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AS OCR Biology Revision Pack UNIT f211 Cells, exchange, transport Module 1 Cells Cell Structure
1. State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope.
Maximum Resolution Maximum Magnification
Light Microscope 0.2 micrometres X 1500
TEM 0.0001 micrometres Over x 1,000,000
SEM 0.005 micrometres Under x 1, 000, 000
Explain the difference between magnification and resolution
How much bigger the image is than the specimen.
Magnification = Length of Image / Length of specimen Resolution together. How well a microscope distinguishes between two points that are close
Explain the need for staining samples for use in light and electron microscopy
In Light microscopes and TEM¶s the beam of lights/electrons pass through the object, and there is an image produced as some parts of the specimen absorb more light/electrons than others, but sometimes the specimen is transparent so it will look white because light/electrons pass through so the object is stained
Light Microscope Dye- usually methylene blue/eosin
Electron Microscope Specimen dipped in metal like lead, the metal ions scatter electrons to contrast.
Calculate the linear magnification of an image
Magnification = Length of Image / Length of specimen
5. Outline the functions of the structures.
Large and contains chromatin. Enclosed by a nuclear envelope double membrane. Nuclear pores go through the envelope. Nucleolus inside. Flattened membranous sacs called cisternae, rough is studded with ribosomes, smooth is not. Stack of flat, membrane bound stacks. [Pitta bread!]
Nucleus contains the cell¶s genetic material. Chromatin contains DNA and proteins which regulate cell activities. Instructions for making proteins. RER transports proteins and SER is involved in lipid synthesis.
Golgi body receives proteins from ER and modifies them. Packages proteins into vesicles to transport them exocytosis Site of aerobic respiration, ATP is produced.
Sausage shaped. Double membrane separated by fluid filled space. Inner membrane is folded to form cristae and the middle part of the mitochondria is called the matrix. In plant cells. Double membrane. Membranous sacs called thylakoids, plural=granum. Plural=grana.
Site of photosynthesis, carbohydrate molecules made.
Spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane, with no clear internal structure. Contains enzymes.
Enzymes break down cells. E.g. white blood cell lyosomes break down invading microorganisms and lyosome in the sperm¶s head breaks down the material surrounding the egg. Site of protein synthesis, they are like an assembly line where mRNA from the nucleus is used to make proteins from amino acids. Eukaryotic- 80S Prokaryotic- 70S Involved in cell division to make spindles which move chromosomes in nuclear division.
TINY. Bound to ER to make RER and also in cytoplasm. Consist of two subunits.
Small tubes of microtubules. A pair can be found next to the nucleus in animal cells. Also in some protocytists. Membrane bound sac found in plants filled with cell sap.
Keep the plant supported, rigid and turgid. Also like a garbage disposal for plants.
Network of protein fibres
Support, movement. E.g. Chromosome movement in mitosis.
Thick layer, in plants. Made of cellulose in eukaryotic cells and murein in prokaryotic cells. Thin, flexible layer around all eukaryotic cells. Made of phospholipids and proteins.
Gives the cell strength and rigidity
It separates the cell contents from external environment and even controls movement of substances in and out of the membrane with receptor cells. In eukaryotic cells it contains organelles, in prokaryotic cells it contains enzymes needed for metabolic reactions. Genetic instructions
Enclosed jelly like substance within the cell membrane.
Circular and loose. Unprotected, unlike in eukaryotic cells. Plasmid Small circle of DNA
Exchange DNA easily and quickly between eukaryotic cells. Used in genetic engineering. Useful for sticking cells together, and as a food reserve. Protects against phagocytosis and chemicals.
A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall
Rigid tail that rotates. ³The motor is embedded in the cell membrane and is driven by a H+ gradient across the membrane. Clockwise rotation drives the cell forwards, while
Propels the cell
anticlockwise rotation causes a chaotic spin. This is the only known example of a rotating motor in nature´ A tightly-folded area of the cell membrane Contains membrane bound proteins needed for respiration
Explain the importance of the cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells, aiding transport within cells and enabling cell movement.
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Keep cells organelles in position with support Strengthen the cell to maintain it¶s shape Transport material within the cell Help the cell to move, e.g. cilia and flagella by protein filaments.
Compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, the structure of prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells are smaller (0.2-2.0 Q m) Don¶t have a nucleus, DNA floats free in cytoplasm and is circular Less organelles and no membranous ones 70S Ribosomes
Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells are bigger 10-100 Q m DNA is protected in nucleus and is linear Many organelles, plant & animal 80S Ribosomes
Compare and contrast, with the aid of diagrams and electron micrographs, the structure and ultrastructure of plant cells and animal cells.
Cell Division, Diversity and Cellular Organisation
Explain the meaning of the term homologous pair of chromosomes
Humans have 46 chromosomes in total 23 pairs. One chromosome in each pair comes from the mother, and then the other comes from the father. Same size, same genes although they can have different versions of the genes (alleles).
