 Illustration of relations between MC1. this mode is restricted to the frequency range γ ≥ 2π. As sketched in Fig. M=1 . J and F are directly related. MC2 and M.5/π Q=0 1 1/π Q= This result is used in the next section. J k=1 CCM 2 π F = 1/2 k=1 M=1 DCM with Q = R/R0. emphasizing k=2 DCM. according to Eq.29 Output plane characteristics. the k=2 DCM output characteristics are straight horizontal lines. and the converter behaves as a current source in this mode. By inspection of the state plane diagram of Fig.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion Simplification yields MC2 = 2 = Jγ 2 (455) radius = MC2 1M (1M) jL Now solve for the normalized load current J: J = 4 = 4F γ π (456) . Since. (456). 4. the load current depends on switching frequency but not on output voltage. 4. 4.5. F . emphasizing k=2 DCM. The solution can be completed by solving for the normalized voltage MC1. 4. minus twice the radius of the D1 subinterval: MC1 = MC2 – 2(MC2 – 1 – M) = 2M (459) 1 3 F = 1/4 k=2 DCM J = 4F π F=0 1 M Fig. Solution for M then yields the Thus. radius = MC2 1+M MC1 2 (1M) . mC Hence.
4. 4. the k=2 DCM is restricted to the portion of the output plane below J = 2/π.Chapter 4. the output bridge rectifier (1) must continue to conduct at ω0t = π (between the Q1 and D1) subintervals. 4. the converter enters a higherorder (k≥2) continuous or discontinuous conduction mode. and (2) must become reversebiased at ω0t = 2π (after the D1) subinterval. A General ClosedForm Solution The steadystate solutions for all frequencycontrolled continuous and discontinuous conduction modes are stated here. and the control plane characteristics in Fig. By use of the state plane. As M¡1. the converter enters the k=1 DCM. these two constraints become: 1 > M > 1 3 (463) To summarize.5. The Series Resonant Converter the load current J: J = 4F ≤ 2 π π (460) Hence.29. and after a small amount of algebra. In addition. for the k=2 DCM to occur. Type k CCM The type k continuous conduction mode occurs over the frequency range f 0 < f < f0 S k+1 k (465) 27 . while for M¡1/3.30. (455) and (459). the k=2 DCM boundaries are: 1 > M > 1 3 2 > J > 0 π 1 2 (464) > F > 0 The k=2 DCM output plane boundaries are given in Fig. it can be seen that. requirement (2) leads to the constraint: MC1 > 1 – M and requirement (1) leads to: MC2 > 1 + M (462) (461) By substitution of Eqs.
The output plane characteristics are elliptical. 4. and are described by the equation γ γ ) + 12 (Jγ + (1)k)2 cos2(2 ) = 1 2 2 ξ where ξ is the subharmonic index. k odd γ Q1 π D1 Q1 π ∫ ∫ π D1 Q1 π Q2 D2 ω0 t symmetrical (k1) complete halfcycles type k CCM. k even iL γ Q1 D1 π π D1 Q1 π ∫ ∫ π D1 Q1 Q2 D2 symmetrical k complete halfcycles Fig.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion CCM WAVEFORMS iL type k CCM.31 Tank inductor current waveforms for the general type k continuous conduction mode. For k even. M2 ξ sin2( 2 (466) 1 + (1)k 2 The voltage conversion ratio M is restricted to the range ξ = k+ 0 ≤ M ≤ 1 ξ (467) (468) At light load. diode D1 conducts first.31. for a fraction of a half resonant cycle. If k is odd. then transistor Q1 conducts first. 4. Typical tank current waveforms are shown in Fig. the converter may enter a discontinuous conduction mode. for a time 28 .
where Q = R0 / R.Chapter 4.32. All four output bridge rectifier diodes then become reversebiased. the output voltage is independent of both load current and switching frequency. In either case. 4. this is followed by (ξ . The Series Resonant Converter less than one complete halfcycle. and hence the converter designer should be aware of their existence. It is valid for any continuous conduction mode k. it is a “dc transformer” with effective turns ratio 1:1/k. as illustrated in Fig. Nonetheless. Type k DCM. The steadystate control plane characteristic can be found for a resistive load R by substituting J = M Q into Eq. k odd The type k discontinuous conduction modes. for a resistive load. (466). 4. The next half switching period then begins. Use of the quadratic formula and some algebraic manipulations yields: Qγ 2 M = γ Qγ 4 ξ tan2 + 2 2 γ γ (ξ2 – cos2 2 ) (ξ4tan2 2 Qγ 2 γ cos2 2 2 + Qγ 2 2 2 (1)k+1 + 1+ ) (469) This is the closedform relationship between the switching frequency and the voltage conversion ratio.33. for k odd. in which the device that did not initially conduct is on. and is described by M = 1 k This mode occurs for the range of load currents 2(k + 1) 2(k – 1) > J > γ γ (472) (471) In the odd discontinuous conduction modes. The halfswitchingperiod is then concluded by a subinterval shorter than one complete resonant halfcycle. the tank current rings for k complete resonant halfcycles. A dc equivalent circuit for the SRC operating in an odd discontinuous conduction mode is given in Fig.1) complete halfcycles of ringing. Converters are not usually designed to operate in these modes. all converters designed to perform below resonance can operate in one or more odd discontinuous conduction modes if the load current is sufficiently small. and the tank current remains at zero until the next switching halfperiod begins. occur over the frequency range f s < f0 k (470) In these modes. because the output voltage cannot be controlled by variation of the switching frequency. and is symmetrical. 29 .
