This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
INTRODUCTION TO DATABASES
what constitutes a computer file system.1 Learning objectives On successful completion of this module. characteristics of file-based systems. problems with the file-based approach. and introduces many basic concepts. unrelated files on disk. and the advantages and disadvantages of DBMS. Note that a computer file system stores data in independent. and what some of its problems are.Module 1 – Introduction to databases 1.2 File-based Systems. security and integrity of the data can’t be enforced efficiently because of the following problems: q Separation and isolation of data: Each program maintains its own set of data. There is wasted space and potentially different values and/or different formats for the same item. you should be able to: q q define the terms: Database and Database Management System (DBMS) list common uses of database systems. you should understand the limitations of the file-based approach. . Users of one program may be unaware of potentially useful data held by other programs. Any new requirement needs a new program. q Duplication of data: The same data is held by different programs. and so cannot easily access each others files. Introduction The material in Chapter 1 of the textbook covers a wide area. q Fixed Queries/Proliferation of application programs: Programs are written to satisfy particular functions. q Data dependence: File structure is defined in the program code. 1. q Incompatible file formats: Programs are written in different languages.1 Traditional file-based systems From section 1. The sharing. major components and personnel of the DBMS environment.
structures and any data constraints. .2. create. Data – data constitutes the database’s central component through which information is generated 4. 3. and why are they important? Read section 1. 1. on how the DBMS provides the facilities for database management. The DBMS is a software system that: q q enables users to define.2 of the text. provides controlled access to this database. – designed to accomplish desired activities 5.2 CSC3400 – Database systems 1. network software (if necessary) and also the application programs. q Data manipulation language (DML). and maintain the database. 2.1 What are the DBMS functions. and the Database Management System (DBMS).2 Database approach The textbook gives definitions for the database.2. Procedures – instructions and rules that should be applied to the design and use of the database and DBMS. 1. General enquiry facility (query language) of the data. Permits specification of data types. Software – DBMS. Hardware – can range from a PC to a network of computers.2.2 What are the components of the DBMS environment? 1. People – perform different functions within the environment 1.3.3 Roles in the database environment There are four distinct types of people that participate in the DBMS environment. All specifications are stored in the database. The two languages of databases are: q Data definition language (DDL).1. the system catalog (data dictionary or metadata). operating system.
Read the Chapter Summary at the end of the textbook to review the topics covered in the chapter. Data administrator (DA) & database administrator (DBA) Database designers (Logical and Physical) Application programmers End users (naive and sophisticated) 1. Balanced conflicting requirements. Increased productivity. Economy of scale.2. size and cost of DBMS etc.2. from section 1. Improved backup and recovery services. Enforcement of standards. Sharing of data. Improved data accessibility and responsiveness. Data consistency. Improved data integrity. 1. a proper database system eliminates data dependence and provides: q q q q q q q q q q q q q q Control of data redundancy.3 1.4 What is a database model? A database model is a collection of logical constructs used to represent the database’s data structure as well as the data relationship(s) found within that structure. More information from the same amount of data.Module 1 – Introduction to databases 1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of DBMS. 2. Increased concurrency. 4. 3. . Improved maintenance through data independence.5 Advantages and disadvantages of DBMS Finally. Disadvantages of DBMS are the complexity. Improved security.
4.5 Describe the five components of the DBMS environment and discuss how they relate to each other. 1.3. An organization maintaining all sales order information.6 Discuss the roles of the following personnel in the database environment: q q q q q Data Administrator See Section 1.2).3) 1.1 List four examples of database systems other than those listed in Section 1.3. 1. A training company keeping course information and participants’ details.3 Describe the approach taken to the handling of data in the early file-based systems.4.4 Describe the main characteristics of the database approach and contrast it with the file-based approach.1.2 and 1.2 Physical Database Designer See Section 1.6) Views (See Section 1. 1.3.3) database (See Section 184.108.40.206) Security (See Section 1. See Section 1.4.4 CSC3400 – Database systems Review questions 1. (See Section 220.127.116.11). Below you will find listed some helpful notes for each: 1.2) 1.1) database management system (See Section 1.1 Database Administrator See Section 1.1 Attempt the Review Questions on page 31 of the textbook. Discuss the disadvantages of this approach. Some examples could be: q q q q A system that maintains component part details for a car manufacturer.2. (See Section 1.3.2) Data Independence (See Sections 1.1 Logical Database Designer See Section 1.1.2 Discuss each of the following terms: q q q q q q q data (See Section 1.4. An advertising company keeping details of all clients and adverts placed with them.4. (See Section 1.3 .6) Integrity (See Section 1.2 Application Programmer See Section 1.
Module 1 – Introduction to databases 1.6 .5 q End Users See Section 1.7 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of database processing. See Section 1.4 1.4.
which will give an overall picture of specific systems. Now repeat this process but rather than writing a special program.4. and ability to share the data should be noted. such as Pascal.8 Interview some users of database systems. store.1. such as the effort involved. It should adhere to basic software engineering principles including being well structured. The differences in the approaches. The DBMS facilities to structure. Careful reading and thinking about how people might use the applications should help in carrying out the rest of the exercise. Which DBMS facilities do they find most useful and why? Which DBMS facilities do they find least useful and why? What do these users perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of the DBMS? Note Select a variety of users for a particular DBMS. Additional Activities Exercise 1. telephone number. and retrieve data are used to the same effect. and suitably commented. In what ways would a DBMS help this organization? What data can you identify that needs to be represented in the database? What relationships exist between the data? What queries do you think are required? Note It may be useful to review the file-based approach and the database approach here before tackling the first part of the exercise. FORTRAN or C. use any DBMS that you have access to. preferred number of rooms and maximum rent. It is important to appreciate the process involved even in developing a small program such as this. name. potential for extension. If the users are using different DBMSs. . modular.9 Write a small program that allows entry and display of renter details including a renter number.10 Study the DreamHome case study presented in Section 10. group the answers for the different systems. Exercise 1. Enter a few records and display the details. What can you conclude from these two approaches? Note The program can be written in any appropriate programming language.1 Attempt the following exercises from page 31 of the textbook: Exercise 1. address. The details should be stored in a file.6 CSC3400 – Database systems Activity 1.
Module 1 – Introduction to databases 1.7 .
1.8 CSC3400 – Database systems .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.