Emily Summers 1. A bud forms at the cell surface 2. The cell undergoes interphase 3. The cell undergoes mitosis 4. Nuclear division is complete budding cell s nucleus has an identical copy of parent cell dna 5. The bud separates off from the parent cell with a genetically identical yeast cell
Meiosis: 1. Gametes are found in all sexually reproducing organisms 2. Male & Female join at fertilisation forming a zygote dividing into a new organism 3. (Sperm and Egg) 4. (Pollen grains and ovules) 5. Normal body cells of plants and animals have diploid (2n) number of chromosomes, each cell contains two of each chromosome from each parent 6. Gametes have the haploid number of chromosomes (n) there s one copy of each chromosome 7. At fertilisation the haploid male gamete and female fuse to make a cell with the diploid number of chromosomes, half from sperm half from egg. Produces cells genetically differentgenetic variation, it creates variation. 7
Define the term stem cell
Stem cells are cells that are not specialized and can differentiate into specialized cells with mitosis and the correct stimulation.
Define the term differentiation, with reference to the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and neutrophils derived from stem cells in bone marrow, and the production of xylem vessels and phloem sieve tubes from cambium.
Bones are living organs containing nerves and blood vessels, and the main bones have marrow in the middle, adult stem cells divide and differentiate to replace worn out erythrocytes and neutrophils to fight infection. In plant cells stem cells are in the cambium. In the root and stem the stem cells of the vascular cambium divide to differentiate into the xylem and phloem, the vascular cambium then forms a ring inside the root and shoots. These cells divide and grow from the ring differentiating and moving away from the cambium.
Describe and explain, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, how cells of multicellular organisms are specialised for particular functions, with reference to erythrocytes (red blood cells), neutrophils, epithelial cells, sperm cells, palisade cells, root hair cells and guard cells.
Neutrophills protect the body against illness, they are flexible so they can engulf pathogens and they have lots of lysosomes with digestive enzymes that can break down the pathogens. Erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood and they have a biconcave disc shape to give a large surface area to volume ratio for gaseous exchange, they don¶t have a nucleus so they have more room for haemoglobin. Epithelial cells cover organ surfaces and cilia can beat to move particles, and other like microvilli can fold in the cell membrane to increase surface area to volume ratio Sperm cells have a flagellum that enables them to swim to the egg and they have lots of mitochondria to provide energy to swim, the acrosome contains digestive enzymes so the sperm can penetrate the egg surface.
Explain the meaning of the terms tissue, organ and organ system.
A tissue is a group of similar cells that are specialized to work together to carry out a particular function. E.g. Ciliated epithelium, xylem tissue, squamous epithelium tissue, phloem tissue Organs are groups of different tissues that work together to form a function. E.g. Lungs squamous epithelium, ciliated epithelium, elastic connective tissue and vascular tissue. Organ systems are different organs working together for a different function, e.g. the respiratory system is made of all of the organs, tissues and cells involved in breathing like the lungs, trachea, larynx, nose, the diaphragm and mouth.
Discuss the importance of cooperation between cells, tissues, organs and organ systems.
Mulitcellular organisms work efficiently as they have different cells that are specialized for various functions It is beneficial because every different cell can carry out a specialized function in a more efficient way than unspecialized cells could. Each cell depends on the other cells for the functions it cannot carry out So cells, tissues and organs in multicellular organisms cooperate to keep the organism alive and working well. E.g. Muscle cells can move well but to do so they need oxygen, so they need erythrocytes to carry oxygen to them from lungs.
Transport in plants
Explain the need for transport systems in multicellular plants in terms of size and surface area to volume ratio.
Plants need water, CO2 minerals like nitrates and potassium, and sugars to live and they need to get rid of waste substances. They are multicellular and have a small surface area to volume ratio so need transport systems to move substances to and from cells quickly as diffusion alone is too slow.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the distribution of xylem and phloem tissue in roots, stems and leaves of dicotyledonous plants.
Leaf Cross Section
In a root the xylem and phloem are in the centre to give support to the root as it pushes through the soil. In stems the xylem and phloem are near the outside to provide stability that reduces bending. In a leaf the xylem and phloem make up a vein network to support the thin leaves.
Root Cross Section
Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the structure and function of xylem vessels, sieve tube elements and companion cells.
Xylem vessels are long tube structures formed from vessel elements joined end to end. There aren t end walls so they are not interrupted tubes, and allow water to pass through the middle with
Phloem tissue transports solutes like sucrose around plants, it is only a transport tissue. Sieve tube elements are living cells that form the tube for transportation of solutes around the plant, they are joined end-end to make sieve tubes. The sieves are end walls with holes in them for solutes to pass through, although they have no nucleus, a thin layer of cytoplasm and few organelles. The cytoplasm of nearby cells is joined through holes in sieve plates. Companion cells are there for each sieve tube element to carry out metabolic processes for the sieve tube elements that cannot survive on their own as they have no nucleus, etc., and itself- e.g. they provide energy for active transport of solutes .
Define the term transpiration.