1 5 Fig. 30 . k odd: a) tank inductor current waveform.0 12 5π 8 3π k=1 DCM k=3 k=5 DCM DCM etc. 4.33 Steadystate equivalent circuit model for an odd discontinuous conduction mode: an effective dc transformer. (b) output characteristics. 4. Ig 0 1:1 k I 0 + Vg 0 + V   0 Fig.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion (a) iL γ Q1 π π D1 Q1 ∫ ∫ π X Q2 D2 X ω0 t symmetrical k complete halfcycles (b) 4 π J 1.32 1 3 1 M General type k discontinuous conduction mode.
but not of the load voltage. The gyrator has the property of transforming circuits into their dual networks. All four output bridge rectifier diodes then become reversebiased. and the tank current remains at zero until the next switching halfperiod begins. an output current source of value g V g [9]. in which the load current is a function of switching frequency and input voltage. it is a gyrator with gyration conductance g = 2k/γR0. occur over the frequency range f fs < 0 k (473) These modes have current source characteristics.Chapter 4. Some very large converters have been designed to operate purposely in the k = 2 DCM at light load [ref Hughes] and even at full load [10].34a. 4. 4.35. A dc equivalent circuit is given in Fig. in this case. 31 . as illustrated in Fig. The output relation is: J = 2k γ Operation in this mode occurs for: 1 > M > 1 k–1 k+1 (475) (474) In the even discontinuous conduction modes. k even The type k discontinuous conduction modes. The Series Resonant Converter Type k DCM. the gyrator characteristic effectively turns the input voltage source Vg into its dual. the tank current rings for k complete resonant halfcycles. The series resonant converter possesses some unusual properties when operated in an even discontinuous conduction mode. for k even.
4.34 General type k discontinuous conduction mode.35 Steadystate equivalent circuit model for an even discontinuous conduction mode: an effective gyrator. Ig = gV 0 I = gVg 0 + Vg 0 g g = 2k γR0 + V   0 Fig. (b) output characteristics. F = .1 1 M Fig.4 F = 0. The converter exhibits current source characteristics.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion (a) iL γ Q1 π π D1 Q1 ∫∫ π π D1 X Q2 D2 ω0 t symmetrical k complete halfcycles (b) J 1. 32 .2 k=4 DCM k=2 DCM F=. 4.0 2 π etc.05 1 5 1 3 F = 0. k even: (a) tank inductor current waveform.25 F = 0.
for the range 0.5 M 0.0 1.1 0.75 Q=1 Q=1. 33 .0 0.35 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.36.5 Q=5 Q=10 Q=20 0.5 Q=5 Q=10 Q=20 2.5 0.6 1.2 1.2 ≤ F ≤ 2.5 Q=0.8 1. M 1 k=1 DCM k=2 DCM 1 2 1 3 1 5 k=1 CCM k=3 DCM k=0 CCM k=3 CCM k=5 DCM etc. 4.9 Q=0.75 Q=0. Complete control plane characteristics for continuous and discontinuous conduction mode boundaries.8 Q=2 Q=3.37.4 0.2 Q=0.8 Q=0.6 Q=0.2 0.5 Q=2 Q=3.0 0.6 0.4 1. Complete control plane characteristics of the series resonant converter. 1 5 1 4 k=2 CCM k=4 DCM 1 3 1 2 1 F Fig. The Series Resonant Converter 1.5 Q=0.35 0.7 Q=0. 4.0 Q=1 Q=1.Chapter 4.2 0.0 F Fig.
