Disruption of the tissue integrity


Ischemic Damage

Immune Reaction

Inflammatory Response

Vascular changes: Vasodilation Increase capillary permeability Increase blood flow Local tissue congestion

Cellular Changes: Phagocytosis Increase leukocytes (granulocyte and monocyte) Release of chemical mediators(mast cells and macrophages)

Body Responses

Local Effects: Erythema Warmth Edema Pain Impaired skin functioning

Systemic Changes: Fever Leukocytosis Malaise Anorexia Sepsis

Inflammatory Response

A small amount of the suspected allergy-provoking substance is placed on the skin. and. cancer. DHT can help predict survival in immunocompromised patients. ‡ Patch test . if it swells. more importantly. therefore. and evaluate the success of restorative therapy. The skin is then gently scratched through the small drop with a special sterile needle. the test is positive for that . which contains no organisms (live or dead) but can still provoke an immune response. if the area is red and swollen. and trichophyton (a skin fungus). A DHT is performed for one of three reasons: y y y To test for exposure to specific diseases. such as poison ivy. A suspected substance is applied to the skin. To assess the vitality of the T cell response as part of the evaluation of immune system health in infection. Skin allergy testing is usually done by placing a series of adhesive patches on the skin containing potential allergens. such as tuberculosis (TB).Test done on the skin to identify the allergy substance (the allergen) that is the trigger for an allergic reaction.IMMUNO-DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES Leukocytes and Lymphocyte Tests ‡ White blood cell count and differential ‡ Bone marrow biopsy Humoral (Antibody-Mediated) Immunity Tests ‡ Specific antibody response Cellular (Cell-Mediated) Immunity Tests ‡ Total lymphocyte count ‡ Delayed hypersensitivity skin test. and malnutrition. tetanus toxoid. aging. Tuberculosis testing is done by injecting into the skin a small volume of TB antigen. or allergy-causing substances.If the skin reddens and. then the test is read as positive and allergy to that substance is considered probable. Antigens used for these tests must be ones the patient has been exposed to before.A skin test that is done to identify allergens. immune disorders. include inactivated antigens from common infectious agents to which the patient might have been exposed. Phagocytic Cell Function Tests ‡ Nitroblue tetrazolium reductase assay Hypersensitivity Tests ‡ Scratch test . To test for allergic sensitivity to potential skin irritants. such as mumps. Candida albicans. After 24-48 hours. pre-transplantation screening.A delayed hypersensitivity test (DHT) is an immune function test measuring the presence of activated T cells that recognize a certain substance.

‡ Intradermal test . is a very sensitive technique used to measure concentrations of antigens (for example. 3. meaning "to glue. This is usually the result of an antigen in the vicinity of the cells. Examples of such tests are the tuberculosis skin test. ‡ Radioallergosorbent test (RAST) .it is performed in vivo. hormone levels in the blood) by use of antibodies. Specific Antigen-antibody Tests ‡ Radioimmunoassay. As such. creating a large complex.is a laboratory technique to identify specific antibodies or antigens. the Dick test ( used to determine an individual¶s susceptibility to the erythrogenic produced by some strains of S.also known as an enzyme immunoassay(EIA). The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare.in skin testing. If no reaction occurs. This is continued until the patient experiences an allergic reaction where the irritant was applied to the skin." This occurs in biology in three main examples: 1. it can be seen as the inverse of a radiobinding assay. another substance is applied. Shick test( used to determine an individual¶s susceptibility to diphtheria toxin.is used to detect and measure circulating IgE antibodies produced against that individuals inhale.the clumping of particles.an in vitro nuclear medicine. 2. ‡ Agglutination. antigens are injected within or beneath the skin(intrdermally repectively). RAST is used in place of or as an adjunct to intradermal skin testing(traditional allergy testing) to determine the allergn(s) to which a person is allergic. An allergic reaction type occurrence where cells become more compacted together to prevent foreign materials entering them. ‡ Complement fixation test HIV Infection Tests ‡ Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). or otherwise come in contact with.substance. these larger masses are then (usually) precipitated. ‡ Immunofluorescence. ingest. Antibody identification is usually performed on blood (serum). The coalescing of small particles that are suspended in a solution. The antibody or other molecule binds multiple particles and joins them. The clumping of cells such as bacteria or red blood cells in the presence of an antibody. is a biochemical technique used mainly in immunology to detect the . pyogenes). which quantifies an antibody by use of corresponding antigens.

PCR is used to reproduce (amplify) selected sections of DNA or RNA for analysis. celecoxib Nursing management 1.to relieve the pain and inflammation by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis y Ibuprofen. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle to boost immunity . ‡ Western blot. Close monitoring for signs and symptoms of systemic affectations to prevent further complications 4. The proteins are then transferred to a membrane (typically nitrocellulose or PVDF). most commonly a color change in a chemical substrate. an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface. in ELISA. In simple terms. and in the final step a substance is added that the enzyme can convert to some detectable signal. Aseptic dressing of wound/s to prevent further complications and promote tissue healing 3. Administer NSAIDs as prescribed to alleviate pain and inflammation 2. It uses gel electrophoresis to separate native or denatured proteins by the length of the polypeptide (denaturing conditions) or by the 3-D structure of the protein (native/ non-denaturing conditions). as well as a quality-control check in various industries. Maintaining nutrition and hydration to boost the immune system 5. and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. ‡ Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). where they are probed (detected) using antibodies specific to the target protein. This antibody is linked to an enzyme. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Pharmacologic Management NSAID. The ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine and plant pathology.is a widely used analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in the given sample of tissue homogenate or extract.PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is a technique in molecular genetics that permits the analysis of any short sequence of DNA (or RNA) even in samples containing only minute quantities of DNA or RNA.presence of anantibody or an antigen in a sample.

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