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IliPif mlM

^3m0DHfiy:l0N:f P THE :'-r


v/';fj>.>\^-:. -fOt

Sllt!;SUMtAQ,i3AG'^JE,Si^^ ;





^a i C(. , BY i

SARAT CHANDR\ DAS, c.i e., Rai Baha,iui;

Corresponding Member of ihe Imperial Archenlogical Society of St. I'etersburg,
Member of the Asiatic Sociel// of I'engal,
Honorary Member of the Bamjiya SCihilya Parishad, Calcutta.
Winner of tlie Marquess of Dufferin and Ava's Silver Medal, in 1886.
,, of His Siamese Majesty King Cliulalonkorn's Tiishili 3fd/d Decoration, in 18S7.
,, of the Royul Geogiapliioal Society's Prize, called T/ie Bade Picniium, in 1888.

Narrative of a Journey to Tashi-lhunpo, in 1879.
A Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet in 1881 1882. —
A Dictionary (if tlie 'i'ibetan Language with Sanskrit synonyms.
Indian Pandits in the Land of Snow.
Bodhisattvavadana Kalpalata (in Bengali). ,

Editor of
YiG-KUR Nam-shag, Tibetan Tjetter Wiiter.
Ksemendra's Sanskrit Poem " The Avadana Kalpalata" with its metrical translation by
Shonton Lotiava.
Ksemhndra's Darpadalan (in Sanikrit). jfA

Pagsam Jox Zang, Pagsam Thi-shing (in Tibetan prose).

Buddhist Tkxt Society's Journals, &o.



Price — Indian Es. 10 ; English 15 s.

The Hon*ble Mr. W. W. Rockhill's
Description of the Present Dalai Lama.

"Concerning the Dalai Lama Thub-tan Gya-tsho himself, I passed a week with him
during his residence at the Wut'ai Shan ( ^'^'l^'g in the Province of Shanei), and I saw
him repeatedly during his stay in Peking. He is a man of undoubted intelligence and
ability, of quick understanding and of force of character. He is broad-minded, possibly as a
result of his varied experiences during the last few years, and of great natural dignity. He
seemed deeply impressed with the great responsibilities of his office as Supreme Pontiff of his
faith, more so, perhaps, than those resulting from his temporal duties. He is quick tempered
and impulsive, but cheerful and kindly. At all times I found him a moat thoughtful host,
an agreeable talker and extremely courteous. He speaks rapidly and smoothly, but
in a very low voice. He is short in stature and of slight build. His complexion is rather

darker than that of the Chinese, and of a ruddier brown ; his face, which is not very broad,
is pitted with small-pox, but not deeply. It lights up most pleasantly when he smiles and
shows his teeth, which are sound and white. In repose his face is impressive, and rather

haughty and forbidding. His nose is small and slightly aquiltive, his ears large, but well set on

his head. His eyes are dark brown and rather large and with considerable obliquity, and
his eye-brows heavy and rising markedly towards the temples, giving him a very heavy
narquois and wordly expression, which is further emphasized by his moustache and the
small mouche under his lip. His hands are small and well shaped ; on his left wrist he

usually carried a rosary of " Red Sandalwood " beads with silver counters. When walking,
he moves quickly, but he does not hold himself erect, a result of passing most of his life

seated' cross-legged on cushions. His usual dress is the same dark red one worn by all Lamas,
with a waist-coat of gold brocade and a square of the same material covering his Chub-lu,
(badge of the Gelug-pa Yellow-Cap Sect of Tibet), and hanging down below his waist in


I received theg^'l'^sic benediction from His Holiness on June 10th, in 1882, at a religious

service held on the topmost floor of Potala (see my description of it in page 17 Appendix VI.)

Mr. Rockhill, in his letter to me, dated American Embassy, Constantinople, the 15th

March 1912, wrote as follows:

My dear friend, * * * I see that the Dalai Lama has left Darjeeling for Lhasa. I hope

he only acted on good advice and that he will not regret the step he has taken. He is rather opinionated

and I can well imagine that he was getting very restless at the prolonged exile. As my relations with

him have always been most agreeable and cordial I am very heartily his well-wisher. It may be that

under the new regimi in China he will be able to secure for his country the autonomous Government all

Tibetans wait for. I hope he may.

It will give me much pleasure to send you my photograph as soon as I can get one for you. Send me

also yours. I have not seen you since 1885. What a long time !

Always sincerely yours,


The Dalai Lama is seated on a chair. On his right-behind and left stand my friends

Lon-chen Gung-thang-pa and Lon-chen Shol-khang-pa. The former, his Lama Minister wrote,

at my request, the |«j-q^ or §"ai^§'5J^e^^c«'''^q (Appendix VII) and the latter perhaps, the

most thoughtful among his councillors, used often to see me in 1911, at my residence

Lhasa- Villa in Darjeeling,

April 1914. Saeat Chandra Das,



The Honourable W. W. Eockhill,

Author of " The Land of Lamas " ^c,

(Formerly American Ambassador at Peking, Athens, St. Petersburgh

and Constantinople, &c.)

As A Token of Hi^h Esteem.

April, 1914..

^•2q^'g'Jia^-^3^'q'^'C^q|3^| * «ff|2;'^q'g'^ro'ZT[|5J'3'qa;f

qi^i^CSjIqi'qy^'Si^l'^q'q'JIEq I

| f

• ^-q^-jsiS The Pacifio Ocean, * ^'^'^ Chinese name for the American Legation at Peking.

t ^'^ Chinese name of America. t A Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet.

+ i^l«« and 1=. are equivalents of Mr. t Remembering kindness.

S el'lc'i Tibetan name for Peking. § As a token of the fulness of heart.


The Ghammar of Tibet, &c.

Reverence to the Three Ilolies — NamOj Ratna, Tray ay a.

I bow to the feet Thon-rai Sam Bhota, (the father of Tibetan literature) who
at the dawn(-ing) of wouderful conception of Buddhism (in the Tibetan mind) mado

the religion of Buddha bright, as the day, in the vast country of Bhota (Tibet).

I honour (the memory of) Csoma de Koros, the great Hungarian scholar, who first
interpreted in English, the many difficult points of Tibetan grammar, arranged them
and published it (grammar) in Calcutta.

?;3j'|'5j33|'^Y^q'^5iq'^^ q^'|'Y«l]|C'q)sN " q^aj-q^'g^

I I [I

The learned of Tibet —

Assemblage of Snowy Mountains for making clear the —
essential characteristics meanings (of things that are) based on the construction of
their speech, (by interpreting Jl^'|s'=il|c orthcppy and orthography), framed its grammar.

Lhasa- Villa, ")


Darjeeling, 1914. )
Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language
(From page I— XXIV and 1—60).


Appendices to the Grammar

(Page I — XXII WITH THEIR Analysis).


The Text of Situ Sum-Tag

SiTu's Commentary on Sum-Chu-pa and Tag-Jug-pa

(Page 1 —88)
An Index of Grammatical Terms

(Page 1-8)

Dag-je Salwai Melong

The Different Methods of Spelling Illustrated

(Page 1-27),


Situi Shal-Lung

A Lecture on Situ Sum-Tag

Lama Dharma Bhadra of Tsang, Nul-Chu
(Page 1 — 35).


Preface ,i. ••» •*• ••• ••• I

Author's Introductiou to Situ-Sum-Tag ... ... a III-IV

Sum-chu-pa ... <•.. IV
Tag- jug-pa... V
Hints on the use of certain Diacritical marks called 'l^ ... VIII
Some Hints to Readers X
Indian Cycle of 60 years as Tibetanized XI
Chinese Cycle of 60 years ... •>. ... XIII
Symbolic names for certain numbers ... ... XVI
Method of 'J^ransliteration of Tibetan into English XIX
Conventional method of representing Tibetan and Sanskrit letters XXI
On the use of honorific terms and expressions ... * XXI
Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language (Oethography) 1-10

Pronunciation (Oethcepy) 11-13

*^ ^S ... ... ... ... ... 13

On the use of the g*^ (additive particles) (see the corrigenda) ... 15

SJ^'^I'd (Reduplication of terminal letters) ... ... ... 16

Article and Noun (Etymology) 17

Plural number sicSSq] 18

Gender 19

Case 20
Pronoun ... 25
Declension of Personal Pronouns, &c. 26
Adjective ... 30
Numeral Adjectives 82
Verb 36
Conjugation 46
Participles... 49
Adverbs ... 51

Prepositions 54

Conjunction 56

Interjection 57

Syntax 68

Prosody ... 60

Appendix I tr§j'Q,^(ij ... ... ... ...

Do. II ''I^V")^
(A Tibetan Marriage)

Do. Ill ajsi'wjsi] (Pass-port or Road- bill

Do. IV §'«)=il Dalai Lama's letter to King Edward VII, &c.

Do. V Vkihaspati Chakua

Do. VI Diary of a Jousney to Lhasa in Tibetan

Do. VII Dalai Lama's Hierarchy ...

Appendix VIII ^^'q|V<3|5J''^/^=!l ...

Do. IX The Love-songs of the 6th Dalai Lama

Do. X The Song of the Precious Reed

SITU-SUMTAG ^'5^'^*J'^^^

Tag-je Salwai Me-long s^'iv^^^'^'^'^J'^^'I

Situ-Shal-Lung ^•^'^'^'^•^c^'I ...


Soiae egregious mLstafeaa have occurred in the lower half of page 15 of the Introduction.

It is hero reproduced to enable the reader see what they are. He should read this

rejecting the lower half of page 15 aa incorrect.

The particle 5 is used after 5|^ q and ^'«p| i.e., when a word cloaes with the letter

««! or q or VS^'^, such as ^ij'^, '^q'^, 'T[a^'^'^, sil'^

^5, =«
'^'^'Sl I

The ^«^ (partick>a) ^ and ^ are used after c^ «^, <^, 51, ^^ aj final letters in a word, ^ is used

after words ending in ^, such as '^''l^'^, ''p?!'^ I

The ^^ (particle) ^ ia used after '5, (expressed

or understood), such as ^'^'''j^^ai


For the use of aj and ^ one, has not to look to the nature of the closing letter in a wori.

They may be used after the ten |^*'a.^='l lettera such as %^,S,^,q,5»,'^,'s,aj, «» j for example: —

The use of § after words ending in «!, fl and '^'^''^ is in conformity with the rule 5«»'55 S)s.-5jq^-'i|Yi5$^ I

The use of 5 after words ending in ^, «, *, 1 conforms to the rale Ssi S-^qj-ti^^-q j

^ is used after words ending in S simply for easy pronunciation. Its use after words ending in 1, \ "i

is according to the rule ?<Ts»iC£^'S'^c'^-s>«^'au«i|'vq^-ii^^q5-^iHi |

The use of Q after words ending im, «5 and ^^M^; — of Rafter words ending in ^, « ;—of "^ and 5 after
words ending in * as in »<'^ or w^'% ;
—of g after words ending bx " and also of ^ after words ending in \ ^,

«• is according to the rule 5)e,«« ii^^'^i;i| &<x


Thk first Grammar of the Tibetan language, in English, written by Alexander Csama de
Koros was published under the patronage of the Govern iient and the auspices of the

Asiatic; Society of Bangal, in ISS-t. The scholarship which that Hungarian Traveller
displayed in it, has not, in my humble opinion, been surpassed by any subsequent student
of Tibetan. In this Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language, I have
followed his work, supplementing it here and tliere with materials drawn from
SituSum-Tag, the exhaustive comvntntary on Thon-mi Sam Bhota's iSum-chu-pa and

During ray second sojourn, in Tibet, in 18S1 and 1882, I found a manuscript copy of

Situ-Sum-Tag at Taslii-lhunpo, in the library of Sengchen Lama, Prime Minister of the

Tashi Lama \^Tsang Panchen Rinpo-che) Tanpai Wang-chug.

I got it copied for ray use. In 18')4, its importance to studerits of Tibetan Literature
was explained by me to Sir Alfred Croft, then Director of Public Instruction in Bengal. He
obtained the sanCbion of the Government of Bengal to publish it at State expense. The
publication of the work was, however, indefinitely delayed for the want of a second copy to

collate the text. It was only, in 1911, that I could secure a block-print copy of Situ-Suji-Tao
from Ekai Kawaguchi,, the well-known Japanese Tibetan Scholar and Traveller. That good
Buddhist Monk has very kindly revised the book in proof which I was unable to do
owing to weak sight and the smallness of the type used in printing it.

Alexander Csoma, in the preface of Ijis Grammar, wrote as follows :

" Tibet being considered as the headquarters of Buddhism in the present age, these

elementary works ( Tibetan Grammar and Dictionary ) may serve as keys to unlock tbe
immense volumes, (faithful translations of the Sanskrit text) which are still to be found in
tbat country, on the manners, customs, opinions, knowledge, ignorance, superstition, hopes,
and fears of the great part of Asia, especially India, in former ages."

What he hoped his two works would do, eighty years ago, has, in the meintime, been
partly fulfilled. Following his. footsteps, in the field of Tibetan literature, I have collected

a few barley corns which, in the form of this compendious compilation, I present to the

learned public. It may help the reader in his endeavour to study the literature of Tibet.

Orthography being the most difficult part of the Tibetan language, access to it from
any side, is as difficult as entrance to the country itself, owing to the stupendous snowy
barriers which encompass it.

Patiently crossing these when a traveller has entered the snow-girt tableland of Tibet,

he will love to sojourn in it, because it is the most difficult, yet delightful country to travel,
on the face of the earth.

The sportsman-traveller chases on its lofty plateau the finest games — the dong
(wild-yak), the kyanfj (wild-assj, the ovispolis ^'!)5^, the ovis amnon, and ibex, &c , animals
that are unknown in any other part of the globe.

In like manner, the student who has entered the field of Tibetan literature will find in
it new matters for study.

This compilation, it is hoped, will be useful to students going up for the

Matriculation and the Bachelor of Arts Examinations of the Calcutta University, as also to

Government Officers, who choose to pass High Proficiency and Honours Examinations in

The necessary texts for these examinations are given in it.

The Compilation Comprises :

Introduction to the Grammar of the Tibetan Language.

Extracts from the Yig-kur Nam-shag. *
Diary of a Journey to Lhasa from Gyan-tse, in Tibetan.
Sumpa Khan-po's Life of the Buddha (extracts from Pagsam Jomang).
Kahlon Gung-thang-pa's Life of the present Dalai Lama.
Dag- Je Salwai Melong. f
Situ Sumtag.
Situi Shal-lung.J
Tshang-yang Gya-tsho's gul-lu.

Besides these, there are given several appendices containing specimens of composition in
chaste, idiomatic Tibetan.

* ^I'll^'^wili^ill (forms of correspondence) and Pagsam Jonzang, edited by Sarat Chandra Das, were
published by the Government of Bengal in 1901 ; Bengal Secretariat Book Depot, Calcutta.
t '^Tl^'^*''^='^'*''5r-| Metrical Spelling-Book and Dictionary.
+ ^'S^'i^'i'^i-'I Commentary of the Sum-chu-pa and Tag-Jug-pa by Lama Dharma Bhadra of Nul-chu in

Author's Introduction
TO .

Situ Sum-tag.
Reverence to Cakya Simha, who is adored by all perfected Bo'/hi'sattvas including the unerring
Manju gbosa and others, and whose very memory removes all fears from the minds of all
despondent sinners.
In accordance with the prophecy of our Teacher, in the Manju Cri rafila Tuntra, there reigned at
Lha-ldan (Lhasa) in Central Tibet, a succesion of Lharnia lidjds sprung
from the Li-tsa-bya
race.* Among them, the most illustrious was Mihiiha {Naradeva), surnamed Sron-btsan egam-po the
wise and just king. Among his many eminent ministers, Thu-mi SamBhcta % was distinguished
for his literary aptitude and attainments. In obedience to the command of his Kint^, impelled by the
earnest prayers (of a former life) for acquiring i/orf//?' (spiritual enlightenmont) he proceeded to ^r^a «?efa
(India). There he studied the Arts, both of the Braliraans and the Buddhists, under Pandita Deva-vid
Simha (in Tibetan, Lha-rigpahi Senge), the Brahman Lipikara (in Tibetan Libyin i.e., Lqn-datta
and other eminent teachers.

On his return to Tibet, he resided in the castle of Maru near Lhasa where ho shaped the Tibetan,
character after the model of the Nagari. * He wrote eight grammatical works, out of which, Sum-rtaga
only is extant to tliis day. This work comprises two books namely, bum-chu-pa and Etugs-kyi hjug-pa
which treat of the orthography and orthoepy of the Tibetan language.
The Sum-chu-pa is embodied in thirty verses and forms the basis of Tibetan grammar. Hence
its name, in Sanskrit, is Vya-karona muln trimsat nama, in Tibetan : Lun gton-pa rtsa-wa Sum-chu-pa.
After reverentially bowing to Buddha, the most rare One, the author Thu-mi SamBhota begins his
work with salutation to Manju ghosa, the lord of speech.
Who Manju ghosa was the commentator explains with a quotation fiora the work Mtshan

yan-dag-par bijyod-pa "The master of speech is t ha Jnawa kaya (ye-9as gku) of Buddha. That jnana.
kaya is self-exi&tent. Mai5ju ghosa is, therefore, a Jndtwsatti-a (Ytrces-semg-dpah). He is rot to be understood
as being an ordinary hodnisattm who has attained to the ten stages {Dai;a Bliu-mi) of Bodhisatita
spiritual perfection.

He exists in the heart of all the lidhdgtttna i.e., represents the spiritual wisdom of iJl the Buddhas.

Thu-mi then makes salutation to Sudd^.tva, the God Mahecvara of the Bialmrris, saying that he
it was who first taught the Arte to them.

* The Lirravi people of Ti''(;a!i in Ma: .Trlha, during tbe Buddia's time.
f The kengu/i, Hevari. and Tibetan charactPi's, cloely reseiuMe one another, all three havicf; had their origin in
MitLjla and having; bc-en thip;d aftoi- the model of the form of Divanagari that was current there in the seTenth certury
A. 1'. 'ihe ;:iitiint h'ait/nli chiuacter bears a stnkiug resemblance to the Lun-tsha (or ]iunjd,oi Nep»l) or the
orDamen;al Diva j.agari which was little known in India.
J In Bcme i,;r!inim3tical wo ks he is calkd '1 lion mi Scniihota Anuhi bu ie, Tbcn-mi, the son of Anu.
The ligniijing the gnodlhcia (or liletan) was <;iver to him by his Jiidian Ti acliers.
Anu Tvas hi lie wa.-> tailed Arnihi bii in the manner (he chief disciple of the Buddha was called Cdripuitra
(in Tibetan L'inhi-LiuJ the sou of Carl or CdnJcd or SdradhvuU,

+ + + + + + + + 5)-^ ^'l^-q-q-^^-qV^ II

Tho above poiuts to Thu-mi SamBhota's having had his education in the TJnivorsity of Mithila

gcrya-gar lho-phyog§ (India in tho southern direction from Lhasa) and that under Brahmariieal professors.

It is a remarkable coincidence thatat Ibis period the famous Chinese pilgrim-traveller Tuan-chuang should

have been studying Sanskrit in the Buddhist University of Nalanda in Magadha having travelled to India

by the northern route under the auspices of Emperor Taitsung, King Sron-btsan's father-in-law. Had
Thu-mi SamBhota bam a student of Sanskrit at Nalanda at the time, he oould hardly have escaped

the notice of so keen an observer as the Chinese traveller.

So grateful was the earliest Tibetan student of Sanskrit that he did not forget to reverence

his teacher and professors in the beginning of his grammar. Ha thus commences his work: —Having
made profound salutations to those most skilful in orthography etc., and also to my Guru and hold-
ing that letters are the basis of speech, of all learning * and teachings, f and "Iso of words and ex-

pressions, I should explain the method of their construction by the combination and collocation (of letters) §.

Letters are A-li and Kd-li. A-li includes the four vowels : u, i, e and o, which are based

on B<i a. The thirty letters of the alphabet ending in ^ a are all comprised in Kd-li. These aio
arranged into seven and half groups called s:le
Varga), each group consisting of four letters. They
are all consonants. These are again divided into three classes: rjts-hjug, snon-hjug and miii-gshi

letters. The" ten letters % '^, S, \ '=>, ^, '^, ^, '^, ^ are rjes hjn'j; out of these ''I, S, ''.. ", "^ are called

$non-hjiig. The remaining twenty letters of the alphabet ''ip-j-ae^'5 ?qiC^«'J'3j'i^'3U4-<j'^i?i | are called

tnin-g:shi. These, in any sort of combination of two, three or four letters among themselves or with the

four vowels never form a word, though individually they often are words themselves.
L3tter3 are combined together to form words when no inter-syllabic point or stop 2<i| (•) occurs

between them. The word '=11 is a combination of the two letters, °i and "1; "^"l^ is a combination

of the three letters '^, "1. and '^i

=^=1=-^ is a combination of the four letters '^, i, ^ and «i. But
•with the twenty nm-gshi letters such combinations in two, three or four, with or without the vowels,

no words in the Tibetan language can be formed; for instance, ''15, pa?, et]^, ^^a, oi^'i, l-^jsq^ &o., are no words

at all, the Tibetan tongue being not capable of pronouncing such combinations.

» Ihis includes the Fei/os of the Brahmans. i TinB oompvisea ths Buddhist giksa i-e.. the teachings of the Buddka
'^'l^'lK'q y i-gehi byorwa (4isarayo;anu. §

The letters of tlie alphabet are distinguished, in consideration of the nature of their

sounds, by assigning to thcra five genders, namely : ^5 masculine, sj'^c neuter, ?J feminine,

^aj'^'?! very feminine and ?I''^-'^5| sub-feminine or barren.

The four vowels called ig'^'q^ /, n, e, o are considered as being feminine in their nature,

and the thirty letters of the alphabet called 15'^ are conventionally regarded as masculine

for their combination with the vowels. It may be remembered that the thirty letters have
been arranged in seven and half ^ series. The first letters of the first four series such as

^, % and ^ are classed as "^ masculine ; the four second letters of the same series such as

p, *, ^ and si are classed as ^'^s: neuter ; the four third letters of the four series such as ^^ E^ '^

and ^ are classed as ^ feminine ; and the last four letters of the same four series such as ^,^,^

and ^ aie classed as -^^i'^^'Si very feminine. Out of the fourteen letters of the remaining three

and half series ^ being akin to 5 is taken asl^-i being like * is classed as sj'^c and ^ being

like E is taken as ?J feminine. The letter '^ being similar in sound to R is also classed with it

as ?I feminine. The six letters ^^3^0,^'^^ J=] and ^ are classed as feminine. Otthe remaining

four letters ^ QJ ^ are regarded as 5j'^-«]5} sub-feminine and i?? is said to p )SSoss no gender,

it being the basis of both ^'"^ and "5'^ letters.

'J'his distinction ia gender ia said to have aiisen owing to the percsptible difference in

the tone or accent of the letters such as hard, soft or low, &o., which is due to the place of

their origin. Those that are sounded hard or stro igly i.e. with some es.ertion f ^^'?^'^^'®'£l) are

classed as 5 masculine, those that are sounded moderately (^^''^) are classed as sj'^c ueu'er.

Letters that are soun led low or with some ease (|z'3s^'^c'q'a,5j''^!;i are classed as ?J feminine.

Tnose possessing still lower or softer souid are classeJ as -^^j'^'^ very feminine. The very
sof.Jy sounded letters (^ai'j'f^ai'q''^Y^c'i^3i) are classed as SI'^-«^*J sub-feminine or barren.

The last letter of the alphabet ^ is regarded as b ing 5* i3i'5)2;| geaderless.

Among the sl-'^'^ letters Tj'S'^'-^J'^ are ^5 n^asculine ; f\'^'^'^'i a'-e sj'lf- neuter letters •

'^'Z'-^'q't''y'f^'3''2,'wi'-^''5j are ?5 feminine; n'ij'oj'sj are -^Isj'^'l^ very feminine; ^''^"^ are Sj'=l|J^5<

sub-finiinine or barren.

Gender in the five g3j''a>^^ mxTERa.

There is also conventional distinction, in gender, among the five g3i'Q,=|ti| 'prefixes

1J, \ Q, 5j and Q,. The letter q (which as a Stc'q]^ letter is % feminine} should be regarded

as j5 masculine when used as a prefix. The letters ^ and ^ (which as Slc':j|^ letters were

classed as S^ feminine) should be regarded as xj'^c neuter when used as jore/^ares. The letter

o, is ?I feminine and 5) is •^^j'^'Xj very feminine. This distinction of sex in the five gsj'o.^'l)

^prefix letters is not due to the high, strong or low tone or accentuation in the letters them-
selves but simply for the purpose of I heir combination with the Sc'ji|^ letters for forming

words and for determining their sounds.

On the use of the yi^-& prefixes gai'Q,= :i]_!i]'Vci'5^''3..

The following rules are observed in attaching the five prefix letters to the thirty-

letters of the alphabet which being the basis of all words are called Scq]^ basics.

(1) ?J'^'J^'t;|C;'?J'ai'q=q] [
% masculine (letters' should be attached to ^and ?I (mascu-
line and feminine) letters.

(2) ?l'^'^''^c'5j'^rai-'^^'^I ?J feminine (letters) should be attached to ?J and «)'^c

(feminine and neuter) letters.

(3) 5j'5fc;'«jc'^-^'?J'sj^| sj'^c neuter (letters) also should be attached to ^ and 35

(masculine and feminine) letters.

(4) -^ajy^j-^'sj-^rs^ci ?f'«^c'.^3j'^'?}'|«;'Qj?5 || ^j^jy^J very feminine (letters) should be

attached to sj'^c neuter, ?J feminine and -^^^'^'^ very feminine letters.

The letter «t| as a Prefix.

The letter «l] as $1'^= (neuter) among the five g5i"5.=

letters is prefixed to «, % ^ which

are classed as ^ masculine among the seven and half series of the thirty ^^'^ letters for

example: ^% ^^5)5<, £r|^c:'|

1] as Si'^c is prefixed to ^^ ^ ^, ^, 3, '^^ -f], ^ when they are '^^"'^.^Ql used singly

being classed as Si feminine among the Dc'^]^ letters, for example :

^\ '^^^ '^% '^^y
^jZ^I^^ ^Tj'N^^ q]-*^5)j cil5<q|

The LETTI.R ^ A8 A Prpfix.

among the g^'^^q] letters is pn fixed to and q when ^rq' or

The letter "^ as sj'^c '^ ,

i^^:ti^-q§a)j which are ^ among the slcq]^ letters, such as '^'^\ ^^^ ] "sl^J, ^"i^^, 'SS^ 1

«^ is prefixed to ^ aud q (when ^r:^ or q^=^5<-^^aj) * which are ^ among the Sr^V^tters,

for example: '\^'^, ^^qr] "^1^, S^^, 'W^^ 'W\ I

prefixed to c and 5( ^whcn jcq) which are 35 among the Dc'^^^ letters, for example :

^ is

The letter q as a Prefix.

The letter q as ^ masculine among the g3i''3,%='l

letters is prefixed to words that are

based on % -5, ^, ^ which are regarded as ^ among the thirty Dcq]^ letters ; q is also prefixed

to words formed with % c, e, :),

5j, ^, ^,
i^, -«^, 51 which are classed as ?J feminine among

the Hc'qi^ letters, q may be used before 1] and ^ when they are simply joined with any

of the vowels, t superscribed or subjoined, or both superscribed and subjoined J for example:

qT]c^^ ^^^ I
q'^, q^^, q^QJ, q^| § q|, qi]^, q^^, I ^^^ q|3i, ^%\ n|c^N, ^l^, qp^ 1

q is prefixed to ^, ^, S when they are either ^c'q^Qj or q|'^^''5,§Q) |

for example =

q^^?!, ^^^, q«^^| q^.N, qf^ q^'^, qs^, q^^ |

q is prefixed to c, E.. i}, sj, ^ when they are only q|''Jl^''5,^Qj superscribed, for example :

qe, qg=ii^, q^'S, q|^, =i|^, ^^% ^^^, cir^'l

q is prefixed to 5, ^, -^^ when they are only )gc;'q |

for example : q^5J, q^^^, ^"'I'SI

q is prefixed to 3^ «J when they are either ^cc) or q>^^«)'q,^qj |

subjoined, for example

qsc, qg^; q^5J •

q|5J ;

q is prefixed to ^ when it is only '^i^^5<''5,§a| |

subjoined, for example : q^^^, ^^^^ I


The letter sj as a Prefix.

The letter $J as -^as'^'?! very feminine among the five g5j'Q,^£i] letters is prefixed to

Pj *, ^> ^ which are 5)'^c^ neuter and to % E, ^, ^ which are classed as ^ feminine

Among the Jlc'q]^ letters, for example : sjpiR, 5J<S3), sj^c, sjlsj |
xjg, 5j|'>|, xj^q|, sj^s

^ is prefixed to c, ^, Sj (when they are ^J^'-^)

being classed as •^aj'J'?! among tho
sic'^\^ letters, for example : sj^aj 5j^?4 5j^q$j ]

5j is prefixed to p and ^ when they are either or q.^^jij^j-'^^qj for example

J-''^!'^ ]

The letteu '=- as a Prefix.

The letter '=> as ?J feminine among the g3j''5,|,!il letters is prefixed to 2J]^ E, 1;^, q^ ^ (when
;gc 'q) which are classed as ?I among the slc'qj^ letters, for example : '3,^'^, '\€m^ 'i.^^^ '^^ai o.'^sj^j

Q, is prefixed to f^,
*, ^^ ^^ ^ (when ^c'Ai; being classed as sj'^c neuter among the

i\r:^% letters, for example : '=^^^, ^*^, '5.^'^, 0.2^^^, ^^aj I

«, is prefixed to p, ^, z<t, q when they are ^'^=t]^''2,^q subjoined, for example : '^^s^

<1\% f^^^ ^g^ I

Hints on the use of certain Diaceitical Marks or Stops called -^^^ ,Cad)

The full-stop (.) is represented by two vertical lines (||) called |«J'-»=j^ or double-stops.

The single stop ( 1

) called l^t]'-^"^ generally represents the comma. The -f]^ is broad on
the top and pointed at the foot resembling a pia, and as such it is used in the block-prints
of Tibet.

In prose-writings the double vertical line-mark |^'-*j'^ is generally used at the end of a

sentence or passage.

* J=.'i or 5^'^S^ a letter in its simple form or when it is joined with any of the four vowel signs,
(representing i, u, e and 0) is called 5=.''^^i rKyanhphul or =iX,''l*)'«5il

t q|-<il^-5i or q|-ii^a.^'^ a surmounted or superscribed letter such as % % ^, ^1

+ ni^o|^-c(^i;j a subjoined letter such as 3 0, 3], ^|

§ q|-q]5^ciX,«ii5j55'2j a letter when it is both superscribed and subjoined, such as | (here the letter "I has
^^ on its head and *- at its foot.)

iV.C — When a letter in its simple or compound form is joined with any of the four vowel-signs called
^5 ( ).
( ^ ), '^a=^'9 ( ),
^'5 (
^) representing i, u, e and 0, it is called 31'|S -^^ I for example:

•^K S5, '^^, ''g 1 In these S, % ^, •=-

are all g'T|'S'«^ I

The single line-mark ^^'-'^'^ alao called ^^'-^'^ is used at the end of an expression or
prose line which has not concluded but is continuing.

Tibetan grammarians consider it necessary to put l^'-^'^^ (double-stops) at the end of

each lino (-fjCq or foot) in a verse. It is, however, usual to divide the '^^'^'^ into two
separate ones, putting one immediately at the end of the first foot and the other at the
beginning of the succeeding foot.

The ^''I'-^l'S
is also used at the end of au address or vocative expression, either in prose

or poetry.

The conclusion or termination of a section or chapter is marked by four vertical line-

marks or 2q^'-*)«^ When a sentence or expression terminates in a word ending in '^ or c, it is

necessary to put a ^^Tj inter-syllabic point (') to the left of the -^^ in a line with its top.

The use of the inter-syllabic point (') before i?, i^ and a.5) is optional for the purpose of

metrical convenience, in poetry. It is generally not used.