4. the quantity k1 is determined: k1 = INT 1 + 2 1 + Qπ 4 2F (477) (476) The converter operates in type k CCM provided that: k1 > k (478) Otherwise. Reduction in load current (or increase in load resistance. (465) . and (474). (466). Next. and horizontal (current source characteristic) in the k=2 DCM. for operation above resonance.39. The k=1 CCM and k=2 DCM are well behaved. the converter operates in type k1 DCM.38. and k=2 DCM are shown in Fig. Increase in load current again causes the output voltage to decrease. using the following algorithm. However. It can be seen that. It can be seen that the constantfrequency curves are elliptical in the continuous conduction mode. Output plane characteristics for the k=0 CCM.(475). are shown in Fig. (471). Given F and Q. First. the continuous conduction mode k corresponding to operation at frequency F with heavy loading is found: k = INT 1 F where INT(x) denotes the integer part of x. the operating mode can be evaluated directly. the above algorithm is used to determine the operating mode. A number of successful designs that operate above resonance and utilize zerovoltage switching have been documented in the literature. the only possible operating mode is the k=0 CCM. and all pass through the point M=1. Operation below resonance is complicated by the presence of subharmonic and discontinuous conduction modes. k=1 DCM. plotted using Eq. the appropriate equation (469). (471). 4. These were plotted using Eqs. 4. vertical (voltage source characteristic) in the k=1 DCM. which decreases the Q) causes the output voltage to increase. J=0. in which the conversion ratio M is computed for a given F and Q. etc. and the mode boundaries are explicitly diagrammed in Fig. First.) is normally avoided. k=4 DCM. and that the output voltage decreases monotonically with increasing switching frequency.37. in that the output voltage increases monotonically with increasing switching frequency. Successful designs which operate in these modes and employ zerocurrent switching are numerous. The constantfrequency curves are elliptical. The result is shown in Fig. A computer listing is given in Appendix 1. 34 . The function works correctly for every frequencycontrolled mode.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion Composite characteristics The complete control plane characteristics can now be plotted using Eqs. Then. or (474) is evaluated to find M.36. Output plane characteristics which combine the k=1 CCM. 4. operation in the higherorder modes (k=2 CCM. (466).
1 k=2 DCM F = . Mode boundaries are indicated by heavy lines.10 F = 1.4 M Fig.15 F = 1.75 F = .8 F = .6 0.85 k=1 CCM F = .5 2 1.01 1 Output characteristics in the k=0 continuous conduction mode (above resonance). F = 1. 35 .30 1 0 0 0.05 5 4 J 3 2 F = 1.25 F = .6 0.8 F = 1.5 1 2 π 0 0 0.07 F = 1.2 0.Chapter 4.39 0. The Series Resonant Converter 6 F = 1. 4.38 0. 4.2 0.5 F = .90 F = .4 M Fig.96 4 π k=1 DCM 1 Composite output characteristics for the k=1 CCM.0 J F = . k=1 DCM and k=2 DCM modes.93 3 2.
41. 4. 4. the normalized state plane trajectories are again a series of circular arcs. 4. also apply to this converter.41 for the k=1 CCM. then there is a relatively easy way to adapt the ideal analysis of the previous sections to include these losses. (415) and (428). vT of Fig.40. Since the applied tank voltage is (by Fig. it is not necessary to rederive the entire analysis.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 4 . Eqs. Converter Losses If the transistors and diodes can be modeled as constant voltage drops while they conduct. but with the input and output voltages replaced by the effective values: Vg eff = 1 2 VD in – 1 2 VT + actual Vg (479) VT Vg +VDin +V+2VDout Vg VT V2VDout Q1 D1 Q2 Vg +VT +V+2VDout Vg VDin V2VDout Fig. In consequence. 36 D2 ω0 t . 4. The semiconductor Vg device forward voltage drops are defined as follows: Vg VT transistor onstate voltage VDin antiparallel diode forward voltage VDout output diode forward voltage The applied tank voltage waveform vT is VDin VDout + VT  + VT + V  shown in Fig. Let us consider the halfbridge example of Fig. In fact.42 (in which the input and output voltages are modified but the converter is otherwise ideal) exhibits exactly the same tank voltage waveform. because the converter circuit of Fig. which can be accounted for by changing the effective Vg and V seen by the tank circuit. The transistor and diode forward voltage drops cause a different voltage to be applied to the tank circuit during each subinterval. 6 .40. the ideal k=1 CCM solution previously derived. 4. assumption) constant during each subinterval. 4.40 Halfbridge circuit with nonideal semiconductor devices. and the preceding analytical method can be used to solve this converter.41 Actual tank voltage waveforms for the halfbridge circuit of Fig. 4.
shown in Fig. These losses effectively damp the tank circuit. It is also possible. and cause the normalized state plane trajectories to become spirals of decreasing radius. and hence to lower the actual output voltage. 4. 4. Closedform solutions are not known. The results show that the converter is very sensitive to small resistive loss elements when operated at large values of normalized current J. but much more complicated. This coincides with operation near resonance with a large Q = J/M. The result is given below: Meff = Veff Vg eff Jeff = I R0 Vg eff M2 ξ sin2( eff 2 Veff = 2 VD out + VD in + 1 2 VT + actual V (481) (482) γ γ ) + 12 (Jeff γ + (1)k)2 cos2(2 ) = 1 2 2 ξ (483) The effect of the semiconductor forward voltage drops is primarily to shift the output plane characteristics somewhat to the left.43.42 Halfbridge circuit with explicit voltage drops due to nonideal diodes and transistors. computer iteration can be used to evaluate the highly transcendental equations that are obtained. The 37 . The Series Resonant Converter 1 VDin 2 1 VT 2 actual Vg actual Vg 1 VT 2 1 VDin 2 +  +  ideal switches ideal diodes (no forward drop) + + + VT 1 VDout + 2 1 VDin + 2 + 1 VT 2   actual V +  Fig.Chapter 4. 1 2 (480) Note that these effective values must also be substituted into the normalization base quantities. to account for resistive losses such as tank inductor and capacitor equivalent series resistance (esr). instead.