The loss of water from the plant¶s surface
Explain why transpiration is a consequence of gaseous exchange.
A plant must open it¶s stomata for absorption of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, which as a consequence allows water to escape because there is a higher water potential inside the leaf than outside. So water moves out of the leaf by osmosis down the water potential gradient.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, how a potometer is used to estimate transpiration rates.
Really it measures the water uptake by the plant, but we assume that water uptake is directly related to water loss by leaves.
1. Cut a shoot under water to stop air from going into the xylem at a slant to increase surface area to volume ratio for water uptake 2. Check that the apparatus has no air bubbles and is full with water 3. Put the shoot into the apparatus underwater to prevent air entering 4. Remove the photometer from the water and make it air and water tight 5. Dry the leaves, let the shoot acclimatize and shut the tap 6. Keep conditions constant throughout the experiment 7. Record the starting position of the air bubble 8. Start a stopwatch and record the distance moved by the bubble per unit time
Explain, in terms of water potential, the movement of water between plant cells, and between plant cells and their environment.
Lighter= faster rate of transpiration as the stomata open for photosynthesis Higher= faster rate as water molecules have higher kinetic energy so they evaporate from cells quicker, increasing the water potential gradient between inside and outside of leaf making water diffuse out quicker. Lower= faster, if the air around the plant is dry the water potential gradient between the leaf and air is steeper Higher= faster, air movement blows the water molecules from the stomata, steepening the water potential gradient
Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, how the leaves of some xerophytes are adapted to reduce water loss by transpiration.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the pathway by which water is transported from the root cortex to the air surrounding the leaves, with reference to the Casparian strip, apoplast pathway, symplast pathway, xylem and the stomata.
Water travels through the roots via the root cortex into the xylem by two ways The Symplast Pathway Goes through living parts of the cells, the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of nearby cells connect through plasmodestmata, which are small spaces in cell walls. The Apoplast Pathway Goes through non living parts of the cells, the cell walls, the walls are absorbent and water can diffuse by osmosis through them and pass through spaces between them.
When water is in the Apoplast pathway it goes to the endodermis cells in the root, but the path is blocked by the Casparian strip- which is just a waxy strip. The water then must take the Symplast pathway. This is not a hindrance because the water than has to go through the cell membrane which controls substances entering/leaving. If the water goes past the barrier it moves into the Xylem. The main pathway used is the Apoplast pathway as it provides the least resistance.
Explain the mechanism by which water is transported from the root cortex to the air surrounding the leaves, with reference to adhesion, cohesion and the transpiration stream.
Cohesion and tension move water up from roots to the leaves against gravity, water evaporates from the leaves at the top of the xylem via transpiration This creates suction/tension which pulls more water into the leaf Water molecules are cohesive, meaning they stick together, so if one is pulled into the leaf so are more. The whole column of water in the xylem moves upwards, and it enters the stem through the roots. Adhesion is the water molecules being attracted to the walls of the xylem vessels, helping water rise up.
Explain translocation as an energy-requiring process transporting assimilates, especially sucrose, between sources (e.g. leaves) and sinks (e.g. roots, meristem).
Translocation is the movement of dissolved substances like sucrose and amino acids when they are needed in a plant- called assimilates. This requires energy and happens in the phloem. Translocation moves substances from sources (where it is producedhigher concentration) to sinks (where it is used- lower concentration)
Emily Summers E.g. The source for sucrose is the leaves and the sinks are mainly food storage organs and the meristems (growth areas) in the roots, stems and leaves. Enzymes maintain the concentration from the source to the sink by changing the dissolved substances at the sink, like by breaking them down or changing them into something else, to make sure there is a lower concentration at the sink than the source to keep a steep concentration gradient.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the mechanism of transport in phloem involving active loading at the source and removal at the sink, and the evidence for and against this mechanism.
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At the source active transport is said to actively load the dissolved solutes into sieve tubes of the phloem. Lowering the water potential inside sieve tubes and water enters them via osmosis. Creating a high pressure inside the sieve tubes at the source end of the phloem.
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At the sink the solutes are removed from the phloem to be used Increasing water potential inside the sieve tubes so water leaves by osmosis Lowering pressure inside the sieve tubes
Creating a pressure gradient from the source to the sink This gradient is responsible for pushing solutes along the sieve tubes to where they are required in the plant.
Emily Summers For Removing a ring of bark from a tree taking the phloem not the xylem from a woody stem a bulge will form above the ring. On analysis of the fluid in the bulge, there will be a higher sugar concentration above the ring than below- so there must be a downward sugar flow. Aphids pierce the phloem with their mouthparts and sap flows into them, the sap flows out quicker nearer the leaves than further down the stem, so there must be a pressure gradient. A metabolic inhibitor stopping ATP production in the phloem stops translocation, proving it is active transport. There are experimental mass flow models Against Sugar travels to many sinks not one with the highest water potential, as the model indicates
Sieve plates would make a barrier to mass flow, a lot of pressure would be needed for solutes to pass at a reasonably quick rate