The following extracts from the grammatical work called 5C'Ji|5j'2j'Q,gaj'|,'^'Dq] by

i^g,s:$j'53i'2;,ziiq'q^' g '^^l Yangchan Gab-wai Lodoi, High-prierst of the monastery of Dolonor

(5j5^'q^3j) in Mongolia (during the hierarchy of the fourth Talahi Lama ^'ai^'^'sj'^si'^^'s'sj^)

illustrate the use of the -*]'!( and a^^'^'^'aS^ (stops and inter-syllabic point.)


Some Hints to Readers.

It is necessary to give here some hints on the method of writing dates, which is

peculiar to Tibet, as without a knowledge of it, the reader will find some difficulty in
reading Tibetan correspondence and historical works.
There are two methods of reckoning time in Tibet, namely, the cycle of twelve years,
called ^'Q,p5K'ci§''^^^ Lo-khor c/;Mm and the cycle of sixty years called ^'^f^'v^'^l'^ Lo-khor

dug-chu ; the former is generally used in estimating the age of kiclividuals, the latter in
calculating the dates of all important events.

The years of the cycle . of twelve years, are named after the names of the following

animals: |,'q mouse, gjc ox, ^^ tiger, ^^, hare, Q>g«ii dragon, |oi serpent, ft horse, ^^ sheep,

I ape, g, bird, g dog and Ji)^ hog. They are counted in the following order :

i^'Q^i^'qi-:!!^?) Cycle Of 12 years.

Names in Tibetan. As written. As spoken. Meaning.

|,'i^ (byi-lo ... chee-b) the mouse-year.

2. lang-lo) the ox-year.

tag lo) the tiger-year.

yo-lo) the hare-year.

dug-lo) the dragon-year.

dullo) the serpent-year.

ta-lo) the horse-year.

loog-lo) the sheep-year.

ieh-lo) the ape-year.

chah-lo) the bird-year.

khee-lo) the dog-year.

phag-lo) the hog-year.


These Tibetan names correspond to the Chinese names of the twelve animals and are said

to have been first introduced in Tibet by Queen Wenohang, daughter of Emperor T'aitsung,
who was married to King Mihi Lha surnamed Srong-tsan Gampo, in about 635 A. D. About
a century later, the system of astrology then prevalent in China, which contained a
cycle of sixty years, was introduced in Tibet. At a later period, in about 1026 A. D., with
the introduction of Kdla Chakra Tantras, the Indian Cycle of sixty years called the Vrihaspati
Chakra was brought to Tibet from S'ridhanya Kataka ^^'^^aJ'^3j'qg5^'^c5^ Sanchi Topes ?),

situated on the River Krisaa near modern Amraoti, in Southern India

This cycle had a distinct name for each year of the series, but the Chinese cycle was
made up by combining the names of the five elements, * namely : wood -^c, fire 5)^ earth

«4^ iron %^^^ water § with those of the cycle of twelve years. These are made ten by

affixing the signs of masculine and feminine genders i.e., ^ aud ?I to the elements.

The names of the years of the Indian Cycle of 60 years, in Tibetan, are as follows:

Indian cycle of 60 years as Tibetamscd. (See Appendix V).

1. ^r (<jin-byi) wood-mouse, 2. %'a]c (^ifi-glan) wood-oz.

3. ^'^^ (m^-gtag) fire-tirjer. 4. 5)'«I^ (me-yos) fire-hare,

5. (sa-hbrug) earth-dragon. 6. ^'|ai ^sa-sbrul) earth-serpent.


7. ^^^-^ (Icagg-rta) iron-horse. 8. f^5<'^^ ( Icags Mg) iron-sheep.

9. (chii spre) wafer-ape. 10. ^'3 (chu-bya) water-bird.


11. %'| ((jin-khyi) wood dog. 12. %'2iq| (9in phag) wood-hog.

5)'| ^m^-byi) fire-mouse. 14. 5l'§ic (m^-glanj are- ox.


earth- tiger. 1 6. ^-"^^ (sa-yoe) earth-hare.

15. ^7^ (sa-stag)

18. f=^^'|oj (IcagB-ebrul) iron- serpent.

17. f=tl^''2-5^ jlcags-hbr-flg) iron-dragon.

20. ^'%^ (chu-lug) water sheep.

19. §'5 (chU-rta) water-horse.

elements are earth, fire, air, ether or voidity and water.

The ludian names of the PaAcha hhuta five :


In tlie abovo serial enumeration of tlie namas of the years of the Vrihaspaii Chalcra

(Indian cycle), it will appear, that the name of each aniaial of the smaller cycle coupled

with the names of the elements, occurs five times, for instance : ^ mouse appears in the first

year with ^f tuood, 13th year with ^firo, 23th year with ^ carlh, 07th year with f^^ iron

anJ in the 49th year with § tvaler. Thus the twelve animals being joined with the fivo

elements make up the number sixty of the cycle.

Chinese Cycle of 60 years.

1. ^'%'% wood ?K. mouse. 21. .?j"'^'| wood m, ape. 41. •?]-'i^'^g^ wood m. dragon

2. -^jc'^i'gjz wood /. ox. 22. .^c'?I'5 wood/, bird. 42. jPj:;'?l'gQl wood/, serpent.

3. Jl'^'f^ fire m. tiger. 2.3. &1'^'^ fire m. dog. 43. 5)'^'5 fire m. liorse.

4. ^'Si'S];s fire/, hare. 24, ^%'^-^ fire/, hog. 44. &l'?l'g^ fire/, sheep.

5. ^'^'^5^ earth m. dragon. 25. 5i'q'§ earth m. mouse. 45. «1'^'| earth m. ape.

6. 5<'?l'|°j earlh f. serpent. 26. 5<'Ji'3]z earth/, ox. 46. ^'%'^ earth/, bird.

g^^'^'f^l] iron m. tiger. |i^5j'^'g ircn m. dog.

7. f ^5^'q'5 iron m. horse. 27. 47.

8. ei:i]5)'?i'gq] iron/, sheep. 28. f='l^'?l'3i51 iron /. hare. 48. 3:il51'?J'£l^ iron/ hog.
9- §'^'1 water m. ape. 29. f 25''3.5^ water .-yi. dragon. 49. §'^'^ water m. mouse.

10. ^'"^'^ watei'/. bird. 30. ^'^'p water/, serpent. 00. §'?J'§I-' water/, ox.

11. -^jc^'l wood m. dog. 31. %'25'5 wood H2. 51. ^F'^'l"^ wood m. tiger.

12. -^j^r'^'i^^ wood/, hog. 32. %'i^'g^ wood/, sheep. 52. .?jC'?i'S|;s wood/, hare.

13. Sl'^'l, fire m. mouse. 33. 5)'^'| fire m. ape. 53. s^'q'Q.gqj fire m. dragon.

U. 5)'^'g]= fire/, ox. 34. ^%'^ fire/, bird. 54. 5l'?l'|Qj fire/, serpent.

15. ^I'^^'f^ earth ?«. tiger. 35. «f'^'|l earth m. dog. 55. ^%'^ earth m. horse.

16. 5i'Sj'S]§j earth/, hare, 36. ^''Si'z^ earth/, hog. 56. ^'?J'g^ earth/, sheep.

17. f ^^'^''^^'l iron m. dragon. 37. f^<^'q| iron m. mouse 57. a^^'^'l iron m. ape.

18. gi^^l'^i'gQI iron/, serpent. 38. |i^^'?J'§I- iron/ ox. 58. 3:r]5<li-3 iron/, bird.

19. §'^'5 w^ter m. horse. 39. ^%'^^ water m. tiger. 59. §'^'9 water m. dog.

20. ^'?i'^^ water/, fcheep. 40. §'?l'S}5j water/ hare. 60, ^'?J'q^ water /. hog.

In the above list of the years of the Chinese cycle the introduction of 25 male and

% Jemale in six of the five elements such as -^cj^^ ^z'?! ; 5l-"4 5l'?J j
^'\ ^'Uj I'l]?^'"^ f ^5J'?I ;

^•2^ ^'^J differentiates it from the Indian cycle as Tibetauized. In this, the ten elements

(5 males and 5 females) coupled with the twelve animals of the smaller cycle, occur six
times; thus making up the number 60 of the cycle.

The Tibetans, in calculating dates, use either the Indian or the Chinese cycle ; when
using the Indian cycle they some times mention the individual name of the year, (in

Sanskrit or in translation) but often omit it.

In page 1, Appendix I, the date of the document is mentioned in the last line which
runs thus : i^5)'£|^'«)'^'f ^!l]'|'S«)'!;i^'q^ letter dated on an auspicious day of the month in the

yeox water-tiger. The Karma-pa Hierarch Lama Theg-pai Dorje ^^Tj'^^'lj'l who issued the ^^•'Riaj

(letter of identification) lived in the 12th cycle ^^'|='=Ji''=il1^ |

The year f'^«r| water-tijer was

the 36th year of that cycle. It may be computed thus: 24 years of the 12th cycle +60

years of the 13th cycle +60 years of the 14th cycle+48 years of the 15th cycle=192.

Deducting 192 from 1914, the present year, the year 1722 A.D. is obtained (see Appendix V).
In pao-e 2, Appendix II, the date of the document occurs in the follovving passage
5'qra^^'^ci'g,c*qlf'g'^^'3ir%^'3?2i]5j'i^5J'q^'§'25'5^''^ I
Then again, (to wit) here (at Lhasa) in the

the year water horse ^^I'^cq^'g

year called ^'^^^ Sans. c/u>a of the 15th cycle «.'?., is the

present cycle, f ^'^'^ is the (.'hinese name of its 16th year which corresponds with the

year 1882 Anno Domini*

date of the Passport granted to Acharaa Purangiri by the
In page 4, Appendix III, the
Tashi LamI Pa'ldan Yeqeg, is dated
t first of the 9th month, year wood-serpent.

The year wood-serpent of that cycle

This Tashi Lama lived in the 13th cycle (^^'irq^^^^J^).
39th year of the 13th cycle.
may be found out in the following manner: ^r|aj was the

taken out of 60, there remains 22. Add 60 of the Uth cycle and 48 of the
When 28 is

year, the year 1784 A.D.,

present cycle. Deducting the sum 130 from 1914, the present

is obtained. __^
marriage of the present Maharaja of Sikkim, at Lhasa,
,^^—"^3 with Princess
the ocoasion of the
Lhading named Lha-chnm Tece D dma
^ , . ^
written below | mouth and 2« date in the manner it is
t The numbers of the mouth and diy are

done here.

In page 11, Appendix VT, f^'I'q'^il-^si'^^'^&^'Ql en fan auspicious) day in the 3rd month,

of the year water -hor&e The Diary commenced in the month of April (the 3rd month of the

year in the Tibetan calender) 1882.

It will appear from Appendix V, where the Sanskrit names of the years of the Indian

cycle are given that the first year is called Prahhava, in Tibetan, ^q'|c ^ pronounced

Rab-joong). 'J'his was the year, according to the Buddhists of Tibet, when the Buddha

was bt>rn at Kapilavastu. From this name the Indian cycle is designated Rabjoong, in

Tibet. The present year 1914 called Ananda, in Sanskrit and ^^'^'^ [tvood-Hger) in Tibetan,

is the 48th year of the loth cycle ^q'^cq^'g, reckoning the beginning of the first cycle

from the year 1026 A.D., when it was introduced in Tibet by one Chilu-Pandita. The 15th
cycle. will terminate in the year 1926 and the sixteenth cycle ^^'|i^''^§'^''l will commence in

the year 1927.

The Tibetans divide the year into lunar months calling them |'C)''^c'2f first month,

I'q'JIll^i'::^ second mouth, ... |'q'q§':r||5J'q twelfth month. |'q (zla-va) pronounced Dd-wa

signifies the moon, hence month. |'q'=^c'2j {^Dd-wa dangpo) the firdt month of the Tibetan

year begins in February. There is no particular name for each month.

In page 193, of his Grammar, Alexander Csoma has the following passage:

" The Kdla chakra doctrine of Adi Buddha was delivered by S'akya, in his 80th

year, at S'ridhanya Kataka upon the request of Chandra Bhadra, a king of S'ambhala who
in his 99th year visited S'akya there. Upon his return home, he compiled the Mula Tantra,
in accordance with what he had heard from S'akya, and two years afterwards he died.
This work is the source of all the subsequent voluminous compilations, increased modifica-

tions and interpolations. In the Mula Tantra, S'akya foretells to Chandra Bhadra 25 kings,
who will reign at S'ambhala, each for 100 years. The six first of them are called Dharma
Rajds and the others are styled EuUka. He foretells also that after 600 years from that
date Kulika Kirti (Ya9okIrti or the Ephiphanes of the Greeks ?) will succeed to the throne of
S'ambhala, and that 800 years afterwards the Mleccha or Muhamadan religion will rise at

Makha (Mecca)."

He conjectured that S'ambhala must have been the capital of a kingdom ihat flourished

in the early centuries of Christ and that S'ridhdnya Kataica was the Cuttak of modern Orissa.
The last of tlic kings of S'ambhala is, however, njt mentioned in the 3Ju!a Tantra. It is

stated that a king named Samudra Vijaya arrived at S'ambhala in 618 A.D., and shortly

after that the period called, in tlio Tibetan chronology, ^'pi'|'5^^(Me-kha-rgya-Mtsho*,

commenced. It is also stated that in 622 A.D., at Makha (Mecca) the Muhamadan religion

was established. From what can be gathered from Tibetan histories and works on Kdla

Chakrait may be conjectured that this S'ambhala, very probably, was the capital of the Bactrian

Emjiire of the Eastern Greeks who had embraced Buddhism. It is also conjectured that

the modern city of Balkh must have been the site of their latest capital. The name of King
Menander {in Sans. Minendra) whq erected a very lofty chaiti/a has been mentioned by

the Kashmirian poet Ksomendra, in^ha Avaddna Kalpalatd, a work that was finished iu about

1035 A.D.

Referring to SamudraVijaya, Alexander Csoma in afoot note remarked : "This pretended

King's arrival at S'ambhala in 622 A.D., has soma coincidence with Yczifjird, the Persian
King's taking refuge in tlie same country; for it is affirmed, that this prince, upon the fall of

Seleucia, and the conquest ot Persia by tho Arabs, in G86, retired to Tjans-Oxiana or


Sjjmholic nam s for certain numerals.

As regards the explanation of the period Sj'^jj^ri'^j? (Me kha-rgya-Mtsho), it is hardly

possible to arrive at it, without a knowledge of the Indian method of expressing numerals in

eymbollcal names or terms. These are called 5j:5i'q5, (numerical signs}, for instance: the word

(s^f;'2.. Sans. Ounya voidity or sky is expressed by a zero (0). o]^ (Sans, hara), the hand is a

symbol for 2; so are {Netra or chaUu) 63-03, Palest (the white and the dark lunations in the

month), because there are two hands in man ; two eyes in all animals, two wings in birds

and two lunations, white and dark, in a month. In the same manner, the ^"5J or numeral,

Cone) is symbolically expressed by the terms Qirlra, (in Tibetan ^|=i]51) body, chandra f^'^)

tho moon, Oanddra q?l'^the rhinoceros, becauso all animals possess only one hoslt/, there is

only one moon, and the rhinoceros has only one horn.

Tho numeral 3 is expressed by tlic symbalical terms LoJca,

C^-^'^^j) worlds, whicli accord-

ing to Plinda conoop'ion, are three in number, Gum \^5^'J^5^) qualities or attributes wbich are

three in humanity : Saiva, R ija, Tama, and also Ajni ( ^ ) fire wliich according to Hindu
mythology are also three in Ivind.

Tho ^"^'^s, numeral sign for 'Ji (four) are Samwha ^g'^)*) oc?an; Pada '^^) foot ; Veda

(^^'!l^) Hindu scriptures; because beasts are quadrupeds i.e., possessing four feet; there

are four great or;eans, accordhig to Hindu cosmogony, on the surface of the globe. These
four illustrations will enable the reader to understand what is signified by the expression

In tlic use of the 5jz5)'q5^ numeral-signs, it is usual to count or write the figures

indicited hy the symbolical terms from right to left. ^ (fire) expresses 3, ^J\'^ (s'ky)

o, and 3j'^^ oceans, 4. If the order is reversed in the three 3, 0, 4 by patting tliem as 403

tho cnrrcc: figure is obtained.

Tlie period expressed by 403 years, according to tho Kdla chukra MA'.a T/ctitra

eoramenc-d at the rise of the Muhamjdan religion at Mecci z'.e., in 632 A. D. If 403
be added to G32, the first year of the Ilcjira, the year 1025 A.D., is obtained. With
the year c illcd Pra^jhaua in which S'akya is believed to have been born, the date of
introduction i/f the Tibetan Rihjoong GyoXo begins. Tibetan historians aflirm that Kdla cha/cra

Tantras and the Vrih ispati cycle were brought from Kashmir by an Indian Buddhist named
^''^'^jB'^'^ Tsi-lu Pdndita. At this time the Maiiayaua Buddhism greatly flourished in that

country. Tho Avadana Kalpalata gives abundant testimony on that point. A list of ^J-^J'qf

terms taken from Alex. Csoma's Grammar, is here attached. They may help the reader ia
his studies of Tibetan works on Astronomy, Astrology and Chronology.
The number 5 (five) is expressed by the following terms :

o,|z (q) Bkulam tho c'ements which, iu Sanskrit, are five in number: earth, air

fire, water and sky.

s^q~ (2f) Indni/am the organs of sense which are five, such as hearing, seeing,

smelling, tasting, and touching.

sj'^'Sv (Sans. Vdna) the arro^vs of Cupid which are five in number.
^c ( 2f ) Ficandha the aggregates which according to Buddhist conception, constitute
the body of a living being.

The number 6 (six) is indicated by sii^^ [Dik) the four cardinal p infs: north, east,

south and west, besides the zenith and the nadir.

X'5 Rasa taste wliich are six according to Indian ideas.

^^ Ritu or Samnya the seasons, which are six in Sanskrit works.

The number 7 (seven) is expressed by the following terms:

^ [Ndga) snake-kings who are seven in the Hindu mythology.
^c'lfc [Rki) the deified sa^es who are represented in a group <i seven stars
in the sky in the constellatifm of the Great Bear.
?,^'q]a^ (Graha) the recurring planets which are represented by the days of the
''l)^ Kn^a treasures, they are counted seven in Hindu mythology.

The number 8 (eight) as represented in words, are as follows

^\ Vasu) the gods of wealth who are eight, according
( to Hindu mythology.
^"^ {TrisHci) the passions.

^ {^Parvata) great mountains which are eight in number in the Hindu S'dstras

The number 9 (nine^ is symbolized in the following terms

^ [SHrd or niAla roots chief veins or the pulses

; ; they are counted nine in Hindu
medical works.
zijaQ, Graha the 7 planets, with the two comets Rdhu and Ketuare the Nava graha
who are propitiated by the Hindus for averting calamities.
g,'=l] Chhidra openings or passages in the body for excretions i.e., Nava chhidra.

^oj'^f Ruhasa the cannibal goblins who are nine according to Hindu mythology.
The number 10 (ten) is expressed by only one word :

gq]^ (Z?«Va) quartets or points, which are ten: The four cardinal points, the
four corners and the two, zenith and nadir, make the daga-diga the ten

The number 11 (eleven) is expressed by the names, '5.^=i]'|,'=^ {Eari), the destroyer ; ^^
{Rudra^, ^^''^%^ (Sambhu), ^^^'%^ {Ifvara) the all powerful One. The last name, in Lamaism,
is identified with that of '^^^'^=i''^^^'§^ or
Lokepara who is represented as possessing eleven

faces q§'qi?^'(^2j |

The number 12 (twelve) is expressed by the names :

\^ {Surya) the sun, his chariot, according to Hindu mythology, being di*awn by
twelve horses.
05) [Griha) the Zodiacal signs or mansions which are twelve in number.

Method of transUterntion of Tibetan into English.

In Tibetan writings the intersjllttblc point () X^iq^'^ii is continuously used between every two
syllables, as also, between every two wor'is in an expression or sentence. Take for instance, the first
eenteuce in Appendix I : %^M ^^^ji^qi^gs)^- juq-rjjilc^^Ji-^N'qi.t^qE.-qg^-^c^-l

Here the words are: f'^*', ^"S,

^d "^S*)^, g^ =i, :a^i, '^^sj'n^-q^^ :^qi,-qgv'^ik|
In transliterating the above sentence, a hypuen will represent theintersyllabic point (') which will be used
to divide every two or tlireo syllables in a word thus: «,q'^35^^ rab-hbyams; g^l; "J^i 3 kun-gyi;'^^V
m^'^i^ hphrin-lag-par '\''=-'''3*^'^^ d van-bskur-shin With a view to eiuible tue reader to distinguish one word

from another the passage will be transliterated thus Phyogg-dna-rab-hbyains-rgyal-wa-kun-gyi-hphrin-lag-


par dwan-bskur-shin instead of as Phyogs-dus-rab-hbams-rgyal-wa-kuu-gyi-hphrm-laa-par-dwan-b^kur-shin.

APPENDIX I. e'^N'R^aj *

SJam-gliU Yais'pahi khyon spyi-dafi [the general public of Daamling (Jambu dvipa).]
bye-brog sbas-yul JShnis-iiw Ijon-kyi [particularly, of the hidden land of Deinojuii (bikkim).]
Dge-hdun mi-dwan sa-skyoii bkah-blon MiA biu-dpon sogs [the clergy, King-liuler, minister, captains,
sergeants etc ]
Ser-skya mthah-dag gsan-ciii n-'s-gyur [priests and lay class, great and low, all hearing be sure.]
S.i-skyoii Mi-dwan Clws-rgy d Sras hdi bahin [whereas this son of the King-Iiuler Dhaniiaraja.'\
j^,lo-khams Kun-rnkhydi Silu Rinpo-cluhi dwon Kirma Rin-chcn neB don bslan hdiin-giji sprul-pnhi skiir
[nephew of Knn-khyen Situ Kin-po-che of Do-kham (Lower Kham Province) Karma liinchen ne-don
Tan-zin's inparnation.J
Edt-ga blag-nas fios hd4ii Khri-hdon mnah-g^ol bgyid cin [here from me having received indentification
consecration and enthronement.]
Misfian Knrma Sgruh-brgyud bstan-hdiin dir-rgyas Ihun-grub neS'doii dwari-po [name Karim Dub-gyu
tanzin dargye Ihun-dub ne-don Wang-po.]
Shi's gtol-shiti dge-tshid sloii-gi diios-po yan-dag-par sgrub cin[50 named having suooassfuUy passed through
the orders of Ge-tshul and Ge-lon.]
Gaan-smgs g.<ar-rnin-gi divaA rjes-gnail du~ma daH [having received initiation in many secrets of the new
and the older mysticism.]
Zab-khiid'bkah-iun sogs-kyi smin-par bgyis-nas [being turned an adept in the deeper mysteries, precepts, &c.
Ran-litgs-kyi dgon-S'le Kurina Rub-brtan ffliii [of his own sect the monasteries and religious institutions
(called) Kcrma Rabtanling.]
K'irifia Bkra-gis chos-hkhor-gliU, Karni,a hchi-mcd Yans-d'oen, Knrmt Sjrub brgyud b^tan-dar g.lin
iogS'kyi \_Karinti Tashichoi khor-liug, Kurmi Chi-me yaug wen, Kirma dub-gyu taudar ling of &o.]
Spyi-klujiib chos-rje-vo dam-par [as Lord spiritual and Director-General], dwan-gbkur-wa yin-pas [has
been consecrated.]

Bla-nn nl^-nas hchad rtsod brlsam §!?!«»/» [the Lama himself (will do) the three expounding, disiussing
and composing (religious matters).] t/ws bsam sg m sgo-nas [from the three points hearing, think-

ing and meditation of (spiritual things). ] ris-n'i ma-chad- pahi [without iuchning to parti ilityj rijijai-icahi
bsian-pa m'liah-dig [the entire religion of Buddh.i] dar-rgy is-sti spel-w-ihi fJi-tbs Ukul gin zab dm [.idopting
what are best means and methods for its propagation and expansion] iye-i'^n/c/ Karma Bk ih b'-gynd-kyi
bitaii-pa [especially the doctrine of the Karnvi Kahgyu Si)hool] yir-zla liar spci-ivaht m/srud-hp/iriii [lika the
growing crescent of the moon service to religion] thugs-b^kyed slmm-pa-mcd-pa dan [will with thoightfullness
fearlessly exert himself].
Dye hdiin-gyi sle-ruams nas kyafl [the class of clergy also] Bla-mnci gsufi dvan^ len [should receive in
good spirit what the Lama says,] bsgrii/s khrtms bsran [keep discipline] sd'tms-tsknl bihin b/yid-pa dan [and
behave observing the vows and morals] dad-ldaii yon-gyi bdig-po rnams-kyis: kyan [the faithful dispensers of
gifts {Dauapatt) also] gu^-hdad bsnen-bkur dD:inS-kn bjyd dgos bcas [should with reverence make homage and
implicit obedience (to him.) ] t/iugs firs hl&hal [be sure (bear in miud as sure.)]
S/u'S-pahiyi-gccku-s/ag-giz!a ts/ies dge-imr [on an auspicious date (iu the year (tcater-tig'^r) letter so written]
Hog-mill mt^/iur-phuhi C/ios grva C/fii-po nas Spi-/ [is proclaimed from the great monastery of Hog-min Tshur phu.
* Tills S^".^^ nos-hdein ^letter of identification) of the Spirit of a deceased Lama oL' Lower Kiiam with

the soul of a Sikkim Maharaja's son was issued by Lama Theg-pahi Dorje the 14th in succession to the
Karma-pa hierarchy, iu 1722 A.D.


JT]'^'")^] Ciicn-yifj.

TJin-s'h'ns [lit. the eminence where gcds dwell; nnmo of (he residential house of Lhading Eku-»hab
(g'^^*i c-ollcquiaily Ewi/w) at Lhasa.]
Lhn.lcam mchorj-ma Fcfrs sgrol-mala [Her Highness queen Yeie-doiraa.]
Glial s/iu/ii nku/js-ki/i Gncn-yi'g [maniage-lettar of the (auspicious) occasion of bringing her.]
Edra giis-hlc'irui-mce [mistake-less copy.]
A correct copy of the mariiage-letter executed on the occasion of giving away Her IIighn?s3 queen
Yese-doima in marriage.
Hail (lie Precious One !

Bzin-pohi fhil-pa kdi It (fa'D-chos-h-i/is. dbj/ar-ski/cs rnn-xnH sfon-dit h'jifiii-pa-/as. In this age of
bleEsoilnc'83 by 11 ily religion from tlie production oE sum'ner dmm-so ind (thuudar noise) in v.)il spaoa Isky).

Sii'!/ d'ls hgro-wah' g.'iod-gi/ur b'iiid-rl-,ihi char hbrhs mkfias Cxkyihi rj/al-pog dje ti'g^ sfy/icl.

Grant unto tis prosperity,

king of the S'akyas, wlio is able to bring dowu the raiu of nectar fo*
healing /the sufferings) of living beings in these degenerate times.
KliiimV; g.'ium dwan-guitr dpal-ldin hdid-pnhi rgijal ! Rjijil-u-ahi yum mc'iog Kinu I:ii'le-li !

King of Love who has brought the three worlds under hia power 0, Kuru hulle (Venus) the great
mother * of all the Euddhas !

Ma-pham hdod-dguhi f char hsnll nor-shyin Lha, Lhahi Iha-mchog-rnnm^-hyi ring-fu ikynns.
The unsubduable wealth-giving god that draws down rains of (rlslies) ye tho chief gods aniDng god",
protect (us) at all times !

Bi'an hgrohi mgon mhad dam-can tshogs spyi dm, h'lhnd-par ran rigi brj'/nd hgo-vohi lha-.

Andthe hosts of Dtin-caii, in gjneral, that support religion and living beings, aud the priuo'pal god»
of individual families, in particular.
Yul gs'(/s gnas-ski/oiiS: srun-mahi fi-liogR hcn^-hyi?. diiR-lun mi-gyel sriii ^Injol^ g.rlon-grog^mdfcd, {y% vi\\)
together with tho hosts of guardian demi-goiis who prelect the country, estates and holy place.-, at all times
do guard, protect, and befriend (us) with unflagging zeal !
Mdxam glin lle-wahi Bod yul chos-ldan shin, hdahs hhrel Iho phyogi Mhrss-mo sm'in-pahi Ij^Hs, the naral
(cantre) of Dsam-ling
Tibet, tho Province of Buddhism, is contermirious on the south, with Demo-jong, the land where rio*
Bde sliyid g.>jnn-du chag?,-pahi mdun-sa na sa-spyod che bfsnn sde-ris mf!on-hp':ags-pa.
lu this frontier land of bounty and prosperity the king is great and strong being of sublime extmction.
Than tsh'in zib-^es g.nen-du hhrel-irahi mind nam ynn Ihod-pa med-pahi phyig rji/n-yi^t with mutual
good understanding, the marriage-tie will be kept ever unloosened by the Mudra (seal of solemnity).
Btah-pahi hris-yig bkra-^h re-ica-can srid-^siim kun-dgahi dpijid-gyur hdi nn9. pel.

It being fixed on this written letter it is hoped these (presents) (may) augment the spring (season of
prosperity) that is the joy of the three worlds.
S/fs ^is-par brjod-pa dm iie^-par brtan-pfihi tshig-gi hphrrn-wa rna-hl sgra dvyans-kyi dge-icns snow bsus-tt
welcoming with the auspicious drum-smnd in tho (above) string of benedictory and re-assuring words.
mystic sense she {Kuru kuHe) is the feniile energy or i8 r/.-^j of all the Buddhis in the Red-Oap
* In
School. is same with the goddess
Sue 1 aid in the Yellow-Cap School.
t Dciiio-jong formerly comprised the eastern valley of the Kosi, the entire valleys of the Te^fta and
the Mu-o'nu rivers. It was so called being the rice-growiag land, on this side of tho Himalayas. Qbras is
rice, !]' r.s. cultivation, field.
t Piiycg rgija (Sans. Mitdrd) ihb configuration on the thumb (^'^ thero) i.e., the thumb-in^ pr s-fion.

It has been always the practice iu Tibet, to put thumb- impressions on all important documeuls. The fiiinj
of the seal i^% or S'*i'n) was introduced in later times.

The following conventional system has been adopted for representing Tibetan and

Sanskrit letters (the equivalents of which do not exist in English) either in Roman or in


a or ^ represents the a in far, fast, father.

e or ^ represents the e in let, met, set.

i or i represents the i in din, pin, sin.

o or 6 represents the o in go, lo, so.

u or u represents the u in put.

fi represents the Nagari ^ or its Tibetan equivalent c.

9 or b' represents the Ndgari ^ or its Tibetan equivalent *\.

c or ch (as an equivalent of ^} represents the sound of ch in much, such, touch.

(J represents the Ndgari letter s or its Tibetan equivalent ^.

g will always represent the sound of g in the words go, give, get, but not that of g in

gem, gentle, germ.

\i represents the sound of k in hour, honest, honour and the letter '^.

<> represents the Nagari letter isr or its Tibetan equivalent f>.

B represents the Nagari letter ^ or its Tibetan equivalent P*.

t represents the Ndgari letter z or its Tibetan equivalent ^.

V and w represent the Ndgari letter ^ or its Tibetan equivalent ^ot 'V.


On the use of honoeific xERiia and espeessions.

In the Tibetan language, both written and colloquial, there are two methods of expres-
sion. The first is called ^'5<^'^^ and the second s^^j'^s^ the common or vulgar language.

Three words, namely, g signifying the person or body, g,^ hand and Bfm foot are generally

used before nouns and verbs to add a degree of politeness or respectability to them. When
so used, these words lose their literal signification and acquire a quite different sense. Of the
three words, g, ^|^^, ^''1 all signifying the bod^, the first i.e. | is honorific. The second
and third i.e. '^'^'^^ and ^^ can be made honorific by prefixing to them the word g, thus :

l-jl-Hi^'I'sj^^j-q-q^!!!! g5j'2j^'|'qj3:i]^'5jg5j'q'Q,^!il| ^2j'2j ^'I'^^'SJ^^'ij'q^tll |

signify the

King's person is handsome.

c^'i^«j'?l'^f 5j
my body is not handsome.

