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Geographers and the Tennessee Valley Authority Author(s): Ronald Reed Boyce Source: Geographical Review, Vol. 94, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp. 23-42 Published by: American Geographical Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30033951 . Accessed: 24/05/2011 15:30
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VALLEY AND GEOGRAPHERS THETENNESSEE AUTHORITY*
RONALD REED BOYCE
ABSTRACT. TennesseeValleyAuthority (TvA) was the largest,most comprehensive,and The
most controversial regionaldevelopmentand planning projectin U.S. history.Geographers were involved from its inception and made impressivecontributions.Aside from the unit areamethod of data gatheringand mapping,little is known about their contributions,some of which were truly ahead of their time. Although their work and recommendationswere often discardedand unheeded because of political turbulence,the geographersrarelycomhas plained or enteredinto the political arena.Their work in the TVA generallygone unheralded and even unappreciated within the geographyprofession.The primarypurposeof this article is to document their contributions.Keywords: geographical synthesis,Tennessee Valley tradeareaanalysis,unit area method. Authority,
Franklin Delano On 19 April1933, afterlessthanone monthin office,President
Roosevelt eloquentlyarguedbefore the U.S. Congressthat the comprehensivedevelopment and planningof the entireTennessee Valleydrainagebasin would be an important antidote for the Great Depression. He insisted that the project "transcends mere powerdevelopment:it entersthe wide fields of flood control,reforestation, elimination from agriculturaluse of marginallands, and the distribution
and diversification of industry" (quoted in Rosenman 1933,123). In fact, the project
would requirethe planned and coordinateddevelopment of all the resourcesin a seven-state area (Clapp 1956, 6). When PresidentRoosevelt signed the Tennessee
Valley Authority (TVA)Act on 18 May 1933,he launched the largest, most ambitious,
and unquestionablymost controversialregional development planning project in U.S. history-and the only such projectever undertakenin the nation. The TVA organizedinto about a dozen divisions and severaloffices, each was with a numberof subsections.Eachunit would have considerableauthority,and its leaders were to be encouragedto offer suggestions for achieving the general TVA goals.An activeand involvedthree-manboard would make final policy.All hiring and firing was to be nonpolitical,and advancementwas to be by merit and performance only. Most novel, and very controversial, how the TVAwould take over was the functions of half a dozen governmentbureausand agenciesin the TVAwatershed (Lilienthal 1953).
The generalgoals of the TVA were to improve agriculture,industry,and commerce and to elevatethe generalstandardof living in the region. Farming,the priF. Marion Marts, Gilbert White, D. and Martin critical for I wishto thank E. Chauncy Harris, Geoffrey guidance in in the earlystages thestudy. alsoowea special to themany of I whoprovided information letters debt people of as reference librarian theTennessee for all andinterviews, wellasto Edwin Best, J. Valley Authority, verifying the of of while the reviewers thisarticle anonymous particularly three writings geographers at theTvA. wishto thank I Thanks to DominicWilliamson Andrew also and Instructional for theirhelpfuladvice. Rodman, Technology Seattle Pacific for the for I the Services, University, preparing illustrations publication. Finally,wouldliketo thank and for of Johnson ViolaHaarmann, alltheirassistance. editors the Geographical Review, Douglas
At- DR. BOYCE a professoremeritusof is 98119.
The Geographical Review 94 (1): 23-42, January 2004
Copyright © 2005by the AmericanGeographical Societyof New York
1 OCOEESNO. that .NANTAH)LA JONTANA. Dams rCHER. K and cumberl Chattanooga STEAM WATTS BAR. KENTUCKY Tennessee PADUCAH rississ Memphis planned.OKEE . hior KENTUCKY' Paducah er riv ISS M ippi miles 23 kCairo.3 300 _AV 5Bristol C. N. Asheville 685. CHICKAMAUOA HALES HALES OF GUNTERSVILLE 275 259 WHEELER reservoir Authority) and for plan theTennessee the and of 1930s thecourtesy in Valley (Reproduced PROFILE dam Valley TENNESSEE Nashville TENN E L RM GUNTERSVILLEW AIA.1 471 431 A. 1-The were FIG.'HOLSTON "WATAUGA gates sea of height UQUCLAS 629.8 815 595.4 375 LLE above 650 KNOXVI inundations OnfributaryStreams LOUDOUN FORT BAR WATTS HIWASSEE CHEROKEE FONTANA 602 reservoir GLENVILLE.24 THE REVIEW GEOGRAPHICAL So.4 507.3 418 745 556.1 RIDGE NO. WILSON PLANT 207 THE river see LSON STEAM WI IjILSO4N WH tennes PICKWICK PICKWICK mouth above . NORRIS HIWASSEEi CALDERWOOD APALACHIA CHEOAH SANTEETLAHI BLUE NO. Y. G CHICKAMAUGA BAR LS BAR FALLS BAR PLANT WATTS River GREAT TENNESSEE THE 349 construction.CHATUGE DOUGLAS LOUDOU.NI FORT rNOTTELY NORRIS 530 extensive the RIVER Note Storaqe VALLEY FKnoxvilej.
The Universityof Chicago urban and regional geographerCharlesC.86-87).town planning. included Malcolm J. Workon the Wheeler Dam in Alabama. forestry. The geographers the Division of LandPlanningand Housing undertookfive in tasks:datagatheringand mapmaking. Most of the geographers remained with the TVA only a few years. who had just completed his doctoral dissertation at the Uni- of versityof Chicago(1934). Division Land The of and with Planning Housing.regionalanalysesand syntheses.and rec- .the first downrivermultipurposedam and reservoir. Allan A. The primarygoal was the generationof power from the dams to provide ruralelectrification.therebycreatinga 650-mile-longnavigation channelfromPaducah.farmmajor ing and farmsteadanalyses. conservation.which was later changedto maps and mapping and eventuallyobtained divisional status (Massa 1995). Another issue was the need to aid existingbusinessesand attractnew industry. thelandas was to that Draper architect S. to Tennessee. navigation. Donald Hudson (1934-1939).Kentucky Knoxville.architectural and aesthetic matters. and corn-on steep slopes be taken out of production and reforested. Robert M. Twitchell (1935). especially depressed.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 25 was and that maryactivity. and power) dam on the lower Tennessee. Colby (1934-1944) was retained as a consultant. Glendinning (1934-1936).primarilyfrom the University of Chicago. Proudfoot (1934-1935). Schockel (1934-1935). Victor Roterus (1935-1940).such as white planters(Leuchtenburg 1963. tobacco.conservation and recreation. Other geographers.and generalefficiency(Black2000. Earl scape was interestedin town planning. 85). towndevelopment. was appointedchief geographer the LandClassification Section. The division comprised five sections: land classification.began on 21 December 1933 (Sayford 1935) (Figure 1)." its many critics. Bernard H.The legislationalso to specifiedthat some farmlandthat had been heavilyeroded by the growing of row crops-especially cotton. Miller (1934-1944). G. created accomplish task. and to alternateconstructingan upriverfloodcontrol storagedam with constructinga multipurpose(flood control.and service and drafting. "grassroots democracy"simply meant that local Extension power groups such as the FarmBureauFederationand the Agricultural Service had to bow to TVA demands.Draper director.To accomplishthese goals the TVAwas to seek state and local cooperationthroughthe democraticprocessthat today is referredto as "grassroots To democracy. begin constructionof the Norris Dam on the to upper Tennesseeby October 1933. They left because jobs became plentiful elsewhereand for perhapsbecause much of their early expectation of large-scaleregional planning did not develop. and Howard V. particularlythose that would benefit large landholders. TVAlegislation required fertilizer and powerbe available farmersat the lowest possible prices. The regionaldevelopmentaspects of the TVAproject requiredimmediatedata in and on and scale. gathering analysis a massive particularlyagriculture.town economic-baseand trade-areaanalyses.which included most of the geographerswho worked for the in TVA its earlyyears. The immediatetasksof the TVAwereto inventoryand purchasethe land needed for building dams and reservoirs.