With a 1:n transformer turns ratio. and nearly independent of the converter input and output voltages.43 Halfbridge circuit with explicit resistances due to nonideal diodes and switches. This is true because the dc load current I is equal to the average rectified tank inductor current < iL >. and the results are overlaid on the output plane plots derived in the previous sections. A 600W full bridge example is given. 7 . we have 38 . the tank inductor current and tank capacitor voltage peak magnitudes are both approximately proportional to the load current. to obtain a good converter design. RS RS Re Vg L C esr RDout RDout RDout RDout RS + V _ RS Fig. Also. One can then choose the transformer turns ratio and tank characteristic impedance. as well as tank inductance and capacitance. yet a suboptimal design may exhibit significantly higher tank current and voltage stresses than necessary. Approximate peak component stresses In the continuous conduction mode. 4 . so that it can be seen how component stresses and switching frequency vary with operating point. component stresses are analyzed. specifications on the input voltage and output power ranges are translated into a region in the same output plane. 4. and/or may cause the switching frequency to vary over an unacceptably wide range. Design Considerations It may not be initially apparent how to best design a series resonant converter to meet given design objectives. In this section.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion same conclusions can be obtained more simply using the approximate sinusoidal methods of chapter 2.
(484) . (c) result shows that boundaries. It is accurate for operation in the continuous Fig. 4. (487) predicts that such contours should appear as in Fig.(487) become to load current. and is essentially independent of the load voltage. and 3 essentially independent of the load voltage. there is a direct relationship between the peak value of iL and its average rectified value <iL > = nI.44 Peak stress approximation where conduction mode.44(c). 4. since these components are connected in series. Indeed this is the case near resonance. poor approximations. and Eqs. Eq. (b) dc load continuous conduction mode near the DCM current equals average rectified tank inductor current. in normalized form. near resonance. in (a) series resonant converter has a 1:n the discontinuous conduction mode. to see how component stresses JLP = 2 vary with operating point. We JLP = 4 can plot contours of constant peak tank current in JLP = 3 2 the output plane. 1 The approximation used above coincides with the sinusoidal approximation used in chapter 1 M 2. we expect the peak tank current ILP to be directly proportional to the load current I. However. Equation (484) then becomes: Ts 1 iL n I + V – I = 1 <  iL  > n (b) iL(t) ILP I = <iL> ILP = π I 2 Cf I = 1 n Ts Hence: 0 ILP  sin ωt  dt = 1 2ILP n π (485) ILP ≅ nπ I 2 Or. the peak tank capacitor voltage is also directly proportional to the load current. Hence. or in the transformer turns ratio. In the case of 39 . where iL is nearly sinusoidal. The Series Resonant Converter (a) iL L C + vC 1:n I = 1 < iL > n (484) To the extent that the waveshape of iL(t) does not vary with converter operating point. one obtains: JLP ≅ π J 2 (486) (487) (c) J Thus. the tank current is highly peak tank current is directly proportional nonsinusoidal.Chapter 4. The tank capacitor voltage waveform is directly related to the tank inductor current.
45. the peak tank capacitor voltage VCP is related to ILP through the characteristic impedance R0: VCP ≅ ILP R0 ≅ nπ I R0 2 (488) Discussion Suppose that we have constructed a converter which is capable of producing the given rated output power Pmax at the normalized operating point M = 0. This converter could also produce twice the rated power. Exact peak component stresses Exact expressions for the peak tank current and voltage can be derived using the state plane diagram. J = 5. i. Equation (484) predicts that this would cause the peak tank current to be reduced by a factor of two. J = 5.45. The component currents will be nearly the same in both cases. or 2Pmax. shown in Fig. 4. The easiest way to do this is to solve for γ/2 in Eqs. This is true because the peak component stresses are independent of M and depend only on J. a converter with lower peak currents could be constructed by halving the transformer turns ratio n. To do so.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion sinusoidal tank waveforms. the state plane diagram for the k=1 CCM is reproduced in Fig. was previously found. by doubling the output voltage without changing the load current.. with the peak values of jL and mC identified. This implies that the transformer turns ratio should be minimized. Converters designed to operate with lowerthannecessary values of M do not fully utilize the power components. 4. It can be seen that the peak normalized tank inductor current is given by the circle radius during the Q1 conduction subinterval: JLP = Jγ –1+M 2 Jγ 2 (489) The peak normalized tank capacitor voltage MCP. and hence the losses will be almost the same also.e. with γ eliminated. For example.0. by operating at the point M = 1. The conclusion is that the converter should be designed to operate with M as close to unity as other considerations will allow. Furthermore. (489) and (490): 40 . It is: MCP = MC1 = (490) We wish to plot these component stresses in the output plane to determine how stresses vary with operating point.5. we need to express JLP and MCP as functions of J and M. and it leads to low peak tank and transistor currents. so that the converter operates at rated output voltage and power with M = 1. Component stresses and losses would be reduced accordingly.