One, when speaking of one's own self, should not use an honorific word like ^ or g'^riisri?!

or 1'^^ I
Of the two words g^ and ^l^ signifying the hand, g^ is hcnoriUc. 55|'2J ^'|^'2j':i|S)^'i!fi^ |

there is gold in the King's hand, c^'QJ:I]'aJ'q]?^IL5l'^| there is no gold in my hand. |'i^q^'Qj'|!ii'

^c^Qj'D'^^sfl I
your honour has no silver (money.) c'aj'5|Caj'tfj^ I have money. The word ^st]

is used as an honorific, with verbs as follows :

g'si'g^'Sq I
Lama come. s^ffai'sj^^'Qi'^zij'Q^lQj'i^ ]
Reverence be to the Eon-chog (Supreme
Of the two words (^^51 and ^c signifying the foot ^^^ is honorific. g5i'2J^'(^q5j'Q('^5j'aj^

there are shoes on the King's feet, c^'^cq'oj'^sj'jl'aj there are no shoes in my

The words ^^^ signifying foot and ^c, near are equivalents of Mr. or Esquire, in
English. With the honorific term | prefixed to them they, i.e. |'i^q^ and |'^c
signify your honour or your worship, ^'/^q^ is pronounced as Kiisho, in conver-

sation, '^^q^j'^c literally near the feet) is a title of dignity in Tibet. With
Rinpo-che attached to it, it froms the exalted title, assumed by the grand

Lama of Bhutan. f^q«4'^c-^ci'2j'^'cqi'i^qr<^5j'|Qj was the title which the first

Bhutan Dharma Raja had assumed, on ascending the hierarchical throne of
Bhutan, f^^^'^c evidently, an equivalent of \^\^^ signifying an attendant.

S'ariputtra and Maudgalyayana were the personal attendants of the Budha.

Hence the importance of the position of being near the Jeet ^^^'^ or that of

the words /^ci^ and ^c'|


The following are polite expressions generally used in conversation :—

|'(^q5j*aj'§,si]'«,^i2j'§5) (colloquially, Kusho-la Cham-hul-shu) — present respects or (respectful
compliments) to your honour.
^c'Sai (^c'^'l5)'2f) qSq'|'Jr|5jr?;Fr! the Secretary has gone away. «,lq'| ordinarily
signifies to proceed on horseback ^^^ is also honorific to the verb ?fE'[

W^'^c-j Mr. And q'^'^'^q^i or ^q^'.^^!! Cplease) come here.

|'i^q^'^5i-2j'^'^'pc'3|rQj'(^q5)''2,cE:^'q|3jrX5il^'5i |
may your precious Highness or Holiness
walk into the temple.
^'(^q5i'§'|'5J^^ {Kusho-kee Eumdun) in the presence of your honour.
Sqc'^5j'i^q§)'aj3q]'«j^'5ls^ BIr. Wangdan has no work (to do). In this sentence ^^ does
not signifying the hand. It is simply an honorific term. ^^'^3i'^c'5i'(^q5J'|'j|"a,^Ji]

Mr. Gergan (teacher or school master) has no servant.

A LIST OF Honorific and Common terms.

Honorific. Common. Eotwrific. Co

"iq father, s)

?i*< mother, «
^'i son, S
g*j'iN daughter, S'Sl

»<^^ name, *i=.

«\9 the head, ^^

«^9g the hair, g
SS'"^ a hat or cap, BiJS

'^9'*i^«\ the head officer, workman or principal "^^ Q

^'^ the month, p

(c^uieili^c the face, fllX,E.

i^'»i'3S or'^'^'C*' meat or food, anything to eat, ss^orP'S''

i^'t'^sj*! drink, "^^i*!

(^sjl»)?j testament, last will, |«i3»)*(

(^«il^»<«^ advice, counsel, «I«^»i^ or ^"i*'"'"

f1*^ the tongue, g

2»iN the tooth, ?i

Certain common terms are made polite by prefixing to them honorifics like g, &o. These may be
illustrated as follows ;

Honorific terms. Common terms. Meanings. Honorific terms. Common terms. Meaning.



The Alphabet of the Tibetan Language ... ... ... ... 1

The Vowels.
The four vowels /, u, e and o ... ... .., ... ... 1-2

Compounds with the four vowels i, u, e and o—

The thirty consonants "I'^'i is deflected ... ... ... ... 3
Subjoined letters {^^'^VH'^''^^'^'''''^'^^'^^)—

Compounds with the four consonants, "i, ^, "(, and 'a ... ... ... 4
The seven Ya-btags letters ... ... ... ... ... 4
The thirteen Ea-btags letters ... ... ... ... ... 4
The six La-btags letters ... ... ... ... ... 4
The sixteen Wa-sur ... ... ... ... ... 4.5

Classification under four Denominations.

Surmounted letters *(^'«^| ... ... ... ... ,., 5

Combination of letters to form words "^I'^^I ... ... ... ... 6

Method of combination .., ... ... ... ... ... 9

1. The simple letters i)E.-£ii^uiE,-3i-5)qli ,_^ .,. __^ n
2. Subjoined letters aV'^^'l*'! ... ... ... ... ... 12
3. Superscribed letters ^^'i^! ... ... ... ... 12
35flj (•) Inter-syllable stop ... ... ... ... ... ... 13

"^"I'^S Additive or deflective particle ... ... ' ... ... ... 13

f Sound ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13

^Tg-S! Examples of ... ... ... ... ... ... 14

On the use of %S (additive particles) ... ... ... ...Hi
Eeduplication of terminal letters Si^"'J|''»i=''^l'''l«)'?ft|! ... ... ... 16
The Article ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 17
Noun or '^^^*^•?)tI a:;- ... ... ... ... ... ... 17
Plural Number ^'^'^'^
... ... ... ... ... ... 18
Gender 3-355-j<^3i or ^'^^ ... ... ... ... ... 19
Case ^s^'-^g ... ... ... ... .,. ... ' „, 20
On the use of Secondary Additive Particles "ic-i^|q] ... ... ... 20
Example of Declension according to Tibetan methods ... ... ... 22
Example of Declension ... ... ... ... ... ... 23

The Personal Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 25
Demonstrative Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 26
Relative Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 26
Interrogative Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... ... 26
Reciprocal Pronouns ... ... ... ... .„ ... 26

Declension of the Personal Pronouns ... ... ... ... ... 26

Ditto Demonstrative Pronouns ... ... ... ... 28
Ditto Interogative Pronouns ... ... ... ... 28
Ditto Reciprocals ... ... ... ... ... 29
Pronomial Adjectives ... ... ... ... ... ... 29

The Adjective ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 30

Comparison ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 31

Numeral Adjectives ... ... ... ... ... ... 32

Ordinal Adjectives ... ... ... ... ... ... 35

The Verb 3'q ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 36

The changes that occur in such verbal roots in the formation of the several tenses and

moods are illustrated in ten groups of examples No. I to X ... ... 38-42

On the use of the five ^V^ll prefixes:

The use of "l.S,'',*',^, (in the formation of the several tenses and moods) when they are

prefixed to verbal root as in 1)^, S=J1, "^S, "^ ^nd '^'^1 ... ... ... 42-43

Examples of neuter verbs from which active forms may be derived ... ... 43-45


Conjugation of the verb <o ie ^^'1^ or its participial form ^^" ia«rt(/ ... ... 46

The verb <o Aooe '5'S'i^ or its participial form ^"S" A(J2'««^ ... ... ... 46

The verb ^0 6?o IS"^ or its participial form IS" (tos'n? ... ... ••• 47

Imparative "^

Hortative j

Conditional y ... ... ... ... ... ... 47

Infinitive future j

Participial form J
The verb -^i^^'w <o *wo2c or ^)« knowing ... ... ... ... 47

The verb "^^'fl^ to go or '^1" going ... ' ... ... ... 47
The verb »<?'='«)'^ <o see or **?=" seeing ... ... ... ••• 48

The verb'^g^''^^ to become or <^%K'^ becoming ... ... ... ... 48
Participial Expressions ... ... ... ... ... ... 49
Participal ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 49
On the use of ^"1, "^1, ^"l, with verbs in the Ituperative MooJ and Coajuuotive Present 49
On the use of \ f, ^, \ 9, S, \ X, \ 15, and ? ... ... ... 60
On the use of 5, %, \ in verbs ... ... ... ... ... 50
On the use of q*', ^»<, S^, ^\ 'i^, '»i*, <<»*, ^^, «!»<, ^^ and 5*'. ... ... 50
On the use of °^^, ^^, ^=., with verbs ... ... ... ... ... 51

On the use of "'' and "»', with verbs ... ... ... ... ... 51


Adverbs of Place ... 52

Adverbs of Time ... 52
Adverbs of Number and Time ... ... ... 53
Adverbs of Quantity

Adverbs of Quality ... 53


Simple and compound postpositions 54

Some postpositions illustrated with examples 55
Relation of prepositions —postposition ... 55


Disjunctive conjunctions 57
Interjection 57
Syntax 58
Prosody 60




The Alphabet of the Tibetan Language comprises thirt}' simple letters :

rf]p£l|Cf 5c6E^| 5^^3i|

ka klia ga iia. ca cha ja na. (a tha da na.

^ t^ ^ 3\\ t> i> i q^\ o, ^ (\ ^\

pa pha ba ma. tsa tsha dsa wa. ska za ha ya.

3; 01 ^ ?}
^ (?j
ra la fn sn. ha a.

To these be added the four vowels i, u, e, 0, formed by fixing the

may vowel signs
-\ s, ^ %r over the head and to the foot of the last letter ^\

§^ ^ ^ ^ \f
i u e 0.

These thirtyfour letters are divided into consonants ^^'I'l'S thirty in number, and
vowels '^^ which according to some Tibetan grammarians are only four.
The thirtieth letter ^ which is inherent in all the twentynine consonants and forms
the basis ^'=^'|*^ + of the four vowels ^,'11,^,^, is not considered as a distinct vowel
which could be joined with the twentynine consonants for forming a syllable or word because
it already exists in them. Without ^, it is said, the consonants would be %^'^'\ srog-med i.e.,

•These thirty letters are called ^^ ("1 joined with the Sanskrit word bmSJ
ggf% si^nifviog ''|k.'i series

becomes \^' *m\^) kali meaning the series of letters commencing with'^ ka~ 'n'!|-^'j)5qcj5'»gi;qiIw|'^-3-^a|

tThese four letters based on ^ (whon put together with ^) form what are called %'^ dli ^f% i.e., the

w series or vowels — wnil(ii]5iq5iR^!;q''^gc^a)u| )

^According to the grammatical works called fliNqq5*)-i3=.| and :;q|-

Jsj K,q ujisirji
the vowels are five in

number viz, B^G^i^'S^iS though the vowel signs are four

The thirty simple letters called '^m'^^ gsal-byed, are
arranged in series called ^ sde,
which are seven and half in number.* The first series called T^ commences with t] ka,
and comprises Tj'P'^C'i The second series begins with « ca, and is called «"| ca-sde:—^'^'^'^\
and so on; 5'^:— ^"^'"S'^il ci-^:_q-si-q-«I ^"1 -—^-i-^-^l ^'^ ;_ (^-a-q-aj] x -^ ._vqj-^-5<

The last two letters yw called Y\ constitute but half a series.

The four vowels i, u, e ando in uniting with the consonants lose the basic portion of their
respective regular forms, for instance, ^l when joined with ^ becomes ^ ki the basic part
of the letter ^1 i.e., W being eliminated in the union. In the same manner, '^ with '^
becomes 'Q ku, with w) it becomes ^ ke and with w it becomes ^ ko.

Compounds formed by joining the initial consonants with the four vowels 2, u,

e, are called ^"^iJ^J'^Sj hdogs-can.

The vowel signs representing i, u, e, o that are fixed to the thirty ^^"I'l^ or their
compounds are called Gt-gu'^^ Shabs-kgu^, EgreMu "",
Naro *^ .

T] joined with *^ Gi-gu becomes ^| i] joined with Shabs-kyu becomes ^|

'H » »> ^ Sgreii-hu, „ ^\ T]

„ „ ^ Na-ro „ ^ffl

In this connection Tibetan Grammarians observe that in forming compounds of consonants with

the vowels the rules of Sandhi, as obtain in Sanskrit, are not applicable to Tibetan, where the vowel signs

only represent the force of phonetic deflection of the letter ^ a f

tWhy w is classed with the consonants ?:- <i3=-«'^=-'^'^«"'«^'^^'^='A''\'^'^1*"''IV'n'^^'*"'«|«"^''^^^V

q-^q^^Hi;»io)a^-^E.A|ilcj^«;i'»l^q«^5.-| «^^Nq-^ilci^9-lq?C^'|5-^«qsiiq»)«^«^-1^1 ^•q«-^qf«^-^-»)<^-tj5 5f'I|•»)^^•5R.q•l^^va•

The thirty ''l^'I'l^ consonants are deflected being joined with the four vowel signs

representing i, u, e and o, as follows :

Q,>^'^5|'53j I
Compounds with the four vowels /, «, e and o.

|JS''2^^^^ Subjoined letters.

Compounds with the four consonants,«Jj ^, ai and V

Some consonants are joined with tlie liquids "J, \ oj,
and "^ which are then
called "l-q^q]^ * ,ja.b(ags, ^'^^'^^ ra-bjags, OCq^^^ la-btags, and 'H'^f)^^ ica-itags.

The letter «I when sub joined to the seven consonants % P, % ^, ^, Q, SJ, takes the form ^ !

'^'^^^^'^^'^ I
the seven ya-Uay? letters having a subjoined ^ y are \ p", ''I,
^, ^, ^, 5)

''1 with the ^ yu-btngs, Subjoined becomes ^ kya. Similarly ^ khya, ^ gya,
S PyC'y 3 P^a, S iya, S mya are formed. In these compounds both the letters are

'k-q^^Jl^j-q^-qj^jj-^l the thirteen ra-bJags letters:—"n, P, % % ^, «^, £J, ^, q, 5<, •«j, «, ^| When
the letter ^ is subjoined to the above thirteen letters it assumes the form ^ and is called
ra-htags ^'^Vj'^^

Of the sixteen compounds with 'y'|^ only nine, namely t],
f', "ni ^ , i, ("|, ^ '^ and ^

are in general use in Tibetan. In these the initial and the subjoined letters are

both sounded.

The '«'|*N ^4) is obscurely sounded in s, ^ , «5 and *|^


Letteks are classified under four denominations, namely :

1. ^^''^ Min-gshi* initial letters which generally form the roots of words.

2. f^'^ rhyan-pat These comprise the initial letters, hdogs-can and the compounds
formed with the Ij'S''^'^^^ signs representing:- % S'^j'^j^'i'') ^ Wj which are subjoined to them.

3. si^'^^ fpgo-can : —Letters which are surmounted by \°i,^ i^,^,s).

4. C^'SJ'^aj Ephul-can% The initial letter in a word (either simple or compound) is

so called when it has any of the five letters ''1,'S,^,^,'^ fixed before it for forming a word.

Ji^'jX Surmounted letters.

The letters \^,^ are fixed on the heads of certain simple and compound letters. They
are then called nigo-can surmounted letters or I'^'l^j
=i]^5) r!a ss-ffsum, the triplepiled up

letters. The compounds so formed are called ^^'^^'''ISs^l

The superscribed letter which is seldom pronounced, will be represented by a line underneath it.

The twelve basic consonants with ^ over their heads :

rka rga rHa rHa rta (da rna fba rma ptsa rdsa rla.

These retain sounds in the combination with the exception of 1

their respective

which then turns like the English g (hard) and also of cj which then sounds as b. In the
words t^t. and i5j'|3j the »; over the heads of E and i\ are sounded.

The ten basic consonants with the letter "I surmounting them: — ''1, \ ^, E,
«, 5,^ cj^
q^ ^|

Ika Iga lHa Icu Ija Itu Ida Ipa Iba Iha.

The surmounting letter ^i la, is silent except in the word ^ signifying a god.

In the last compound i.e., in ^ Iha both the letters are pronounced. The letters
1] Ej q with the surmounting "I are sounded harder than in their simple state.

The letter 5J is fixed on the top of eleven 5='=J letters :— \% c,

^, 5, \ aj, q, q, X), ^ |

In the compounds so formed the surmounting letter ^ is not pronounced.

ska iga ;>3a tna tta sda tna ipa iba ima itsa.

Combination of letters to form words.

Out of the thirty letters called 3c'«i|^ mifi-gshi, inasmuch as they individuUy form
the basis of a syllable or word, the ten % =, S, ^j, «J, «, «., "^j "^j ^ I
are called l^''^^"]
affixes or closing letters, from their being affixed to the basis of a word or syllable.

Out of these ten final letters the two, ^ and 5f are called ^ic'R^i;] secondary affixes.

Again, out of the ten |5I'q,^!J| affixes the five letters ""I, \ ^, ^, '^ are used as g3i'«-^«»I

prefixes; so called from their being put before the basis of a syllable for forming a word.
The twenty remaining I15jaf'|«;| consonants—

^ ^'
% p, ^ ^ ^ % ^> % ^. ''. ^ ^» ^^ ^> ^' "^' "^' ^'

are called 5l'Si^til"5lc-q]^| mi-hjug miH-^^hi. These never occur a? final letters in words or
after any vowel. No compounds or combinations of these letters are made for forming words
in the Tibetan language. The ten consonants \ c, \ Sj,
q, xj, R, \ QJ, ?<, are

the only letters that close any syllable, or follow the vowel, whether inherent or expressed.
Accordingly, combinations like ^'Ti',c§s|[q','«3«l, form no words in Tibetan. These twenty
letters stand as initials in a syllable or word.

Some twenty S)''^^''] flc'l]^ letters are words in themselves:

of the ^1 ka, pillar —
1^ kha^ mouth or snow; * aha, part, fraction, or a pair; E ;a, tea; ^ fin, fish; ^ pa, the
syllable expressing ownership; ^ pha, father; ^ tsa, time ^'^ from the time ^ Uha, hot, fever ;

dsa, an earthen vessel for cooking or for heating; % iva fox; ^ sha lead; 3 sa food, or to eat;
**! ya, an equal or match, above, up; -^^ fa, flesh, meat; ^ ha, breath, yonder. These letters

form the basis Q.^^''^^ to which the g^j'-a^^^i] and |«4''5,^«il letters are prefixed and affixed.

The use of the ten letters % c, «^, 3j, q, x}, o., x^^ ai^ ^^ called t^^-V^ closing letters

may be illustrated thus : in the word Here the letters °i and

0J='l the letter 't is a l^l'Q-^^ | ''I

are joined so as to form a syllable in consequence of which there is no ^'^ (') intersyllabic
point between them. By this combination '^ has lost its inherent ^ a. Accordingly, the word
°i'^ is pronounced lag and not la-ga in the same manner, in the words '^^' g<^^, ^*S nad,

c^i Hin, ai!J lab, 015) lam, ^^ mar, \^ ral, °i^ las, the letters c, \ ^, Q, «», ^, «/, ^, are
all |^'^^=i].

In the syllables c^, ^^, q^l the letter 5J is not strictly a l^''^^''] closing letter though
it is fixed after 1^'^'Q.^i]'^ for forming a grammatical termination and closes a word or

In some words the letters ^ and ^ are affixed to the l^''^.^'') letters such as s^
q] when
they are called «JC-a|,q] In the and l"^*^ the letters and '^'^^ ''1 *^ are l^'^l^^ but «^ and ««,

are '^^'^-^^l Here ^ and ^ have lost the W that was inherent in them, in consequence
of their union with 51 and ^ which are seldom pronounced.

The combinations '^M, ^^, ^^^ 5)5< are infact double affixes. (l''2.^^'*^c'airQ,|,!?]) sj^ :^«;^

ai^ also occur as double affixes in older orthography, but though the use of ^ (called '^''^ ) is

the more correct form for designing the past tense yet in modern Tibetan this practice is

seldom resorted to.

The g^'"^!"!, I*'''^!"!. and <«ici*|ii letters where silent will be represented by underlined italics.

The tendency of the Tibetan language being towards monosyllabic pronunciation

the l^"^*"] and «Jc:'Q,^q] letters * are either softly
pronounced or not sounded at all. and ^ ''I

in the expression g^'^^ sound softly. Sometimes they are silent as in s^^, ^^, °i^, '^^, ^^,
^54, ^^j ^§< yet in theirI
phouetical silence they slightly deflect tlie vowels that precede
them ^^ nad
is pronounced as neh, ^^ nug as nui, %^ lug as lui, 3f«l cZ/o?, as choi,
^^ fi's, is pronounced as sheh, ^^ dad is pronounced as deh, and •*]^ g/id is pronounced as
»fuh and so on.
This peculiarity is more marked in the colloqual of Lhasa, i. e. Central Tibet, thin in

that of Western ^I'ibet. In the following illustrations of the ten single affixes and four
double affixes the letters that are not prououned are underlined.

tn in aj^ wag (meaning black), in 5jtI]5^ nags meaning forest,

c in ^c raii (meaning self), in ^c^j raHs meaning entire.

^^ V ^< ^"^ ^"^ and so on, is never pronounced,

S in Sf^ na4, ^'S »"'^' "^"S J"'^-

though it slightly deflects the preceding vowel,

s in m k»n, K^ don, %^ rin, °i^ Ian, ^3j kn and so on, is fully pronounced.

a in gq thub, ?^ ^hob, ^q rab, ^q nb, '^^ leb and so on, is pronounced.

c5) nnm, ^^i dam, ^^ /am, ^^ ts„m etc., is fully pronounced.

XI in ^^ gam,

«, in S^T^ dki'h, q^^^ bknh, is pronounced as the silent h in English.

'^ in XJ^ mar, 'S'^

dar, q^ bar, ^^ sar, ^ gur, ^^ nor is pronounced.

^OJ ^^J -^^ ^"^ y'^ ^^ ^""^^^^ pronounced.

qinq^ bal, ^ih P'i, ?'^^. ^

51 in m las, %^ ris, %^ im, ^^ hs, ^^ gos etc, is never pronounced.

though it slightly changes the preceding vowel.

terminating letter «) ia silent—

In all double affixes the
pags, <=i^^lags, ^"^^ iegs, ^^^ chugs, ^^^dogs etc.
^^^ ^^^ raiis, '^^^ dans ^C^ Us, etc.
C*I in ^^^ sa,n, hons,

q^jingq^ ihabs, ^q^ chibs, -^q^J cubs, ^^'^ ''/<ebs, ^q^ hobs, etc.

\m ^^^ ^sm som? etc.

JJ^ in nm thams, rms, -^SI.N gums, sems, '

both the letters in the three double

According to older orthography, q^F
affixes 3)=^, '^% a*"® pronounced.

Regarding the pronunciation of these letters, Alex.

* Gsoma de Koros remarks :-
Grammarians say, that these letters
"They should always be sounded accordingly, since the Tihetau
are affixed expressly to render the words sonorous and

He, however, added :

silent (as the 5^ in '^^, 'ii,

••Some of the affixes are only obscurely heard; some are left entirely
tj«, «»'), and some change the preceding vowel."
In composition, all -words not ending in a l^'^l,^ letter i.e.. tl)Of>° that have vowel
terminations only should be taken as if ending in "^i ?t comljiiu d with as So. ^ as ^'^ and so '2.

on.* This '^ is only a changed form of the basic inherent ^. '1
he use of (by fixing it at '=.

the foot) is generally made in transcribing Sanskrit terms, to lengthen or incroase the pownr of
the vowel tern)ination of a word, in the manner the Sanskrit ^ is made long, when
necessary, by the addition of a stroke after it such as igr, for instance the word Acarija will
be written in Tibetan as ^'5 Sjl Icvara, as |) '-^'^ I

In words formed with |^"=^|,=ij and «lc-Q,= i.e.^ secondary affixes the^ l^''^^^ letters :t|

are pronounced, but the «I!^"'=^%=tI letters are not pronounced. In ''"^^^ >'/'«/«. ^^^ ^'^ilh ^^^ ^''^^s
the letter ^ s is seldom heard. l

The g^''^^^ letters \ \ q, *J, «,t are put before a syllable or a nidical letter to form
words. They are also used to modify the meaning of a and for forming the present,
fiast and future tenses of a verb. These five letters are called ^"i^ or prepositive letters
when they are used as goi''2,^=i]|

gs^'ffl^ Method of Combination.

'^^^gQJ'")'^'^5'^^^''^| the have ^ prefixed to them are

eleven initial letters which
5. !). 5, '^. % i. ^, 3, '^. -^j 5J| The syllables ^^^-^luh, S^ dah, 3|Q. haA, tf^ Istih,
e/w//, i)''.
•^'3, fih, ^'5, sah, would not form words in themselves
^Q.shah, 30, xah, "J^ i/ah, if the letter ^ was
not prefixed, to them. With ^ prefixed they are words :— =l]53, signifying drink, ^^'^ neck, ^^'^
pawn, ^=t]'5.pleasure, '^^i'^ anteloue, ^i'^ rust, bliglit; ^1^^ to joko. ^^'^ a planet, ^f^'^ oxide (of a
metal; ^'^'5, becoming fit, ^^^ the snow leopard of Tibet. The prefix ^ remains silent ia
the maimer the letter k is in the English words "knife", "knee" or " know."

It is to be noted here that the prefix ^ is not used before any ^^'^5^ or 1}=^"=^^^^ com-
pound letters formed by surmounting or subjoining one consonant with another.

:^^-q,|Qj'<S)'q]-»5j5j[ 'flie letter «;, is prefixed to the following fifteen 7^^"-i\ and

IJV^^^^J! letters: T], , c, q, q, ^.

q] 5j , I
-^^ ^, 3^ ^^ g^ g^ 5^ g^
thus ^Tl-^, ^-^, y^q, ^qo,^
^^1^, ^5j^, ^3^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ '^g, ^3,

S is never prefixed to si^'^a^ letters. Its use in some verbs indicates that they are
in the future tense.

q54-q§aia)-q|-^5,5<| The letters with the prefix c]:— ^lis put before jg^-q and ^^ ^ letters
in a syllable to form words and also to form the preterite and future tenses m some verbs.

The twenty ^c'q letters to which the letter q may be prefixed are as follows: T|^

% ^\ ^. 3- 5) I
«, ^, S ^, ^, 3, I, §,
^, $1, §J ]
The twenty-five sj^'s^ letters to

•which the letter q may also be prefixed are as follows : ^, ^. if. g, 9, '^, §, ^> |, |, c, g, ^,

h ?. 9, ?. i?*'
% ^' ^' ^- ^' ^, f, ^\ For example: qT]^, q;^, qi], q^] qT]^^ q^, qg |

qs^, q^^, q^q, q-^^, qa^, q-^^, q«J^ | q|, q§, qij, qg |
qf|, q^, q^, qg, q^ I

q^, q§i, qg, q| I

q£, qg I
qE, q^, q^, q^, q?, q^*, q^' q^. =5^1 =J^, =i?i ^1 '^i-i q^l

The above forty-five simple and compound letters may also be Q-sS^^^J'^sj z.e,, joined

'with the four vowels.

3;i5i'Q,^q'")'ql'd55j«) I
The letter 5) is prefixed to the following fifteen ^rq letters :
p, g,

0, % % % ^> *. ^> =). ^. % ^. ^, ^1 For instance: ^I^^, Jjg^ 5j^, 5j:i]^^ sjg^ 5J5], xjc^^ sj«^^

SJE-:^^ SJ!)^,^ 5jgq, ^^'^, SISjQ.^, 5jIq,, 51^0,


The letter Q- is prefixed to the following nineteen ;^c'q letters :

n, 13, ^ S, ^, *. £, ^, ^, ^. '^^ a, ^. ^, 3, 5, ^' ^1 'I'lius

qps ^3, "^3, ^^S =^3, =^51,

The proper method of spelling Tibetan words is illustrated in the work called «^ti)§>|ilN'2i-q5'5)'!St|

which begins with the following lines : fS'lS'^T^a''^^'""^'! ilS3'^^'°''I3'S''''^'^S I ^'I'^'Sji^-STl^^'S^'' II

(In this language) though words sound alike, in expressing there is distinction in the meanings

conveyed by them ; therefore, correctness in spelling is essential. The orthoepy of this peculiar language

of monosyllabic origin is of little help to its orthography. In the above quotation there are two

words of similar sound, namely :

f (sgra) meaning sound, and "^^ {hdra), meaning like or similar.

Both are pronounced as "da". In their spelling they are so different, one is sgra and the other

is hdra\ The author then proceeds on thus: ^ui=.-i)^5i5^qi»)q l-^iji 1

^S£i«jw§tu3g^ iS'^t^l

?i^ ^^•^l3J•«^Jq5J*^•q
a5<;^-q-qj)*jj^'s^q] .5^-5)ai [| explaining how the

thirty letters of the alphabet beginning with "H are joined with the five vowels a, i, u, e, o — subjoined
•with y, r, I, w — Burmounted by r, I, s and combined with the '^9'^ prefixes "l g, "^ d, 5 i, »< « and "^ h.

of t.he

5lc'q|^ min-gs/ii, ^'^"'^S'^^ mad-hdogs and SJ^'-Saj mgo-can letters.

1. 5lc'Ji|^'w)'q]
The simple letters :—

T k in kill, seek. P ^-s

^ 9 in gun, go, dog.

^ c [ch) in porch.

CO ^ (')

Between the two syllables of a dissyllabic word a triangular point called 2ii (inter-syllabio stop)
intervenes being placed on the top, as in the words 'S'*''^ 1 'ST'' I
^1'^ I This point is also use 1 in si^paratiag ono
word from another in an expression or sentence ; as for instance, in the exprssslon S'*'^ ^M^'m [ (to the holy
ones), there are three suoh stops; between the words S^f'tand ^*<^ there is a ^"1 and between ^*i*« and "J there
is another ; but no X-ji should be placed after '='
no matter whether a-^S (.1) the perpendicular stroke re])re3enting
a comma, is pnt or not after the expression. In 'S^'siS-aj?^ (a pious deed), there are two; in iTsj'J^'I'S'q (a
sinner's doings), there are five 2"] I No ^"1 should be placed after the closing letter of a monosyllabic word

when ending an expression or sentence. In a dissyllabic word the closing letter of the second syllable,

unless it be ^, should not be followed by a Si) ( "When at the end of an expression or sentence, a word
terminates in = the 2^ must be placed in the event a -^'S (1) has been put. If no ^"I llutervenes between
"i and the -^S the two placed in close proximity of each other, would form the letter 1 1 Ilenoe the necessity
of putting a Si] between =. and I. The use of the ^'^ between words as well, in an expressien or sentence, i.e.,

2«[iq>^-1S<iI discloses the monosyllabic origin of the Tibetan language.

The Tibetan, though it abounds in monosyllabic words, is in faut a dissrllabic language.*

Tbo formation of the second syllable in a word of two syllable? is governed by the final letter
of the precoding syllable, i.e., the first syllable which in itself is a word. The second syllable
is generally an additive or deflective particle called ^ig=^ which often modifies the moaning of the
preceding jmrt of the word.

These additive particles chiefly indicate the different parts of speech. They are generally used
iu the formation of cases and in the' declension of verbs and pronouns.
The first part of a dissyllabic word or ^^^ is the root-word. It is called ^^'^] The word itself is
called ^"I, *)c or ^^'^"l when it is grammatically formed. The second part of it called g=\ or '^^S independ-
ently is never a word.

Words apparently trisyllabic are not rare in this language: It^J'^s; [ «j3jq .5J|
£;,'5j'''^^y ( etc. those
which occur largely in the sacred books are generally from the Sanskrit, such as "iC'^T
literal translations

^ {Samyak) J ^^ti^ ]
«jc^g5q-q (
£it»c^^|^'^^| These are but e-xpressions rather than words.

Sounds f are ^^'1 2.5., articulate and ^'^^'^ inarticulate. An articulate sound when represented by
a letter or by a grammatical combination of twa or more letters is called ^"1 The particle which is added to 1

a monosyllabic '^"I to form a complete word is called ^'S'g | Either of the syllables in a dissyllabio word or

^"I or a postpositive particle like 5, ^, 5,. 'y or g etc., is also sometimes called f signifying a term.

