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**J. L. Drewniak and R. E. DuBroff EMC Laboratory, University of Missouri-Rolla Objectives:
**

1. Study reflection from reactive terminations. 2. Investigate differences in typical ``matching'' schemes.

Equipment:

1. Tektronix 11801B Mainframe with SD-24 TDR/Sampling Head 2. Capacitive and inductive loads: C, L, series RL and RC, and parallel RL and RC.

The reflection coefficient concept in the time-domain is valid only for resistive loads. For reactive elements, enforcing Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws at the load leads to a differential equation that must be solved for the reflected wave V − . The solutions for V − and the total voltage at the load for C, L, series RC and RL, and parallel RC and RL terminations are given below. A schematic representation of the transmission-line system is shown in Figure 1. The voltage of the step generator is Vg , and Ro = 50 Ω is the characteristic impedance of the transmission line of length is t d = . The delay time of the line .

vp

•= The solution for a capacitive load C is

V − ( , t ) = Vg

Ro (1 − 2e −( t −td ) /τ ) Ro + Rg Ro (1 − e −( t −td ) /τ ) Ro + Rg

VL = 2Vg

for t d < t < 3 t d , where τ = Ro C is the time-constant. When R g = Ro

VL = Vg (1 − e − ( t −td ) /τ ) •= The solution for a parallel RL C load is

t > td

2 •= The solution for a series RL C load is V − ( . t ) = Vg Ro Ro (1 − 2 e − ( t − td ) / τ ) Ro + Rg Ro + RL Ro Ro VL = 2Vg (1 − e − ( t − td ) / τ ) Ro + Rg RL + Ro for t d < t < 3 t d . Rg Vg =500 mV R o = 50 Ω . and G = . GL + Go R 1 VL = Vg (1 − e −( t −td ) /τ ) 2 t > td and τ = 1 Ro C .V − ( . t ) = Vg Ro R − Ro RL −2 ( L e − ( t − td ) / τ ) Ro + Rg RL + Ro RL + Ro Ro RL (1 − e −( t −td ) /τ ) Ro + Rg RL + Ro VL = 2Vg for t d < t < 3 t d . . where τ = ( Ro + RL )C is the time-constant. When RL = Rg = Ro where τ =( Ro || RL ) C = C 1 is the time-constant. V p load Figure 1: Schematic representation of a reactively loaded transmission line of length . When RL = Rg = Ro VL = Vg (1 − 1 − ( t − td ) / τ e ) 2 t > td and τ = 2 Ro C .

where τ = RL = Rg = Ro . 2 Ro •= The solution for a parallel RL L load is V − ( . where τ = L is the time-constant. t ) = Vg Ro Ro R − Ro (2 ) e − ( t − td ) / τ + L Ro + Rg Ro + RL RL + Ro Ro Ro RL + ( e − ( t − td ) / τ ) Ro + R g R L + Ro R L + Ro V L = 2V g for t d < t < 3 t d . where τ = L is the time-constant. t ) = 2Vg Ro 1 ( e − ( t − td ) / τ − ) Ro + Rg 2 Ro e −( t −td ) /τ Ro + Rg VL = 2Vg for t d < t < 3 t d .•= The solution for an inductive load L is V − ( . When Rg = Ro Ro V L = V g e − ( t − td ) / τ •= The solution for a series RL L load is t > td V − ( . When RL = Rg = Ro Ro + RL 1 VL = V g (1 + e −( t −td ) / τ ) 2 t > td and τ = 1 L . When RL || Ro for t d < t < 3 t d . t ) = Vg Ro RL (2 e − ( t − td ) / τ − 1) Ro + Rg Ro + RL Ro RL VL = 2V g e − ( t −t d ) / τ Ro + R g RL + Ro L = L(G L + Go ) is the time-constant.

and series RL C terminations on a 50Ω transmission line.8 -1 40 τ=26. RL = Rg = Ro . The primary difference between the solution sets in the case of either a capacitive or inductive load is the behavior at t = t d .2 -0. and the final voltage value. R g = Ro .4 -0.1 VL = V g (1 + e −( t −td ) / τ ) 2 t > td and τ = 1 L . i. and series RL C are shown in Figure 2. parallel RL C .2 0 -0.6 0.4ns C L τ=128ns RL series C L 250mV τ=56ns RL || C L 0V 60 80 100 120 140 20ns/div 160 180 200 220 Figure 2:TDR traces for a single C .8 0. and V g = 500mV . TDR traces for the three different termination cases. the time constant. C . Ro 1 = V g .. V g are valid for t > t d . parallel RL C . 2 Ro When the generator is matched to the characteristic impedance of the line.4 200mρ/div 0.6 -0. . but shifted in time by t d . In these cases. as in the case of the test configuration.e. and all of the above solutions Ro + R g 2 0. The voltage at the load is the same as the TDR trace after 53ns .

4 200mρ/div 0. for the three different nominally 1000 pF capacitors used. The voltage at the load for a series RL C termination (across both elements) by contrast is not initially zero.8 0. since the voltage across C cannot change instantaneously.τ=89. At t = t d the capacitor is a short.2ns 0V 60 80 100 120 140 20ns/div 160 180 200 220 Figure 3: TDR traces for a single L .For a simple capacitive load C .2 0 -0. The time constant in the three cases C . and parallel and series RL L loads are shown in Figure 3. . a parallel RL L . and series RL C were 26.4ns . and the line appears matched.τ=180ns L. respectively. The final value of the voltage For the L and parallel RL L cases is 0V . A significant difference between the series and parallel-terminated cases is the DC power draw [1]. 1 0.2ns 250mV RL || L.4 -0. and 128ns . the voltage at the load at t = t d is zero. since the voltage across it cannot change instantaneously. parallel RL C . and series RL L terminations on a 50Ω transmission line.8 -1 40 Series RL L. The case is similar for a parallel RL C load. The final value of the voltage then increases to V g = 500mV .2 -0.6 -0.6 0. Consequently. there is a jump to zero volts in the TDR trace when the incident voltage wave reaches the load.τ=37. 56ns . The TDR traces for an inductive load L .

H. References [1].2ns . 1994. W. and 37. Johnson and M. The time constants for the three cases of L . .2ns for the three different nominally 4. Rao. Englewood Cliffs.By contrast.6 µH inductors. [2]. 180ns . Prentice-Hall. N.. Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics. Prentice-Hall. and series RL L loads are τ = 89. 1993. a parallel RL L . NJ. High-Speed Digital Design: A Handbook of Black Magic. the final value of the voltage for the series RL L termination is 250mV . Graham. N. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs. NJ.

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