Overly enthusiasticadvocatesof environmentaldeterminismwere often accused of making broad generalizations about man-land relationships.his transmittallettersto his superior. a concept well demonstratedby Ellsworth Huntington (Martin 1973). whereby the physicalenvironmentwas presumed to generallydetermine the cultural response.was that one could not gather and map too many data (Jonesand Finch 1925. they were neither policymakers nor strong advocates for particular development goals.and teaching. For this article. Moreover. "Itwas concluded pher .at least implicitly.and town-impact analyses. merely an opportunity for geographersto gain employment during difficult times and to "earn their stripes" as geographers (Hudson 1976).DirectorDraper.26 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW reationalstudies. Covariationof datawas presumedto suggest powerful relationshipsfor understandingand solving problems. They wrote dozens of reports. over several decades about the role of geographers in the TVAand to havebeen eventuallyentrustedwith his privatepapers. as over the issue of enviwell as criticismfrom those in other disciplines.Finch 1933).and their generalphilosophy as to the natureof geography(Entrikinand Brunn1989). Instead. my colleague and mentor.including. The new geography philosophy.all reportsand studies in the archivesof the TVAmade by geographersbetween 1933 and 1940 were examined. even as "hewers of facts and makers of maps" (Ullman 1960).detailed. this was not a particularly noble undertak- ing.I am views with people who had contact with geographers particularly fortunate to have engaged in countless conversations with G. some geographersinsisted that very careful. By 1934geographyhad experiencedyears of bitter and divisive discussion. and This "new rigorousfield studies were the remedyfor broad spatialgeneralizations.when mapped. the work was in applied geography. The article is also based on interwho workedat the TVA. they served largely as scholar-servants. for example. area of endeavorwhich at that time was considered an secondaryto the more elegantuniversityresearch.The general belief was that such facts. To counteract this.As appliedby some.publication.Suchperspectivesprovide considerableinsight into how the geographersin the TVAthought they should report to the professionand how the professionmight view their work.particularly ronmental determinism. ranging from regional syntheses to rigorous farm. introducedthe famous field studiesand containedtechniquesthat were geography" to some degree carriedover into the initial TVA field studies.The papers provide instructive insights into Hudson's TVA experience.' In the eyes of the geography profession.the tools they possessed. the concept lackedsystematicanalysis. Donald Hudson.would suggestto a knowledgeable geogranot only what could be done but also what should be done. They made substantialcontributionsto developingthe complex data-gathering methods necessary to cover an area as vast as the Tennessee Valley drainage system. However. THE NATURE OF GEOGRAPHY IN 1934 It is important to understandhow geographersat the time perceivedthemselves among academicdisciplines.which were part of all reports.
the internal spatial structureof cities was largely left to planners.2 Geographers studied the placement of cities and their economy.that althoughthe fractionalcode method had been appliedsuccessfullyto small areas.but their internalstructure was rarelyanalyzed.as well as land adjacent to the proposed reservoirs.95).3 The TVAgeographers conductedpilot studiesin threeseparateareasof 550square miles each and tried to use the fractionalcode method developed by Wellington Jonesand VernonFinch (Hudson 1935c..farm-ownership patternsneededto be determined. and lines of properdevelopmentactivitymight be instituted"(McMurry1936.Mapmaking not considered highestform of geographical was the practice.S.Althoughthe detailedcontour maps needed for dam and reservoirconstruction were preparedby the U. To overcomethese limitationsthe TVA geographersdesignedthe unit areamethod of land classification(Figure2). was toleratedin universitydepartmentsof the day mainly to the extent that an able graduatestudent.It was too slow. too costly. phers . could make maps for the professors' papersfor the AAG.however. therebyprovidingguidance and leadershipto those in more "narrow" professions.landscapearchitects.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 27 that if the essentialfactswere known. also was not fully appreciated within the geographyprofession.CharlesColby was one of the few academicgeographers who had a high regardfor planningand applied geographyand encouragedmany of his studentsto pursue a careerin planning (Starr 1995. Unlike most other techniquesused by geographersin the TVA. and its practitionershad only second-classcitizenshipin the profession.and considerableother informationhad to be mapped.However.and too tailoredto the microscaleof the farm field. Corps of Engineers(Sayford1935).requiredprompt attentionby geographers. Farmlands needed to be inventoriedprior to purchase. an applied area. by applyingnumeric coded datadirectly 4) on maps. certainabusesmight be abatedor prevented.roads and cemeterieshad to be plannedfor relocation.and applied geographers. handy with pen and ink.there were no good base maps on which to plot such information.such as fields. this method became well known becauseit was describedin an Annalsof theAssociation AmericanGeograof article (Hudson 1936c). DATA GATHERING AND MAPMAKING The immediate task of the geographersin the Land ClassificationSection was to make an inventoryof all lands under the TVA. Town and regional planning. it was not suited to the massiveinventoryof land requiredby the TVA.land to be inundatedby reservoirs. It was also the assumptionof geographers that they should be the greatsynthesizers. It soon became clear.Consequently.Applied geographywas viewed with suspicion. 570).or base maps for the class room"(Wray1996). were consideredprimarilyas an important adjunctto the acaCartographers demic profession"Cartography.sociologists and town plannerswere the primaryexperts on such matters..