* Ihe Tibetan tongue is incapable of pronouncing m >nosyllabic words like soliooi; full, rule, fame, etc. A Tibetan will
read the word " school " as coo-U " " rule" as ru-le
i-si ; full " as ful-li ; ; " fame" aa fa-me, etc

Examples of ^^'^"^ ||

T] as in "^l^^'T] ^q'^T] ^\}^''r\ pi as in '^!gK'^ |(3)'[n

\ f sj'pi ]

^ 1.='^ "^^'^ ^V^l

g ^'N^'^ S^^'^ ^51]^'^ ^ „ ^^3j'^ qg^'^ i)QJ'^|

„ I

ci „ q=i]'ij ^^ti'^ "^sj-qi

5J „ 5°J-5 ^3i'2j 5>^-lJi

5l'») ?l'w| J^'w)|
% ^, S, ^, ^> ^, ^, X, ^, ^, ^!

^^^=1% ^^'^j ^VS ^^% ^^'^, w?i, ?)'5, '5-|VX, =Il«)2J-TSi^ otqj^J'Sj^

ti'; as in Kj^'ii^ 5;i"§!ii5j'q^ '^^'l'^^ |

q^ as in .if'q^ "^c'q?; zil«)QJ'q^

^qj ^5J'-^q] ^5J5J'-^q] f^'-^^t]!


• ^Tl i.e., ^'H in the words P'S"!, ^^jSq]^ gq5^-5«i|, ajajlq] is not to be considered as an additire
particle ^'T3=\I In these it form^ a part of the word itself.

P'^'j|-^5ii-^<i]-?q5?'S<iI-«;,c-i oiai-5i|?j£i]5^-5-^q||-^| i)c-5]-s'-<j5<-5^^q^-ai [ 2q]ugYSI=-^'9'*''^^'''I^''II


On the use of g^^ (additive particles).

The seven '^'^'^S viz., %S%%%'^, and also 5 used after '^^"I or not are called °''''^^'§'^« ^ll Their ubo
ia forming cases after nouns and pronouns is illustrated as follows :

In the expression gq^Jj'wSt I take refuge (in Buddha), the 'SS (particle) 3 is called '"I'l'l'g and shows
that the word %'^^ is in the objective case.

In the expression =^5'2^^5=.*1•'J||ai•q•1l^c•( Give alms to the indigent, and helpless. The use of the
g'^ (particle) '^ puts '^g'^i'Sc.^ in the dative case. Here °) is called S^*i'*«\|'g «. e., the term expressing

In the expression •<l*>'f''l'5j-»}ts5;^ signifying is or exists in the East, tlie use of the gs (particle) ^ points
to (eastward) -^^'fl^ wuioh is put in the locative case, g is here called 5*i'''I'i^'|'g tho term
showing location.

In the expression '?'S'^'!I^'J| illuminates or brightens in or with light, the gs particle ^ signifies
in or with Here though tlie word '^S (light) is in the objective case the g^
. particle '^ is called
^''^'^'l'§ the term signifying state of that or "that itself".

In the expression °^*<'-^^'5i'^'S^'|3i I Ejaculate religions formulas at sun-rise «,«., when the sun rises,
the g'^ particle, ^ signifying "at " or "when" puts °^**'-^^'i in the locative case. Being indicative of time
it is also called Ssil=i*^-|| I

In tikis manner the g'^ (particles) 9,^,5,^,5,^ and ''i all go under the name of '^'gl and are used
for ^^'^^'g five purposes.*

The particle § is used after "I,'' and '\'?,il i.e., when a word closes with the letter "I or =i or \^% such
as »(^«,«^-5l

The g^ (particles) g and ^ are used after ^,'^,^ *',*',°i final letters in a word. ?1 5, ^=1'5, !5^V5, '<'^'^V5,

g is used after words ending in '^. such as ^'l^g, il«i^*J I The %S (particle) "n is used after "^

(express or understood) such as ^'=.1^'^ I

For the use of "i and «i one has not to loot to tho nature of the losing letter in a word. They
may be used after the ten l*'''^E''I letters such as ''I,S'i,,^,'',^,S'^,°',^ I
for example :

'qt^-^, i)=;-ai; ^'^'^•s^-'^, ^mi^oi; '^5«i'^, i!5^'0J; S^'^'%, S^'^''^; ^»''^, ^jjcoi;

fj-s-^, -fiV^; '^'^')\S^\S^-^-^-fim] l^ll-o),

^%^, §^-q, l^^-^il

The use of 5 after words ending in "1,1 and «\'?;''I is in conformity with the rule 5?^if5's>£;-N?vi^3i'q5'^Q) |

The use of ^ after words ending ^, ^, i^,

^, conform to the rule ?i«^-l3
5}qj-<(|jiq | ^ jg ^^g^^ ^fter words
ending in '^ simply for erephoy or easy pronunciation. Its use after words ending in ^ "^."^J is according
to the rule 5i]^-JjC'^*i-s^:^-=^-^'^q*^-q|i^-q^'^'^Ji-y5(^51^ I The use of § after words ending in 'nq and '^5,11;

of ^ afterword sending in =-,**; after words ending in "^ as in ^i^'^'S ; of Rafter words ending in
«^ and also of ^ after words ending in '^,^,'^ is according to the rule 5)c•J^q«^R1a^^q 1

*P m-%-%, ^ «i^*'«'Sig, ? fl''1^')'l'|, *^ ^'^Vlg, '< i5-iiiq5?-|-g I

"I or ^ are never used to express ^^S\ The remaiiiinjj five %S adilitine particles ^^^'^5, as ia

tlie following illustrations all express "i'Mi •^'^gil*)'?i'''?- fl^f'^*<'>i'>5 ! go towards East. ^i^'»II'^*«'

«i|^'|=\ 1 make imag on stone, ^q'5"?ici gone to excelleuoe i.e., become excellent.

«ilR.'qiN'^^'8'«^'i'^'i3'5i I by whom piety has been carried to the limit, g"!^^'^?! proceed to India.

Ekduplication of tkhminal lettkrs.

When the closing consonant of a monosyllabic word (noun, pronoun or adjective), is reduplicated and the

two letteis are separatud by a ^^I Ouiid the vowel o ( ) isplaied on the duplicate letter, the second

syllable so formed is c.dled ^"^"g I''? or r")^ '^"11* It does the function of the verb to be. For instance:

^^T^ lam, '^^|i=^'^ this is medieiue; ^''^^I'S'i that is road or way; '^*i'^ is the meaning or sense

^^^, lie is; nat'2'is good ;

^^'^ is bad ;
'5>3j'J^ is (rue.

Words closing wiih the vowels a, i, u, e and o being supposed to be isj^'ijai i.e., those that have gr^t

the letter '^ after thorn, expressed or understood, do not undergo the process of reduplication of the final *

letter. Tlie vowel o is only put on its head ;

for example : <^, i am ; ^^^ this is ;
g"^, who is ;
^'^, that is ;

f^^ he is ; ^'^ is precept or command, *)^'^ is the end or limit.

In dissyllabic words when the second syllable consists of a single letter with tlie vowel termination
(simple or '=^'^«Il*^^«i) the letter '< with the vowel o (^) is joined to it. The '^
also then acts as the verb to be.

For example, "^^V^is true ;

q^^ is happiness ; ^'^^'S'^ that ia worm ; '^^S^'^'?! lajS^ this is Raksinsa or

/I'fl/cs.fs? ;
^'^5'^ is long, QT- distant, 5=.'^'^ is short. If the sec( nd syllable, in a word of two syllables, be

formed of two or three letters the closing consonant in it is re luplicated as with mouosyllabio words.

^?)«*)-55ii^ that is animal; ^^'^^^ is significant, or is with meaning.

When words ending in '^,'^,'^ close with ^ according to i^ |=. ( old orthography) the gs, particle

T should usjd : as in ''^^^iS'?', '^§«>'S ?. il54ii=;,-^, This practice is now seldom followed.*

The reduplication of the closing letter in a verb indicates that it is in the indicative m^od present,

future or perfect tense. '^'^S'^ wishes, ^'J' 3 got or has got; '^%^'^, ^^'X has brcume; '^*^'=S

1 seek or wish.


There are three definite articles and three indefinite articles in the Tibetan language,

^ are definite articles signifying "the". signifying any,

^^ ^^ ?q|, ^q|, ^qj a, an, some, certain
(indeterminate) are indefinite articles. These are attached to words as ^'qg'S additive particles.

The letter 1] signifying "the" is used after words ending in %«\, '',«'; for instance ^I'll, the six;

'>1'S''n the spring; W^ the evening; '^^'i\ the two.

fn is used after ^,^ ''; as in fVP the autumn ; "^S^'P the summer; ^'^'P the country.

«l[ is used after =•,»<; and '^ (expressed or understood) or after any vowel ; as in l^-'") the grove;

"igs'l the three; ^'"1 the grassy plain or green; ''l^'i! the estate.

The indefiuite article ?q| is attached to words ending in "I. '^j "^ ; and also after the inherent ^
thus: 'S*!'^"^"! a war; -^'S"! a vessel; i^i'?"! anight. ^"I is different from "l?''! signifying "one".

^q] is used with words ending in c.,

^, *t, a.^ \ q. thus: ^^^°^'^ a house; <^\'^'^ an answer; "l*)'^"! a road;

<i«il^'^«il some, or any body ;

'^'%'^ a man ;
wf^'^il a castle ;
'q^'^'q a camp ; f]")'^'!! a crystal ;
Saj-^qj a price,
^^ is attached to words closing with '^ thus: ^fsj-^tii a "robe or garment; '^^^«i| a body.

'I in ^=-'^, =. in 'S'^, ^ in %<^'^, ^ in ^\ "in T", *i in 5« or ^'w ^^fsj-q-j) or '^W'"*' and 35 in «-a,

afq S or SV^ are '^''I'gs additive particles; they are not to be taken as Articles. The word ^s.'l is

a corrupt form of the Sanskrit siinha signifying "lion". « « is the Tibetan for Sanskrit MdlrikS.

^ in ^''^ is a particle of emphasis like "the"' in the expression 'he is the man for such a work'. It is equivalent
to Sanskrit hi.

sit or Sc'S^i] Noun,

Substantive nouns are generally monosyllabic words though they may be formed of one or
more letters ; for instance, P mouth, e tea, ? fish, '» father, f* mother, i cow, «) fox, ^ goat
"« a high mountain, ^ flesh, *< earth, etc., § water, 5 horse, * salt, <^ a hat or cap, ^ a horn
^ male, 9 son, ^ female, ^ man, 3 life, ^ curds, ^ kiss, ^ hill, ^ corpse, taste ; a> bell-metal, ^
tooth, »^il eve, ^^ sky, '^*< way, T?« discourse, e.^ speech, ^'i meaning, ^««i mind, ^«i heart, ^'^ tree or
wood ; a song.

Nouns formed with ^''igS i. "•, additive particles are as follows: i"!'^ hand, f\'^'^ foot, 'Ij'q skin
hide-boat; P^^'^J house; pf^cell; »<^"9 thumb; |'g child or young one; P'^snow; T^pillar, ^'^I'^i king,
"^N sun, ^"q^i drop, ^T" hog, a^^^ ox, 3c-9 donkey, ^^i^i minister. In the foregoing words the
particles 5, ". 5, q, 3 5 do' not act the part of an Article. They u.ake the full word of a monosyllabic

term. In composition, they are sometimes omitted. The expression f^'^^ is same as 5^ q ting
and g^'5 minister; f^c'siij is same as *|5.''J foot and o«T^ hand; '^'^^'^'^^ is same as "ST^'S white and
*('^» black.

When attached to some monosyllabio terms they' Hg^ sometimes make difference in the meaning.

The word ^ signifies "self" but joined with the particle 5 i.e., ^'3 signifies "nature." *\C means
"and" but S^'^ signifies "first." ^'f means "wool," Qaici signifies a Nepalese.

Adjective nouns are also formed with ^g^ attached to the adjective monosyllabic terms, such as
ustEj the good, c,^'i the wicked or the evil one. The expression iwc^ signifies good and bad and also

the good and the bad.

The use of ^"I^S additive particles with some nouns causes distinction in their slgnificatioa as to size, &o.

In the following examples the use of 3 and ^ is thus illustrated :

— ^ is man; *^'S a great man
(either in stature or position); ^'i a little man or dwarf. ^ fish, V^ great fish, y% little fish.

*] antelope, -*i'3 big antelope, -^ ^ small antelope; i. drum, £'3 large drum, i.'% drumlet; ^•\'^

arrow, *i'\'^'5 large and long arrow, *>^'% small arrow; ^ stone, ^i huge stone, boulder or rock,
s,'^ small boulder or pebble; f earthen vessel or pot, f^ large earthen pot or vessel, e'% small
earthen pot or vessel.

In the above examples, the substantives (sX*''^) such as ^, ?, *) etc., when unaccompanied by
^"1 3S express the ordinary meaning, man, fish, antelope etc*. When joined with ^ they convey a mag-
nifying sense; with % they become diminutives.

In the following examples the use of the '^"I'^S additive particles % and 5 with some nouns expresses
"the young one"t but nothing diminutive :
5'^=, camel, i'% young camel ; 5 horse or pony, f'i colt;

>] antelope, ^''^ young antelope, (']'% meaning small size antelope); i cow, ^'% calf; *i goat, ^4
kid; B dog, U'^ V^V, '^'^ sbeep, ^"l^ lamb.

Plural Numbeb 5ic'2si|


The ^"I gs (additive particles) *, ^*<«', S"}, ^ are used as plural terminations. They are attached

to nouns and pronouns in the singular number to express plurality. ^ is seldom attached to nouns.

Its use is confined to pronouns. S*") is attached to both nouns and pronouus. ^*<'' is seldom attached

to pronouns. Though there is no dual in the Tibetan language, yet the Sanskrit duals have been
generally rendered by the termination S"! in Tibetan. = is the personal pronoun signifying I
=-'^ signifies "we". It is not usual to express the meaning "we" by the word ^-'^^i*' I

^'=' means "he" ; f^"^'^ signifies "they". 5s or ^S means "you" or "thou"; SS'-*"! or S'^* signifies

*'you". ^ signifies "that"; ^'^ or ^''\''I signifies "those".

«>isman; S'^*)*' signifies "men". ^»)^-5^ animal; ^w-5^'3;»»5i animals. 5^, SJ, "f, **«'^'S'l,

«^E,«j^ ^qjN, ^'>\^ are but words signifying many, all, collection, etc. They are never used as plural

terminations in the manner the additive particles ^, ^*'*', S"] and ^l are used. The two words
^'Wi signify "all men". The expression ^'S^ '^^ "^3 comprising of four words signifies "many hills
and many valleys". If it was divided into two parts ^'"S^ and ^^-'^^i ^''^'3, would mean nine hills and
^^^5 nine valleys, ^'^st'^ signifying "hills" is only one word; the expression ^'^^t^iiS comprising of the
two words, ^ and ^*<*''«'\ signifies "all hills".

* «^E.-g-£;j?«cEi'^c.-i!iq-t;,i;-l £i^-£j-isj-ciqsJS(?Ji|Q|-i^|ij]I «s4-§E.-^«^s(3i-q5-»)c-I


l^'Sj^'j^i^i or ^^^ Gender.

!J»i^^ is masculine gender; ^'*>^ feminine gender, and »<^^'»)'> signifies the neuter or no gender.

5 signifies male, ^ female. Monosyllabic nouns in the masculine gender generally take the ^"I'^S

(additive particles),*' and 55 as feminine terminations; such as, 9 son or boy, ^'^ daughter or girl; dog,

B'35 bitch ;
^*) son, 5i^'35 daughter ; 'a fox, V^ vixen ; f1 tiger, fl't^ tigress ; % god, ^ S5 goddess ; J younger

brother, ^'^ younger sister; ^ goat,

^'^ she-goat ;
wp'^5 one moving in the sky, sp'^'*?'*' female angel.

The feminine of some monosyllabic nouns is expressed by difierent words : such as, *^ man, 9'\*''>

woman "^g yak-cow, yak-bull of Tibet ; it is incorrect to say * 'fll"i«i| «iti"iii (father-yak) i.e., yak that is
; "l""! ;

kept for breeding purpose. 5 is horse, f? stallion, ^'\ « mare ; it is incorrect to say 5'? or 5'5?; the use of "?

before or after 5 being redundant. 31=- signifies a bull, so it is incorret to say "5 g^ or SJ^*? I
"^ signifies cow ;

80 it is incorrect to say *i'35i To dissyllabic words i or 5 is added to signify the masculine; such as ^i^i^l^'^

(Sans. Yogi) and « or 35 indicates the feminine, such as ^v%K» [Yogim).

In dissyllabic nouns the ^igS (additive particles) ", 3 or i, 3 are used as masculine terminations. These

are changed into ** and 35 for feminine terminations, such as, l^*)' 5 host, "ll*) '35 hostess; fTi hog, '""I' 35 sow,

swine ;
^^-'i trader, ^c,*) female seller; '5^'^i monk, ^C^* nun ; «^£)cS ever-lord, S^^'^ lady ;
J'^i'S king, 5''i'3*

queen ; S^-" guard, g^'*) female guard ; «i53iq chief, «\9^ 35 chief's wife or lady-chief; "l^^'
5 lord, ''I<f'35 lady;

^S" a Tibetan (male), ^^^ a Tibetan woman ;

'^^'^'^ hero, «iw35 heroine; ^'s* signifying one above (in Sans.

Guru) is used in both the genders; so also 'f^'**, a superior; ^ and 35 are sometimes used as female terminations

and as such are attached to dissyllabic nouns, such as, SS^*''^^ he with (good) voice, Sgtsjj^sj she with good

voice (Svara-svati), '\^'^^ ordained monk (Sans.) B/ti!iSu),['^^'^^'f* ordained nun, (Bhiksuni) ;
g^'^^ elephant,

gc'SaiS5 she-elephaut, iJ^gf^'^S*' he, the victorious one ;

q?*)g;^'^'^«i*i she, the victorious one.

Nouns having no gender also terminate with the ^"I'gs additive particles ", 5, 3 , »i and 35, such as
9ai*)-cj^ ^^^\^nn^ ?q|!S-3, Sii^jg all signifying drop; ^^'^, door or gate; fll*i^q or'^w*.*', new or novel

^"l" or ^"1*, additional or remnant.

Some words with *< or 35, termination are used in both neuter and feminine genders : V-'^, inner also

the inner one i.e., wife. |*i the outer or the later one; '^«I»i, the lower or subodinate. f^'35 banquet, show.

Some adjective nouns ending in *< are used only in the feminine gender; such as, ^^.s, wife, ^Sn »i,

a beauty (Sans. Sundarl), handsome woman ; things inanimate (except lakes, rivers and mountains) are
put in the neuter gender. They terminate irregularly and also in ", 5 ; «, 35 ; such as ^^'f a bridge, ^''If rope
i*f» the accomplished (one ; ) i*i« printed (thiug) ;
'"I?*."*' oblation; |^'35 the (Indian) i?Mj9ee ;
|t« (Sans.
Bhiksd) alms, begging.

(^s)'*^! Case.

Sans, Vihhahti)

There are eight cases in the Tibetan language. They are arranged in the following order :

1. Nominative The person or thing is simply named.

2. Accusative or Objective Shows the object of a transitive verb.

3. Agontive or Instrumentive Indicates the agent (involving) the

notion of hy or tcith).

4. Dative or Necessitative Expresses necessity and is indicated

by to or for.

5. Ablative or Originative Expresses source or direction from or


6. Possessive or Genitive Rgq-q-^aj-qi Indicates possession or connection.

7. Locative Indicates place.

8. Yocative Indicates calling or addressing a


In the dcolension of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, and participles, several secondary ^"igs

(additive particles) are used. ' They are attached to monosyllabic words or to the ^""Igs, such as

« in Bisq'i or »i in g'«, in dissyllabic words or to the plural signs or postpositive particles like ^, ^^^i, S"! &c.

They are as follows :

%, |«^, % 5|^, g, %m, §, ^, 5, 5??, ^, Sjis, k, %, 5i,
g, and <=».

In the Nominative and Vocative cases, singular or plural, no secondary particles indicative of case, are


On the use of Secondaey Additive Paeticles.

5 and S^ (V'^f'^'l^'S'^ or S^) are attached to words ending in S, S or'JrSs'Sof you; '^'\'%^ by
father ; ^'^'l of body, ^'^'I's by time.

3| and ^^ (i|''^E.c.'^|5qg'3i or ^i??) are attached to words terminating in "I or S siioh as Ql'^ of sheep,
»^t.'3i of name. ^"I'^i^ by or with poison ; ^^'^l^ by or with conch-shell trumpet.

% and 1^ (3iiN»;'!|-5|?jg'| or %^) are attached to words ending in \ *, ^, or «!, such^as ^^"1 of meaning
^N-|*i by heaven; ^^'3^ by wealth ;
^'^'3 of country.

5 ('T«i'^'>'«.S'o's5*'^'^S'§) is to words termiaating in "i or i or iu S'%''\ (expreaeod or understood),

for example : "ITS in or to hand ;

ii'5 to the west or in the west. According to ^Vf 'i old orthography the

spelling of ^H^'S'S, •^S'^'5, 'I'^'^S'S etc., words ending in «^ called '>'^'n is correct. In modern Tibetan, these

are written as 3^'5, -ff^'^, '<'^«i'5, the '>'5'1 being understood, though not expressed after ^, ^ and °i,

^ ^c,=^-3i*<5,i3l5-s(9i^-§c^) is attached to words ending in t^,

•;, ^, «, *;, or "J, such as ^=•'5^ in or by name ;

5\^ in or to Tibet ; ^^'^ for or in price ;

=i*<'^ on the way ;
ip>^''^ in or to gold ; °i'^'^ into country or place.

^, °^. ^*', "^*', or «^ is attached to words ending in any vowel ;

*i5 of mother ; »^'^j0f man ;
^'^ of

water; ^'^ of male ;

si*) by fire ; f »J byjgod ; V^ of that.

% or § is attached to words ending in <* or In any vowel ^^ : or ^'5 in or to god ;

«)^ or ^'5 in or into

man; ^"^ or §'5 into water; ^f^ into fire ;

^'^ or §'5 to (the) south.

<? is the general sign of Accusative and Dative cases ; signifying to. It is applied to any Nominative

for forming those oases.

g is attached to words terminating in *< : «il"ra'g to (the) right : ''i^g in (the) work, f "I'lg in friendship.

3 signifying 0, (Sans. £!io); %'^S (Sans. Ahovata) &c., are words, (not particles) that are placed before

Nominatives for forming the Vocative case.

""j 5) ^ ^> 5 ^^^ 3 signifying to, on, upon, into, unto, with regard or respect to, for, &o., are attached

to the Nominative for forming the Accusative and Dative cases. The use of the above particles after the

Nominative, according to its final letter, also indicate motion or progression to, into, or change, turn into

promotion, &c.

§^, ^^, 3^, ^''j °^'') or *» signifying by, with, is attached to the Nominative for forming the Agentive

or Instrumentive case.

% % % ^> or "i signifying of, pertaining, relating, belonging to, and also the possessive sign 'i ia

attached to the Nominative for forming the Genitive or Possessive case.

^5» or 1'' signifying of, out of, from, is attached to the Nominative for forming the Ablative case.

^ or °i signifying rest in, at, on, a place, also motion to, or towards a place, ia attached to tha

Nominative for forming the Locative case.


Example of declension according to Tibetan methods.

Singular. Dual or Plural.* Plural.

Nominative Ne-^^jsi Buddha, «ie.?i|?i-t^q) Buddhas, *)£,»] -j^j-^jj*]


Accusative .
«e.«j'soi- (q|^),

Depend on Buddha. Depend on (both the) Buddhas. Depend on Buddhas.

Agentive >8t«i-g«|"s- (il5'^«i) I

By Buddha said. By (both the) Buddhas said. By Buddhas said.

Dative (^»t«^"«^§^^) ^•«J=-»''|''- (nii*)) I

(Attained) to Buddha (hood) for (the (Propitiated) Buddhas for... (Propitiated both the) Buddhas
good of animate beings). for ...

Ablative «jt5ij»»-sw- ($5i)|

From Buddhas (come From (both the) Buddhas come ... From Buddhas come ...

the scriptures).

Genitive 5)ii«)|*J-S- (ie>s)| «]c*)-j*)'t^«lSC i%^'j\ «ICN'«N'^»J*I'§' (X«I)|

Doctrine of Buddha or Doctrine of (both the) Buddhas or Doctrine of Buddhas or

Buddha's doctrine. Buddhas' doctrine.

Locative ^i^^^'f^g' (^*i)| *(£.?)• gN 'till' g' {^^^)] ^Jc^j-gN'^w^jg" •I«i)|

Doctrine in Buddha. Doctrine in (both the) Buddhas. Doctrine in Buddhas.

Vocative* g-«ic.*)-|!s|

0, Buddha. 0, (both the) Buddhas. 0, Buddhas.

* In this case, as in the Nominative, no case-sign is attached. The use of Vocative terms ^•\'J'^f like 3
3'? signifying 0, Oh ! (Sans. B/io or Aho) generally at the beginning of an expression, differentiates the

Vocative case from the Nominative, but in general address such terms are often omitted.

^qjsj^jqRjj'^ai-^ii^^^-cj'^^cigi^-qil * The secondary ^"^^'^ particle «i is understood after »(e-«^'5*)|


Examples of Declension.

Nouns terminating in 1 and ^ may be declined as follows :


Words ending ia S, ^ or « may be declined as follows :

Singular. Dual or Plural. Plural.

1. Now. gc.s)'^ the woman, 5'S'*''S'S'n (both)* women, gS'^'S'^*"' the women.
2. Accus. 9S'**S''^ woman,
to the SS'^^S'l "^ to (both) women, gc;,x)«^j|»j54-oi to the women.
3. Agent. 5S ^'S'S*' by the woman, 9S *'"> S"! ^^ by (both) women, SS*''\''i***^'S*' by the women,
4. Dat. 5';(-5)'\-q to or for the woman,
9S**SS''l'^ to or for (both) women, g';,*)^'^^?^^) to or for the women.
g^s)t^-^*)*i oi^ from the women.
5. Ablat. gi^jlt^ from the woman,
9S ^t^S"! '''^ from (both) women,
6. Genit. Q^'^'S'^ of the woman, 9S'*>S'S'T'loE (both) women, 5'^*''^^'<^ 3 of the women.
7. Loc. SS'*''^'^ in the woman, a'>*^S'^T5 in (both) women, 9'^»>•^^*'*l'g in the women.
8, Voc. 9'^*l'^ or ffl'SS*''i 0, woman 3S»JS'\'1 or ^9'^'»>'^''^'^ 0, (both)] 9^»)\^«*i or S3S'»>«^'^w 0, women!
to both the fathers, "iq'^*)"!! the fathers.
1. Nora, "iq the father, "'q'S'^
2. Acou^. "'=i'«l to father, uiqc^c|ai l,oth fathers, mqj^jjNoi to fathers.
by both u(q-^»)*j|?^ by
3. Ageut. "JO 1*1 by father, "15 ^=11 Sj^ father.s fathers.
4.- "fq "I to or for father,
ujqi^qj i;j
to or for b'jth fathers, uiq-^54»)q to or for fathers.
5. Ablat. "iq-'Ji^J from father, u(q t^o] Qj^q from both the fathers, from fathers.
u(q-^qj-5| of botli the fathers, ujq-SiSJ^^I of fathers.
6. "iq % of father,
7. LoQ, "iqg in father, ""I'SiI 5 in both the fathers, u)qji»)*j g in fathers.
Voo. uiq or gujq Q, father! "iq''^il or 3"'='''\1 0, both the fathers "iq-^w«^ or 3 "J^'^***! 0, fathers!


1. Nnm. ^*J the time, ^'N-e^"! both the times, ^'^^w?' the times.
2. Aoous. ^^J''^! to or at time, ^S'l'^^to or at both times, ^isj-iiW^t'Ji at or to times.
3. Agent. =^*j'5^ by time, ^^^-^ij^lN by both times, ^?)-^*i*j 3?t by times.
^N'ui =^i^j;j£i)Qj to or for both times, to or for times.
4. Dat. to or for time, ^«j 1,54*) 01

5. Ablat. ^«j'^5q from time, ^«i£^il^5^ from both the times, ^«i-Si»(fj-3i«^ from times.
^^j't^'q S] of both ^si-^sj^
6. Genit. ^*J-| of time, times, I of times.
7. Loc. ^*)»j at the time, ^^t'^tilg at both the times. =i*j-^»)«)g at the times.

1. Nom. fl"!^ command, 51l'^'^«^ both the commands, qi^ei-^jj^ commands.

2, Acuus. ^''I'^i'i to oo'iiraand, qny^'t^Jii'Qi to bo' li the commands, fl'H^'^^*)''). to ccnmands.

3. Agent. q-r]*! or q''l^a^*) by the command, q'»i'^t^5i7i«q by both the commands, q'']=^^s<*i'^*t by the

4. Dat. q''l'=('«i to or for the commands ^'^^'S"!'"' for both the commands, l''l'^'^«»''0J for the commands.

Ablat. qi)=^aiN from the commands, qiji^t^ijq^^ from both the commands, q-n^-^si^^m^ from tha
Genit. Q'n^ of the commad, niiv^ifSi of both the commands, q^i'^'^*)^'! of the commands.
Ljc. ^'']'^'h in the command, "'H^^'nIS in both the commands, qT^'^w^jg ia the commands.

1. Nom. •5 the year, '^'S'^ both the years,

^'$^fi^ years.

2. Aoous. 3j'oi to the year, f^'q^'isi to both the years, 5 i.m-ai to the years.
Agent. 3j^ or 3i'5)*( by or with the year, Bi!^a|-5i«j by both the years, tS'^»i*) gsq by or with the years.
4. Dat. ^'^ to or for the year, iS'^^lot to both the years. c5'^w)"q to the years.
5. Ablat. JS'isi^ or ^'^^ from the year, gi-t^qfai^^ or aie^ija;*! from both the years, Jfi'^w^^'m^^ or J3'^««»'ai«»

from the years.

Gonit. •55 of the year, ' ^'ST^ of both the years, tS'^jR<§ of the years.
Loc. ^§ in the year^- 'S''\ii'5 in both the years, ai'^*J^g in the years.

All words ending in "^ or any of the five vowels may be declined in manner of i'^^ and 5.

* The woid " both " may or may not be used to signify the " dual ".

Sriq or Sc'^j'iq'^q] Pkonoun.

The Personal Pp.onouns.

Tlie first person singular ^ signifying I is in general use, in Central Tibet. In Tsang, =I'^'^
is used in the plane of ^. In book language and correspondence, the use of 'i^"] is more general
than that of =-. J5s signifies thou, and p^ he.


Demonstrative Pronouns.

They are "^^ signifying " this " and ^, " that" i^^ with the ^igs ailitive particle «, i.e., "^^'i signifies

" of this place," "^^'^t. or '^^''^"> signifies " this itself." '<\'^ or '^^ 'fj also sigaify " this " with emphasis

i.e. signifying this (very).

^% ^'^, ^'li or ^-^ signifies that (very); %M, ^'J^^ or ^'^^i'^S signifi.js "that itself."

Relative Pronouns.

"1=. signifies which or what, fj signifies who, which, or what. «^

"1^, what man, 9'^»>'^9 wliat or which

woman ; SV^'S'"!'^ which woman. ^ or ^ signifies what. Tiiey are usei alone or with "l^, sach as "^^"^ that

which, ti'^'H signifying whoever.

Intebrogative Pronouns.

These are : 55, who ? "]=- which ? ? what ? To these the undeterminate particle ^"J is attached

to signify whoever, whichever or whatever, such as ^'^"1, "I^ ^"I or ^'^''ll

Heciprocal Peokouns
The reciprocals are ^=-, i^l, *-=-°^S, '^ST'^'S signifying self, one's self.

Declension of the Personal Pronouns.


1. I,

to me,

by me,

to me or from me
from me,
of me or mine
in me.

