Fabric Printing Techniques

TEXTILE PRINTING

APPLICATION OF COLOR T O

A

FABRIC I N A

DESIGN OR PATTERN

OBJECTIVES
1. G O O D REGISTRATION
2.
3.

G O O D CLARITY

G O O D DEFINITION
G O O D PENETRATION

4.

5.
6.

G O O D FASTNESS
LOW PERCENTAGE SECONDS

TYPES OF PRINTING PROCESSES

I.

AUTOMATIC FLAT SCREEN PRINTING

A.

APPROXIMATELY 17% OF PRINTED GOODS

B.

'

ADVANTAGES

(1)

LARGE REPEATS

MULTIPLE STROKES FOR PILE FABRICS

C.

DISADVANTAGES

SLOW

N O CONTINUOUS PATTERNS

3

APPROXIMATELY &% OF PRINTED GOODS B. ROTARY SCREEN PRINTING A. DISADVANTAGES (1) DESIGN LIMITATIONS (2) SMALL REPEATS .I1 . ADVANTAGES (2) QUICK CHANGEOVER OF PATTERNS (3) CONTINUOUS PATTERNS C.

ADVANTAGES (1.) HIGH DESIGN CAPABILITY A.111. ENGRAVED ROLLER PRINTING . A. APPROXIMATELY 26% OF PRINTED GOODS B. MULTIPLE TONES C. DISADVANTAGES (1) COPPER CYLINDERS VERY EXPENSIVE (2) -- NOT ECONOMICAL FOR SHORT RUNS (3) REQUIRES HIGHLY SKILLED WORKERS . FINE DETAIL B.

APPROXIMATELY 7% OF PRINTED GOODS B. HEAT TRANSFER PRINTING A.IV. DISADVANTAGES (1) -- SLOW (2) PRIMARILY ONLY FOR POLYESTER . ADVANTAGES (1) HIGH QUALITY PRINTS (2) - FEWER SECONDS (3) ECONOMICAL FOR SHORT RUNS (4) PRACTICALLY POLLUTION FREE C.

D R Y I N G 4. P R I N T I N GO F F A B R I C 3.O F F . P R E P A R A T I O N O F P R I N T P A S T E 2. F I X A T I O N O F D Y E S T U F F 5.STEPS I N PRINTING PROCESS 1. W A S H I N G .

Preparation of printing ~ y p e specific farmulation used d e p e d s on of fiber. the dyes ar Pi birrlers. cross-linking agents m i n g agents surfactants bater-retaining agents (-ants) a3kSirm prcrrptess &f-tal* -- handnodifiers -- 7 . the mlarant -tan u s d and. to - extent.

nrsaifif2dby i tarperature. w a t e r . pH. t.faxmula- a m of t h IIDst impartant variables i a n can be c ml d by choosing from a w i d e m le range of possible t h k h r x x products. arrl electrolyte n wians .viscosity resistthidmss of t h f l u i d ) - of a fluid to f l o w - (ie.i n .i l ) .b print paste .(oil-in-water.

of Print P a s t e s E f f e c t of Eledm3ly-5 Effect of cancentration .

THICKFNING AGENTS MUST H A V E P S E U D O P L A S T I C FLOW B E H A V I O R Low S H E A R = H I G H V I S C O S I T Y H I G H S H E A R = Low V I S C O S I T Y i SHEAR RATE PSEUDOPLASTIC B E H A V I O R .

THICKENING M E D I A S O L U T I O N SO F P O L Y S A C C H A R I D E S .GUM TRAGACANTH .POLYACRYLIC ACID -EMA R E S I N G ELECTROLYTE S E N S I T I V E FOAMS .SODIUM ALGINATE EMULSIONS -.I “WATER O I L IS U S U A L L Y V A R S O L .AIR DISPERSED I N WATER 11 .GUM ARABIC .LOCUST BEAN GUM .GUAR GUM .WATER-IN-OIL SYNTHETIC (ALL-AQUEOUS) . 0 I L .

capable of fauning a ionalfilmusedto 1 - inpartant in d e t e g fastrvpss “ a l l y syntbtic (lata)c~llpounds -- 12 .

often used to soften e t e r .calgm .