Numerous data were enteredin alphabeticand numeric code directlyon the unit areachosen. 69). The geographersdid not explainspecificallyhow the units of 200 acresor more were determined. A fiercedebate among TVA directorserupted over planning policy and the use of such data with respectto the TVAAct (U. REGIONAL SYNTHESIS AND FARMSTEAD ANALYSES The TVA geographersdid.Otherdirectorsreasonedthat the Tennessee Valleyshould be planned from the bottom up in a voluntary and "grassroots-democracy" fashion. identify S23. so their position remainsoff the record.Isopleth maps compiled on a county-unit basis documented the regional diversityof the Tennesseebasin.Hudson reasoned that the "objective the Land ClassificationProgramis to provide land of with a base of operation much like that provided the engineer through planning contour and geological maps and that provided the cost accountant through ex(1935a).S.S. Morgan.This may well have been the most data collected on such a vast areain such a short time. PresidentRooseveltfiredhim for contumacy. however.because most farms comprisedioo acres or less and contained considerablefield and crop diversity. For each unit area. were entered on the aerialphotograph. these detailedfield-generated data were never used.The criticaldata need.and the gatheringof field datain this manner was discontinued. long hours.It is also difficultto understandwhy so many datawere required.chairmanof the threeman Boardof Directors. and just plain hardwork"(1976).arguedthat such analysesshould be used for comprehensive planning. Morgan lost.was to penditurerecords" and determine "the proper use of marginal lands" (U. The units were too large for much farmsteadanalysis. Congress1933). In the end.either in the or Fieldjudg"numerator" in the "denominator" of a short or long "fraction.Hudson statedthat by employingthe unit areamethod "roughly report 20 square miles can be covered per man-day as compared to 300 to 400 acres" by using the fractionalcode method (1935b).preparea number of reports on the general state of the farm economy as revealedby the 1930 Census of Agriculture. E." part In ment was requiredfor each entry.and. in light of TVA legislation.making it somewhatsubjective. Upon submission of the Rhea County data.28 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW planimetricaerialphoBy applyingthe unit areamethod to the newly available that had been contractedby the TVA.at least fifteendetailedcategoriesof data.In his to Draper. some 16. as Hudson emphasized.A.4 the first two yearsmore than to million entrieswere made on photographicfield maps. How the TVA geographers viewed the controversy and its consequences is not clear. Congress 1933. Hudson defined the .oo000 squaremiles of territographs tory-about one-third of the TennesseeRiverwaterbasin-were inventoriedin just two years.eachwith about half a dozen choices. To a considerableextentthe speed with which the inventorywas conductedwas made possible by the largeunit area (200 acresor more) used for each parcelentry.They chose not to publish information about their work. It was an amazingachievement.it required"doggedperseverance.
cultural....4 classes Fourth Digit...... and to which land planning policies and specific judgments of the Division [of Land Planning and Housing] may be related.5 classes Denom:Land Quality One Digit..4 classes Seventh Digit.5 classes Second Digit..... and limited to readily available data... Forty-seven maps from the 193o Census of Population and Housing data were submitted between 1936 and 1937 alone (Figure 3). such as corn.. . Types of Non-Agricultural Land Denominator Seven Diits. bringing together all aspects of an area-physical..5classes ThirdDigit...... Twitchell-illustrates the type of general conclusions which can be established by the synthesis of available materials....... Studies were based on county data available from the Department of Agriculture.... by counties or groups of counties. historical-in order to gain comprehensive spatial understanding..5 classes Sample Polygons on Base MaporAirphoto 200-AcreMinimum Long Fraction: Detailed Conditions Numerator: Land Use First Digit..4 classes Fifth Digit..GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 29 TVA Unit-Area LandClasses Notation.. The present study-drafted by Allan A. they should not be minimized.5classes IV3/4 6 1N333/4132114 4122114 204 436 Acres Land: Numerator-One Digit... By identifying subregions within the TVAthey demonstrated the fallacy of the common assumption that "one suit fits all" (Garrison 1996).. Note the voluminousamount of datathat could be coded in the field.EightClasses...5 classes Sixth Digit... This kind of synthesis can rapidly be extended..5 classes Denom:Land Condition First Digit.. These maps featured critical row crops..5classes Fourth Digit.. 2-An exampleof the unit-arealand classesnotation developedby geographers the Tennesat see ValleyAuthorityfor the purposeof rapid. Land: Types of Agricultural Short Fraction: SummaryAppraisal One Roman Numeral Five Problem Classes Numerator: Quality Use One Digit.5 classes Fifth Digit.. or cotton.... Wray) nature and purpose of these studies as aiming "to furnish a perspective in which more intensive studies may be viewed... same classes as forAgricultural FIG..6 classes Second Digit... Although these attempts at regional synthesis were cursory... Regional synthesis was considered the highest skill of the geographer........large-scale datagathering.... and they showed that different approaches were needed in different parts of the Tennessee Valley........ The entire Tennessee River basin was examined...... as well as general crop- .... (Draftedby JamesR...... tobacco.... to other portions of the Valley" (1936b)........ for they may well have been one of the TVA geographers' greatest contributions... and maps for each census year were generated.. pragmatic in scope.14 classes ThirdDigit..
a long-lot farmpatternexisted. IASED ON g030 CENSUS TENNESSEE VALLEY f SURROUNDING AREA TENNESSEE DIVIS. ANDLOWER UPPER BENCHES FIRSTBOTTOMS FIG.Source: 1938. Valley. (Reproducedcourtesyof the TennesseeValleyAuthority) .Source: diversity ValleyAuthority) tesy of the Tennessee FIGURE II RIVER HUSTBURG-DUCK AREA DIAGRAM GENERALIZED AND LANDUSE OF LAND :FOREST RESIDENCE PASTURE LESPEDEZL BEANS SOY WLHE IDLE CORN GARDENS IDLE TERRACE LAND BUCKR.demonstratingthe regional 3-Geographers compileddozens of maps of the Tennessee TVA1936a. II.fig. In most instances. (Reproduced courof the areaand highlightingfarmingproblems.fig.30 THE GEOGRAPHICALREVIEW DISTPIBUTION OF C1OPI IN FAILUIE DATA BY COUNTIES DERCENT OF LAND IN FARMS.4-Dozens of farmswere examinedin the TennesseeValleydrainagearea.resultingin various Gray generalized diagramsof farmlanduse. 7.ON 10 0SCALEINMILES 10 70 30 40 50 PREPAREDAY VALLEY AUTHOPITY PLANNING OF LAND b HOUSING FIG.