The nominative plural of the first person is seldom formed by attaching to it the plural particles ^^

and ^**^. In the second and third persons they are often used. S"! is seldom attached to the second

person plural.

honorific terms. In Tibet, a person either in conversation or writing, never applies a respectful term
to himself. The use of these terms, however, indicates a degree of civility or politeness in the

speaker, in consequence of which, they are preferred to =, =-*'^ or '^'^'^ which are of common use.

The first person plural is sometimes expressed by 'fifo* or %'i'^\


Declension of the Demonsteative Pbonoums.


I'^'^'l'^ or |'g^'9^'^^'55=^ Adjective.

(Sane. Vijesana).

Adjectives resemble nouns in their formation. It is from their meaning or context that they can be
distinguished from each other. The Adjectives, generally follow singular nouns and precede the verbs in

an expression or sentence : *l'=-^ or «)'t^£j bad man ; here taj, or M" is an Adjective qualifying the noun »>

man. sf'Q^'^' or sp=)3=.'3 (Sans. Sttmati) good heart ; here sf is heart, '^^ or iac,Hj signifies good. The
particles =< and 5 in the words ^^'J and tucQ are not Articles. The sentence " snow is white" will be

rendered in Tibetan: P'i'S''I*.S'")^ (snow white is). In some words which are, mostly, translations of

Sanskrit terms. Adjectives precede nouns, for instance :

S^l^f"!*' (Cukla pak$a) the white lunation i.e., the

period after the new-moon to the full-moon; ^iT^"!'' {Krisna Paksa) the dark lunation i.e., the period after

the full-moon to the new-moon ; Si*'''' dry-land ; "l^s^'ps. holy or pure house or sanctuary; "I^^'P^, prison-

house ; when an Adjective is so placed it indicates relation rather than the qualification of the substantive it

precedes: "l^^T^ is same as «i|?^cj5f!cci the house of prisoners or of imprisonment ; "l^tpt is same as

«i]ic'£i5-pc'q the house of purity; 5|^«'«' is same as Sfsf'J^w the land of dryness; ^1'^''1*^ is same as ^''i'55-|'ii*i

the side or period of darkness ; S''!*''^''!*' is same as «;''pcj5fii?i the side or period of light.

Some Adjectives, though derived from adjective roots are also used as substantives; fi" former or prior

may mean the former or the prior ; I" latter, posterior, outer ; for example :
'^|isi|«;,g»j'^*j«4 the former

commentators ; '^5'»ii'^'^'*<'^*'*' the later commentators ; here g'" and |*< are Adjectives qualifying ''J^ilS

commentators, g'*''^*!'^ and ^'*''^*'^ would mean the former and the later ones. ^=-'*< inner or interior;

the inner one; '^"l'" inferior, subordinate ; the inferior or subordinate; ^^'^ or g'»< upper or superior, senior

or junior, the senior or the junior.

When Adjectives are placed before substantives they are invariable in both singular and pluarl numbers.

Though an Adjective follows.the noun (in the singular number) which it qualifies, yet in the plural it precedes

the plural sign. ») is singular, *^'^*i«^,

'^''i"! or *>» is plural. ^'^^^-'S signifies good man, sJ'qscq-^stsi or

»t-Qsfci"«;jiI or 5)'«i»c"q'" signifies good men.

»^£)3fHi and
In declining the espressions s)'ei3=,'q'^»)*i the case-signs such as °-, |, %^, %, % §«) &c., are

attached to the Adjectives in the case of singular nouns and to the plural signs only in the case of plural

nouns : »>'C3=.'Ei5 of good man, 5)£!3cq'^»i?i| of good men ; also »)ii3c,i^ij]-5| or 5)qaE,q-^5 of good men.

When numerals are used to qualify nouns, |they follow them in both singular and plural numbers ;

S'fljg*!, (man three) three men ;

*^ ^«'l'''!fs« (men three) three men, this latter being more correct.

There are some adjective ^"I'^'S, (additive particles) such as «^ and |f^ sigaifying possessed of, full of.

These resemble, in their use, the Eaglish particles or signs suoh as ed, ful, eom, ous, //, which are attached
to monosyllabic nouns : "l^'*'*^ [Sgnis. Himavata) Buowivd or snowy; 'S'^^'^^ powerful ;
^^'^^ wealthy; ^^'«^
precious ;
^'g;^ * possessing god.

The words is's, *i=.'^, '5=^ siguifying with, possessing or having are also placed after substantives to

qualify them in the manner of «^ and ?J^, suoh as: "l^^i'qs'^ (Sans. Sdkela) with habitations; ^^Nstc^ same as
^^'g;^, possessing riches ; W'^S (Sans. Qrdvasti) having listners. f

and "*«( signifying less, or without, are Adjectives of negatiou, for example: ^^g^ meaningless, g'^g''

defectless ; »<9=^"i»i limitless or boundless; l^'C"'*! (Sans. Vmana) immeasurable, (a name for the sky).

q5j«ui«) inconceivable. +

^^ and *)'^ signifying less, not or not having,!are formed of the Adverbs of n-^gation »i anl *> with the

verbs °S^ and "^S :

*i'"^^ is *)^; *^'^'^ is »>S- They are used as Adjectives and correspond in their use to

dis, il, im, ill, ir, and un, with the difference that they are affixed to nouns instead of being prefixed to them
as in Eaglish: M'**^ unmeaning or without meaning ; ^^'*'S is the opposite of ^T^S (meaningful) and
signifies meaningless ; '^^'*''^ immortal or deathless; '^1^'*>'S unchangeable or changeless; ^^''^^ unfit or

unbecoming; C^*)^ immodest or characterless.

qas'n Comparison.

The ^"igs (additive particles) "^^i, "^^ or "^^ signifying t/tan or more;'than is put after the name of the

person or pronoun or thing to which comparlsou is made: 'i^iT'^^'S'^'^ thou art greater than myself
c-q^ifsJcqac. he is better than I ;
"^^iJi*!'^*!? that is higher than this.

The word ^^ attached to an Adjective expresses the superlative degree. It is equivalent to (Sins, tama)

signifying the superlative degree: 1^=^^ good, i^l^'Jf^ best; ""l9 fine, ""l'^^ finest; ^^ small, ^'^'^^


* A name of the City of Lhasa.

t Name of a City in Kocala, Ancient India, where the Buddha had resided for twentythree years and
preached his dootrine to an immense number of listners (Ordvaka).

+ q^«-ui?5«^^^q (Sans. Acintya Vthdta) name of the oldest Buddhist Monastery in Tibet.

Numeral Adjectives.

Tho cardinal numbers are as follows :


seventy three, ''^^S'"^ seventy four, "^^'S'e! Seventy five,

73 -0=^
74 1/M 75

seventy six, '^^YS'^'i^ seventy seven, ^'^^'§"3^ seveuty eight,

76 •^•y
77 ^S 78

seventy nine, i^VS or iJS'i'^*^ 'J eighty, '3J5\5'««I^''I eighty one,

ro 80 sy 81

eighty two, "^^S'"!-}*^ eighty threa, p|S'§'^^ eighty four,

82 \\ 83 s'^ . 84

eighty five, ^JS'SI'H eighty six, ''5V§'^^^ eighty s^ven,

85 *.-^ 86 \^ 87

eighty eighty, "SVS'SS eighty nine, '^5''§ or '^3«i5i»<'i ninety,

88 srt. 89 ^c 90

ninety one, ^S''?'!^*' ninety two ^'3'''§''!^i*< ninety three

91 ^^ 9^ ^? 93

ninety four ninety five, '\5'''§'I''I ninety six,

94 95 n-' 96

ninety seven, 'S3'''5'^5'^ ninety eighty. '\'3'='5''>'3 ninety nine,

97 n\ 98 f'f* 99

"3 or ci^'^*^'') one hundred.

yoo 100

After |''I'§'^*<'i one has to count as §'^ or simply ^"HS"!, ^'^^, ^"[V*, ^'=i^ and so on to-
I'H 'H^'l

express 61, 62, 63, 64, &c.

After q^l'S'^N'^J one usually counts as ''^'iS'^^'n^'^, or simply ^'i'lsi, '^VI^^, ^^'^5'<, ^^''^

and 60 on to express 71, 72, 73, 74, &o.

After njS'S'^*^''' it is usual to count as ''3V§'3'''|5'n or simply %''^'^, S'^"^"^ S'"!^**, S'''^ and so on
to express 81, S2, 83, 84, &c.

After ^5'fl§'«»<') one has to count as '^5"«i§'^''n'^'1, ^^'^'S'^'H'^^ or simply ^11?% ^''^^, ^^'^%'» and so

on to express 91, 92, 93 and bq on.


In counting 101 5 = ^, lOj Po^, 103 5o?, and so on, it is usual to say ie., «i§^e.'ii?«1 one
hundred and one, one hundred and two, one hundred and three, and so on. To express one hundred,
two hundred, three hundred, and so on, it is usual to say ij'^wq or "^f'^T"!?"!, "f^*'"! cr ij^l"!^*!, I^J'^ig or

''S'^I'^I^*' and so on.

fi; or ^^-^^ i,s 1000 5ooo ; iu counting 1001 Po->?, 1 02 ?oo^, 1003 i»oo?, and so on, one sliould say
|i;i^!^q|^j,|, |i;£;,fflf^^_ ^:;-.;,tiJ)SJ*J and 60 On.

'^^^'^ or Ji] ^'^ or ^C£i[^q] or f'i-gT'^^'n signifies one thoumnd Pooo, 0* ten thousand ^=,<.oo, «3«
| or
or Rgsi'" is one hundred thousand ?ooooo. It is, however, n'ifc uausaal to count as 0^1 and S5*i'g=^

^0^00« and ^06 OOO.

'^'"', a million ; 31, ten millions; '^'^l^ a hundred millions; ^'^''^S*), a thousand millions.

Cardinal Figures in Serial Oudkk.


The words "l^l, "f^*' and "m^ when used as qualifying adjectives of nouns, of numerals or of any
high number like «2- f'^i H or «^3*< and as such are placed before them, lose the g^ "I"! prefix letter "1. The
« of the word "1^1 is also changed into *.

Thus it is usual to write ^"I'iS to signify binglo line-mark or stop (I) ; '^'^''IS double stops (|l) ; ^"l'^^

{^oo),'^N£Jj (^oo), J}»<£ig (?oo), ?ii'«i^ once or one time ;'^*^''2i^ twice or two times; iig»<'«i^ thrice or three

times; Sfljf:; (1000), '^^t'^ (2000), ^'»-^'^ (3000), also »i*<-§ (30), g«§-?i-iis<ii (31), ^i^f-J-li'ii^ (32) »i« «« A,3

No change, however, takes place in them when they follow any noun or which they may qualify, thus

'52i''q^1 means 100 ; =if ''f^'^, 200 ; Qf'iigs^ 300 ;

f'^-'^^il 1000 ;
^^^)^ 2000 ;}»< 3000. When the word^t

signifying with is introduced between two numbers it becomes equivalent to plus : ''IS''1'^e.'''1o1] is equivalent

to 1 + 1 and expresses the sum of two; 'l?T^=''il'^^=l + 2=3, ti|«i=.''1?'q= 100 + 1 = 101, f'i'^=.'a5 1100,.

l-^'^ng 10,100.

Numeral adjectives are formed by attaching to such words the "^"{'^S (additive particles) «, Q, «:

il?<i]ti signifies single or singly, "I'^Nci, both or the two ; "I^^'S the three, Q!^'q^'*< signifies (the book of)

three chapters ; ^i^'S'^J signifies (the book of) thirty verses or Oloka or simply " of thirty."

'JJ'^'f'^''' (Asia snhnsrika) the book of eight thousand verses. The word f=- whea used as a numeral
signifies one thousand, hut its ordiuary meaning, whether it is used with or without 'i is empty or void, hence

fc'i when used alone does not siguify one thousaudeth. The word ordinarily signifies chair, and
as a numeral means ten thousand. The word g"i one in the chair, i.e., chairman or president is

therefore, seldom used as an Ordinal.

3'q Vekb,

Sans. Kriyd.

A Tibetan verb is always a dissyllable word consisting of a monosyllabic veibal root and an additive

particle i or ^. lu its simple form which is invariably participle present, it is a verbal noun. Take for

instance, the words, S'=i, ^igq; signifying doing; ^S^, ^^S'^ action or acting ; "^W a, R^S'^''^ going. In these

S) ^% ^\ "^^ or '^M'^ are verbal roots or root-verbs. In verbs the roots are only affected by the
addition of the T^''!''! i"!, \ =1, '», ^) and the "'=.'i|''I [S, '^) letters in the formation of certain tenses and moods.

A verbal root with the auxiliary 3 attached to it is generally put in the infinitive mool. The infinitive present

conveys the idea of futurity, hence 3 is attached also to the verbal roots, in the future tense.

gq or =i§ q hon. as a verbal noun signifies action, deed ; as a verb (participle present) signifies

doing. 3=1^, iig-q^ conveys the meaning " to do."


la the expression Ist^g^-Slc. (the) tree to cut (or to be cat) '55'^'3 is in the infinitive prcsant. It is called

«i*i'Sg the term for work, because cutting is the work conveyed by is'^'SI

Tibetan verbs are generally expressed in three tenses: the present tense called S''^''^, past or preterite

called i^Si^'y and future called W'^s.q. Tibetan Grammarians inulule tlie completive or perfect tense in the

past tense. There is mention of two moods in Tibetan grammars : the indicative and the hortative or imperative.
In the sentence ^=.•*^p^|^1I^V''^S''^^''5'^'''^'3^I ^'^P^ is the agent CS"!), '^'^''^'S and 'isv^'S'' are
verbs. ''I5'>'^^'S will cut, (or must or should out), is iu the future tense. ^is'S'y^ g,») signifying done cutting or

is out, is in the preterite or past tense.

In the sentence ^=.*)p3i§^'f^*!-^2i-ill?';,-c( (by carpenter with axe tree (is) cut, ^=.'»<p^ carpenter is the
principal agent or doer (l\y'3'''i?'5] ; f^ axe ia the minor or secondary agent or doer (IV'^'*'^") ; both
%5ifi3i and f^ are agents. They are, therefore, put in the ^gentive case by the use of the secondary particle
or case-signs 3^ af^er %'^p3i and ^sj after f^ According
I to Tibetan Grammarians ^^tree which is acted upon
by both (the) carpenter and (the) axe is the objeot called l^'i I
'^t^^ is the verb (in the indicative present)

signifying cut. %'*'P^|*''?'^^'%'n'i?=,'i sbouU be translate 1 iu English thus : {the) carpenter onts tree

{or wood) with [an) axe.

In the passage »)'T3|*)'ill''l*)''2C^'q eye with body to seeing. Here *t«n is l^'''^'''''''' the secondary agent,

(the person seeing being the principal agent ^''^) |^ sign of the Instrumental case, "ll"!'^ is the ohject

(11^^) ;
(^j is the sign of the Acousative case ;
^"^ seeing or to sea is the verb. 2ti]?[*;ii|ii^i2C|i'q should be
translated as seeing body tcith {the) eyea. In the above two passages "I^^'^ and ^''5 being verbs are called
°i^"|g terms of action or work, i.e. cutting and seeing, i.e. =i|'' action indicated by them.
The verb (,3'=') when the action (''3'=i or "i^) is being done (IS'^'^I''') is put in the present tense (=^f 'i) ;

when the action has been done (§^ '^V) it is in the preterite or past tense C^S^'i) ; when the action, it is

inderstood, will be done l'^'^§'^ it is in the future tense (*^'^=-=ij.

The roots of the verbs like "^5 in '^W =>, l=^ in lv^, V\ iu gT^J, ^ in f '=1 &c , are always in the Indicative


When in the root-verb the terminating letter is reduplicated and the vowel o is put on the duplicate
letter, the verb so formed is also put in the Indicative present, for example : |=^'^ (he) does, '^%^ (he) goes,

"^^T^ (he) is or sits, ^V^ (there) is, 5)3^-1^ (it) is, g^ (he) speaks. The verb to be when expressed in
the above manner i.e., as =i,5i^'5|£) (reduplication of the final latter in a noun, pronoun, adjective or verb, and
the vowel being fixed on the duplicate letter), is always p'lt in the Indicative mood, present tense: *)'?

(he) is man, '^^gT^ this is sheep, ='5;

I am, ^i^'H'^f I am, d^i; cTig good, =-*i'^ is bad. ^^"^ it is, &e. The
auxiliary words §=^ or §^'i, i^^ or 'C^^^, '^\'^ or «I5T'J, §=- and %% ^^, %^, '^^ or ^^ may be also attached to the

root verb in the Indicative present, for example: ls in '^?§^ or in '^5'''^§'^ signifying moves or does

moving; ^S^M"^ does, S\S\'^^% l=^§^^=^, is doiug; af q'^sj-q

goes^ i<%-'i\^
or "^^'^^ is going or moving.

*) is generally afBxed to the veibal root in the Indicative, present terse for forming the preterite or past

tense. The word il»i=- signifying say or tell is in the Indicative present ; "l^j^w is in the preterite or past tense.

In some verbal roots the prefix i^

is dropt ia the past tenso : '^g=-, pres. §=., pret. °'%\ pres, 5=^, pret, "^3^,

pres. 1^ pret.

The perfect tense is formed by adding tlie auxiliaries -^,', §^, "5^, *'^, §=, '^%''\, ^=- to the verbal

roots in the preterite ; '^Xs spdke is ju't-L ^"Ks'"^^ has spoken is in the perf. FS speak, is in the 2)res. It would be
incorrect to write Is'^^ I The verbal roat "^fl meaning deprive or snatch away is in the^res.; ^"1*1 pret.

^fll^q-l^ has snatched away, perf. It is incorrect to write "g"!' -^.

In the formation of the preterite and perfect tenses, in some verbs, the g^'^11 (prefix letter) ^ is put

at the beginning of the root and in most cases tlie t*'''*^''! letter *) is affixed at the end : ^"^ngq*) gained or
acquired wealth ;
l^^ogq*)!^')' has acquired wealth or ^i,ti|q^£)^g,?^c) wealth has been acquired.

^•q^«*? meditated on god ;

^nl;'*^*)'!^,') or £i^«*)g*jci has meditated on god ;
^^Isjsjiqgt*! preserved

character; "Js^ocq^t^^ strove or exerted at heart ;

S^^dgtl^J preached or proclaimed religion ; 5^«i£i?»< subdued
the devil, q^\qt»)'SJiq has subdued the devil ; X*jqf^ expounded religion, S^jqf^q^ g«) has explained religion.

Verbal roots that are bas-ed on the ten s^^^'il^ letters P, "1, *, E, s, S, ", ^, *, ^ are preceded by tho I'^'^EI

ju>v^'«: '^ in tlie Indicative present, for example: ''g^'i carrying; "•^^''J constructing or directing; ^^'^

telling or explaining; RI^Ii putting; "^S^-'^i drinking; '^^c.q spreading; '(^"l'^ depriving or taking

away by force; '^9'Ji'fl giving or offering; "^S'si'y sewing; '^^^'^ holding. The changes that occur in

such verbal roots in tlie formation of the several tenses and moods are illustrated in the following ten

groups of examples.

No. I.

Indicative mood.

No. IV.
Tndicativ mood.

Verb <aoti7e, parfioiple. rrat. Pret. Fut. Jmperal. JToyfattre.

^E'Ji'q weighing, se^ or '^e''"',^''' =i«^ I'^i'" '^^''i «^S'21'^'J|

'^^^'i destroying, f^t^] or "^^iqi^i 1^1 'q^l or '^^^T'^S*' M ^I'^l

"^^q'l sucking, i^tq or'^§i'''^'i'i '^'^'^^ l"^'^'^^ ^'J ^"'^i)

nl^i-q (leposing, n^ajor '^^'^I'S^^'i as'^ i|^'5j or '^^''l''^5'> a"^ SiJC^m

''I'^l digesting, «| or '^I'^i^'^V'J «§" ^9 or-^l-^g*; "^^n "^i^N'Siii

«*lil'y putting, '*6ilnr'^|i|')^^^'l ^i^T^J '^11 or "^ll'^l^ {"I ^^l «'l

•^l^-tJ taming, ^^E^ or''|^=i^«i''» «i5^ '^l^or'*|^§^ «^ ^^i'^i'H

<^I'«) milching, i^I nr "^I l^i^i ti5^N ql^ al^ t^¥'n-5]ii

i^Il'^ placing, Al^ or '^^'il"^^'i ^^"1 "l^^l i^l ^"I'S"!

iifi^^'cj conquering, '=^Sjj?i or'^S«^''5'^^''> ^f** i|^^or '^^*i*<''^§^ <^« Xjj'^i)

The preterite of nf *)«» is q?*) subdued. This word, in a eabatautive form, i-s found in the name
Qlfw^^jR'^?!' the accepted Tibetan equivalent of the Sanskrit word Bharjavan. The preterite of '^ is o^w

milohed. This word in an adjective iorm i.e., q^*i'*f is commonly applied to cows or yaks such as q'q^»i«
miloh-oow or i^gi^^'*), milch- j/ (/A.
No. V.
«.9!ilN'cj grinding or weaving, ".^^im or '^^i!*i''5^^i q?'!]*) Qjij or "^^"J^'^l^ ^"1 T^l^^'i

i^^T 'J falling or drops, i^§q or '^^T'l'^^i or '^^il^''^§^ 5i| Snj

^^T'^ q^i ^"jj

di-inklug, ''5'=- or "^St^'i'^^i «i5=-«i "^i^- or '*5'^''^§'; '^3=- '^a^^'^'l


*§='''' cutting in pieces, ^^q or '^S^'q^'i'i n^qv ii^q <*aq £!|q-?fl)

R'Siiq diffusing or scattering, <<%^ or "^^'^-q^sj-q 55=; nj^^ q?^ r?^-^«I

In the above examples the ^e:"]^ letter ^ of the Indicative present changes into 5 in the preterite and
future, the'^ [jrcjlx being changed into '^ and "] respectively.

No. VI.
'^^s.'q spreading, "^^"^ or 'i^c^-q'^aiq ti^c. t^^ or '^^=.-i|^ S:;

'^^''J''' subduing, '^i,"! or '^=j,'!i'q^ai'q 15'^ '^\'^

<i^i]N'q lifting up, '^^''1*) or tyj-^ ij^^q


q?jq*i-y tlirowing, 'i^'^^ or "^^iq^'q^^'cj q^q 1)"^^

•i'^i'^l^-q binding, "^X^iJ^q or i^X^qi^^-q'^ajcj q^qj*] if^n] ?a)?^ ?'tl*)'-^ij

•^^aj-q uttering, <^^^ or '^^^i''^^'' ^"^^ '^\^ ^* ?'«i^'^

In the above examples the ^^'-^^ letter S changes into 5 oaly in the preterite. It is retained in tha

future. The prefix << is changed into '^ in the future.

In the Imperative and Hortative, the "> of the Indicative present changes into '.


No. X.
I'articipial form.

Certain root- verbs are used both in oonTersation and writing to express a degree of politeness in address
to inferiors, equals, or superiors. Being the various forms of the verb to be i.e., ^^ and ^'\ ;
generally signify am, art, is, are; there is, tliore are &c., and are as follows :

a<~^m ^
ms^n^m^ s^i^j oin]*!, at^a. ««^, }^^, R^m, •!\^'n, ^'^, q^^'ti | when used with the negatives * and *> they

stand thus: «)«i' (for «'")^), »''\ (for sJi^S) »>''^^% *'''='91«^, *<'*<^*',
*'''^'l*^ , »)»i=.s *''l'^'^- '^'^'*^^,

These root-verbs have no variation in inflection in the several tenses, and also in respect of person and
They are invariable in tlio Indicative present, after every person of both numbers.

The use of these root-verbe is illustrated as follows :

g-fcSsi g-Si^ Lama is great ;

^^*v'"^^'^ it is so, it is like that; g'^'^"! who is there? S"^^"! what is

there ? ^'^*»''^^'^ how much is there; »<=.' 3' s.^"! there are many; gqHjqic-ai £:i|«ii*i where is the

king; "Jg^'"! ''S^^'^ (ho) is in the palace ;

'^^^s."g«E."3 stSi herein there are many images.

iig'iwwt?!'^ there are about one hundred; e,'^'jui'^''l*i'«J«il5^ ?i I am of the royal race; J^^''^'^'\'

*t'»(=-'^ there is no disease in him; ".^'g^'Jiii's (it is) like this ;

^icN-jN-ni-ajai^^'siS'JI*)^^-?, Buddha
has the supreme attributes; ^^5'''l'^'^ what is there ; ''S'^ it is true, it is so; ^'^^'35^, it is

even so ; q^'^iSi^gMqiSi l do beg or entreat ; SC'q^i^i?? there is not ; g»<*)'ffl''I'^^'^^ the Lama is

reading; | '^'^I'^'g'^^^'' when your lionour is speaking.

The conjugation of Tibetan verbs is simply a participial variation.

All the tenses of the verbal roots cr of verbs, in general, may be formed and conjugated by the aid

of the root-verbs "5 3^ and '^'^ or their equivalents : "^^il, ^Q"!^, »j^n, oi-jj*?, s^'^^'t, sj«;, 13=;, r^ui, uiaj^^ ^c.^ i^^'i;

as also by that of the two auxiliary verbs ls and ig'v.

Conjugation of the verb (o be "5^'^^ or its participial form °)^'^' beinff.


The verb io do I'S'i'^ or its participial form ^\»\ doing

Present lenne.


Singular. Plural.

1. Person. =-'ls or ''STS^ I do> ^-'^''I'l'S we do.

2. „ SVi'S Thou doest, SS'-^Tl^ you or ye do.

3. „ f^ or f^^'|'> he does. J^'i'^ or f'=-'^|'S they do.

Past tense.

1. „ =.s*< orS^i'^ I did, ^'s'I'SN we did.

2. „ S'S'S" Thou didst, S'^^'TS^ ye or you did.
3. „ f^c'S^ he did, f^*"! or ^=."3*J they did.

Future tense.

1. Person. ^'% B^ or or |=;'«^'^|^ I shall do, c-STlsil or g=^''J^''^§'^ we shall do.

2. „ S'\'l"=i'">''^§^ Thoii shalt do, SS'^ll^'l or I'S'I'^-'^I'n ye shall do.

3. „ p or ]^^-^S^'^-'>~W< ^-^-^ or
p-^'^l^-l or ^S'i^'o-W^ they shall do.

Imperative. Hortative. Conditional ^rfse«;.

§^ do or let him do, S"*^'^"! pray do, or let him do, I'S"'^ if I do, or he does.

Conditional j^as^ S^'^ if I did or he did. luture s^^qjs'i^g^^ if I or he shall have done.

Infinitive future, |'>'^, S'>, S'5, for doing, to do.

Participial form: §=>'?=- or U\%, when doing; 3'^'5, S^'^i^, S^'^N having done; §^'«i after having done.

The verb -fj^'i^N to know or -^l^'^ knowing.

1. Person. ^'-^^ I know, ^'^l or c.'2f-.fj5? -^^e know.

2. „ S'S'"^'' you know, Thou knowest, S'^'^''l'•^^ you or ye know.

3. „ p or ps.'-<1^ lie knows, p'-s"! or pc'^'-fjisi they know.

The verb '^^'i^ to go or '^^=' going.

Present tense,

1. Person. ^•''^^ I go, k'«i1<^!5 we go.

2. „ B'^''^M you go or Thou goest, BS'-^T'^^ ye or you go.

3. ps."'^!5 he goes, pc-^'n^ they go.


Fast ienee.

c?I=. I went, cza^'^c tve went,

g''^'?ic yoii went, gt^-^qj-g^ ye or ycu went.

p or pK.-5c he went, pfSUc they wenti

Future iense.

1. „ C'lf m I shall or will go, c'^Ti^'^we shall go.

2. „ SS'^S'^ Thou shalt go, I3'^^'T'^3| ye shall go.

3. „ P or F^'5 he will go,

pco-^^-* they shall or will go»

is evidently used in the place of the auxiliary ''^^v.

The verb *i?=.'«i^ to Bee or *^^'^ seeing.

1. Person. C'^'^c. I see, c'«i]"j<?s. we see.

2. „ G'S'**"^'^ you see, g'^'jil'wq'c ye or you see.

3. „ pcsj^ii he sees, p'jii) cr pc'^'cwq^ they see.

The verb '*|'>'l^ to become or its participle "^gvq becoming.



1. Person. ^'^^'^ I become, f«'j]'t»|'; we become.

2. „ iS'S'^S'^ Thou beeomest, B'^'^l"^*^ ye become.

3. „ F he becomes, p«£i)'^§^ they become.



1. c'^> I became, c«5I§'v we became.

2. "ES'W^ you became, SS'^Tl'^ ye became.

3. f? or P=.§^ he became. p'^il§»; they became.

Future. '^§^'§ shall become.

Imperative. §^ or §=>'^''l be or let il be or become.

Conditional. '^§'^'^ shouH ke beoome, if ho be, §^'^ if he becamo.

Gerund. '^'k^'\ for becoming.

Paeticipial Espeessions.
Present and future. "I'^'^k when becoming, changing.
Past. §^'5, ^^'^^, §*''^*' or i'^'si having become.

The verb *^*\" (when used as a respectful term for BS'^) has only one variation : in the Imperative and
Hortative it is "^"^ I

The verb ''IS", honorific also for §">" is used by a person speaking for himself, or of others, before a

Indicative Present. 1%'^ he does, Fret. l|«i he did. Future. 5| shall or will do.

Imperaf. |*i do. Hortative. 3^'^'^ pray do.

Among verbs the participles form the roots of the Indicative present, past and future tenses ; as g, g*i,

gS I As'nouns they may all be used substantively, such as g'=i speaking or speech ;
g'^'^ spoken, a spoken

thing; g'i a thing to be said or spoken of.

The participles terminating in " or =1 according to their final letter in the roots, take the genitive forni
(£i3, q5) when used before a noun : «I«J|«^y working, doing work; -si^Jl^y^*) a working man; «e."3'g'ti or

«=.'g«] much talking; *if5'§£i^s) a man that talks much.

When, in the participle present, the 'i or =' termination is dropped, and 1"^ or *f^^, or §'^*f^ is attached

to it, it becomes a noun signifying an actor or agent, an instrument or organ ; as g |=^I | *JP^ I I'ls^il^ ( a

speaker ; ^^'%S, that does beat, the beater ; »)?t|S or «?=.'*4p^ that does seeing or makes one see, the eye.

The following participial terminations ?=., %'^ ^=. I I, % %'^,^\ %^, ^% 31, ^1, "^^i ( f , % f put after the
root of the present participle, correspond to the English termination inj : ^^g'^^ so saying, thus saying;

^^'^^S'lit being so; S'l^^'^^"! (he) is reading; s'§'*>g, (he) does not speak when eating.

The participle future terminates in S or S'l (taken absolutely, or after a substantive), and in §5 or 3=i5

(taken conjunctively, or before a substantive) such as, 3 g edible, anything to be eaten ; ^'S^'-^ flesh to be eaten;

5iJ]i!«^'S'J to bo read over, that must be read over; qjifljci^ g£i5qf3i£i?*i a literary wiovk {Gd-ttra) to be perused.

The past participle is expressed by any of the following secondary particles or case— signs (put after

the root in the preterite, having regard to 1^ l*i, ^*^, ^*' or or 5}s Sc, ^s., ^i;
its final letter) 'J*', I
«^ | ^, f ^, i

and "I
I they are used like '
having '
'ed '
or ' being — ed '
in English (for joining two or more members of

a sentence) ; as, |i«'"^I g'^'l*'! g*i 5 I

gN|«J! |*J-5]c.| having spoken or said; ?5=.sif^«il^ having gone tell him
(go and tell him).

On the use of '^% ^% -^^ with veebs in the Imperative Mood and Conjunctive Peesent.

^"i, and ^1 are all of the same power and signification.

?^ is attached to verbal roots, terminating in "?, S. =! I for instance: aT'^l read, let him read, he may
read; fS'^'^ explain, tell, let him explain ;
g=!^'? make ready, prepare, let him accomplish.