one then obtains JLP + 1 – M J = (493) (JLP – M)2 – 1 π – tan–1 1 – M2 J = π – tan–1 MCP (MCP – 1)2 – 1 1 – M2 (494) Here. Q2 1 + M 1M . . 4. it is necessary to use care to select the correct branch of the arc tangent function.44. It can be seen that the contours are nearly horizontal lines. 41 . The Series Resonant Converter jL jLP peak value of jL: Jγ jLP = . 1+M MC1 = . Solving for J. The result is given in Fig. 4. 4. (415). then the correct answer will be obtained when the arc tangent function is defined to lie in the domain – π/2 ≤ tan–1(•) ≤ + π/2. 1 .Chapter 4. Equations (493) and (494) can now be used to overlay contours of constant peak tank stress on the output plane characteristics. When the denominator is written as shown. to eliminate γ.45 γ J +1–M = LP (491) 2 J γ = MCP (492) 2 J These expressions are then inserted into the converter output characteristic. Jγ 2 mC D1 peak value of mC: Jγ mCP = MC1 = 2 State plane diagram for k=1 CCM.1 + M 2 (circle radius during Q1 conduction interval) Q1 D2 Jγ 2 1 +M .M . Eq.46. Fig. . and do not differ much from Fig.
4.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion 5 JLP =7 M CP=7 F=0. The results for the k=0 CCM are J = tan–1 MCP (MCP + 1)2 – 1 1 – M2 JLP – 1 + M tan–1 (JLP + M)2 – 1 1 – M2 J2 1 + LP 1 – M2 JLP 1 – M2 .6 F=0.5 0. Similar analysis can be used to derive the component stresses for above resonance operation.9 2 M CP=3 1 JLP =1.46 J = –1 + J = tan–1 42 .975 4 J M CP=5 JLP =3 F=0.75 F=0. dashed lines: contours of constant peak tank capacitor voltage.25 0. 1 – M2 > JLP M (495) Fig.5 F=0.5 MCP=2 0 0 0. Solid lines: curves of constant switching frequency.7 F=0. for the k=1 continuous conduction mode (below resonance).95 JLP =5 3 F=0.8 1 M Superposition of peak tank current and voltage stress curves on the normalized output characteristics. 1 – M2 < JLP M (496) . shaded lines: contours of constant peak tank inductor current.
75 1 M Fig. (496).07 3 J 1 JLP =1 0 0 0. Use of the output plane In a typical voltage regulator design. above resonance (k=0 CCM). 4. and shaded curves are contours of constant peak tank inductor current.5 F=1. Superposition of peak stress curves on the normalized output plane. as well as the output current I = P/V. The Series Resonant Converter 5 M CP =7 JLP =7 F=1.5 0. The input voltage Vg and output power P.25 0.1 M CP =3 2 JLP =3 M CP =1 F=1. depending on whether the peak occurs at the beginning of the switching period or at some time in the middle of the period. vary over some specified range: Vgmax ≥ Vg ≥ Vgmin Pmax ≥ P ≥ Pmin 43 (497) (498) . dashed curves are contours of constant peak tank capacitor voltage.15 F=1. the output voltage is regulated to a given constant value V. Equations (495) and (496) can now be used to generate the plot of Fig.47.05 4 M CP =5 JLP =5 F=1. 4.47.3 F=1.Chapter 4. Solid curves are contours of constant switching frequency. Two cases occur in Eq. where peak tank stresses are overlaid on the converter output characteristics for the k=0 CCM.