. thereareno bottomlands available agricultural andconfor use the mustbe cultivated..Not only did the board disapproveof the proposal.few were adopted. are Hillsides thesection through aregashed withgullies.9). 1). Loss fromwhichmost of the farm incomeis derived. The regionalmaps allowedthe geographers focus on the problemof erosion. N.(Grayand Carringer 1939. Seizing the golden opportunity to truly apply city planning zoning law to regional planning might well have preventedthe disastersthat continued to plague farmingin some partsof the valleyfor decades(Crosswhite1963. Hudson surelyknew that the Board of Directorswould not approvethe applicationof urDivision of Forestry ban-planningprinciplesto rural areas.in terms of erosion and siltation. PresidentRoosevelthad made it clearthat applyingurban-planningproceduresin ruralareaswould be beneficial: "Manyhardlessonshavetaughtus the human waste that results from lack of planning.But our nation has'just grown.. a geographer (1935-1939). the reservoirwould flood critical bottomland and renderthe entire farm marginal. more intensiveuse of unpurchaseduplandwill follow. Unquestionably. 155). geographers Because theerosive of character the soils. 20) In a report by E. onlyresult moreintensive can in cultivation theupland of unless sources income of otherthanfarming available.The directorof TVA's Relationshad previouslyrecommendedto the boardthat marginallandsbe subject to regulationand that half of those landsbe placedin the public domain and managedlike ForestServicelands..Interestingly. to of and imparting it anappearance desolation sterility.The a consequences.at least60 percent the For of sequently uplands clearedland is idle or abandoned.. the whole. to They documented the reasons for wholesale field abandonmentby examining in detail a dozen farmsin various parts of the valley (Figure4). 15-17. Torbert.it . The general attitudewas that this kind of destructionwas inevitable:Farmers' assumptions thatthey had a rightto produceany crop they wished on theirland were at complete variancewith city planningand zoning laws at the time. of the bottomlands. Althoughstrongremedialmeasures recommendedin a number of studies.The studies clearlydemonstratedthe seriousnessof soil erosion in the basin and documented the diversityof such problemswithin the Tennessee Valley. In mostof thearea.such as those by Torbert. Here and there a few wise cities and counties havelooked aheadand planned.'It is time to extend planning to a wider field" (New York Times 1933.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 31 yield data for each. The TVA understoodwell that.In most cases. a plan for action is articu- lated in that "seriousdisturbanceto the economy of individualfarmsobviouslywill be caused by the flooding of croplandsin the Tennesseeand tributarycreekbottoms.onlythe fairly of levelportions upland of aresuitedfor cultivation. therebyobtaining a of comprehensive understanding the natureof the farmproblem..may constitutea serioushazardto the Authority's were (Torbert program" 1938.5 On the other hand.This was particularlyinsightfulin the formulationof policies for "taking" (purchasing)entirefarmsteads located near reservoirs.
this liberal land-takingpolicy was widely critiof led cized.if bottomland were lost by inundation.32 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW replacedthe division'schief foresterand adopted a formal policy of cooperative for with other agenciesas "anexperimentin education" the farmers arrangements (Artman 1956. Harold Brodsky'sinsightful article on "Retail ous models Area Overlap" (2003) is an example of such applied geographytoday. To their lasting credit.6 As might have been expected.Onceagainthe recommendations purposes management the TVA were not acted upon. groceries sugar. The La Follettewholesaletrade-areastudy is an instructivecase and indicative of the seminal nature of these studies and their possible lasting impact on professional geography. an entire farm might be made marginal. however.Hudson outlined it thus: TheWholesale Trade Areaof LaFollette delimited locating was retailunitsthat by do partorallof theirwholesale business LaFollette with firms.the TVA geographersrecommended.depending on both bottom and upland holdings"(Torbert1938. particularly they might be impactedby reservoirdevelopment. Likewise. The "overpurchase" lands. dry Data andfertilizer. even if it was not contiguous to their main operation. Theseunitsincluded in and hardware farmimplements. "aliberaltaking-landpolicy as applied to farm operators. hilly ground.7The issue became so public and so fiercethat the TVA changed its land- and access thelakes in certain places. many farmershad purchasedsome nearbybottomland. and dealers gasoline. Therefore.deliberately not engage in the argument. especiallyaround the Norris Reservoir.Geographers.137-145). Many of the farms followed a long-lot pattern:Bottomlands near rivers were farmers'choice acreage. more farms were purchasedoutright than would have been necessarysimply for reservoirimpoundment and shoreline runoff or land-restoration purposes.and put into effect. 177). on the sourceandvolumeof wholesale goodshandled these by retail units were obtained by interviewingowners or managersof retail establishments. Businessesin towns were inventoried. In addition.Consequently. to purchase public policy retained only key that was land turned tolocal over andstates recreational for jurisdictions Eventually of (Nash1956. The final boundary of the WholesaleTradeArea of La Folletterepresentsa compromisein wholesaletradeboundariesfor the five types of commodities indicated. 11).They effectivelyarguedthat.The trade-area to studies were classic spatialinteractionstudies and predecessors the more rigorof central place theory.and calculationswere made as to the on likelyimpact of reservoirs total salesand services(Figure5). to did heated public debate.the entire farm should be purchased.and farmsteadsthemselveswere located on higher.the potential for new towns and their best locations receivedclose attention. goods. geographers TOWN ECONOMIC BASE AND TRADE AREA ANALYSES Extensiveand impressivestudies were also conducted on the economic bases and as trade areasof towns. if taking part of a farm renderedthe remaindernonviable. (1936a) .
5 22. THERE HOFACTORY ARE WORKERS EMPLOYEDSODDY.1% ANNUAL SALES RELIEF ON UNEMPLOVED FARME FOREST WORKERS CLASSES BUYERS OF 'S OF TOTAL 100.. 5-Example of the retailtradeareaanalysisdevelopedby geographers the Tennessee ley Authority for the purpose of assessingthe impact of reservoirdevelopmenton urban areas.charts 9 and to. Note the tabulationof retail-tradesourcesfor each town and the probableloss in retailtrade because of reservoircurtailmentof the trade area.1 ALL CLASSES 224.0 LOSSFROM UNCLASSIFIED URBANRESIDENTS BASED ON FIELDINVESTIGATION at ValFIG. Source: TVA 1936c.900 103. I CHART 10 MAXIMUM LOSS DPPOBABLE IN PETAIL TRADE THDOUGfI RESEPVOII SEVEANCE* CLASSES OF BUYERS LOSS FROM FARMWORKERS- ESTIMATED LOSS %OF TOTAL ANNUAL SALES AHII'L.0 10.2 46. TENNESSEE TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTI4OIITY OF DIVISION LAND PLANNING HOUSING 1936 CHART 9 OF DISTRIBUTION DETAIL TDADE 1935 46.850 FARM WORKERS 23. (Reproduced courtesyof the TennesseeValleyAuthority) .7 2.745 MINE WORKERSOTWERS 50.0 35.600 OTI-IERS UNCLASSIFIED URBAN i10. SALES1935 16.377 SOME ItMCLUDES WORKKERS EMPLOYED INCHATTANOOGA.000 SERVICE WORKERS 2.5 1.250* LO'S S"mNDIRFECT 4.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 33 SODDY.5 FROM LOSS SERVICE WOIPKEI ALL CLASSES 35.362 FARM4FOQEST WORKERS 79. SOME PART tINCLUDES PERSONS OBTAINIHG OFTHIEIR INCOME FROM FARMI$N.858 PERSONS MINE WORKERS SOTHERS TRANSIENTS TRANSIENTS PERSONS RELIEFF ON 4.