"^q] is attached to verbal roots ending iu =-, «i, ^, •», '^, "^ thus : ^^^ '^"I beg or ask for, let him beg ;

"l^^'^"! (for "l^^S^I) (please) hear, let him hear; 3»<'^''I let him die, perish ;
»* g^"! say not, let

him not say ;

^^'^1 (for^'^.^'^"!) turn round, let bim turn ;
'n^'sc^'ii (for "I^'^'S'^iI) ask for, (please

ask, let him beg.

^^\ is attached'to verbal roots ending in " thus: ^i*)'^'^''! think, let him mind; «ii^ii»i'^<i| please see.

£ig(!)i6<i]q q*)q^'5jsl'^'%c-uiE.-i*|ii|'^'^q 1 1 The ^ P>-^^/^ is not put before Verbal roots in the Imperative

and Hortative Moods, but they receive the "it-"^!"! secondary affix "»! at the end, as in S««'^«q|

On the use of =ij, ^, %, %, ^, ?f, "5, ^, ^, ^ and ^|

These are, likewise all of the same power and signification, and are formed of the preceding word, by the

reduplication of its finul letter, and adding the vowel sign o. Thoy have the power of the verbs ")*i and ''^*^

signifying am, art, is, are ; do, have. They are frequently used with the present, perfect, and future
tenses. '^^"I^ is, there is; ?i=. ^Tisgooe; ^=-'^ it is long, distant ; '^S'^ there is, is ; ^^^ it is ;
'?'i'9 has got

or found ;
5*1'^ has killed; '^^'^ go or am going; '^^vX will become ; "i^n'^ I beg, I request ; "i"}^'^ it is so

(yes, sir,). The particle ^should be used only in the perfect tense, after «i, *>, ''i (for the S'^l in ^'^, *>S, «is) :

for example: "j"^'? (for 'H^'^'^'? ) I have beard ; l"^? (for l^STj has become ;
•q^'^i?' (for "I'^'^S'^) has begged.

On the usi: of ^, f, ?, in Verbs.

^ is used after verbal roots ending in ^, ^, «i, ^ I for example: "1^^^ hearing ; '^S'^^ carrying ;

lying (on the ground) ; ^«*i'5 thinking; "J'^''?lN'^'^«i'3=>-?|*i|

I is used after verbal roots ending in "1, =, ", »*, '^

I thus :
^Tf running, '*|=>f standing, ^j" § teaching

^'''l meditating, g'§ saying ; »)^'^'^«=.'^'5ii having shot (the arrow) it hit.

^ is used after verbal roots ending in '^,

I ^V^ being, •i'S^ believing.

On the use of '^^, ^^, '\^, ^^, P^, *J5j, ^^j and 5» |

These terminations are all of the some power and signification. They are formed of the preceding word
or root-verb by reduplicating its final letter, and affixing the letter » to it. They are interfogative signs, or

express a doubt ; whether, whether or not ?


The particle 5** is used only in the perfect tense after verbal roots ending in ^, *<, i (for ^Si ^S "^S);

as for example :
"^^"I"!** is there ? ?itc»< is (he) gone ? ^\S^ is there ? "iaj ajw is it f ^qq« have you found ?
ci^l'i^*) shall I go or should I go or whether I go ? ii?t«-^»<«^^«i whether it is gold or silver ? '^%'A-aii>-3c,^

it is silver or copper ? -^^n*) do you know ? ii»)^'5») (for 1]*)^^ 5**) have you heard ? iI?i'2i'5N for ''1^'>I'>'5*')

has he askd ?
On the use of ?c, ^c, ^^ wiih Verbs.

These particles are all of the same power and signification and express the participial termination iiig,

in English. They are used after such letters as have been stated under ^"1, ^"l and ^1! for example:
gil^c, reading; '5Il''I*'% having read over; g^=- or g'^'^ having spoken or faid.

On the use of ^^ and ^5< with Verbs.

These are comparative signs signifying: than, more than, but they are often used with verbs in their
perfect participial form, for example :
^»)'g*fy^ thus having said ; g'T^'^^'^^^ having given or placed in his
hand or having presented to him.


In Tibetan, the Adverbs generally precede the verbs and adjectives which they qualify, for example :

S«j|^ S (he) said so, or said thus: ^^'^'oiil's^ so (it) is; ^i'i'5''''^ very good.

There are three premitive adverbial roots in the Tibetan language, namely : 5, ^, -^ I which are all

of the same power and meaning. "Whether us d alone or with the a//?x' ( l^'^ll ) *) affixed to them or with the

additive particles ^, '^, °-^, ^ attached to them, tliey signify so, Ihtt". They ore the following : — S^j ;
^-aj ; .^-^ .

S^^ l;*,^ .?!*]. ?^q^ E^n-L,^ ^i«)cj; j;?^ ^^5, i^-K ;

S'l^, ^qjj, ij-R»)| The use of these terms is explained
thus: "I'^'ci'^E^'S'^"! *<^^I ?i^'S*l'S'^'S'3i-?«i)'| EL-aj-sje* i^Q)-c;^c-l |«^|^4^I|•^^;,•qR•»)e.•s^?«^•5I

There are also certain additive terms which are ufied botli, as Adverbs and Postpositions (Prepositions
in Erglish). When used adverbially they are put before the verb. Some of these words are :

'i'^'% ^'^'^, ^'^^*'; 1'^, l'^*". 1"^; '^'^'5, S^'^, 5'^; »'^^'^: »'=^'^'C9'n'5^ sit forward; gei'S,

move backward; 'q"i*i«i, «iiu)*jfjR|sj ^juri to the right; g^^' ?i towards; Ssifoj^iss-^Tic^-qit^f

work hard in the direction of religion ;

§=."< on above or upwards;

^1 the term ^ when used after a verb or adverb expresses conditiouality :

ni*)§«^'j^i|Sai-»;?j-Ryq ggtg

remuneration if he works ;
^^if;-^ if certain* certainly.

q^-33^,-sj'5i^ei|f| if (his exists, this arises.

^g the term ^ (equivalent of f^ fii, in Sanskrit) expresses emphasis : it also separates the S'^*' (subject)

of a sentence from the predicate I*- 1 ^•f^'i"5i'='^^'''^''^1 I '^*^'^»''^^'^'^'^''^''^^'^'*I'!II


The ^"igs additive particles ^J^ and 'J^ are some times attached to certain adjectives to give them an

adverbial sense in the manner hj does in English, for example: »'3'n«'«)^'»§ go quickly, fli«J'»ia';QE^ showed

dearly ; s*'^"*''''!' shov?s kindness towards the low.

The adverbs of negation called S'l'lS are the following :

(1) *<, *i are used before the verb or adjective which they qualify, as in «''^'n»» fear not ; «<«|5i=. (please)

do not give: ^'^^ not true ;

=.'^-?|*< I do not know.

(2) »)% ^\ are used after the verb or adjective, as in ^^^S (there is) nothing above.
s^-3{% uifs)";, there is nothing inside ; ^'^Vl'^'i not that, another.

3^-»)'»lai»}«\-«;j'il<i)q5gi Ns)<jf^^-^?'<iis4«;c.| 93^»)<^-c]^^ci|«i-si|>vii

Adveers of Place,

"1^'^ "1^'^ where? Whether? "I^-'^'^'^ everywhere, "is-'^^c'S^ where-so-ever. "ie.'^N whence?
"I^'^'S^'S^ whither-so-ever;''I«^'^'^'3s.-5,c, whence-so-ever. ''^^, '^, "^^'; '^^'^ from here, hence.

^'^, ^S ^'5 there ; S^^, from there, then, thence. ^^'% ^^'^, within, into ;
|'^, %'%, 'i^, outside.

§''^'''''5^) ^'^'"'^ outside, beyond, outward.

"^^^^ **'^^ fore, before ; '^^^'' from the fore, from the presence of.

c^'^F^'"' before; 5^5, f^i^i backward, afterwards; ^'^^, from behind, from the back. ''fS''^, ^s'^, ^cuj

on, up, upon, over ; above. ^=.'^*i from above 1=^'^, %^'\ %^''^ above, on high, f s.'^*) from above.

5'^ above, on high. 1^'^ upwards, uphill. S^''5i, l^'*" downwards, down-hill.

^, V^*^ near ;S'^ or ^ linear, at; V^'^*^ from near. ^l^s^'^.^T^^'^.^l'^^-'", far, remotely, atadistanoe;

S^'5 every where ; '^"15, '^"1'^, '^l'" below ;

'^"1'^*' from below, ^^c-aisi from a distance, from a far.

Advekbs of Time.

T^'^*^, "^^^ when ? ^*", when ? ^'^•"'e. whenever. '^"^'5^*', '^^'^ this time, at such time.

^•^'s, ^'^ at that time. t\ ^^'%^, S^'^, t^"^'^'^ formerly, of old, anciently.

1^'^ V^^, "^1^% '^'^% continually, always, perpetually, ever. ^«"if5)«^ never.

?«il*i«. first, in the beginning ;

i^'^ in the middle ;
^'^^ lastly, ultimately, at the end.

"I*'^'^ reaently; a'9*''^ suddenly, "^'i^'^, at intervals, O3csisionally. ^

^•W5ii, ^'W'sii'g, immediately. ^^'%% ^*''^''l'^ at a certain time.

^«i'ej,Ng at times, sometimes. sii^'^^'Q occasionly; «J^'ii|«i5j'5i in the meantime.

V^"! for a while. SIS, SlVl*', ^^^ after, afterwards, subsequently.

the time ij^*''^';, second, secondly. ^^'^'', ^'^ now, at this.

'S'-'S^, first, first ;
^c-«jE., ^E.-«c now-a-days. S''^^ yet more, still, aa yet. ^^^''^S' now too.

\ *»'?) 'S'^'^^''^ now, this very time, presently.


^'^e. this day, today; *<St or sf^f yesterday; P*^^ day before yesterday, "t tomorrow; ^i^*!'

«l^e.*i day after tomorrow ; "l^'^ after three days or three days hence.

SS*" four days hence; ^^ five days hence. ^lS'^''^'n every day, day after day.

IS^ I every month. '6'^, ^ 'S^'^, '5^^ evci-y year, year by year.

"S'*"! every second year. '^'^ this year, current year. ^'^s. last year; ^'^^ year before last. S3'^^
three years ago. $«^'^^ four years ago.

"^^ y^ by day, in the day time. °^^'^ by day, «i3?^?i^ by night, at night. '^^'^'^^'^ day and night.
g'X in the morning : %'% in the afternoon.

gS in the morning, early. ^c,S tomorrow morning. °^^''S5S-''=J at midday, when the sun is on tha

jq S'lsi in the evening, at sunset. '^'^Q this evening. P'i'i last evening.

Adverbs of numbeb and times.

i^^i*' how many times ; "i^'l^'H once, ''i^'ip)'' twice, '^\^ each time, ''i^'^'^ at each time, every time

'^^'*'^''5, niany times ;
"i^Rija. sometime, "J^'^l^'^"? sometimes; ^^''^'q^ cr'^"!''^*' some
time, other time ;
'3i^i^«ii'5,«is.- ^s>«i) not a single time, never. *J9^"l5^q'^ infinitely.

Adverbs of quantity.
fo< how much? How many? '^^'^ this much ;
\^« that much; ^'i^ what much. ^t|« many,

much about.
»)E,q^ sic-^j many, much, in large quantity, gs^'^ little, few 2e.'^« in a small quantity.

%'\ half, a half, '*'«= to much, too many. ^S enough ; ^"1, Sq]il<i) it is enough, sufficient.

^S'^'yot'^S'^S'*^ immense, immeasurable ; «^y!ii*»S'£'*' inconceivably (great or large).

Adverbs of quality.
5^'& entirely, altogether; P'^'Tg silently, mutely; SS''^^ specially, particularly; '^5*' *•'=>

Rg«|-»)«i-c(«; infallibly; 'q'^ slowly ;

«3'q*'«)«. quickly, swiftly ;
<^^KCi-si\»^ immutably; g'^'i'^

amply, copiously; '*|'^'^ walking; S'iS'^'^l*) naturally; f*)*} openly, on the face; "S^T^csi

really, materially; c.^q>^ m^ badly ;

5i2r3^y»^ conspicuosly ; »<^*i'51»<'5i evidently; ^1"% "I'^^w at once; ?gS S'^"! how? la what manner?

^'?S ^'^'^ how ? In what manner ? I«''?J afterwards ;

?«) f lying;

^m-u^ alike; ^^f^ viciously, faultily; ij^s^'l^^^'^^ indiiTerently ; awq^ vulgarly ; 5^»i'*>s i^

w«'«^'^ wholly, in every way; V^% ^'^1 so, in that manner; '^^Cf, '^^§*^ thus, so, in this manner ;

S«J"«5«N, «\'»9'« gently, by degrees; '^«i'^-5^, brightly; «,s,ti^ straightly, rightly, honestly ;

iV"^ happily; i^^'i^ truly;


R'^Kii.'^Kci^ trembling, quakingly ;

'^%'^'^ sitting; '^%'b^ alike, like wise; «i]%?)jq»; uudoubtedly

«i|»''^ shortly, briefly; »''^*>"|»)'^ concisely, abridgedly; ^'f')*; especially; «i^'5^'^ earnestly;

§«. generally ini'S";, «bc35'S^ mostly, for the most part; ^'^'^ egregiously, exceedingly
; ; "^I'S

secretly, privately ;
^i"^ quickly jtiijiiQ'^')^ modestly, chastely ;
«iii»l'^£i^, immodestly ;

qat«i'5 inconsiderately; S^'i'J^ retiredly, solitarily ; g 9"! 5 especially, particularly

S^'^> S^'i^ swiftly, speedily ;

^^'^s.'^'v indecently, unbecomingly : **'^«^«J'^ unworthily, unsuitably ;

*l'^1N£j^ unreasonably, unjustly ; "l?^^ principally ; »<f t») w^ equally, like wise ;

beautifully; C^'^, "g^'^ falsely; "I^^^ otherwise, else; cstqs, well; 'f^Jti^ worthily
becomingly; '^^^''g wholely, entirely; <^^'^%»^ thorougldy ; ""^ ngain ;
"ifuic.^ w^.-'^tuit,

uict^cujc,-^ again and ngain ;

^"^'^ eminently; *>^ "^^ §*) by ittelf, spontaneously; ^^.^w
hastily, speedily; ^»<'3«) gradually; ^'''il^^'^ by degrees, in order ;

^c'ti^ decently ;
^f\^^ reasonably, justly ; ^"l'^*^ amiss ;
ol«ii*i-cj^ well, elegantly ; ^^5 very ;

knowingly, designedly ;
"Jj^JflJcJ^, i)?;aiq^ clearly, lucidly; ?i'^^, asunder; S"^ Qga.n;
nj^fq^ confidentially, secretly ;
S'l^S';'^, infallibly ;
^I'J^ in access, beyond, in a high degree.


There are no Prepositions in the Tibetan language. Certain postpositive particles or Postpositions,

do the function of the English Preposition. They are §, ^, ^i, *•, 5. «!, 9 I I, §1 &c. I^s, ^i^n &c. ^^, "!« &c.

The use of these particles has been partly explained in page 15. The Postpositions, however, do not

form a part of speech. They are, but, parts of words under declension.

There are simple and compound Postpositions.

The simple ones are : 1st. %, ^, 3, 5 or "i signifying : o/,'s; these are genitive case-signs. 2ndly S'Nj ^n^ j^q

•**», "}«i, " signifying li/, with. These are the signs of the Agentive or Instrumentive case, "i is the sign

both of the Accusative and the Dative eases and signifies to, for.

^ is the sign bolh of the Nominative and the Ablative cases; and "i*" is the sign of the Ablative,

As Ablative signs they signify from of, out of; J^^'^?^'f«;'^E.'^ni*)|t»:i Light shone from the
east ;
(he) fell from the hill;

^•8iN»l>;-.?|*q-gc( /row smoke knows fire;

«i'5^q?^-^-^-gf| /»-o«a seeds, the seedlings grew

^5-3ic-3i^nj1ainSflil amonci the Gods, Iiidra is chief;

|q«4i:^55-^?)-^»iqf^'iis; fyom (the time) of taking refuge, till saying benediction.

5ijai*i'*l«^»)^ man is inferior to god or lower than god,

qiji*j-'?») milt f,-Qfji the cow.


The additive particles 5, '^, % 5, ?i (put after the Nominative with respect to its final letter) denote
motiou, progression to, or towards a place ; or change, tarn, promotion, transformation into another state.

They are the signs of the Locative case.

The compound postpositions generally require the genitive case before them. The terms 1*^ or %'>%

as in the expressions =-^1^ or =-^ |*>"^ for my sake ;

5,^ or ^S'^ 1
^5)s<^, or S'5J '^'^ for what ? why ? ^^'% or
^^ for the purpose of or cause ''1'^^|'^^'^ for other's sake. or in behalf of, for the sake of
SI'S Sl'\'^ :
for whom? %^'^to or near, at; ''i=-^ in, at, among; ^ic.-^^ from, out of, from among; ^=.'^into,or inside;%c.'^
near, by; %=.'^'*' from near; "I^ or '^^, at ; "IV^ or "]*!'% near, to, towards ;
^=-'^ on, upcm; %'^ upon, above
^c'^^j from above ;j'^'^'''^ among, [^e.5^'^»] from among; p^^.*!'!} into, within; among; ^^'^ near to. J^'S, J^'^

behind; 5"! till, as for as; *'^'=>''^ to the limit; ^"I or^^Tg on, on above.
Some Poaipositions illustrated tcith examples :

jqa;^ from the back

^^'JQ'^*) from behind the hill

1'^''^: ^^§=-'^ above that; §=• si : ^^^=^'1 on or above that; §=-*i«i: ^5-§=.-3i*j from on that.

|«?'^^ or ^^'^'^ from behind: ='^'1*'^*' from behind me; 1'^'^ behind: =-^1*^'^ behind me.

^S'^. ^S'^ in the direction of: ^^'^'i'^ in that direction ;

''^^, ''^'^ in the middle of, betwixt: oj^N''»i^

'5'n''5^ between the two; ^i^^'^, *'^^'^ before: S'S^ *'^^'^ before thee, or in your presence.

|*i'g'^ in the sight of: g*!^'!^ g^ before the Lama or in the Lama's presence, ^W% with, together

with: g»'''\=-*i?»<''^ with the Lama ; 5'^'3s=.'^^'?'n in the company of the king.

Relation of Prepositions and Posfj'ositions.

^fit-in or j'»i^^ to the ocean or sea; "f signifying to.

j*if -^ or 5**^''^=-'^ in or on the ocean or sea ; ^ or ^=-'^ signifying on or in.

g-»(^'^N or 5'«^''Ji*^ out of, or from the ocean ;

^'J or "i*' out of or from.

^isi or ^'^ or ^^S' to, on, upon the hill ; "i,

\ §= to, on, iqwf.

%'^^ or ^""i^ from or from on the hill ;

^*' or i^, from, from on, ^
i|-(;iEii^^t)«, to ride on horse; "i signifying to is also the sign of the Infinitive.

5"^^^''I''' or ^'f^'^'^'^"!'" sitting on a horse or on horse-back; ^ or J'l'g on or on the lack.

ij-flj^ji^qq-q descending from the horse; oi'^/yo?;*. "i^i'^'^^s-'^'^ to beat with the hand; "''signifying (ri<^.

g'S''\=.'f^'^''1'^M''''^ to go together with you ;

^^'^"1 together. ^5'»4^^'^-'^'51 come before me;
sf'^aj-^ before, in the presence of. ai^^'^'n'^^ stay not in the way; ^ signifying in or on.

S'S'^'tJ'^*''^'' from whom have you got it or that ? '^*' from.

'^^%^'\ for me or for my sake; §^'^ signifying for or for the sake of.

Svll^-''^ to or near thee or you; %=-''^ signifying z'o or »iear.

Ifit.-jl^.ai'S from the town; ^i?' signifying from. 5=-'S^'^ to the town ; ^ signifying to.

majj^-aj-qgiim'q^ going to heaven ; ^ signifying to or in.

^q^-Rqqq descending from among the gods; "i^/rom among.


The foUowicg Tibetan equivalents of the Sanskrit prepositive particles are generallyused with or before

nouns and adjectives and verbs": ^^^ ^x^dur bad ;

^t.f^ ?t 'luia far; ^S"! 8 xa\ para chiefly, xrw param

highly; S»'"*>
f^ njsurely ; »'«^'i"^ ^f^ aWi, fully ; l^g a;m after ;V*'^ gqwp" near; »<?«i5g^tt< up ; 5r«"%,

«;,q|q^ =5j^ ati beyond ; ^i't'^ ^g ava from ;

f^ vl in high degree ;
"V^i^ g m well ;
g«i«5 f^r^ n«> out ;

=5t«^ qfc ?«z''» fully, round; "icsq] q« ^ jt_ sew with ; ^^'Slg P^n forth, well; ^^^v/^prati re, sepa-

rately ; '5ll*i'J^ ^i a unto, greatly.


S^ signifying and is used in five different senses ; |S''|S as conjunction, for example :
^Se-*) god and

man ; »^S^'$ earth and water.*

There are three primitive conjunctions namely : jc, Q,c and «jc which are all of the same power and

signification. They are called '^I'^g^'i t oontinutive terms or words expressive of continuity.

T]C signifying too, also ; though, although ; even, is used after words ending in "I, \ ", "i and also

after ^•^'^ 1 for example : 5'1'5«-I «i«SS=-'I «)'n«i'3e.I S'sse.l •'l^'S'Se'l "^I^sa^-'l ^"SiS'-I ^^1'3«' though

there is; 5«^'3'> thou too or also ;

?!J'3=. though (he) got; ^»''3e. although (he) knows.

QC is used after any vowel and after words ending in =i either expressed or understood. In being bo

used "^t is rather joined with than attached to the words or syllable it follows :

t'^c I also ;
*)^^, man also ;
5^"=., the son also ; »^^S fire too; °-%'<^, though he goes, '"^^S the order
even or also ; s, with "^s- forms one syllable, otj^B, (formed of 'JT and i^) is also one syllable.

^ "When it becomes necessary (in poetry for the sake of metre) to divide this one syllable into

two the '^6. is changed into "i^l

«}C is used after words or syllables ending in «i,

\ ^, '^, \ "i or any vowel or in '', for example

JijcujE., "^i^i'uie., sisiuiB., jjM uje.j

's'3\^<^, ispji^iujE,. (e,u«, I also; »<^""» butter also; 'y'^'»*.-aR^.«i)

(there) is even no village) «i^S'''i'H'«it'<^$ '»l'S»<« though wrathful to the devil, yet hifid to all.

S=-' signifies as well or yet ; 9*'*'Tl'^3«^'^^''^'*<3"''^'^l

When 3^, '='=

cr "^k. is used between two similar or same adjectives, it signifies more or still more i.e., in

H higher measure or degree. i]*)^<»Jt-5]«5';j clear and clearer still; »i?«J'3s.'*jtj5j handsome and still more handsome.

* used in five different senses |»'*si Xi^q*) cfqi

S=-'S is : I. ^'i'SS 2. 3. 4. 5]«;|»i«i 5.

f <*^»i|ii-3E. qe.-ujE.-g-!iisj»ii c|-t;|-£i»i'^-t£i)-5C| "^-jj^^-i^K^-tic-^-i^qsi-i^til^ I

e,;3i-54-^-n|-»«^-u«^-l ^ •^qj-aai^.^-

When S^, ^=. or ""c is used between two adjectives of opposite meanings, it shows the contrast or

points to the difference in their significations. '^'Mse.s'^*^ (

^'Wsc'|*j [

wivqg though friendly yet deceptive ; ^^'S'S^.g though respectful yet furious.
»i?«i-^E,-i('^-3c,R^I graceful, it also sheds lustre. tQ^'niuja^nc^e^-tji^cuJaj being lily, it was also blue.

'^I'S'I'S'^'H' disjunctive conjunctions.

wjC'S signifying or, or or else is the only disjunctive, in this language, which is in general use.

^'^S nay, rather ; what is more ; moreover, yet more, *^*^»i'a'S'^*''S'=> "S'S man's (not to speak of man) what
is more, gods even bowed.
K^'gCj !?^-5E. or M'^^ signifies, though, although, albeit, notwithstanding.

^S'S^ or *i«\'3^ signifies, though, although. ^S'lS.^'S'i^^, although—yet, "S'^c- yet, as yet, but yet.
^•^cuic now too, still. M'^ or M'f^,, siguifies if, hut if. "I'^i'^ or '!\'^'^S but or if but ;
^g'^ or ^'^then, so.

^§ signifies if; ^'^ if then. ^'^ not even, not-even so much as, i'^, ^'l, ^'^ for, because.

q|5|j CS4, "^sj, ajSI, qsi S|5j q,5j^ ^si oi^ ^Si ^5J are interrogative signs, expressing a doubt,

whether, or ? They may be formed of any word, by reduplicating its final letter, and adding a « ; as in

£]«;|Jil-«i|«j'e'e., c!^»)pf whether I or he ; I or he ?

J«is), ^i^N or ^ "^^i signifies or, or so. ^'^, i?'^'^ or '^'^u'c signifies then, therefore, nevertheless, j


5 K>/e is the polite vocative particle signifying o or oh which is, in general use, both colloquially and in
writing. It is equivalent to Sanskrit Sho (in Tibetau ^^ bod to address or call) from which the Hindi name
Bhota signifying Tibet, has been derived. S is generally used at the beginning of an expression or sentence
for example : 3'^^'^ I 0, the god of gods ! sp'^i'i^q O, charioteer !

S is also used in the middle or at the end of a sentence, for example : '^S5^''^i=.^'«^3i5«i"^''|'5i"§f5*^|f-'^ 1

Patron Jamyang, grant unto me intellect ! ^•gii^c'a^St'?*)^ i Q son, to ren-ounce is improper! q«;|''|'3i'5]=.N

•^qi'|gq'R|<il-^ 0, Visnu ! protect me.

ei:;,<Jlai«j5ffE.«i?lqi«^^"c)-3, O Patron pray think of me.

t "^S"*, IJ^or "5 are vocative particles used in addressing inferior persons. Their use is general in dramatic

writings and performances, atd also in congs.

a ^ and *< "* are vulgar vocative expressions or interjections used bafore the name of the person

addressed f

Wj w s (or 'a) and |« are the three mystical interjections used in addressing the Buddhist Triad or in
invoking the Lamaic chiefs of the Vajra-ydna mystic cult.

The following vocative terms or expressions signifying sir, yes ; o, holla are in general use colloquially,

niflisi or S'"!"!*' (sir oh! or o, sir) is used in addressing or in responding to a call in polite language ; \ Tl^
or '5'"! is used in addressing inferiors. ^ ; V\ ^'^ in addressing some one of out of scorn.

wBij la^ "aol are expresbions of wonder, f^^ expression used in threat or anger.

B'" I S'S! ^'\'\\ S'S signifying Oh ! Alas! Woe! are expressions of grief and sorrow.

5)»i| ^'ii'"^ HTQ interjec Horn oi airairnXion.. si'^i'^i] waiai^^ are expressions of wonder,
wai'si'wraim expresses great joy. SS is an interjicUon of joy and admiration, i?^ ^ 1
"i"' signifying ho !,

yes are inierjcctims of recollection. bm[s| BM'p'p disapprobation, displeasure; expressive of loss.

«^aiq'?l w?! Rn^-^i S'f'^'^I i3'5 are !w<f>7k/(o«s of endearment or affection.

W5"5I s''7'*i interjections of excessive pain. ^'^'^ \

^ ^'^ are expressive of sorrow or anguish.

^'^\ B^'^'ig are expressions of pain from cold, bs'^i mii are expressions of pain from heat,
w^ 1
wi'2 are expressions of fright, horror or dread.

The foUowiog expressions denote approbation, confirmation, endorsement, &c.

ai<q«^?;-a)ti)<s?i Very well ! Well done ! ^"^'^ 1 ^'^M'^ I VV"'^^'^ I Well, it is just so ! exactly !

"J^'^l yes. «i^^'5^ (rue, truth ! £n-« yes, certainly. ^il«i?5 well done ! i?S'''> be praised !

The arrangement of the words of the several parts of speech, in Tibetan expressions and sentences, does

not resemble that of the same in English or Sanskrit. It is rather the reverse of the English. The nouns
and pronouns including the Nominative, precede their attributes, and the verbs stand at the end of the
sentence. In the sentence -f]^V^'i'^'^'^'l^^f^«^'g'Ti'N«i«VR;g-^q«)-q i on the occasion of going, on pilgrimage,
towards Lha-ldaa (Lhasa) by Sarat Chandra, ^'l^^'Saici • ^q f ^i^gsiq^-sjiq^^^^j^jj^iai i
+ qc.-^^^;^-

5(^=i"^3jqj3iE^-X'ii?i-£j-§zi^q*jll (See Appendix VI.)

Edoi-je Chun Chen-po said i,'5«j=.?i'q«5) : grant patronage ^^ ^\'^^'- in every way 'Ji=.-^5 9«^ to these '*^'ii»'»i i
(aldiesing Her Lsdvship the Lha-lcam ^-isci-f^q^S^-q^I Her Ladyship also ^ f»'|'^'J»^ * V^-\ 3«-'l

receiving this kind requ'st qT'''^*i''53i.5'^?q| I preceded to Rgyal-rtse (Gyan-tse) gil-^ Q^*) I on the 21st
day of tho above month ^=."|5'2«i-°?y3i|

*^^'5 and ^'f^^i*) are adjectives qualifying the nouns in the Nominative case ^Ir*«. and ^'f** respectively.
tT*fee Ablative case-sign ^»i //-ow /.«'„ signifying origination, is generally used, in modern idiomatic
Tibetan, after the Nominative. In these two instances 3^1 "^it mni ^-^n are Nominatives, c!3=.*)'j»i and '=^'^''3'

% are verba.
X '^^'^ the term "!«. is generally used with the pronouns %, \ °^, and adverbs ^^, S and the conjunction
"1^ it being placed before them, such as 'H'^-'^"!; "1^'^; "I"^'"*^; "I^'g^j "I"^'^'; ''l'i'"'=.'l

Verbs occur at the end of sentences, thus :

^-^'^'S)'-?!*!! I do not know that; gS''^'^'5J'''^'^ who told

that to you ;
«)=.N-g^-ai-§"Jl-a,ii5ci5i ( make reverence to Buddha; g'(a|ei^'^'^E.'^'|^*'q^§^'S<'I your honour may
live long or have long life

The auxiliaries which follow the principial verb are only conjugated in tho several tenses and moods,
tlie root verb being invariable : as in §VS''^^''I'J*> to cause (one) make ;
|*\'^*i'^^ to make (one) can, able ;

S ^"^S'^^ to wish to do.

Nouns generally precede their attributes, and then it is only the last of them that is declined in the

several cases ; as in '^'^^'^^S"! these great men.

A noun denoting possession, is placed in the genitive and alway precedes the thing possessei :

man's body. Such genitives are also expressed adjectively, as in English : *1'5*^ the human body ;

wooden cup ; ^'^''l*) water drops.

The genitive case-sign is sometimes dropt, in nouns, denoting possession: *ie.N-g>)q^3i'q for ?^E.*i|!5j'|'q§'^'q |

£i§c) fai^iqisj q for i^tai^3j-|»<5f3j£; I

When several nouns in the agentive or genitive case are placed together' with or without the word
nj ?jq]?q
signifying et cetera at the end, the case-sign is attached to the last noun or to ^"l"^, for example :

^ ;]'*)'5!'?;il«^'§N-«;c«-g5)-ai-gqi-g*)-Sl the gods, i\''(f(/a men etcetera, paid reverence to Buddha. |'>i'g'v=^5s.'9'

5Sf«j-«>^||q?i':i3i5j, the place of refuge of the king, ministers, and of all the subjects. s,=.-5[s<'*f'^c»)il^^:!l^sj

to my parents and every other person.

When the adjectives precede the nouns they are intended to qualify, they are invariable in all the

cases: ^s*^*! signifies «^»^'£i5'S*j I

^»4'«J stands for ^?f55'*)i cardinals, expressive of any great number or
quantity, require, that the preceding noun be in the sigular: '^"S ten men; "5 0| a hundred years;
<;j»j!i]-g|-|cgq|-g| a hundred thousand war-men or warriors. 5s.-|-S-<iI?qj a myriad houses; ?5'^(l'^ 'S**'^''!

a hundred thousand towns ;

5='' *'*'"' a million of inhabitants.