Smfactants can be scatianic S+ S .used to -particles. S i m i l a r in 135e are protective colloids - increasing paste stability.Surfactats . into the fiher.

preventing -kn' si- ard paste .Hurectants . mi l -as aWed t o print paste fmtrdatians to print paste formulations to prevent e e r evaparatim the paste instability .

.Increaseadhesion of b i d e r systan to substrate Le. Pi-t printing of fiberglass isenhanoed by using aninffi- -- .

often any SiJiaXE surfactants have been d which bubble fanmtirm in t b print paste a d .t is be usfa. no effects can .Added to print pastes to " i z e f m t i m of foan (before foan printing).

Catalysts A c f i e m i c a l dded t o a fanrailation t o speed of a c h m k a l . be in!Clu3f?d print paste in fcurrplLation far . reaction.

A C ~ D DISPERSE . O X I D I Z I N G A N D R E D U C I N G AGENTS IN PRINT PASTE.CARRIER DO N O T I N C O R P O R A T E S T R O N G A C I D . Y ACID AGER LATENT R E D U C I N G AGENTS ( S O D I U M S U L F ~ X Y L A T FEO R M A L D E H Y D E ) . B A S E S .AUXILIARY CHEMICALS THOSE N E C E S S A R Y F O R F I X A T I O N OF D Y E O N T O F I B E R REACTIVES VATS ALKALI .REDUCING AGENT ACLDS .ACID CATIONIC.

T R A N S F E R T O S C R E E N A. B. LACQUER METHOD 5. S T E P A N D R E P E A T C. P R E P A R A T I O N O F P O S I T I V E F I L M A. G A L V A N O METHOD .SCREEN ENGRAVING PROCESS 1. . REGISTRATION AND ACCURACY 2. COLOR S E P A R A T I O N .

CURE INSTALL END RING J. TO L I G H T G. H.LACQUER METHOD PERFORATED SCREEN PREFORMED A. DEGREASE A N D CLEAN COAT WITH LIGHT . F I L M P L A C E D IN C O N T A C T W I T H SCREEN EXPOSE WASH F.SENSITIVE EMULSION DRY E. C. INSPECT 1. . HEAT - B.

EE S Y S T E M .FLAT-BED SCREEN P R I N T I NG M E C H A N I Z A T I O N O F H A N D SCREEN P R O C E S S - F A B R I C G L U E D TO B L A N K E T S C R E E N S R I S E AND F A L L P R I N T I N G DONE W H I L E SCREEN I N D O W N POSITION R O D O R BLADE SQUEEG. U P T O FO'UR S T R O K E S P O S S I B L E SLOW PROCESS .

i o .- W LLI (3 W W 3 z a n W n Q) a a n I LL .

-- -?A .R O T A R Y S C R E E N PRINT.ING C O N T I N U O U S SCREEN P R I N T I N G PROCESS - F A B R I C GLUED TO B L A N K E T F A B R I C MOVES UNDER R O T A T I N G SCREENS R O D OR B L A D E SQUEEGEE S Y S T E M FINE ADJUSTMENTS EASILY MADE S P E E D S U P TO 100 Y D J M I N .

W 0 5 0 LL W (3 W W U 3 v . .

F I X A T I O N METHODS 1. PRESSURE STEAM - TREATMENT AT 230 DEGREES F UNDER LON P g E S S U R E - USED WITH DISPERSE DYES - TURBO-AUTOCLAVE MOST COMMON E Q U I P M E N T . A T M O S P H E R I C STEAM - TREATMENT AT 212 DEGREES F WITH SATURATED STEAM USED WITH DIRECT DYES VAT DYES NAPHTHOL DYES ACID DYES DYESDYES CATIONIC REACTIVE - FESTOONSTEAMER MOST COMMON EQUIPMENT ACID AGER FOR ACID DYES 2.