LE OECATriL DAYTON ATHEN GIRAYSVILLE i 9SAUL 6A6E1- NAKFMAI SODDY CHARLESTON AISY LEGEND Dayton TradeArea Valley HYSOM Plateau (Walden Ridge) Soddy TradeArea Plateau (Walden Ridge) BARHAMAYDAM ]Valley Valley CHATTANOOGA Sale CreekTradeArea Plateau (Walden Ridge) The shapes of FIG. the various trade areas for these contiguous towns are instructive.(Reproducedcourtesyof the TennesseeValleyAuthority) .Each nodal region is elongated tangentialto the main highwaybecause of a paucity of town competition in the tangentialareasas well as the closenessof the competition of other towns beaded along Highway27. Source: TVA 1936c. frontispiece.34 TENNESSEE VALLEYAUTHORITY DIVISIONOF ANDHOUSING LANDPLANNING THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 'ROCKWOOo CHICKAMAUGARESERVOIR AREA TRADE CENTERS AND TRADE AREAS WEST OF TENNESSEE RIVER BOUNDARYOF TRADECENTER SCALEOF MILES 0 1DEC3 4 21963 TRADEAREA SPRINGCITYA IP'NEV. 6-Trade centersin the Chickamauga Reservoir areain south-centralTennessee.
in town developmentis not clear.Tennessee trade-areastudy providesanotherexcellentcase example (Figure5). and the nationalpressshowcasedit as a model town (Sample1935). One of the statedgoals of its recreationplan for the WheelerReservoir developmentof was . the TVA geographers played RECREATION STUDIES Nor is it known how much the TVA contributedto recreationand tourgeographers ism studies. if is new Dayton. Severalreports. and have clearlyfailed to compensatefor the decline of the county's extractive industries. designed by Draper.was the most famous. service erswas considered "indirect an loss. lowwagesas compared textile pay mostly plants elsewhere.Spring and that in Reservoir south-central City. 242-251).. whichis as detriment thecommunito comingto beviewed publicofficials a boomerang by ties offeringit. not the othertownsof the county.andcommunity the had Perhapsnot surprisingly. Boyce. The questionof new town developmentwas also examined. (1936. others wereimpacted theChickamauga by Tennessee 6). for which Hudson wrote letters of transmittal.and some new communities were built (TVA1937). TVA no recreationor tourism policy. What role. of Graysville. if any.but the planto use Norris as the prototypefor many other towns.and whatwe now call a"nodal of area" was identified. main in foci of attention the studiesundertaken geographers farming the were and by land"taking" issue.SaleCreek. Appropriately. It contained curved streets and culs-de-sac and was served by a parkwaydubbed a "freeway" (Creese 1990.were issuedby the Division of LandPlanningand Housing." trade-area Comparable impactstudieswere conductedfor the communities Daisy.but primarilyin the contextof how reservoir the development mightbenefitthem in the future. jobs.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 35 A hierarchy goods and serviceareaswas delimited. impact.Recreationand tourismwere mentioned in a numberof other reportsas well. The town of Norris.was abandoned. (Figure Thesestudiescontainsomevisionary with regard the growing text to practice of community As noted: enticement industry. It was estimatedthat Soddy would lose 16 percent of its retailsales be- causeof the expected Reservoir withinits trade construction the Chickamauga of Thislosswascalculated thebasisof diminished of area. loss of service in The workworkers. Dayton.In 1948 Norriswas privatized and purchasedby a group of investorsfrom Philadelphia. on numbers farmworkers.and Volk 1961). B-lo) It is mostunfortunate thiswisewarning not heededin themanydeclining that was communities in other areas(Ullman..industry. Twitchell of Theseplantsemploy with women. offering industrial theinducement taxexemption-a whichhasbeenaccompaof lure plants nied elsewhere the stateby otherformsof industrial in and parasitism. like almost all of the plans for regionaldevelopment. non-farm and workers the tradearea. Feasibility studies for other communities were made.8 The Soddy.
inasmuchas both MalcolmProudfootand Victor Roteruspublishedprolifically town planningand industrialdevelopment. however. and other factors--butlackedthe dollarmeasurement of benefit/cost calculationsexpected today. 8). 330). Exceptfor the unit areamappingmethod..to help develop the spatial analog model for recreationbenefit calculations in the MeramecBasin study in Saint Louis (Ullman.income. geographers left within a few years of the TVA's establishment. of overnight vacation withor withouta fishpolein hand.followed . 9).when recreationwas a remote promise: Thelakeis expected be outstanding fishing waterfowl to and for Its shooting.will adopt a policy favorable toward recreationaluse of its reservoirproperties"(p.who remained with the TVA for ten years (until 1944). Regional planning and developmentwere dropped from the TVA prioritiesin 1938. WHY DID THE GEOGRAPHERS PUBLISH SO LITTLE ABOUT THE TVA? With the exception of Howard Miller.Certainly.the TVAsqueamishlyavoidedeven using the word 'plan'" (1963. The recreation studies generally included an inventory of likely visitors to on reservoirs--based distance. It is likely there be a considerable that will demand swimming for facilities. work they undertookwas not brought to practicalfruition.. will be use lands. The report states that "It may be assumed. hiking... After1938. Wooded boats..and or use out.Moreon and only three master'stheses over. 4) last..The final hope for regionalplanning throughout the United Stateswas dashedin 1948 when the National Resources PlanningBoardwas voided (Creese 1990o. The report was most visionary..loafing. This abbreviatedservice may explain why geographerspublished so little about their the TVA efforts.Recreational attendanceat the TVA lakeswas used severaldecadeslater. little was publishedabout the TVAby its geographers.given the fact that it appearedduring the Great Depression. Ullman 1980).165). William Leuchtenburg never fulfilleditself as an experipointed out that the "TVA ment in regionalplanning . and Volk 1961...butnot least.36 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW information so that a recreationand tourism policy could be recommended and approvedby the TVA (Howes 1938..(TVA1936b. camping groupgames.since it is a governmentalcorporationfinancedby public funds and committed to a programfor the public welfare. This is amazing. The Division of Land Planning and Housing issued a detailed report on the Gilbertsville(Kentucky and Dam) Reservoir its shorelinewith respectto recreation.. 265). however. very few doctoral dissertations on the TVA .that TVA. large will of stillwater be idealfor sailingandmotorboating(withor without expanse surfboard and shores inletswillbe inviting canoesandrow for riding). Boyce. and most of the regional-planning unit was eliminated (Martin 1956. Picnicking probably themostpopular of riparian by or cabins inns.Nor did the reports attempt to weigh the benefits of recreationas comparedwith other beneficial uses of the reservoirs.
