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Management skills

Technical skills

- Technical skills Involves understanding and demonstrating

knowledge and proficiency in a particular field.

Conceptual skills

- Conceptual skills is the ability to think analytically, develop ideas

and solve problems creatively.

Human skills

- Human skills involves human relations or the manager’s ability to

interact and work well with others.

Managerial roles

Interpersonal roles

- Concerned with relationships with other people

Informational roles

- Concerned with the information aspects of managerial work.

Decisional roles

- Required to plan strategy and utilize resources.

- Managers use information to make decisions, solve problems or

take advantage of opportunities.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Physiological needs

- Most basic human needs such as food, shelter,, clothing and water

Safety needs

- Basic needs for safety and security

Belongingness needs

- These relate to the desire for social interaction, relationship and

friendship with others.

Esteem needs

- Relate to the desire to feel good about oneself and receive

recognition from others


- Relate to the desire for psychological development and growth to

realize one’s full potential as a human being.

Process of management


- Setting appropriate objectives

- Establishing appropriate strategies to accomplish them


- A process of arranging and co-coordinating organizational

resources, particularly human resources, to carry out the
organizational plan

- Organizing Performance: finished goods and/or services. Achieves

organizational goals and objectives effectively and efficiently.


- A process of motivating subordinates, and inspiring others, towards

achieving the organizational goals


- A process to ensure that performance is as planned and taking

necessary corrective actions/change when needed.
- Controlling resources: people, money, materials, technology,
information machines, and facilities.
Human Resource Management

- HRM is the activities and practices to plan for, attract, select

develop and retain human resources, to achieve the organizations

- To determine the best use of the talent and skills available to

accomplish the organizational goals.

HRM process

1) HRM planning - Determine human resources needs

- Process of reviewing and identifying future staffing needs of an


- Ensures that the required number of qualified employees is

available at the right time

2) Recruiting – Attracting Qualified Employees

- Internal recruitment – attracting current employess to apply for job

openings in the organization

- External recruitment – involves obtaining applications from

individuals external to the organizational

- Methods of recruitment : media advertising through radio,

television, newspaper, magazines etc. Employment agencies such
as public(Ministry of Human Resources) and private(head hunter
companies) employment agencies

3) Selection - Attracting Qualified Employees

- Process: - screening applications and resume > selection test > job
interview > reference and background check >selection decision >
physical medical examination > new employees

4) Training & Development – Develop Qualified Employees

Process of training and development

1) Determine training needs

2) Establish training & development objectives

3) Select training & development methods

4) Implement training & development programs

5) Evaluate training & development programs

Various Training Methods

- Lecturing/classroom-based programs

- Mentoring and coaching

- Case study

- Simulation exercise

- Films and videos

- Apprenticeship

Benefits of training and Development

Better performance

- Highly skilled employees are more likely to perform better in their


Higher retention

- Employees will likely to stay with a company that values personal


Improved recruiting

- Today’s job applicant is looking for an environment that foster

personal growth and development.

5) Performance Appraisal - Develop Qualified Employees

A process of evaluating employees performance against predetermined

criteria or standards. The purpose of having performance appraisal: -

- Judgment purpose – results of performance appraisal will be used to

provide data to assist other human resource decisions such as
salary review, promotions, transfer and terminations

- Development purpose – weaknesses are identified and will be used

to determine training needs.

6) Compensation – keeping qualified employees

- Direct financial compensation : - salary(financial reward calculated

on the bsis of time or duration either monthly, bi-monthly(every 2
month), weekly.) Wages( financial reward calculated on the basis of
time worked

- Indirect financial compensation: - legally required benefits by

Malaysian law(rest day, public holidays, annual leave, medical/sick
leave, maternity leave, SOSCO, EPF. Voluntary benefits NOT
required by Malaysian law(marriage leave, paternity leave, study
leave, pilgrimage leave, health care, loan, meal allowances,
childcare facilities.

7) Employee Relations – Maintaining good relationship with qualified