the operating region can be moved to any arbitrary range of M and J. and the transformer and tank elements are small in size. (4102) is the most useful for design because Vg has been eliminated in favor of the constant specified value of V. for some given values of n and R0. where: Mmin = V n Vgmax V n Vgmin (4101) Mmax = The output power can be written: P = IV = J Vg V 2 = J V n R0 M R0 (4102) The expression on the right of Eq. (499) above. and hence we can also scale the range of J arbitrarily. V and the range of Vg are specified. but the transformer turns ratio n is not. (497) and (498) into the normalized output plane. Solution for J yields: 2 J = M n R0 P V2 44 (4103) . Also: J = n R0 I Vg (4100) The range of I and Vg are specified. and consequently the operating point will vary. Equations (497) and (499) imply that. in which the tank capacitor voltage and inductor current are low. map Eqs. determine the operating region of the normalized operating plane. therefore. by themselves.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion where Pmax = V Imax and Pmin = V Imin To regulate the output voltage. arbitrarily. and n is given by the choice of M from Eq. Note that the specifications (497) and (498) do not. the voltage conversion ratio will also vary from Mmin to Mmax. or M and J. By changing the tank characteristic impedance R0 and transformer turns ratio n. the range of switching frequency variations is small. subject to M ≤ 1. is equivalent to choosing n and R0. So selection of an operating region. and hence also scale the range of M. the controller will vary the switching frequency fs over some range. as the input voltage varies from its maximum to minimum values. This follows from the definitions of M and J: M = V n Vg (499) Here. Let us. It is desired to choose the transformer turns ratio and the values of tank inductance and capacitance such that a good design is obtained. So we can choose n. But we can still choose the tank characteristic impedance R0 arbitrarily.
4. (499) then J will also vary as given by Eq.e. (4104). and V gmin. The Series Resonant Converter For a given value of power P. Jmax) = (0.Chapter 4. (4101).8. as in Fig. J is proportional to M: if the input voltage varies (causing M to vary as given by Eq. Given the specifications and the choice of Mmax and Jmax . It can be seen that the maximum Mmax M Mmin switching frequency will occur at the point (Mmin. 4. plotted in the output plane. J min ).48 Voltage regulator operating region. (4101) and (4103) . as in Fig. Given values for Pmax . 4. 600W design example The preceding arguments are next applied to the example of a 500W offline fullbridge dcdc converter.48. and (4105). The converter specifications are input voltage range 255 ≤ Vg ≤ 373 output power range 60 ≤ Pout ≤ 600 maximum switching frequency fsmax = 1 MHz regulated output voltage V = 24 Designs operating below resonance. for various choices of Mmax and Jmax . values of Mmin and Jmin can be computed from Eqs. (4103).48. For the k=0 CCM example shown. i. at maximum input voltage Vgmax and Fig. and the normalized peak stresses 45 Vg = Vgmin Pm ax .. are compared in Table 4. the values of Mmin and Jmin can be evaluated. P min . minimum power P min . to see how switching frequency and component stresses must vary as the operating point changes. and the operating region is J (4105) (4104) Jmax P Vg = Vgmax = Jmin in P = Pm constructed. 4) has been selected.(4105). the design (Mmax. The peak J is given at maximum power and minimum input voltage: n Pmax R0 Jmax = Vgmin V while the minimum J occurs at minimum power and maximum input voltage: n Pmin R0 Jmin = Vgmax V The region defined by the specifications can be plotted using Eqs. The component stresses are highest at maximum power Pmax. Vgmax.1. The converter operating region can then be superimposed on the converter characteristics. This region can be overlaid on the converter output characteristics.
mode nF A V 0. the maximum allowable value of M is taken to be 0. Table 4.2 2080 k=1 CCM. which occurs at the point (Mmax. C. No discontinuous conduction mode occurs in this case. VCP.3 4.5 as in point B. where the converter operates in DCM for all load currents. ILP.9. at the point (Mmin.9 1. however. the peak tank capacitor voltage is very high. and hence the converter operates in k=2 DCM for all switching frequencies below 0. 0.068 68 0. f0. The design procedure is similar to the below resonance case.9 5.9 0.2 2. Further reductions in Jmax further reduce the peak capacitor voltage to some extent.62 0. i. coincides with 1 MHz. 4. the exact equations can be evaluated to find these quantities.45 rather than 0. 0. This voltage can be reduced by reducing the choice of Jmax . The tank resonant frequency f0 is then chosen such that the maximum switching frequency.068 104 All of the designs of Table 4. Comparison Mmax Jmax Mmin Jmin fsmin kHz 0.2A referred to the transformer primary.04 75 1.62 0. (4101).5 1.9. to 1. design C operates in DCM even at full load. This has little effect on the peak current.7 9.3 20 3. Jmax) = (0.0 below resonance C.9 0. Jmin). 46 .0 9.9 rather than 1. Values of L. These designs operate with zero voltage switching. but the peak capacitor voltage is reduced to 710V.1.0 0. and VCP can then be evaluated. (Mmax.5 1. These designs all operate with zero current switching. L.1 operate in the k=2 discontinuous conduction mode at light load.2 1. the peak tank current is increased as the discontinuous conduction mode boundary is approached. Jmax) for below resonance operation. However.31 0.7 710 510 780 k=2 DCM k=1 CCM.2 for the above resonance case.0).5 0. Point D illustrates the effect of a suboptimal choice of Mmax.0. Point A.62 0.34 280 0. ILP.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion and switching frequency variations can be determined graphically. Several designs for the same specifications are illustrated in Table 4.6 4. It is assumed that the transistors are allowed to conduct only once per halfswitchingperiod.45 1. exhibits the lowest peak current.e.5 f 0 . MHz µH 1. and the required tank characteristic impedance R0 can then be found using Eq. At point C. k=2 DCM point A B C D 0. To ensure that the rated output voltage can be obtained when semiconductor forward voltage drops and other losses are accounted for. 2080V referred to the primary side. except that the maximum switching frequency now occurs at minimum output power and maximum input voltage. 5. this also approximately doubles the peak current. the peak tank current is approximately twice that of points A and B.5 0. The required transformer turns ratio n is found by evaluation of Eq. and for all values of J below 2/π. k=2 DCM k=2 DCM k=1 CCM.. Alternatively. (4104).10 95 of designs.9 8. for example.