GeorgeDemko observed. there is also a paucityof publishedinformationabout the role of Consequently... flood control.emerged.and politics. 577). some of the work undertakenby the TVA geographers would have been most valuableto the profession. Martin 1941. In 1934 President Roosevelt stressedthe regionaldevelopmentaspectsof the Columbiaby declaringthat Thisvastwater can value power be of incalculable in thiswholesectionof thecounand on try.the idea of riverbasin analysis and especially the multipurpose use of rivers and reservoirshave become standardoperating procedure. 74). Marion Marts. we acceptedthe conceptof multipurposeriverbasin development. Dawesconcludedthat"fromthe greatsuccesswhich and TVAwas. RussellWhitakerpointed out that geographersare "not noted for blowing their own horns" (1996). the governmentalform of a federalcorporation. Not for publication." Unlike other social scientists. WilliamC.its true legacy set the historic precedentof federalinvolvementin environmentalregulationand policy making"(Black2000.who workedfor the Bureauof LandManagement. All reportswithin the TVAweremarked"This reportis for use within the TVAonly. It was amply demonstratedby TVA that such purposes as power. Overa yearago. Surprisingly. Ackerman J.. perhapsin orderto remain detachedand objective.It meanscheap manufacturing production.geographers generallyavoidedpublic controversy.has been that "too much of our work is of little significanceand will be of no significance" (1988.whenwe firstestablished principle the of . Garrisonsuggestedthat WorldWarII was the primarycause of changedpriorities of both the nation and the geographyprofession (1996).The result. Proudfootwrote his dissertationon the major outlying business centersof Chicago (1936). economy comfort the farm andin thehousehold.water supply. navigation.which may havebeen a deterrentto publication(Marts1996).This is doubly surprisinggiven that much of the TVA'Swork was of great public interest and that. geographersin the TVAand about the TVAitself written by geographers.In 1927the FederalRiversand HarborsAct recommended a system of dams on the Columbia. SPIN-OFFS FROMTHE TVA Although no furtherlarge-scaleprojectslike the TVA.And even though the "TVA's role eventuallyveeredfrom the originalideasthat fueledits founding.J. policymakingissues.H. William L.GEOGRAPHERSAND THE TVA 37 (Hodgson 1936. A "nearmiss"in regional developmentand planning akin to the TVA also occurred in the ColumbiaRiversystem. wherein the federalgovernment undertookcomprehensiveregionaldevelopment.emphasizedthat employeeswere expected to clearall of their publicationswith their agencies.has been rejected by this country" (Ackerman and Dawes 1964.however. more particularly. and is.and recreationcan be incorporatedinto a single watershed plan. Otte 1941) about issues within the Tennessee Valley were written.The multiple-use concept set off serious competition among the various options for reservoirdevelopment (Marts 1964).173).
. Torbert(moved from Marts. Ruralland-use rights are still treatedgenerously. whereasurban land-use planning is much more restricted. UNANSWERED QUESTIONS The studies of TVAgeographers demonstratea greatgap betweenplanninglaw as it to cities and to rural areas. Moreover.In hindsight. the welfare a community.The smallmunicipal- that a of Ohio. one here on the ColumbiaRiver. Murray. property. assistantgeneralmanagerfor programanalysisin the TVA from 1952 to 1955. for of couldbe taken ing rights fromlandowners withoutcompensation. In land-userights agricultural were almost sacred. Unfortunately. have been undertaken.(Quoted in Schwarz1993.JamesMcBroom. argued that several great river-basin projects around the world were modeled on the TVA (1956): the Niger Rivernear Timbuktu.the Snow.N. Edward Ackerman. No similarrecommendationswere made for urbanbusinessesthat would be made marginalby reservoirconstructionin their trade areas. or is Thatpolicyfocusedon for not remedies land-use abuse.Farmlandin the TennesseeValley.The precedentset by the TVA.. I became firmly convinced that the FederalGovernmentought immediatelyto undertakethe construction of the BonnevilleDam and the GrandCoulee Dam.Ambler Realtycase..Theirwork has not been fully investigated.E. in the Tennessee Since then.VincentThroop. two other yardsticks one Valley.among them JeromeAnderson. on its causesandcures.the comprehensivecoordination and planning model of riverbasin developmentwas abandoned. suburb Cleveland.S.Urban planning and zoning had been firmly pertains establishedin 1926 by the famousEuclidv.it is apparent that an opportunity havebeen missedin the application urbanland-use of may and zoninglaw to ruralland use. Marion HerbSimison. zoningwasupheldin the U. A. and perhapsothers. in use land residential itedtheindustrial of vacant in a partof Euclid order protect to The zonCourt.HarlanBarrows.a cadreof geographers was employedin the developmentof the ColumbiaRivervalley. and so we started. no longerapplied.the VictoriaNile near LakeVictoria.and the PapaloapanRiver in Mexico.as elsewhere. to Considerabledifferencesstill exist between police control of urban land and that of ruralland. planningconcept this planning was not directlytransferred the TVAlegislation.such zoning controls in cities are exercisedwithout compensation.though land erosion has been much reduced. the TVA). contrast.wherebyeroded and idle land was restored withoutpenalty costto the farmer.299) As might be expected.The geographers the TVA in made some stridentrecommendations with respectto ruralland and the takingof farmsthat might be impactedand made marginalby reservoirdevelopment-for which they were roundly criticized. But although the multiple-use concept of river-basindevelopmentbecame standardin the United States.is still occasionallyabusedby farmers.the Damodar tributaryof the Ganges.and MurrumbidgeeRiversin Australia.passeda zoningordinance prohibity of Euclid.38 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW commencinggreatpublicworksprojectsin everypart of the Union.Supreme thereby making a policepowerwhereby.
