list and discuss the service primitives for connection oriented services

A service is formally specified by a set of primitives or operations available to the user to access the service. These primitives tell the service to perform some action or report an action taken by the peer entity. The primitives for the connection oriented service are given in following table. Primitives Meaning -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Listen Block waiting for an incoming connection Connect Receive Send Disconnect Establish a connection with waiting peer Block waiting for an incoming message Send a message to the peer Terminate a connection

First the server executes LISTEN to indicate that it is ready to accept incoming connections. The client executes CONNECT to establish the connection with the server. The server now unblocks the listener and sends back an acknowledgement. Thus the connection is established. The next step for a server is to execute RECEIVE to prepare to accept the first request. The arrival of the request packet unblocks the server so that it can process the request. After it has done the work it uses SEND to answer to the client. After all the data transfer is done it can use DISCONNECT for suspending the client. When the server gets this packet, it also issues a DISCONNECT and when it reaches the client, the client process is releases and the connection is broken. In the process packets may get lost, timings may be wrong; many other complex issues may arise.

Describe the following Medium Access Control Sub Layer’s Multiple access protocols:
A) Pure ALOHA or Unslotted ALOHA
The ALOHA network was created at the University of Hawaii in 1970 under the leadership of Norman Abramson. The Aloha protocol is an OSI layer 2 protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology. The first version of the protocol was basic: · If you have data to send, send the data · If the message collides with another transmission, try resending later

B) Slotted ALOHA or Impure ALOHA
An improvement to the original Aloha protocol was Slotted Aloha. It is in 1972, Roberts published a method to double the throughput of an pure ALOHA by uses discrete timeslots. His proposal was to divide the time into discrete slots corresponding to one frame time. This approach requires the users to agree to the frame boundaries. To achieve synchronization one special station emits a pip at the start of each interval similar to a clock. Thus the capacity of slotted ALOHA increased to the maximum throughput of 36.8%. With Slotted Aloha, a centralized clock sent out small clock tick packets to the outlying stations. Outlying stations were only allowed to send their packets immediately after receiving a clock tick. If there is only one station with a packet to send, this guarantees that there will never be a collision for that packet. On the other hand if there are two stations with packets to send, this algorithm guarantees that there will be a collision, and the whole of the slot period up to the next clock tick is wasted. With some mathematics, it is possible to demonstrate that this protocol does improve the overall channel utilization, by reducing the probability of collisions by a half.

Discuss the different types of noise
Noise is unwanted electrical or electromagnetic energy that degrades the quality of signals and data. Noise occurs in digital and analog systems, and can affect files and communications of all types, including text, programs, images, audio, and telemetry. On the broadest scale, noise can be classified as either external or internal. Each category consists of several different types.

Internal Noise
Internal noise represents all the different types that arise inside of the communication system components. It includes thermal noise, shot noise, and flicker noise.

External Noise
External noise represents all the different types that arise outside of the communication system components. It includes atmospheric noise, galactic noise, man-made noise, and interference from other communication sources.
Atmospheric Noise

Atmospheric noise is produced mostly by lightning discharges in thunderstorms. It is usually the dominating external noise source in quite locations at frequencies below about 20 MHz or so.

Extraterrestrial Noise

It is safe to say that there are almost as many types of space noise as there are sources. For convenience, a division into two subgroups will suffice.
Galactic Noise

Galactic noise is caused by disturbances originating outside the earth’s atmosphere. The primary sources of galactic noise are the sun, background radiation along the galactic plane, and the many cosmic sources distributed along the galactic plane.
Man-Made Noise

Man-made noise is somewhat obvious from its title and consists of any source of electrical noise resulting from a manmade device or system.
Industrial Noise

Between the frequencies of 1 to 600 MHz (in urban, suburban and other industrial areas) the intensity of noise made by humans easily outstrips that created by any other source, internal or external to the receiver.

One can debate as to whether or not interference from other communication sources should be classified as “noise.”