The case denoting the agent, by whom, or the instrument, with which, any action is produced, is called

the Instrumentive. This occurs very frequently, since it is used both before the active and passive verbs,

or before every verb denoting a transitive action on an object or person.

Active and passive verbs ending I'S or Iv^l can be discriminated only by the instrumentive and the
nominative cases expressed before them.

c»i-|t £ii,-|«;i by me (he) is beaten ;

=.|=.'i* |'\ I am beaten.

Active and Causal verbs require before them, the lustrumentive case i.e. the Nominative with any of
these case-eigns l'^, Sjis, |*i,— « or ^"s or ")«, according to the final letter of the word in the Nominative case,
and the neuters and passives, in like manner, require the Nomiuativo or Objective case. But, when the
active verb is intransitive, the Nominative is used ; as in f?c-(^q^i^««i| |t^
| ]xo wall;s; c^^'^j'si I do not walk or
go. Instead of tho Instrumentive case, the Nominative is also used with the emphatical I (s.'^) ; as in
c'^»f^?j?i I have not said that. As also, when the Objective case takes the 'v particle, the Nominative (or

Accusative) is used, instead of the Instrumentive ; as in ^^Si) a'\''^^'^ I have told you, for ^i^"! ^l^'if'^'^S^ by
me it has been said to you. (See Csoma's Grammar;.


Tibetan verses are free from the fetters of rhj'^me and metro. All the poetical pieces in Tibetan, originals

or translations from Sanskrit, are in a sort of blank verse or prose in flowing motion. There is no distinc-

tion of vowels into long and short, accented or emphatical, in Tibetan versification. Ail poetical compositions

differ from one another only in tho number of syllables. There are feet bat not metrical ones, measured by
short and long vowels or syllables. The several poetical pieces occurring in the Kah-gyur and Stangijur, all

of which are faithful translations from the Sanskrit Buddhist works of India, have been rendered in blank

verse, consisting of two or four Hues, each of seven, nine, eleven, thirteen, fifteen, seventeen, nineteen or

twentyone syllables.

The Avadma KaljHilata, in Tibetan and Sanskrit, which has been published in the BiblMlieca Indiea
series by the Asiatic Society of Bengal, contains numero us examples of such poetical compositions.

In the repartee songs of Tibet which generally consist of verses of two liaes of six syllables each, there

is rhythm (see Appendix IX) but poetry (^^'Vtis^) i.e., versification is seldom dona in lines of six syllables.

In lyric songs the distinetiou of number in the syllables of a line is, however, seldom observed. They
are composites, sometimes irregularly done, of lines of sis, seven aud two syllables. These are, at the time of

singing, lengthened by the intevsyllabio addition of "i, ^ (for 3"^) &3., such as in |^« (P=.''?i«}; olq]5qq^a)uiisja(q)

^iS'oi i^iS'iAl). See Appendix X.


(Eeferences are to the pages and lines).

Pages. Lines.
% '5'^and "^^ ... ... ... ... 58 4
I'S), Tg=. or -^m-^s (the consonants) ... ... 4, 5, 7, 16 4, 5, 15
S«i-«<:^ and '^'^
(S^|S) ... ... ... 57, 19 1, 3
3-Tl'^ and'Ji-S) (S-sg) ... ... ... ... 57,22,24 23,3
S'w and 35 ... ... ... ... 58 7

P'^l and P'-fj*', «ii=;"ic and T^ some one ; a few ; either j each 29 19
or what each.

F^ ... ... ... ... ... 58 6

"P^ and §S signifying an actor or agent ... ... 49 17

•q-V"**''^ (the five prefixes, g^i'^l'n) ... ... 6, 8, 9, 39 to 49 25
flIE.V^''5"*''=i*;'«i'*' (the ten affixes, l«('»|'^) ... ... 6, 8 22
«!«., ?J and S(gg) Interrogative Pronouns: Which? What? 28,29 9,16
l^'^it. and "I"^, either, each or what each ... ... 29 19
'q^.tJj and S^ etc. {'^^WfS) ... ... ... 50, 57, 21 26, 13, 3

'>|'«|-5and'q«ia'> ... ... ... ... 57 11

3l, I, I, 5 and 5) (^g^-|) ... ... ... 54,17,18 16,19

^»', |«», 1^, 5« and Si« (Ivf) ... ... ... 20,21,54,18,19 10,20
% ^, \ 3| etc., (g'^|'>orI''1«''^1^ ... ... ... 50, 9 to 11 8, 25
Ss and i^ (Personal Pronouns) ... ... ... 25 to 17 3
wE-i^, cn«) and '5'S ... ... ... ... 31 5
«^ and §f^ signify like the English particles such as, ed, ful, 31 1
eous, oics and y.

?% ^fJi and ^"1 Articles, Hortative and Imperative ... 17 2

Sc, ^R and % are participle, particles ... ... 51 6

S, ^ and ^ signify so and thus ... ... ... 51 17

i'^, ^'^ and ^'^ signify for and because ... ... 57 12
^•<i*i, ^•'^« and •^^« signify or or so ... ... 57 12

S", ^^ and -^N signify so and </ii«s ... ... ... 57 20

6 Particle ... ... ... ... 15 19

9 Particle ... ... ... ... 16 23

•^•^t and S'^=."ie- ... ... ... ... 15 19
Sand ("*e.'*ET secondary affix) ... ... ... 6,7,9 2,8,25
S^'l Conjunctioa signifying 'an(^', * 2*»VA' ... ... 56,25 9,1
^ and "^^ Demonstrative Pronoun and Adjective signifying
Ms and that ... ... ... 28, 25 to 29 3, 23


^, ? and t Particles. (^'^«i««I) ...

^ conditiouality ...

^. '^, 6, '^ and Preposition and Particles, &o. ... ...15,21,

^is and '^I'M Cgt-Bt.*), fl, and
S'^"5> gV«)

^ term of emphasis ... ;.. ...

", 5, £1 and "5 Masculine termiuatious

1^ and 1^ used in Infinitive and Adverbial sense
ON and «i« ...

S, §>, "3 and "<? are used as verbal roots

'\3=.'^ and ig'^ the vowels

g^, and "'*' In the sense of kss and without

", «, »iS and *)^ The negatives ...

»< and 35 Feminine terminations

»J'3S signifying 'nay '
rather; moreover, &o. ...

SJVI^. and SI'S' 3=- though and although

^t\ Point or stop

*, ^»i»J, «^ii and «"] Plural signs

a, 'si'^and^^'y ... ;..

"aofand »i'^

a, 5, 3 Diminutive form
'^•^, '5-3i-^and'5'ai"J'^ ...

'f^ 3«^
and '^^i'?^

S;^', and ''|a

^^, '^^1], ^'\ Auxiliary verbs
^=- Reciprocal ... ...
oi«tiis, 5-«i«iiN ... ...

'y'J, 'J*) and =!*) particles used in comparison like thun or more
-^S Diacritical marks or stops ...

^,^ .Superlative degree ...

5i, "!= and ? vrho ? Which ? What ? Interrogative Pronouns

^'% SI, \ V^ and i?)'^...

B^''p and ^'l^'P; and w'!)-'2|-^ ...

«^'°i, V and a'Ji

wSj, b<)r|& or ^3=-«^'5j'J}

*« and w*i-^

Specimens of Tibetan Composition.



... 2

... 4

... 6

... 9

... 11

... 18

... 28

... 33

... 36

... 37


APPENDIX XII ... ic-|q-qi3j§j-5jE«(| E^-qaj-g-jj-sj^sj-iai-^Ti^- 51

Facsimile of — Facing page.

The original letter — official order of Lozan Faldan Yesh^ ... ... 4

The original letter of the present Tashi Lama, Panchen Choi-kyi Nima 6

The original of Lama Seng-Chen Rimpoche's letter ... ... 7

A Diploma and an appointment letter granted to Mr. S. W. Ledan La, 37-38

The Japan Lama, Ekai Kawaguchi, as robed in Khanpd's 39

(Tibetan Mahopadhya's) dress by the Dalai Lama.

C^j'Q.Saj — Identification of Incarnate Lamas, Appendix I

q]^3i'a)q| — Tibetan Marriage Deed, Appendix II


aj5|-w):i]_A Pass-port, Appendix III

|,q]-S)qi_Official Order

s|5C«)q|_Road.Bill ...

§^w)q] — Dalai Lama's letter. Appendix IV

g^q]-a)2j]_Tasbi Lama's letter

g^q]«)!T) —A letter from Lama Seng-chen Dorje-chang J

A letter from Eusho Tungcheu La, to Sri Sarat Chandra Das

A Tibetan Diploma ... S

A letter from Dug Bumtbang of Bbutan to Lama Ekai Kawa-gucbi s

Vrihaspati Cbakra, or Cycle of sixty years, with the corresponding

names of the Tibetan years, Appendix V f

Diary of a Journey to Lhasa in 1882 by Sarat Chandra Das,

Appendix VI

Dalai Lama's Hierarchy, its Origin, both Legendary and Historical ..

cj?5|-^3i-R«^51-j^3-|q-£j^-5j^5,-tl- 3J?M ^^^^^%^ Appendix VII ... ^^

"^''l'^S'^'^^1^'^, Appendix VIII ...

The Love-Songs of the 6th Dalai Lama Tshang-yang Gya-tsho,

Appendix IX ...

The Tibetan Song of the Precious Reed, Appendix X ...

0J^''5#'n—=I'T^'^^—Appendix XI ...

Analysis of the Appendices


Appendix XII



|c-| Tll^-ql'^'^j'-'JC^^-i^a^i I 'rii^'F'q|=S'^?^'==,^#'^^-^'§'|'Sq'3^^'§t'^'=^5j'^^''^,qc'q|x,'q'«)3|'q^'

§'5j'|!;,'5)5<'2rQ.<SJ;i'f J^i'qf 5j-5r|«j5j [

g^-q§l5j-^5i-^5^5|'|-^'cF|«j-^«j-«^'5j'«i^-q^ jQCq^-q»fa^-q-5;igq'

';,qi-::,==^'J«)-^iQJ'q^'gq«J'|q'2I1c-2q'=^!:-| S'gTl^'^'n^'^|S'|'=I^5,-q-wj^'|'^:^iQj-q^'5;iE^--:;|3j'

5qi5j-q|!^-65Cq-Sl'^-q'SC-| ^^'^^^'|'^'<^5j«j'^^-2i:-^-5j§^-|-:r|^C'^c<^-^5j | q|^^'|5j«|-q|C'

^5|«)-|cji'q^3j'q|=^'q'^c-5;,';,'^3j'3i3j-|-q';)Jtl-2j'^5,'^-§«J'2r[ g^''^^'^'q|^'q'r|^-'5C«j'^^-q|:^-^qj«j'qj«)'

A Tibetan Marrias^e Deed.

q^SI'Ic'I'q^'qs^l't^Qj-a^^'^aj'^C'l Q,^q§j'qgaj-^-|q|^--^g^'gj-|jaj-q^'^c§4

^^'l'S'^'^^'V*^^'^^'^Yi'^'^ I |

s|3i-|3i'3q'-^51 :i|^5i-^-c{|aj'q^'5j^«^ |
5j5;j'«Nr'1'^'-:j'5)=^'q^3!il'J'«)«) |

ctq-»ji5j'3^!S-';jqJl]-oe«^-qj'^q]-5|'E^QI'qq-g!:.g£l|*l- RiiOj^j'^ai'^ai*) l^qj^n-j-qi^^Qi-^c t5£;,ojniXi31-(ii-£l]jj5.(g-«jSji]5^- Ji-^j4-£j«,1'qi5i^"

«^g*j-il|^C-'£*^-|'Sai-p-«^fq^qi:igra|-q5-^'X=.'ag?^-S5-^aiq5-R^^3i-«j g«l-qi3i5(-'^ll^-35-|'t«l'g-5^-ni|5,-q5-2i3i-5j*i-»(^-|fS|-«q-i]«q-

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+ A correct copy of the Marriage Deed of the M.ahaiaui of Sikkim, late Lha-cham Yece Dolma
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A Passport —'Road Bill.

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A Passport— Road Bill.

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A letter from His Holiness the Dalai Lama to His Majesty the King-Emperor
Edwahd VII.*


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* This, with its translation in English, and accompanying presents, was sent direct to King
Edward VII, Irom Calcutta.

A letter from His Serene Holiness the Tashi Lama to the Japanese Lama,
Ekai Kawa-guchi.


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A letter from Lama Seug-clien Dorje-chang, Chief Khan-po of Thol-sam-ling College of

Tashi-lhun-po to Lama Sherab Gya-tsho of Goom, Yi<l-gah Choiling Monastery,

near Darjeeling.

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-so NO

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* Lama Sherab Gya-tsho, Head Lama of Goom Monastery, near Darjeeling, was tutor to the Tashi

Lama Lo zan CLoikyi Wangchug, for some years. At Tashi-lhunpo he was known by the name of Thub-tan


A letter from Kusho Tung-chen La, Chief Secretary to Lama Rinpoche Seng-chen
Dorje-chang to Sri Sarat Chandra Das.

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^j^'Jkr§c'q|Y5l'5^'5)'^3jrq-§ [[

Conferring the dignity of Doii-nfr f^^^'"]^^] nn Lama XJgyen Gya.-tsho, Rai Bahadur.


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| ]

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A letter from Dug BumtlijiDg of Bhutan to Lama Ekai Kawaguchi of Japan.


^•I^'^3|'iJ^^'<)5|«J g<21'^^Vq'S^i^'^''a t^-^'p'^ic'l-QjSi-^'^gi^-^q^l-^Qj-q^'q-l^c^j-i^q'qTlQ'qiV

^ I


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VRIHASPATI CHAKllA, or Cycle of Sixty years, with the

corresponding names of the Tibetan years.

1 Prabhava
!9 Mada

Diary of a Journey

Lhasa in 1882*
By Sarat Chandha Das.

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f '^'4=:]^Q'a^^%^^n'S°~^,'^^'i%s,ii^^^'^^^^l\ s^st^'^q (Na-a Bodhi) was born ia Varendra

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residence of S'ta^peh Louctiea Piialha ^Q^ivi^^'^^ '<'^''*^'l
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* Origin of the name Dalai Lama: —Lama Sonam Gyanitsho, High Priest of the great monastery

of DapuQg near Lhasa, was invited Uy Althan Khan to preach Buddhism in Mongolia. The Lama's

name translated, in Mongolian, being Tdhii Poyon (rgya-mfslio signifying ocean, and bso-naras virtue.

Sanskrit Puny a Sagara, (Ocean of Virtue) The Mongol Chief addressed him as Talai Lama (or Ocean Lama).
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5j'Qj-q^-|^-r^5<'^gj'qY5^-|^ I


Letter from De-pa Nor(rgyas)pa, Manager of Saimnq Phalha's Estates at Gyan-tse to

Sarat Chandra Das, in 1883.

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^V|-ai'q'5Jj|3i 51^3) JIiajr^3i'^'^q]'qǤ<'|Qj'|"'3i^'^^'|5)'q5<'^Qj[|


The love-songs of the 6th Dalai Lama Tshang-yang Gya-tsho.

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^sj^j-i^c'^'Sj'D'qi'Tl?^ I
j^'^^aj'rwjrH'^ | ^'0'Y'5>^5j'aJ'5«i''=i| ||

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| |[

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^^'I'q^V^'^^r^^ ! ^^'Y^^'^j-q^^j'Sfc-i S5-fr|q'Q,"^|q|5j'3f!:'i|

'^'^^T^^'^''^^''^^ g:i]'^c-:i3-5<-5l'D-Q,|




appendix x.

The Song of the Precious Reed.

^:^':j'3;i^'q?,3j'^2)3i'2l^| _
^^•5J'^^'5|^3j'q-ajS'^ I

As Sung.

||rqj3j'Jl'5j^3)'^5JE:$i'ai'3i ^•^':^|rQi'%3i^"=,f ^-R'siisc'aj-^Jri'aiSj'Q^Jf I

| |

* The slender Bamboo Reed, about a foot long^ by means of lohieh Murwa beer is drunk in
SiKJcim and Bhutan.




\ t



{ 1

«; I



aj5<'lYdf5|^'^«<'aj^'Q,!l^'|^'='l^^'fvX^5<''^5j'='13j5^''5^'|'ai^'^^^'^l i'l'l'^^'aj |
Seal of the Talai_Laina.


When I, Talai Laraa with my Court, sojourned in India, to whatever place of

pilgrimage I went, Legs-ldan, Head Police Officer, being especially deputed by the British

Government as a guide, rendered satisfactory service, from the first to the last. He knows
(his work) fully. That he may, for the good name of the (British) Government do better
services, the Tibetan Government has complimented him with the Ith class title and
(military) rank like that of Mdah-dpou. That British Officials may know from this his

fitness to deserve their kind help, this diploma, dated the 1st of the 6th month, year water-

mouse, July 1913 (is granted to him).

• W '^%^'\ or *i«iI3=.| Cd^ dhyin stands for English, and *< for Sarkar) British Government,
t "13^1 literally signifies centre or central, but is ordinarily used to signify Government.

This letter-patent, bearing the red round seal of the Talai Lama, was granted to Mr. S. W. Laden La,
of the Bengal Police. He assisted me in the Press, when my Tibetan-English Dictionary was in the
course of being printed. Sarat Chandra Das.

"1^*^ is a term of emphasis, signifying '

certainly '.

ei|3j^'^3i'5(EQ|'q|':;,'^q5<'qq5^'5^'5jc^'/^q«j'q^^'i;|r| Q,?,'|«li^'<^'£''qi«ixj'^j;j'^'^c'«^|3j'Jiiec'q'T]ragQj'


V5»U uvai^<=S,^,va:r^<^V-J Vi;«|^"^'^\*^*^VVx^~'\^V«J V^'5*S*.'^<5-^Vo^^<^V.

^ta^<Vntx>e;^**^^4^^r^^c\c^iAQ4^c^<^ajA~ VO^\V>\<'^M^'^<^ac. M \^^ cj v^o_» v-n.

C^OMV/X^^C^V^ *V^tg^r^'lr7^<^^^^^^ «u *^i»^U^^

2M£^^c^o^o^}^^*''^^^^^^^i^-:9*^i£^"<5*-**" v.«\vy~ °^" ^Vr^°>^

^c ^g^ <^<«\^<^ ^o ^) »*-**» ^ ^-<j«^k<^ <^<) V^" '^ ^^'^'^ V.%^ ^ *-" ^j^ '^^\5 <<>

"^c^ ^j3-. Z=\ ^«J *K.<3? '^^^^^ ** *<.)^^"^ V.*^ *^ *^**^ i^ «-"
V" ^^}^ n c^ ^ ^'^^A^ ^
7%>e^ /i^^( poZd rn^^ial njjtd&
Zhasn a^d cizt'OU-dfi/thi/
<*o v^^/^o
'A3 ^**^^ i.'" fl ^5 at
J91Z io m
thf Da/ai La^)u7 , .

MrS.W.Lf'cicfi La. U7 recc^'

- 1% .nitr<»v o/'seri"cc-f KC^t^^re^/-
Ui His Htrliness in Jrifii/r .

Analysis of the Appendices.



(of the soul of a dectased Lama with that of a Child-Pretender).

By command of the Emperor of China, the 14th Hierarch of the Karma-pa (Buddhist Sect of Tibet)
waa entitled Shuhi Td-pau-wa Wang-Zi-then tsi-lsd hu-o Lord over the monasteries of Szi-then western
country (Tibet). He bore the religious name of Theg-pa Mohog-gi Rdorje (in Sanskrit, Farama Vajra
Jnaiuij . His rescript runs thus :—

Hear and be sure, ye the general public of Jambu dvipa and particularly the clergy and the laity,

great and low, the Lamas and the priests, the Ruling King, the ministers, captains and
lieutenants, &o. (of Sikkim). Whereas this son of the Ruling King Dharma-Baja (of Sikkim)
being identified by me as the embodiment of the soul of Karma Rin-chen neg-don bstan hdsiu
(the deceased) nephew of Kun-Mkhyen Situ Riu-poche of Mdo-Khamg, and also installed as

High-Priest, has been placed on his seat and given (the religious) name of Karma sgrub brgyud
bstan hdsiu dar rgyas Ihun-grub nes-don dvan-po. He having duly graduated himself in the
(holy) Orders of dge-tshul {Oramanera) and dge-glon {Cramana) and having received consecra-
tion and initiation in the deep training of the new and older forms of mysticism, to turn an

adept thereunto, has been appointed bishop over the following moaasteriea of his owa
sect :

(1) Karma Rab-bstan glin.

(2) Karma Bkracig chog-hkhor-glin.

(3) Karma Chog-hkhor glin.

(4) Karma Hctii-med rgyan dven.

(5) Karma G-rub-brgyud-bstan dar glin.

The (new) incarnate Lama, by adopting the best means and methods of work, should with unflagging

seal, exert himself to the propagation of the religion of Buddha and work impartially and without prejudice.

The religious classes should obey the Lama's behests, observe the customary laws and canonical refrulations

and act according to the established methods. The faithful believers and alms-givers should a!so pny him due
respect, venerate and obey him.

This letter was issued on an auspicious date in the year tcaler-tiger from the great Buddhist College of

Hog-min in Tshor-phu.

gq|»,-^»qi abbreviation of s'^j^'^^T^lf'^*'! S'n^^'f'H'^ and ^"''^g*'! present, past and future.

^gugswi same as ^i'"^!*!, excellent ; become supremely good.

•^^^i «i«'I high office or commission.

t^qcqg^l to endow with power or authority or spiritual sanctity.

qfcsc^HI- 1 The Supreme Ruler; Emperor.

«i]|-Q)5 1 flisicaS conferring.

g-qo^qyci ^5,5RV''''S^'I 5ajq precious like a gem great and kingly.

"^'Ml western country, Tibet.

^'^^'§'^1 |*J'3'\»ii his holiness ; saintly personage.

iI5« statement here signifying rescript or decree.

^^ clergy, priest.

I laymen, laity.
"^s^I explaining, f-SI disputation, religious controversy; «5?«I mis-spelt for ?« composition, writing


f,c?i'o)ai taking one's order or wish in the spirit it is delivered ; obeying implicitly and cheerfully,

'^w*' mis-spelt for ^'5''

^^ as iu wS^i-SiJi and ^^l^'^'iajis |

^^3^•'''^'^ lit. gift to Lamas, but ordinarily for |^«1S1 ddna-pati, alms-giver.


(Marriage of Lha-ding Princess Yeceg ggrol-ma with the Sikkim Maharaja Thu-tob Namgyal and

his half-brother Hphrin-las Namgyal in 1882.)

In the beginning of the year tcaier m. horse, 1882, the marriage of Maharaja Thu-tob Namgayal and

bis half-brother Thin-leh Namgal with Ye-ceDol ma, Princess Lhading of Lhasa, was definitely arranged for.

All preliminaries, according to the customs of Tibet, having been gone through, the marriage took place in

the autumn of the same year. The geneology of the Lhading family, on the father's side is given, tracing

its origin to the Cakya race of ancient India. This is followed by the account of several ancestors of the

bride on the mother's side, and the services the ancestors of the two lines had rendered to Government. Then

comes the presentation of what is called the proposal-wine (slon-chan) and the bride's price-wine (Ein-chaff) ;

these being ceremonially performed on auspicious dates, the bride-groom's party was received in pomp and

the marriage was duly celebrated with festive entertainments.

Then comes a description of the jewellery, ornaments, clothes, dresses, &o.[(to be given to the bride)i

in a separate list.

Then followa an enumeration of tlie duties, both of the bride-groom and the bride, towarda each other,

and also to their respective fathere-in-law and mothers-iTi-law, the paying of due respect to them being
strictly enjoined on them. Here the name of the Maharaja's half-brother has been specially mentioned as
the bride's joiut-husband (thereby legalizing her marriage with him as well, according to the custom of

polyandry pTOvailiiig in Tibet.) The parents of the bride here exhort their daughter to be equally faithful

to her chief and jdint-husband. The marriage deed concludes with the signatures and seals of the Maharaja's
mother, half-brother, and also those of Lhading Kusho and his sous, and the marriage witnesses, &o.
^1=.*) a particular family name, ^'f^ princess, a nobleman's wife ; equivalent to Ranee or Maharanee.
•^JiS*) holy religion, Buddhism; in Sanskrit, (SV«(;-(W.jr;;i<. "SS^'I^J't'i^-'l summer-produced drum-
sound, i.e., the rattling thunder of summer. '^'^S'^^'J''' king of love i.e. Cupid, Kdma-deva.
j'j|q5'y*< lit. the mother of all Buddhas ; the Goddess Tara, delivereuce or Nirvana personified.

In the Sin-ma or Karnmpa Tantrik School she is called the goddess Kuru Kulle. The later

Tantrihs make her the G-^ikli of the Buddhas. i^'n' |^'f the god who dispenses wealth ; he is

called ^''is^ the conquerable one. '^^'>''S5''''*'^ the rain of wished for things '^3 signifies, '
many '.

S*i'«^ fearful spirits who used to do mischief to the Buddhist were bound down under solemn
oaths to defend Buddhism. "S*)*^ lit. under vow or oath.

STS ('S. mudrd) mystic configuration, represented by thumb-impression on deeds and contracts of a

solemn nature. ^'''§='1 the Cycle of 60 years introduced, in Tibet, in A.D. 1026, from Sanchi

{Oridhdnya Kataka in Southern India. Its first year being designated Prabhava Rab-byun the
Cycle itself came to be known by tlie name R^b-byun. ^'^"[^^ chitra the variegated one, it is

the 16th year of the Cycle, in Tibetan ^'^'^'i? Water-va^\Q-liorse year. (See Appendix V).
^»s''^'»l«4 according to the Calendar that was introduced in China by the early members of Ta-Tuan

or the great Tartar dynasty of Mongol Emperors.

'^S^\ )

\ spring (season) month, i.e. April, called the Tiger month.

ti;(q]?ja^-§q]?j|5qi^^ the most holy mine of mercy, i.e. Boddhisaltva Mahd Kdrunika or Avalokitec7ara.
fl]i^q-^c| the sphere of Avalokiteovara's work of converting people into Buddhism. S-ypiigK

the three great Provinces of Tibet. «i'^il«i geographical divisions.

S^^^-^'Jifi the Province (where Buddhism flourished) comprised ''li*^ and '^^^ (U and Tsang).
^^"^ the name signifying the Southern country of defiles or ravines, was given to Sikkim and its

neighbourhood by the Tibetans.

Rice, ripening, lovely land, hidden place, white, cultivated field or cultivation is the full name
by which Sikkim is known to the learned of Tibet. Its abbreviation is ng^gc-Jsi land of rice-


«'Ji|'vy5«i;iq lit. the King •who Eubsifits on land produce (Bhu-lhvja). The Tibetone addreBB the

Maharaja of Bikkim as Rgsilt?^*]!^'^ (in Sanskrit, Bhu-blnija).

«q^?q veife. «ii3i»jq^«q Heaveu-protected, celestial.

HjUji^qqa tijC'^'a^cjiJ gcy^a; 5 is the pedantic name of the present Lhasa Government, Its common and
simple designation is ^'''^"IS^'I Deba-shimg the Government under a religious sect i.e., of the

Gelug-pa or Yellow-Cap Sect ; on coins its name is inscribed as "^ii^giai-Sg!^ f-Jj^ aiis)!,^ j-^ I

palace of {Tu&ita) victorious in all quarters. Tusita is the name of the Buddhist Paradise

where Maitreya Bodhwattva now presides. He is the coming Buddha.

^S'9 dominion, Government,

i^q*)'^^''!*' service as in Civil, Medical or Military Service. »<^^'^''^^^I

(in Sans. Purohita) Prime Minister.

^il5i^ official rank or dignity, fl§'^'i^'^the 8th (Dalai Lima) in succession from i^'>'^*"''5'*'^Sonam


^^^ civil or spiritual aud military. <^'5 title or order. ^c'»j'?'2I««'^^ confidential officer of state.

3«s)'«'^q uninierruptedly ; without break. ^"S^^ a chief or district officer, c'^t^i name of family.

5-^aqf»)c. a Chinese title ;39i''5'^'^il'«\C.'|s)ij| decoration of sapphire or ruby button on caps, with peacock's

feather thereon.

«iji-»j'Sjq'q~j3i'£j'33i'5 the seventh Dalai Lama Kal-zang Gya-tsho qi^jisj-qacj-jj^]

^i.^'^'^ iiai^ the war between the Gurkhas and the Tibetans. Gor stands for Gurkha, Bod for Tibet;

'^'q3«v, war ; fighting. '§515 hereditary ';y'2i'5'y^'^''5'^*>q| S»<1'^5^i§5fqI3iN (military rank)

n. of a high Chinese hereditary military Order ^'^, order or dignity.

'^q=^'5l, Ilbah for Bathang and Li for Lithang (two provinces'' in Eastern Tibet "J'v'^^c-^l si^j^'^Sfcii-q

^q^-gi,R|5,-Rii]^ those who were in Government Service. Ej^"*|^'^ brothers and sisters. ^^'f*^ (5^'

proposal or asking for giving in marriage) ^^ (promise) to give away (in marriage).

35«J by casting lots. '^q'^J"! deliberation ; in conference with.

^^^ for S"!*'''^''!^''^, to be of service, or help. *q'Sl for ^'i'^"!, together with, in company with,

gc-gc.*^l uc'that which is to be avoided or left ofi; ^^.^J that is to be taken in earnest, or done or

flj^aj-i^q^-I marriage witness, ?S also sometimes 5^, seal or seal impression. o)fl[|^-q.f]^'^^- g-S5'fli5=?j

Subhasita Ratna nidhi name of a book containing moral sayings, by Cakya Panchen Kungah
Gyal-tshan. "i'^q|''\'i| noble deed or conduct; behaviour of the great; high character.

w^q|p;i'i mean or sordid action or behaviour. ^^'I'i**! g*i'|^'^'^''^^ as in former custom or procedure,

I^R^cisl at all times, ^Ti'^'i^^ji D-Sjoj cannot be broken. the knot or tie of

marriage solemnized under the symbol of Swasiilca.

^i'"!^^ the Steward General of Lhasa. ^"I^'^^l name of an individual.


A PasS'poft and Road-bill.

This Acbarya Paron-giri was sent oq a mission for increasing baneScence. During the war
between Bhutan and India he saved many souls from untimely death and thereby accomplished a great
object. lie is hereby granted a life-allowance. "Whenever he comes to Tashilhunpo with as many servants

as he likes, (he is to get it consisting of) tea, butter, rice, meat, barley-flour, corn-flour, (food for) riding

horse, and lade animals he may have with him, all in sufficient quantity. When going to any quarters, he

should be furnished with tents, accommodation in houses, ponies or mules for conveyance, beasts of burden

and guides, &c., to help him in his journey to any place. His Holiness Blo-bzan Dpal-ldan Yecea dpal
bzan-po taking a personal interest in his welfare, grants him this letter-patent for his protection and safety,

That His Holiness' wish may be honoured by all he has fixed his own seal on it. Accordingly all people

great and humble should observe the rule (^'^'^=.''^=.'5) of "avoiding and doing ". (This letter) is dated.

(Tashilhunpo) the 1st of the 9th month, year Tree-serpent in the 13th cycle (^'J'^^') 1774 A. D.

If.B. — It may be remembered that, at this time, this Tashi Lama was the Supreme Ruler of Tibet.

Official order for Fond Allowance, S^c, to Purn'igiri.

Conformably to the wish expressed in his holy general order by Kyab-gon (Lord-protector) in

respect of Acharya Purnagiri, he will get from the Oovernment Stores personal allowance every month in

barley flour— 3 Klials of full br4 measure ; corn-flour 2 Khals ; one and a ha!f good carcase of sheep (dry or

cured in cold air) ; for his personal attendants, should there be any, 2 Khah of barley-flour and 1 Khal of

corn-flour and one sheep carcase per head. If he has any horse for his personal use, one hre measure of bran,

for use with water. All these provisions should be of the best (and not of inferior) quality. This order-
voucher is dated year Tree-horse, the 25th of the 11th month, in the 13th Oyole, 1763 A. D.