For example. The problem with doing so is the large range of switching frequency variations. This is undesirable because it requires that the transformer and filter components be sized to the minimum switching frequency.8 545 350 50 287 CCM k=0 CCM k=0 CCM k=0 CCM k=0 CCM 0.068 157 0.62 0.0 1940 k=0 B C D E 0. The reason for this is the occurence of the k=2 DCM at all switching frequencies below 0.0 0. which occurs at high frequency. The design is not significantly different from the corresponding design below resonance. but these do not lead to a large transformer.068 133 Point A is again at Mmax = 0. because the low frequency operating points coincide with the low output current points.31 0.9 0. In this mode.2 1.0.8 3.014 45 0.9A and a minimum switching frequency of 157kHz.9 0.62 0.4 12 290 34 3.6 4.0 0. which can be quite low. C. Several control schemes have been described in the literature which circumvent this problem. The transformer can therefore be designed as if its minimum frequency is 0. with low peak inductor current of 3. The peak tank inductor current is slightly smaller than in the belowresonance case. mode point Mmax Jmax Mmin Jmin fsmin f0. for operation above resonance. 47 . and the peak tank capacitor voltage is again very high (approximately 2kV). and the low values of fsmin in Table 4.9A.10 220 200 137 28 95 117 113 111 81 5.1 are not a problem. Point E illustrates again the effect of a suboptimal choice of Mmax. This design will require quite large magnetics. this leads to increased peak tank current. The output capacitor value is therefore determined by the maximum power point. the problem with this design is the minimum switching frequency of 45kHz. It is apparent that.62 0.34 511 495 157 0.9 8.0 0. no voltage is applied to the transformer during the discontinuous (X) subintervals.Chapter 4.2. Constant frequency operation can be obtained by duty cycle [7] or phase control [1315] of the transistor bridge. VCP can be made arbitrarily small by reducing Jmax a sufficient amount.9 5. Reducing Jmax has the favorable effect of reducing this voltage. for which the peak capacitor voltage is 350V. µH nF kHz A V kHz A 0. The Series Resonant Converter Table 4. point D illustrates a design with a peak capacitor voltage of 50 volts and peak current of 3.5 1. Comparison of designs. where less filtering is needed.5 f0. Jmax = 5. The benefits of high frequency operation are then lost. In fact.5 f 0 .9 0. ILP. Large switching frequency variations can also occur below resonance. since there is no discontinuous conduction mode. large switching frequency variations can occur. The peak current is again approximately 4A.9 3. A compromise is point C.45 1. VCP.9. above resonance L. Filter size is also not adversely affected by the wide range of switching frequency variations in this case.62 0.
194204.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. vol. Witulski and R.C. Steven G. R. Lee. no.S. 820830. Clamped Mode Resonant Converters.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. R. IA21. pp. R.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 1987 Record. Schwarz.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. Steigerwald.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. Nov. 1987 Record. “Analysis of a Series Resonant Converter PulsewidthModulated of CurrentControlled for Low Switching Loss.D. no. S. pp. IE31.” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. Salesses. 1982 Record. Vorperian and S.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. 6. vol. Trabert and Robert W. R. pp. “Resonant Power Processors. “Design of the Series Resonant Converter for Minimum Component Stress. vol. pp. pp. King and T. 181191. no.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. July 1986. pp. 1983. 2634.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. no. 15kHz 35kW high voltage converter using $15 SCR’s. vol. Erickson. pp.C. 791799. “Inherent Overload Protection for the Series Resonant Converter. Nov. H. pp. Y.C. “A Complete DC Analysis of the Series Resonant Converter. 527536.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion REFERENCES [1] F. “Constant Frequency.” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 295306. V. "SteadyState Analysis of the Duty Cycle Controlled Series Resonant Converter. March 1981. and F. Materu. pp. and J. 557566. Tsai. Foch. Oruganti and F. 180193. Proceedings ESA Sessions. Stuart. pp. June 1987. 545556. P. pp. Stuart. “SteadyState Analysis of the Series Resonant Converter. June 1985.L. A. Chambers. 1987 Record. SRC phase control reference Vandelac PESC 87 F.A. Part 1: State Plane Analysis. “Study of a Resonant Converter Using Power Transistors in a 25kW Xray Tube Power Supply. June 1987. June 1982. “A Normalized Model for the Half Bridge Series Resonant Converter.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Ngo. SRC phase control ref GE scheme (high voltage converter) PESC 90 K.T. vol. 2. 2. 1985. January 1988. “High Frequency Resonant Transistor DcDc Converters. June 1975. Cheron. 14531460. King and T. “An Improved Method of Resonant Current Pulse Modulation for Power Converters. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] 48 .” IEEE Transactions on Industry Application. 6. Singer. CAS28. Lee. 85100. Nov/Dec 1985. 1975 Record. (IEEE Publication 87CH24596). AES19. May 1984. Witulski and R. Cuk. Erickson. AES21.” IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference. pp. “LossFree Gyrator Realization. A. Erickson.