D R Y HEAT - TREATMENT USED WITH WITH DRY HEAT AT TEMPERATURES UP T O 420 DEGREES DISPERSE REACTIVE DYES DYES P I GMENTS . H I G H TEMPERATURE STEAM - TREATMENT 420 WITH SPUERHEATED STEAM AT TEMPERATURE UP TO DEGREES F - USED WITH DiSPERSE DYES P IGMENTS - C A N A L S O B E U S E D As A N A T M O S P H E R I C STEAMER 4.3.

R E A S O N S FOR S C O U R I N G R E M O V E THE T H I C K E N I N G . A G E N T REMOVE AUXILIARIES REMOVE EXCESS DYESTUFF I M P R O V E B R I L L I A N C E OF P R I N T I M P R O V E F A S T N E S S P R O P E R T I .E S OF PRINT PROBLEMB A C K S T A I N I N G OF U N D Y E D A R E A S .

HARSH HARD . P R I N T 2.PIGMENT P R I N T I N G 70% OF ALL P R I N T E D F A B R I C S I N U.No A F T E R W A S H DISADVANTAGES .POOR CROCK FASTENESS -.ALL F I B E R S AND F I B E R BLENDS . D R Y 3. ARE P R I N T E DW I T H P I G M E N T S C O M P O S I T I O N OF P R I N T P A S T E PIGMENT T H I C K E N E R (EMULSIONOR A L L . BINDER (ACRYLIC POLYMER) Low C R O C K B I N D E R SOFTENER AQUEOUS) - PROCESS 1.S. C A R E ADVANTAGES .

Typical P i p t Print Ebmuhtion 8 nrywtxight 10% 3% 2% 1/108 5-10% 18 1/10% 1/28 2% 77% .

DEFECTS I N SCREEN PRINTING OUT OF REGISTRATION LINT A N D IIIREALI MARKS GLUE STREAK COLOR SMEAR COLOR OUT CREASED FABRIC PINHOLE -- DAMAGED SCREEN .

c a I L 0 3 W 5: .c .C Q.

t h e r e f o r e . .Fabric i s first printed with a r e s i s t i n g agent. Can use dyes of much higher s t a b i l i t y than those used i n discharge printing and. much higher f a s t n e s s can be obtained. then dyed. Produces s i m i l a r effects t o discharge printing. Can use white or colored resists.

produced. A white d i s c h a r g e i s nondischargeable dye wtrich g i v e s a colored discharge surrounded by a "ground" color. Advantages 1) Large areas of ground c o l o r p o s s i b l e 2) Delicate c o l o r s and I n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n s p o s s i b l e on deep ground c o l o r - excellent depth and c l a r i t y possible 3) Higher production c o s t s but long lasting.Discharge p r i n t i n g is a method where a "dyed" f a b r i c i s p r i n t e d with discharging agents M c h s e l e c t i v e l y d e s t r o y t h e dye. An a l t e r n a t i v e method is t o p r i n t along with discharging a g e n t s . unique s t y l e s -- .

. 1 nventory in paper 6 Pollution . 10%) 5. Better registration and clarity 4.HEAT TRANSFER PR INTI NG Advantages I.free Disadvantages 1. Easier training of operators 3. Fewer Seconds (2% vs. Easier handling of units 2. 2 Slow Limited to synthetic fibkrs mainly polyester .

w a 3 P W 0 K 9 I! I n W a e d W Q a 0 c p s a r. .

PRESENT USES OF HEAT TRANSFER PR I NTS Knitted Apparel Woven Apparel Drapery Fabric Upholstery Fabric Automobile Interiors Carpet Tiles -- .

RECENT I NNOVATI ONS I N HEAT TRANSFER PR 1 NTl NG Deep Penetrating Dyes for Pile Fabrics Cationic Dyes for Pr inti ng Acrylics - Processes for Printing PolyesterlCotton Blends 1. Resin Fixing Dyes on Cotton. Wet Heat Transfer Printing . Coating Cotton Fiber with Polyester Resin. 2.

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