The contour maps needed for areasto be inundatedwere made by a combination of transit points in conjunctionwith stereoscopicaerialphotographstakenby the U. nodal regions.Becauseof the massiveamounts of data gathered." Ullman'smain criticismof this kind of data gathering and mapping was that it was static (site oriented and vertical) ratherthan spatiallyinteractive he (situation orientedand horizontal). it was a grand opportunity for regional planning on a large.Wisconsinin 1948. were most modest in heraldingtheir accomplishments.avoided political controversy both within and without the geographyprofession. Today the TVA undertaking of the 1930s remains wrapped in too much emo- tional baggageto examine in a detached. 4.At the AAG meetingsin Madison. againbeing questioned. Model-buildingand beas "meredescription" havioralanalysesalso have come in vogue.and from two to four months of closely superviseddetailed field mapping of the sort carriedon by the Land ClassificationSection. and have not received from the professionfor the contributionsthey properrecognitionand appreciation made.severalthings are certain: Those geographersserved gallantlyand filed many insightful reports in the TVA. EdwardL.The significanceof the work of the TVA geographersin advancingthe field of geographyhas been lost in the shuffle. GeologicalSurveyonly had a few maps of the area.S. questions With the hindsight now afforded us.Thiswasthe greatconcernexpressed Gilbert Whiteas to whythe TVA by innovations in land classificationand local planning outreachwere "geographers' not continued and expanded"(1996).However. The"quantitative-statistical" and data gathering(Ullman 1980).to others. failed.in quantitative analysisof spatialdata.The geographersused these aerialphotographsfor their map plots. Corpsof Engineers. firstchallengedby TVA geographers. The old invincibilityof the hidden hand as of the marketplace creatinga better and more efficientworld.RobertPlatt. Ullman explained to me in 1960 that he based his quip about the TVA method on Joshua9:27. NOTES unit area 1. 3. thankfully. 2.includingdetailedfield mapping. insistedthat such a procedurecommonly counted trees insteadof forests. we see that they were surprisinglyclose to in makingsome majorbreakthroughs-inregionalsynthesis.and there was no time to make more.But for variouspolitical.or philosophicalreasonstheir efforts were not passed on to the profes- F. it was a grand experiment in resourcemanagementby the federal government that. Hudson stated that "the field men must have had at least one year of graduatetraining in geography.wherein the Gibeonitesmade a covenantwith the Israelitesto be their servants as "hewersof wood and drawersof water.To some. Membership the Associationof AmericanGeographers was and geographers wasby invitationonly. Appliedgeographers were generallymembersof the AmericanSocietyof Professional Geograin (AAG) limitedto academic phers (ASPG). sion. Many of--if not a lackof appreciation asked today were posed by TVA geographerssome seven decades ago. Before applyingland .objectivemanner.S.GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 39 The world of the professionalgeographerhas gone through severalstagessince the grandexperimentin extensivefield-datagatheringand regionalplanningof the revolutionreplaced whatwas derisively described 1930s. is the The frequentchurning and turning of geographyhas also led to forgetfulness for-the contributionsof bygone geographers. Donald and Hudson.and Cotton Matherwere instrumentalin mergingthe AAG the ASPG. regional scale.G. practical. The U.and in recreationbenefits.
Momfort-A Study in LandscapeTypesin Southwestern Surveys.. Economic Life and Some MajorReservoirProblemsin the Group V Region of the GilbertsvilleReservoir Area. LandUse Plan-Wheeler ReservoirProperties. Ackerman. zoning had been declareda police function. This possiblycould have been applied to the field-erosionproblem in the TVA such a manner as to protectthe land from erosion in the future. University: University of Alabama Press. 1990. In Environmentalism in Landscape Architecture. Colby. StaffReport. and he frequentlyspoke about it. 71-95. 7. edited by M.despite the criticismsof "overpurchase" later changed TVA policy.Urbana:Universityof Illinois Development Press. TVAin Its Larger Setting. J. GeorgePeabodyCollege for Teachers.C. and J. direction of an experienced supervisor" (1935c. In Regional and the Wabash Basin.Alabama. GeographicSociety of Chicago Bulletin No. Forestry.N. 2003.edited by R.: DumbartonOaks ResearchLibraryand Collection.: Association of AmericanGeographers.UnpublishedTVA Howes. Garrison. Geography beyond the IvoryTower. PublicPlanning:TheVisionand theReality. L. Hudson was very pleased with this liberal taking policy.colleague of G. requiringno compensationfor in any prohibiteduse. 2000.and P.D.Part-timeJobs.C. StaffReport.V. R. Martin. Years. 1989. TVA:TheFirst TwentyYears. A Recreational report. Washington. The Entrikin. and S.. [Native of Tennessee. C.. A 55 Brodsky.W. In A Artman.O. UnpublishedTVA document. Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. A. C. 5.was in many regardsthe prototype of such studies. 1988.J. J. GovernmentPrintingOffice.W.written at the Universityof Chicago under Colby'ssupervision.14 February.S. 1956. of OrganicPlanning:Ecologyand Design in the Landscape the TennesseeValleyAu- thority.146-151. that However. C. REFERENCES The A edited E. University: Ackerman. C. Lexington(Tennessee)Portion of the GilbertsvilleReservoirArea. Donald Hudson]. J. by R. A Comparisonof ThreeTennessee ville. Wisconsin. In Hudson'sprivatepapersa note insertedinto the La Follettestudy reads:"Studyof this kind would be interestingas a field problem for training camps-perhaps for master'sdegree.G.Knoxville: Creese. on Hartshorne's Nature of Geography. 8. H. Annalsof theAssociation AmericanGeograDemko.B. 6.UnpublishedTVA UrbanCenters: ClarksGoodlettsville. he declined because he did not want to become involvedin the controversy(1996). 1956. 9.D. edited by R.Politically. In city planning.University:Universityof AlabamaPress.:U.Carringer. . 13).Ullman's1945dissertationon the wholesaletrade area of Mobile. Conan. 1933-1945.Franklin. nor.J.C. Brunn. G. 1933. H.1939. Gray. 1938. of phers78 (4): 575-579.that was impossible (New York Times 1933). Telephoneinterview with the author. A. Black. Washington."Interestingly. StaffReport.edited by C. Master'sthesis. 1-15. Martin. J. Part-timeFarming. 1936. I.did any of the other TVA geographers. R. 1938.244-256. The Meaningof TVA. WaterManagement and the WabashBasin.editedby R. C. RetailAreaOverlap: Casein ForensicGeography.In TVA: FirstTwenty Martin.D.40 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW field men must have six to eight weeks'work under the rigid classificationtechniquesindependently. 171-181. A The Years. C. Yearbookof Crosswhite.This attitudeseems to have been prevalentamong geographersat the time. Problemsin the LindenGray.A. Boyce.In A Place to Live. Dawes. Hodgson. Reflections Richard OccasionalPublicationsof the Association of American Geographers.but when Atlantic magazine asked him to write about them. RussellWhitakeremphasizedthat he was quite criticalof some of the TVA policies. L. 1964.In TVA: FirstTwenty Universityof AlabamaPress. Clapp. 177-192. Agriculture. 6-40. D.H. 1956. M. however.W. R. 1963. to my knowledge. 1996.In Geographic Finch. EconomicLifeand Some MajorReservoir document.W. he never published any defense of the originalpolicy. Professional Geographer (2): 250-258. Washington. TVA's Universityof Tennessee Press.