d) e) 3. Use tank capacitor charge arguments to relate the normalized load current to normalized capacitor voltage boundary values. in the k=2 discontinuous mode? b) 4.225 fo. Using the phase plane. to meet the following specifications: Input voltage Vin: Output voltage Vout: Output current I: Maximum switching frequency: Output voltage ripple: 134–176 volts 48 volts 1–10 amperes 750 kHz no greater than 1 volt peaktopeak 49 . Derive the equations for the peak tank stresses in the k=0 continuous conduction mode. derive the k=0 continuous conduction mode characteristics. The load R is a linear resistance whose value can change to any positive value. Eqs. The switching frequency is chosen to be fs = 0. Label mode boundaries. 2. Determine the complete set of conditions on normalized switching period and load current which guarantee operation in this mode. (495) and (496). Design of a high density series resonant converter L v in C I CF V o ut Design a halfbridge series resonant converter. Hence.∞]. evaluate the shortcircuit current. The Series Resonant Converter P ROBLEMS 1. a series resonant converter is designed for operation in the k=2 discontinuous mode. and give analytical expressions for the output characteristics. Over what range of R (referred to the tank characteristic impedance Ro) does the converter operate as intended. where fo is the tank resonant frequency (consider only openloop operation). Analyze the k=3 discontinuous mode: a) b) c) Draw the phase plane diagram. for all values of R in the range [0. Sketch your results in the output plane (M vs. 5. capacitor voltage. Solve for the output characteristics. Draw waveforms for the inductor current. J) and control plane (M vs F for resistive load). a) Plot the output characteristics (M vs J).Chapter 4. It is desired to obtain a converter with current source characteristics. and inductor voltage. as shown above.
you may neglect core loss. Estimate the transformer size using the Kg method. and tank capacitor. X7R ceramic chip capacitor is approximately 50 mm 3 . mm3 Kg . 100V.. and fs over which your design will operate. which combines high efficiency with small volume. total copper loss Pcu no greater than 0. J. The volume of a 50V. The estimated volumes of transformers constructed in this manner are as follows: Core type vol. Specify: (1) your choices for L. especially for 750kHz transformers.4 Hence. but is a simplifying assumption for this problem.21 0. small C F .3·103 86·103 0. You must choose a capacitor with a voltage rating at least 25% greater than the actual peak voltage applied by your design.5. 75V.724·106Ω·cm). 400V. low peak tank capacitor voltage. 1µF. For this problem. C. You may neglect the size of all other components.1T. so that the volume of a 100V 5µF capacitor of the same dielectric material is 500 mm 3 . and low peak transistor current.0·103 EE19 1550 4.1·103 EE22 EE30 EE40 EE50 EE60 2425 8575 14700 31500 42250 8. and transformer turns ratio.5W. Capacitors are available with voltage ratings of 50V. The core geometrical constant Kg of the centertapped transformer is defined as follows: Kg = ρ λ 1 i1 108 Pcu Ku B2 max 2 2 cm5 where ρ is the resistivity of copper (1. Use your engineering judgement to select the operating mode. Use a ferrite EE core for the transformer. and i 1 is the applied primary rms current. (4) the value of CF required. tank elements L and C. attempt to minimize the total volume V tot of the transformer.73·103 EE16 1125 2. (3) the transformer core size required (don’t bother to compute number of turns or wire size). λ1 is the applied primary voltseconds. and (5) the total volume Vtot as defined above. allowing a fill factor Ku of 0. and transformer turns ratio to attain what you consider to be the best combination of small transformer size. 50 . 200V. cm5 EE12 675 0. output filter capacitor.91 1. 300V. This is not valid in general. and peak flux density Bmax of 0. high minimum switching frequency.Principles of Resonant Power Conversion Design the “best” converter that you can. (2) the range of M. and 500V. and essentially any capacitance value. Capacitor volume scales as the product of capacitance and voltage rating. while keeping the peak currents reasonably low.