Road-bill to Acharya Dharjir-gir.

The Qan-pos (village elders or head-men) and the '^»J=.«^ common people, Jong-Pons and Shi-Pons
(subordinate jditgs) residing on the road from Lhasa via Tashilhunpo and Phagri to India, be sure
that under order of the Chief High Imperial Commissioner and Confidential Minister Tung-thang Chenpo

Acharya Dharjirgir and his servants bringing letters of the Shahehs from Calcutta, while travelling back (to

India) at whatever place they may halt or stage, should be supplied with provision for journey, food, fuel,

two saddled yaks, 5 riding ponies for their conveyance, and ten lade animals with two attendants or eoolies

at every stage.

The letters with enclosures, silk scarves, &c., from Tung-thang Chenpo to the Shnhebs of Calcutta
being forwarded by the hand of this (messenger) to a great distance, there should be not the least
detention or delay in the transit on the way by the Jong-Pons, Shi-Pons, Gan-po and the common people.

It is important that nothing ncours lite rambling about on throwing off (of the letler). The date

of the starting of this (messengor) being noted in the liegiater of the Yamun of the Resident Anapa,

Iftzinoss (on the part of the authorities on the way) will surely necessitate subsequent inquiry. For this

reason, do the needful and avoid negligence, &o.

The guide and his servant should be supplied with two through relay ponies from Lhasa I'ia

Tashilhunpho to Pnagri and back, besides food and fuel at the halting stages. These should be collected

and supplied.

Carry out the above ofScsial order of Pass-port and Road-bill issued by the Qyal-wang-chog (Dalai Lama).

Wnter-ox year, 13th of the 2nd month.

§"i^'|,^S'°"^''^S'\ lam-hkhyod on the road for going to India.

f^'^'I ioijong authorities ; "1^^ for shi-kha authorities.

9\^ for Gambu head man {Panchayit man). '>!«=.*' common people ;
5fcs) q>,i|gl^ cj the Emperor of China.

i5'»lRR^3i(2i5j'gqj?g tiie Chief High Commissioner.

^^'^^ Confidential Minister; I'^'S"! on the return journey.
^i)^''!! * halting at noon and "1^1 staying at night.

f s»j- for '<%'S'^ same as |^») *n' provisions &o. for a journey ; road-provisions.

§'«q*j "^c'lai relays at every stage; "J'^"! ponies supplied by village people, free of

cost. ^^p"'i'*< ladeo animals such as donkeys, yaks, ponies carrying lo ids ;
*'^'')'< fixed staging or halting

places ^'^^ oooly without load on his back ; '^g ''iT'^I collect man and conveyances for despatching ;
"itEjC = w^^f

^^i this man i.e., here this messenger ;

^"j'^'g official communication.

"I^'^'^^ enclosure or accompanying presents.

^=.|3'^ idiomatically sigilN to expedite despatching.

'^*^''^$'S falling on the way ; "^^^"^l^-^ delay and obstruction.

gS^'^s) the least, slightest. IS*^*' for '^S^'^, rambling about;, throwing off.

g^ losing; S'^ in the event of doing; M'^ time of starting or issuing; Ampa Chinese Imperial Resident.

"(^^ (Ohinese-ofEce) ; "ll^-'H Government Register.

'^f?«^?icq noted down ;
°) 't''!^ laziness or relaxation.

-<i^'2 in the event of occurrence ;

1*1 "1^^ reminder or Ta-heed ;
3=- what is to be avoided ;
g^-*' what is to

be done as in duty bound, i.e., taken in earnest.

\-'f\ a guide, one knowing the place ;

fc.'!"! through journey from yo^^jt (district) to another yon^.

njis^sj for iII'-^'^S^'5 Tashilunpbo (the grand monastery of).

^'1^''. He protected of Heaven. The name by which Emperor Kuenlung was known to the Tibetans,





The TALAI LAMA, presents his best compliments. Himself and Court, journeying pleasantly, have

arrived. Thanks for the excellent arrangements made by the British Government for their residence here. A
statement of their difference with the Chinese Ministers has been sent to the Viceroy. Should the Govern-

ment, taking up the cause in earnest, provide for the present and future (state exigencies) and extend help

and protection accordingly, he btgs to say that these kindnesses will afterwards be gratefully borne in mind.

At present, in the hurry of business, this letter to avoid being sent empty, is accompanied by a long silk-

scarf containing holy inscriptions, an image of Buddha of great sanctity, one bell and Dorje, gold-dust

weighing 15 Tolas and 5 pieces of best satin of variegated colours.

EfRfS'^ (^tfaelf and "^f^^ Court or Official retinue) ; '^ist'q^'S journey or travelling; '3^'i(5i-'?'a| besides being

pleasant; l'"!!^'! British Government arrangement for residence; Sja^^-aqq^^ -^ygll furnished;
; %S''%'^

n|u[5^s)^ disagreement ; help and protection ; '^*|^^'*^^'^ espousing the cause earnestly;

q^a, ^qii^'^si) kindness; Isi'qsc^^'SiI'y maybe permitted to bear in mind e'.e. will remember ; ^'gf^

lit. divine article «.e. silk -scarf ;

3^' -51 for l^'§=)^'-5'i possessing sanctity ;
^'"^"i «.e. ^'1 and "^of'S signifying

thunder-bolt and bell ;

*'^=. one pair complete, ^^ rupee.


Who is Cheerful in the Practice of Buddhism and Smiling as the Anthers of the eight Petallkd
Lotus of Youth.

In the year Tree-serpent, while at Calcutta, you made me present of a sacred conch-shell encased in a

small box. This time you have sent to me the book of the Essence of Buddhist Scriptures in Chinese, through

one Buchung of Kabng (Kalimpong). This having reached here undamaged has pleased me as a medicinal

gift. Being in good health, I remain absorbed in the thought about the welfare of all living beings.

Now, agreeably to your request, one complete set of Kahgyur, cleanly printed will soon be ready for

e'^1^ Japan; ^^i lit. by me, here used as 'myself'; *<M| aceorapanimeut; ^'> should be |s case or

vessel ; '=i'<?il5|^=.'3 the essence or pith which is most delicious. ^^i^J lately ; T^"! (for Kalimpong)
9'$c.'| name of an individual ; '^^''i constitution, body ; '^5'^ to all living beings, or moving ones
|i*i£) for W\^= f^i'i to be useful ; S'ssi-^^^g (should be e?<q«;-§'2ja*)-g for certainly presenting; ^^g'1*<*<^^ for

^3igq)*i-«^^t^- as a symbol of relics and charmed knots ;

1*^ (for if*' article or thing ;
«i'^^ for ^'^ kinds of

things, chapter in books.


presentation to the Buddhist Church of Japan). Please lot me know soon when you will come (to take

delivery of the same.) Lastly, (I wigh) you take care of your health and make progress in doing religious
works. You may send me news and topics by and by. This 'letter of auspicious date is sent with
enclosures of a scarf and silken-charmed knot and with several sacred articles together with sanctified relics.


Lately this year in the 7th month our Lord Protector Dorjechnfi, whose kindness to us all was
unrivalled, has passed away. That moral merits may accrue to all living beings, we should offer our prayers

for his residence in the holy mansion of Sakhdvati, a new sacred Mausolia should be erected to enshrine his

relics with other like objects, after former precedents. If arrangements for its construction and supply of

materials cannot be made here, we shall send orders to that direction for copper sheets &c., where these

come from. There, it is hoped, you will, remembering the kindnesses you had received while here, earnestly

exert yourself to render assistance, as one knowing the place and the market rate of things.

First (of all) the price per seir of copper-sheet which will easily take gold-gilding, should be ascertained

then the price of quick-silver of superior quality in weight, how many ounces or what quantity, in

measure, per rupee should be ascertained, before purchasing the same. What is the market-price there ; how

»j^=.5^'|»)'5)?^'« having no rival or equal ; unrivalled.

^I'l^ici Vajradhara, the supreme deity of the Lamaic school ; his spirit like the Holy Ghost of the

Christians is said to descend for inspiring the incarnate Lamas. Hence they are all designated DorJi-chaSi

or Vajradhara.

£i^e;ajj)»]|yq^ within the bounds of one's moral merits.

«$'^'q = j)-^c'£4 could not be contained or kept in.

oi|q]N|5£i'l]«\i mortal frame, in mundane existence.

S*i ';i1=.iS'5}'«3i'^C^, entering into the spiritual state of existence.

^c»(Si|!;»it)^ in the paradise of Bde-wa-chan or Suhhavati.

gft^sj before all, at the outset.

jf^-i^5i,-S'§=.-l much or less in quantity or measure.

i^'^g^*' profit arising from.

*<^'i'^^'9^"€'> secretly ascertaining by private inquiry.

fllJ^'ft^si sure and positive.

!'']«» ia
consecrated with maniras or charms.

'i^'^'I'w personal writs.


and with what profit these can be purchase! ? In ascertaining these less talk and more secrecy and quiet

Please to seud sure and correct information (on these points) by the hand
observation should be maintained.

of this man, with enclosure of a Kha-tag (silk-scarf) with consecrated relics.

giji^i*! for g'^ijjsj according to former precedents.

»(S'^'|c.-^3i'g-S the precious holy MausoHa, the grand three-storeyed lofty edifices of stone masonry

Toofed with gold-gilt copper domes, constructed in Chinese style, at Tashi-lhunpo, for enshrining the relics,

of the Tashi Lamas.



Presenting special compliments ; on hearing that you are in the enjoyment of good health at that place,

Here, in Tsang, our Kyab-je * Scng-chenDorje-chang presides

I got the rarest joy and immense delight.

over the monastery of Tashi-lhunpo. We all are happy as heretofore. I Tung Choi-dsad, herewith

present, in the auspicious conjunction of events, a light-yellow Khatag (silk-scarf) called Khalkha-choidar as

a sign of my meeting you in no distant time. The details (about here) fit for communication will be

conveyed to you by Phurchung. If you happen to send me any letter, I beg you will kindly do so by the

hand of Phurchung and not through any other person.

^ special ;
'^31 offering I'.e., compliments ; ^'f*' there, in that place; °^S'g your person ;
«iver3| the

increasing moon, crescent. ^^I'?^'' having come to the knowledge of my humble self.

«)q|^^q5«^iir«^c| incorrectly written for *^'"|'S'i5 that can hardly be got.

•^^'P here :
"H"!^' for «i!l'^*c|^3 ;
|q«j| * is same as g'^'^'st^f^ one who grants refuge in danger ; «\9^'if S'''

become head or president ;

%'^ for %^'^*i g^ little or humble self ; l^^^s^s n. of an individual. •\S''S«e«i personal

interview ;
»««i'«^^ token of meeting or visit such aa a Khatag, presentation silk-scarf &c.

Subject- Analysis.

The word 5j3f3j'q)^i;,[ Mgron-gfier literally signifies receiver or entertainers of guests. It

is generally applied to an official of the rank of Private Secretary to a great Lama or Chief.
Lama Urgyen Gya-tsho, llai Bahadur, while holding the position of Deputy Magistrate at

Kalimpong, was appointed to this Honorary Office by His Highness Thutob Namgyal, k.c.i.e.

Maharaja of Sikkim. The Lama belonged to the Gonsag-pa sect of Kham which coming from
the Do-med District of Mi-fiag, in Ulterior Tibet, had resided for some years at Lhasa
and Sakya before finally settling in Sikkim. Several of the Lama's ancestors had rendered
good, loyal services to the state for which they were raised to distinction. The Lama
had very faithfully served the Maharaja and his family during the time they were
kept as state prisoners at Darjeeling and Kurseong.

The Jongpon of Bumthang

Bhutan '^5^''^5i| acknowledges the receipt of a letter and
presents comprising of a stone ChaiUja and other articles sent by the Japanese Buddhist monk,
Ekai Kawaguclii. He writes him to say that he was pleased with the letter. He was
unable to send for the Kahgyur (Enoyclopoedia of Buddhist Scriptures, in 108 volumes)
of Kham, Derg^print on account of the disturbed state of that country. He has heard
from rumour that the printing establishment at Derg^ had recently been burnt by the
Chinese soldiery. If, however, the rumour proves false, he will send his messenger with
caravans proceeding to Kham to fetch the Kahgyur. He encloses a silk scarf for the Lama's


Here is an enumeration, in Sanskrit, of the names of the cycle of sixty years that was
current in Southern India, i.e., in the regions to the south of the River Narmada. The cycle
is called Vrikuspati Chakra. It is stated in the Kala Ohakra Tantra that itwas introduced in
Uttara Oambhala being taken there from Cridlianya Kataka in very early times. According
to Tibetan historians, Chilu Fandita introduced the cycle, in Tibet, in 1025 A.D., where it is
from the name of the first year of the cycle. Uttara
called Rab-byuD, in Sanskrit Prabhaua,
Oambhala was the name by which the capital of the Bactrian Empire of the Eastern Greeks
was known to the Mahayana Buddhists. I may identify it with the Sanskrit, Balokshya
mentioned in Ksemeudia's AvadCina Kalpalatd.


Sarat Chandra made arrangements for his journey, employing Lama Tshering Tashi and Paldor
to go with him to Lhasa. Early in the morning of the 25th of the 3rd month, year Wufer-ho'Se 1882, after
making reverence to Lama Seng-chen Rimpo-ehe, he sought refuge in the Three Holies and obtained his
blessings. Then, receiving a fare-well scarf from the hands of Kmho Tuug-chen, he started on his journey.
The way lay along the thinly wooded banks of the Myang-chu, a tributary of the Tsang-po. Reaching
Gyan-tse, he interviewed Lha-oham Kusho in Phala's residential Villa callel Qongyal-gah. Her ladyship
request&i him to give some medicine to the De-pa of her Gyan-tse estates who was ailing for some timea
That officer entertained the party with tea, Tibetan dishes, etc., making presents of some fine blankets to
Sarat Chandra. These he respectfully returned. Then travelling eastward and keeping the Shi-kha of
Depon Chang-lo-chan he passed by the Gelugpa monastery of choi-ph<jlling and Da-khyud village.

He then passed a stream coming from the distant snows and the road to Phagri beyond which lay
the monastery of Ne-fiing. On both sides of the way there were villages, some of which possessed many
deserted roofless houses. He then passed Dsing-rag, formerly a battle-field. Passing by the monastery of
Qe-neu-sum and walking with difficulty on a narrow pathway he crossed tlie bridge called Kudoong Zxmpa
and arrived at the villaga of Gobshi where Lha-cham was staging. Here not being able to secure a good
lodging, he spent the night in a horse-stall underneath a house. By exposure fo cold and snow-storm at night,

he fell ill. Next morning, being informed that Lha-chan Kusho had left Gobshi, though still very bad in

health, he proceeded towards Ralung. Passing by the Ningma monastery of Kha-vo, he reached lla-Iung,

where, in a corner of the big house where Lha-cham's party was accommodated, he spent a sleepless

night. He resumed his journey in the morning, amidst snow-storm and rain. Tliis increased his illness.

Passing by the right flank of Kharula, he came to the foot of the snowy mountain called Noijin Khang-zang

Then proceeding on his journey, he arrived at a place called Ziwa. In the evening, he reached Nagartse.

(Nang-kar-tse) Jong situated on the shore of lake Yamdo Yunutsho. Hero, his illness having taken a bad
turn, he was unable to travel towards Lhasa in the company of Lha-cliam. The kind lady gave him

a letter of introduction to her cousin, the incarnate Dorje Phagmo {Vajr^i-varahi), the Lady Superior of

the great monastery of Samding. He then slowly rode towards Samding. He stayed for a fortnight in

the house of one Namgyal, receiving medical treatment from two Tibetan physicians. The incarnate Dorje

Phao'mo very graciously expressed much anxiety oa his account, the illness being acute bronchitis. She sent

provisions consisting of barley, flour, tea, butter, mutton, salt, etc., for him. Piecovering from his illness he

slowly proceeded towards Lhasa and made pilgrimage to the sanctuaries there. He had the audience of

the Dalai Lama on the topmost storey of Potala.



A CLEAR exposition of the doctriue of le-embodiment of the souls oi Bodhimllvas ingeceral, and incarna-

tions of Chanre-aig in the Dalai Lamas, An enumeration of the first six Dalai Lamas. The present Dalai

Lama's career delineated, his flight to Mongolia, visit to Peking, and return to Lhasa described. Tlis

flight from there and coming to Darjeeling in I909-10.

An enumeration of the one hundred twenty-five great acts of Buddha (^akya Muni from the time birth

of his to his death, and The places where he resided &c.


Forms of Correspondence.

I. Letters to be addressed to Jong-pons, De-pa classes &c.

II. Letters to be addressed to one's equals.

III. Letters to be addressed to one's parents,

IV» Letters to be addressed to ladies of high rank.

V. Letters to be addressed to ladies of ordinary rank,

VI. Letters to be addressed to one's wife.

VII. Letters to be sent to women of humbler classes

VIII. Letters to be sent to one's subordinates and servants.

IX. Letters to one's relatives, senior in age and to superiors.

X, Letters to one's relatives, junior in age c&c.

XI. Epistles to intimate friends.

XII. A letter from De-pa Nor (gye) pa.


The love-songs of the sixth Dalai Lama, Tshang-yang Gya-tsbo.


Tlie Bhoteas (Tibetan settlers in Sikkim and Bhutan) while picknicking, of which they are very

fond, drink munca (half -fermented millet served in bamboo jug, filled with boiled warm water ; this they

suck through a reed. Munca drink seems more to excite than to debauch the mind.
An account of the Pilgrimage of
Ekai Kawaguchi to the great Sanctuaries of Tibet.

'^?J'q»s'I^'^^'^3j'a]i^3i-5)^| qs;,'^Y^^'^^'=I§^'^''S^'! =I'r]'=,'q^3j-q§q'ij^'5Jw|';,'?,| M

^^•:i]3i5i'qjB'al3j'|3i'|-^r| ^=r|'2j'-^§^'^q'g'j^-|'^-Sq2j| <j |^'$j^-^c'«):t]'^qr^si'«^r|

qTi'^54'|^-2|-^-i^q5j'^c-«i| q^5|'3|5<'q^-^'^''!5'!t||5<'layi q^q?j'%-55v«l'«.|'5CI^'5^| S

^•Qj5^--^'|'q^:;^ai'^'j;iEaj| qS=tl'^«)'^«^''5!'0-f'q'«)l |3i'|5<'5«;)'§'D'j;$l^'aj|

qV«Y^''^^'Pi''*'^''=^^^^! I* ?>'ai5l'aj5)'^va,f'q-';,c'| 5j^j;,-^3)'<^5j'«j5i'5iEaj'q'5,r(


5<CJj|'|«l'|5i'^5)-Soj-3''«Ji li:ri'§'§-^'qi^3j'^'qq^ jjo c!jc:5j-S3i'q«;,'5)^'g^-§!ri'«^r|


E'^C5j'^rqvqf!r|§j'::i"w)l «^q|'q-^^'-^?j'x.q'jaj*3;ii3j '51511 ^^j'aiai§)*|q]"l3|':r|5jrg!r|«i'^5^5j]

^•^Iqj'^sj-^-q^q^l'q'SC'l i)^ I
V^i^'*^^' V^'3=^'=^«)'f I

«;,q!il'^«^'';('T|5,'q-^r3j5i'5ti «)-^§i'^3i§j'^'|ca'2j:i;,'5,Eq| ^^ i^'^c'i3|-£j^'ii[C5j'Qs;,§i-^l

^c'gc'g^tl's^'Tji^'t^ylqsji ^'lai'^'qarsfsliai' ^-ai^jj ^5j'3f5j'5q'^?i'^5j'q't;,c'i jj^^

• f«i'^5|q, ^A^-iJ^v t ^i«-^q|*<* Ekai in Japanese. t «*a'^ 1897 A. D.

uisjg by thiB DBine Eatmundu the Capital of Nepal is known to tii& Tibetans.
[5i;-2J'|'q'gV3i5J'^| qc'q]«Y='"^3i'^'q!il5j5)'q'q]^x.| ')^ |«;,^5|Vs."g^'5c;'grQ,t5'q'Qj^]

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g]rl3i-|ii-'^qq'§-=^2T]?4-| ^-Qi'^^-slt^'^-ljl-ldii ^'aj''5jf ^' jsj'q^^-q^l


s,^'q^5j'f'q*^-^§'2)'^i5=^'|| q]C^'^3j'2l-S^-5jE2i-q-2j^] rr |
^sr|'q'k'^'TiQ,'q^-|ac$j-»^ |

''l-*l'|'l"^'^'=f|'^'^^' «;;,q:ii'5)V^!iirq'|c'^^-q|^I q|3i54'q3C-|q5j-§5j-qs;2f|-5)'^--«)'c.l ??

IV5=!5<-S^VI^'iC-q'^| '^•^•f=^^'l'|''N3'^l * *.S'q3r2|-:^-^,c-q^3j'||

«^$ji^'5jl3j-^'^'f,2Cq-«^r| ;|c-|-i3i'2|-:Ti^rq-aj5)| ?m iqir$J'^?i'|5J'^-^fq-5^c'|

|r'«;,r$iai'^5|'q^VP'^^-I £t]c?)-aj-5j:)3J'3j«)'2i|C«j'^'qa'^ I
:T]C5j'|«<'j)5i|'^c'4q|'^-S |

^rij|^'|^-«;,c'|qi«)-q'^5l 1
ajc'C'($c'Ssv'q5-|=K,-wjc:'| ^•^»k'5,|'q^'^«<'j|5j5<'|5< \

2^c*|-|'gr^'|QJ'q''^c-| «jc'«jC'|aj-^-ajr^'cf I
^S |
^fl^'q-^qjJl-Us'l'c'q-ai^ I

ql-q-s^Tl^q-gvlaj-aj^^ |
§}^-^r£C'gr'Q,g':^-^^-^| |

• |<7In| 1900, A.D.


^E:'q^di'§{5j'2J-3r^-|ai'|?j| g'3'^3i'?q]'f'£5'q^^ |
55,'g51'q^3j-q^'£l|p|'aj'Q^i?l [

<;,si'S'5)-^q-c|^'ql?3j-q3^-g,5j *
^ I g'f c'g'q|^'S^'^':^^^'| ) jjc'^'aq'STsi'q^q^l'q'aisj

Qr|q-?)5j§j-|s^-^ajrq-^r| s^qjc^-^ai'g'")-?.^'!?'^^ 5^^-'5i^5j'|E:-qi55l':i]3jrqs.'|i;


llc'^'ilai'2JV|Vq'5l5Jl ^o I

Sl'U^'^'^'Vf^ I'l^q'^Jf^^i'^I^'^lVq'^^l l^'lqi'q^^Tl'ai-li^'q'ail

|E(|'^'|qi'qgai'?fQj'q^-S?^^ I
^•cii-q^q]'§)$j'5|3j'^«;,q?j'q |
^^ [
^^•3j«^'|s)'qv|'S'^'ai^ |

9}a;j^'ai^'5f(ai'q':rj'^-5-a& ^C^l'l^^'S^^'lq'q^q]'^:!]'^ ^«^

I | ^^'|'li3i'§^'2^3i'q^'g|

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^^'s;,5|-$5j-^'q-si>;^'q=^-5| ^M I
V5^^'§'ai^'g'5j-aj| |qil^'|'^'^^'«^qc'^'§ [

8r-5j^i^'q|^c'gz?l^'^|i55|'^'?«l |aj'i5q5J'i3j*2:I^'?)5,'$<'«r|C'| ^^
[ I I
I'q-q^f'f '^5j''^S^'^^ I

V^c'q«^!il'^5^-^'5<'^ I
a;3j^'q^'q^i^'3j'|3j'qs^'«^c'| ?^^*i'Qj-q=N-ls'^|C'q3;;5^3^ 1^^

c;-^'|'$j^ai':il6|3j'5lV5,| q^q]'Qj'|'|E:'q'w)^'qik I'S'jj'a'q^-ll'irq^

1 |

* f'n*) gs., 1901, A. D. t ^'?% 1902, A. D.

«)'^»^'^^'|q'=J'^c-| Mo

q^3i'^^%Pi's,54'"^q'i's'g*l I

q^qi-Qj-^q|-qgQJ-y^^'5)«^-|c-| ^•^sj^q-gi^-q^-gq^'g'^'^l

wjj^'^^''^'2j'^j;'c^SJ'q-«;,c-| m^ I

|'£r|^-q'5)3|'Ea>'q3i'3|«J| ^^

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|5j'"j'q|X>'(^i?^'5,-(5-q'«sr| sl'a55j§j'iiaj-gi^'q1^3i'x,-3|5i|

^i^-q^-f^-5|5j-Eq'y^-f^| ^•3i^'|-q-g'y=«^-^2il I

j|5j'qV5^'q51'|=r|5J'|'a^ II
»^ I!

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fSjsil^J'l^'^s^'I'qTl^-q^'Yujri Sl^'q^j'^'^Js'^'^q-q'^c'i ?

w4rs«r|-^q'^^-^Jaj-|;|»k| |-q]3^'qQi't^cy£5e^'^aj'^,| ^s,;wjc'qf-qx,-^'|»;-^l ?


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I'^q-qi^c^sN'aj^J'I'qji^'qi^^JI M I

^q'5'^-«)-q^-5;|i$l$j-^i 5C'|q-qjj)$i-q=c-5)C-2Ij;>'5,Eaj|



$=5?i 1903, A. p. t^''''S% 1905, A,D,

5r|q'-^c-?5:^'-^-|l^3ii f


qil«)'q^-|q]^-';|C'5ji5i'q3r^'5J§J| 3;c'J^qr5lV^^'5|!T|'|-qq$J| j)^

[qp'^oj'^-SJ^S'qTirq^oj'qiM Jr]3jc'q^'^^3;-q^'zij^5|'^^'^|

qTjrq^ai'^Si'^'^-d^SlsN'^l ')''

I'lc-qj^C-qj^-gSJ^l'^S.-qT]:!] |



5jJJ-5jpi-'^!T|'q'^5i'^'|"'«)| 5l'5!t]'^5;-=;i;'|q5j-q^'S|


qp-Jji'§-5J^'qT|rq^'3j-KQJI ^a§j'j^^-|«J'qT]q'q|3^'^C-| q|'3i'C!|Sk'Jii«|rc,asj'5i;^rq^"^|SsI ^j

|5i'q^'Eq'^3j-jai'p5;i§i'§| |q'g'l3j-2Jj^'|'5|-5)| ,,


Q,|-5i-^'q'^^C'|i^-^( 5,3i'5'qs'q^'^^«<'^'ai«)|

^Qi'a^V=^'F'^-|q'2ri 5^c|'^':i|?q|'^c'si'5jfrq^

5|EQJ'3i^'^q]^'q's^q:j]-5l^'gq |

+ 4 g=^' 1913, A. D.

^fq^-5)'^^'|^^^5J-^Y'^i «N5C5^-^qr2j^'aj5|-fi)q|-|I ^3)'2r^'^'5Cq]3jr.q^| ,^

^V'^='^g5«'1'::«»'ai5)'^3i'3i |
qfaj-:^i;,'q,= !i|'^|V&5j-3i''*jc'| gqsS'!ii^^-5l!;,'q^-2j5j-^i:,'^||

|'|r:i]|r3i«j'ai5)'^'2j I ?s ] ^^-j'^jj-JJ^'qiiril'lv^ri s-qrq-al^j'BjsS'gvq^^'i^ |

q';,^-^'qf3j'^V%^l'q«)5i'«irj g'2I|^'|'!3q'^^3j'al3j'|«<
^J^^J'^^sj^J-oi^J'^'lai-qi^'^^l ^«

q;^q^'q)?j-:^S|-^§,'|^'q-j^r| qTl^^'q^a^'^q-q^-^ai'lj^-S!:'! Qtq|5<'|5,'g:^'^5^'^q'|V5^r|

SC'|=l'^f^^'ciar5jE5|'q'5j ^5 |
qT|Vq'^5j«<-s^-^5j'gi^-q^ q?5j-^3j"^'^5J'^r|Tq'5C'[

q^54-!I1^3j-|jI]^'2J^'^'q|'-q|^j !l]5i54-J^E2l'q.|'^r'rj3j'|3j'cj§J l54'|Y|q5<'2J'|!J|5<'|'^ ??

| I

^5,c'q?,!i|'|'E.^'qoi'|'»^^'|c'i5^'Ti^'T]''ii'^'?-|'-«|§l'';q'|'$)¥5<'§jJ^'«jrj5s'=»l'^f'q'S^'I %'3J5<*^^'



^c-3j?j'^'|'|'^qi'q'S§j'q§'Jl]'^5)'^']^'|'|c-%^-^-|'3|':^'lJ^-Tl^-T]''yg'l§<'§^'y^ |1 'H^'^'^'T]'^^'^'^'!^'^''! |

* ^J^^j 1915, A. D.
BOOK 11.


The Text of Situ Sum Tag



(Pages 1—88)


A Commentary on Sum Chupa and Tag-jug-pa of Thon-mi SamBhota


An Index of Grammatical Terms



(Pages I— V.)

Page. *= Line. ^m For. "^'^ Read.

„ ^ „ ^'> „ %'«-^'»ii-a

^ '<^
„ !>" „ ,,

!>' „ "^
„ £9

„ P9 „ 9'^ „ "I^^^"

„ 99 „ 9^ „ S'^S^

P^ „ 0^ „ W«

„ ^^ „ P^ „ qjC |)<^qi^E.-5j^ SI

)> ° » )» All

s^ „ p^ „ 'q^»«;

«^C-q5-qi]'^-gi<N-q^Ji-q^-qi^!SCai'»)E.<^''?«Iiq-^*(«|-|^'^i^q5'iijq^-5l«^'q-«^C-| |-f|C-aiE,-5| g,q^-<J]3iN'q«?J''5'\'mi^S'»l'^Ev''^|ail5^'q's)'^'qV«^aV


«^qq-c^-^^-^l ^5-s-^5-«^a^'^''^^^'«p^'q"^'g]iI?^'q-»ie,-ti5'«^95^'g'S)c^'5i-ql->^q'g-q|«^-q-5-'«)-?^»j-|''^5^l iS5q-|-j'sjq'gt-$q'^«5»'

«^q5-q'iir'^!i ^c''^«^'3"^-^q»il£'<I'5!'^'i^'q5j'B'^'y^'53i'§' j<5^'i^«il?i''j5oj«i'^-q5'^-'5'| q|-5-^'^fl!'q5'?tE.5|-t^f (


q|3i-aiN'|'3iE,'q)'^'l|'q'«E,'qV|C,51'%'q|3i-q?*I'*(C'q^'«5'Jl'q'q|3i'3i*j-i5j^|q]-q5'2| |'«p^'«'5^'|'11 ^5•o)^^'^tl3^^5\^115l•'^l|'T|?^•

«lg»(*^ 5'5)51
' '
S\^ I j'Ji'q-g-';i'Ti^-i;i«-m?^-^:^N'«5-qfV'''^'^S'^'''rs'''^''i3*'^=-' I

q5-q|3i-ql??^-qg5^-i3|-?;q]?l-q«i'^-q5^-a'T]-q p5l-q^aiq-q^Si-'^-^35-q|3i-qa!;g''q?J-g-gN-q5-o|*4-§'?'ll'«-^C'qi,'§»^'? ^51'3]1IN-S ^'ai*)"


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q'R\«^'I]is(<^|q]-q^A'^'^-q5|^q q^^qq^ |5J '^q!I|H|g«-|?l-gg^«^qqi'q't^?5(yq>^'g'( |

^•i;i?igci|!NVg*)§'«)5l|3C.R*^-qq l qf^ qt^^'STWq"

81' qi^uja^- s|i]- "^E^ •

f^iai- qf a( I
l-q-q^sj-?;'^! T(3i-gcfitai»»'q^'|*;'q'^«^A«fl|?qoj'^§-»4p*)'qJi««j'ni'^q'g''il*j'3|'^C'qi^3i'«ic-'ii^a^-^-^-gV»)a(-q*i-|-!5'S)'y-35

t5^g«5q-s;c- 1
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