GEOGRAPHERS AND THE TVA 41 G. D. R.Draper to Division Land of and [Director. TheNew Dealers: Annalsof theAssociation AmeriStarr.Draper to Division Land of and 26 [Director. Twenty by of Press.editedby R. 1956. 4 Planning Housing. 1935c. vember..Surveyingand Mappingin the Tennessee Valley. Fortune 11 (5): 92-97. [Former cartographer. In Memoriam:HaroldMelvin Mayer. 1995. N. Work in Progress: Norris Dam. 26 LandManagement.UnTVA published document.Draper to Division Land of and [Director. University: University Alabama R. Sample. 5 J.TheUnitAreaMethod Land of of 26 Geographers (2): 99-112.J. 25 K.D. Report Recreational Development Gilbertsville UnpublishedTVA report. P. Rosenman. on Books. 1953. C. 1935.. 1936c. TVA[Tennessee Divisionof LandPlanning Housing. D. University IllinoisPress. Master's Opportunity theTennessee Valley Northwestern thesis. report.Economic andSomeMajor E. the Gilbertsville Reservoir Area. ThePublicPapersand Addresses FranklinD. In Basin. NoPlanning Housing. TVA: First Years. Planning Housing. chief Massa. April.Conflicts Water andRegional Management].S.TheSequatchia Valley. Vol.Geographic Planning. withthe author.. C.1938. E.G. A Ph.Seattle. Letter E.Probable Adverse Effects Reservoir of Severance theRetail on Trade Dayton. 1935. TVA Data.1936a.University of Proudfoot. of of AmericanGeographers (2): 91-98. T. C. 1936a.Letter E. TVA Unpublished document. December. Bureau Land of in Use Marts.In TVA: FirstTwenty The Nash. Retrospect Prospect. and Sale Creek.R. . 1935a. 1996. Reservoir A edited Years. of of Geographers(3):148-157. by R. 1995.Augusta County.diss. Schwarz.Census Valley Surrounding Unpublished . De15 cember. 2.S.May. Tennessee.D.S. and In The A edited Martin. TVA].. of Random House. E.. J. to Contributions Land-Use Annals theAssociation McMurry. Tennessee: Study Land A in Utilization. Ellsworth Huntington: Lifeand Thought. . comp. W. Chicago: Quadrangle R. 1938. 1935b. 1938. I.Letter E. andSurvey interview Branch. 1973. H. Letter E. 1.3-4. C. of can Geographers 85 (3): 569-580. Unpublished TVAreport. .. D. TVA].S.diss. S.S.. L. TVA].NashMartin. New York: AlfredA. 15 Planning Housing. Martin.[Hamden. with . Annals theAssociation American . Knopf. Rural The LandClassification A of and Program: Summary Techniques Uses.1925. . D. chief. StaffReport. Regional 145Development theWabash of of Urbana: 156. of Soddy. of Classification. J.Conn.TVA: Democracy theMarch.Tenn. M. S.Columbia University.. York: Harper Row. F. Otte. N. Virginia: Studyin Patterns.Telephone Maps TVA]. M. E. [Former TVA]. 137-151. Centers Chicago.S. Planning Implication.University Chiof Hudson. 257-273. 140-153. York New 11 Times. Ph.C. January. of Business Ph. [Geographer.D. 1936. Message Muscle SA.]:ArchonBooks. cago. Cartographic and A Valley Authority].The Major Outlying Chicago. Interviewswith the author. of Tennessee and Area. Industrial in of Alabama.1976.diss. .Preliminary on of Reservoir. 1993.C.Detailed Mapping theStudy theEconomic Geography of an Agricultural Annals theAssociation American Area. StaffReport. . Martin. . ville. Life in Reservoir Problems the Kentucky Portion of Torbert.1930: Summary U. 1936c.then chief of the Divisionof LandPlanning. and New and Leuchtenburg. Sayford. andV. of Press. 1941. A. TVA]. Roosevelt. University: University Alabama NewYork Times..Wash.1916-1994. 1956.Roosevelt's on Shoals.Franklin Roosevelt theNewDeal:1932-1940. TheYear Crisis. His Martin. interviews the author. 1963.Boyce. 1941.Telephone January-February. 15 W. with a Special of Introduction Explanatory and NotesbyPresident Roosevelt.September-December. W. Lilienthal. W. 1936b.LandClassification Section. 1936b..CivilEngineering (12): 784-788. NewYork: 1933. PowerPoliticsin theAgeof Roosevelt. 1934. in Field of Jones. 1964.Finch.Draper to Division Land of and [Director. 1936.H.
White. 1996. A. R. Letter to the author. U. TheEconomy and Characteristics theMeramec Basin. Rhea County: Its Recent Development.27 January. Seattle.. Authority.. U. Telephoneinterviewwith the author. Letterto the author.vol. Development.UnpublishedTVA Ullman.Wash. 1933.Missouri.Saint Louis. PresentMaladjustments. knew many TVA Wray.:Universityof .Universityof Kentucky].32. J. Boyce. R. [TVAexpert.15April. 48. as Edited by R. 1936. 73rdCongr.[Principal investigator. E. Unpublished TVA -. 19601961.and D. 1945.R. Washington University].D. L. 2. Congress. Interviewswith the author.Meramec Basin ResearchProject. Universityof Chicago.42 THE GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW 1937. G. R. Geography SpatialInteraction. E. Whitaker.15 February. Prospectsas Influencedby the RiverDevelopment and Other Programsof the TennesseeValley document.Mo.S. diss. . .Ph. geographers].Statutes. Vol..J.:WashingtonUniof versity. Mobile:IndustrialSeaportand TradeCenter. S22and S23. TheMeramec BasinWater Economic and Ullman. 1996. E 1996. Volk.S.J. [FormerUniversityof Chicago cartographer. 1961. Feasibilityof a PermanentCommunity at GilbertsvilleDam Site. R.chap. and Future Twitchell. report. L. WashingtonPress.SaintLouis. Boyce. 1980.MeramecBasin ResearchProject.A.
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