What is Non-repudiation? Define cryptanalysis
Non-repudiation Network security problems can be divided roughly into four categories, Non-repudiation is one of them. It deals with signatures. For example how do one prove that the order was placed by the customer. Nonrepudiation is the assurance that someone cannot deny something. Typically, nonrepudiation refers to the ability to ensure that a party to a contract or a communication cannot deny the authenticity of their signature on a document or the sending of a message that they originated. On the Internet, a digital signature is used not only to ensure that a message or document has been electronically signed by the person that purported to sign the document, but also, since a digital signature can only be created by one person, to ensure that a person cannot later deny that they furnished the signature. Cryptanalysis Cryptanalysis refers to the study of ciphers, ciphertext, or cryptosystems (that is, to secret code systems) with a view to finding weaknesses in them that will permit retrieval of the plaintext from the ciphertext, without necessarily knowing the key or the algorithm. This is known as breaking the cipher, ciphertext, or cryptosystem. There are numerous techniques for performing cryptanalysis, depending on what access the cryptanalyst has to the plaintext, ciphertext, or other aspects of the cryptosystem. 1) Known-plaintext analysis 2) Chosen-plaintext analysis (also known as differential cryptanalysis) 3) Ciphertext-only analysis 4) Man-in-the-middle attack 5) Timing/differential power analysis

Explain mask-address pair used in update message. Discuss importance of path attributes.
Mask-address pair used in update message
In the update message many addresses are listed and the size of the update message goes on increasing. BGP uses it to store destination address and the associated mask. A technique, where instead of IP 32-bit address and a 32-bit mask compressed mask-address pair, is used to reduce the size of the update message. Here BGP encodes the mask into a single octet that precedes the address.

Format of compressed mask-address pair

Path Attribute Path attributes are factored to reduce the size of the update message.

Importance of path attributes:
1. Path information allows a receiver to check for routing loops. The sender can specify exact path through AS to the destination. If any AS is listed more than once then there is a routing loop. 2. Path information allows a receiver to implement policy constraints. A receiver can examine the path so that they should not pass through untrusted AS. 3. Path information allows a receiver to know the source of all routes.

Explain the following with respect to E-Mail:
E-mail system normally consists of two sub systems 1. the user agents 2. the message transfer agents The user agents allow people to read and send e-mails. The message transfer agents move the messages from source to destination. The user agents are local programs that provide a command based, menu-based, or graphical method for interacting with e-mail system. The message transfer agents are daemons, which are processes that run in background. Their job is to move datagram e-mail through system. A key idea in e-mail system is the distinction between the envelope and its contents. The envelope encapsulates the message. It contains all the information needed for transporting the message like destinations address, priority, and security level, all of which are distinct from the

message itself. The message transport agents use the envelope for routing. The message inside the envelope consists of two major sections: · The Header: The header contains control information for the user agents. It is structured into fields such as summary, sender, receiver, and other information about the e-mail. · Body: The body is entirely for human recipient. The message itself as unstructured text; sometimes containing a signature block at the end Header format The header is separated from the body by a blank line consists of following fields · From: · To: · Subject: · Date: The e-mail address, and optionally name, of the sender of the message. one or more e-mail addresses, and optionally name, of the receiver’s of the message. A brief summary of the contents of the message. The local time and date when the message was originally sent.

User agents It is normally a program and sometimes called a mail reader. It accepts a variety of commands for composing, receiving, replying messages as well as manipulating the mail boxes. Some user agents have a fancy menu or icon driven interfaced that require a mouse where as others are one character commands from keyboard. Functionally these are same. Some systems are menu or icon driven but also have keyboard shortcuts. To send an e-mail, user provides the message, the destination address and possibly some other parameters. Most e-mail system supports mailing lists. E-mail Services Basic services: E-mail systems support five basic functions. These basic functions are: 1. Composition: It refers to the process of creating messages and answers. 2. Transfer: It refers to moving messages from the originator to the recipient. 3. Reporting: It refers to acknowledging or telling the originator what happened to the message. 4. Displaying: The incoming message has to be displayed so that people can read their e-mail. 5. Disposition: It is the final step and concerns what the recipient does with the message after receiving it. Advanced services: In addition to these basic services, some e-mail systems provide a variety of advanced features. · auto forwarding of messages.

· create and destroy mailboxes, inspect the contents of mailboxes, insert and delete messages from the mailboxes. · Creating managing mailing list and Sending messages to the mailing list. · Carbon copies, blind Carbon copies, high priority e-mail, secret e-mail, alternative recipient’s.

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