A!

1/24
Link Budget
A! 2/24
Link Budget
- Connection between
o Received power
Rx
P
- Transmitter power
- Path loss
- Transmitter losses (Cable, connector, etc)
- Antenna gains
- Receiver losses (Cable, connector, etc)
o Receiver sensitivity
Rx
S
- Thermal noise
- Added noise in receiver
M for fading, interference a.s.o. o Margins
- Link budget = minimum received power required allowing reliable service
/ / - Linear scale: /
Rx Rx
S P FFM SFM IM s
- dB-scale:
Rx Rx
S P FFM SFM IM s ÷ ÷ ÷
A! 3/24
Received power
- Received power at receiver base-band input
/
Rx Tx Tx Rx Rx Tx path
P P G G L L L =
o Trasmitted/receiver power:
/ Rx Tx
P
o Path loss:
path
L
ƒ Frequency dependence will be returned to
o Transmit/receive antenna gains:
/
/
2
4
Rx Tx
Rx Tx
A
G
t
ì
=
ƒ Wavelength: ì
ƒ Effective antenna aperture (size):
/ Rx Tx
A
ƒ Antenna directivity proportional to aperture size/
2
ì
ƒ Measured over an isotropic antenna radiating to 4ʌ solid angle
- Isotropic radiator has G=1 (0 dBi)
ƒ Typical value for omni antenna BS: G=13 dBi, for MS: G=2dBi
- BS gain from concentrating radiation in horizontal plane
o Receiver/Transmitter losses (cable /connector losses etc), :
/ Rx Tx
L
A! 4/24
Noise power
- Thermal noise level /
0
W Hz
T B
N k T


=
o Bolzman’s constant: /
23
1.3807 10 J K
B
k

=
÷

o Noise temperature:
0
T
o At 20
Ƞ
C,
0
293K T = and
21
/ 174 / 4.04 10
T
W Hz dBm Hz N






=
÷

- Noise power spectral density
0 0
F
B
N k T N =
o White noise power spectral density at base band
o Receiver noise figure
F
N
ƒ Additional signal degradation in receiver, typically 5-9 dB
- Received noise power:
0 0
N N B =
o “noise floor”
o Noise bandwidth:
0
B
A! 5/24
Signal-to-noise Power Ratios
- Carrier-to-Noise power ratio: /
Rx
P N
- Signal-to-noise power ratio
0
0 0
/ /
Rx Rx S S S
P B R P R E
SNR
N N N
= = ÷
o Ratio of power per modulated symbol and noise
o Modulated symbol rate:
S
R
o Processing gain against noise = ratio of sampling bandwidth and
symbol bandwidth:
0
S
B
R
A! 6/24
Receiver SensitivityI
0
0 0
0
min min
S S S
Rx S
R E E
S N N R
N N
B
| | | |
| |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= =
- The smaller the sensitivity, the better the receiver
- Required minimum SNR for reliable reception:
0
min
/
S
E N
| |
|
\ .
o The connection to baseband (BB) processing
o Depends on the modulation & coding scheme & BB receiver details
o Note: if performance of modulation is characterized in terms of
0
/
b
E N ,
energy per bit is
2
/ log
S b
E E M where M is the number of constellation
points and
=
2
log M is the number of bits per symbol
A! 7/24
Receiver Sensitivity II
0
0 0
0
min min
S S S
Rx S
R E E
S N N R
N N
B
| | | |
| |
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= =
- Oversampling
0 S
B R > increases noise power N and improves sensitivity
through processing gain => noise power on modulated symbol bandwidth
, not on noise bandwidth, affects sensitivity
0 S
N R
o E.g. if
S
R =12 kbps, = -131 dBm + noise figure
0 S
N R
o E.g. if
S
R =384 kbps, = -118 dBm + noise figure
0 S
N R
- Rx sensitivity is a measurable quantity: Testing & standardization
A! 8/24
Fading and Interference Margins
- Various statistical system impairments may be taken into account in
the link budget by using margins.
o Alternatively, statistical impairments can be taken into account
directly in the sensitivity when defining
0
min
/
S
E N
| |
|
\ .
- The link budget is calculated for a specified service
- Fast Fading Margin (FFM)
o An increase in the average received power required to guarantee
service availability with a given probability, when fast fading
taken into account
o Fast fading distribution assumed known, e.g. Rayleigh
distribution
- Shadow Fading Margin (SFM)
o As above
- Interference Margin (IM)
o Increase in the received power required to guarantee service
availability when a specified interference scenario taken into
account
A! 9/24
Large and Small scale effects of Channel
Large scale effects:
1. Average path loss as function of
distance
2. Shadow fading due to large
obstacles (“slow fading”)
Small scale effects:
3. (Fast) fading & Multipath effects
lg r
path
loss
(dB)
A! 10/24
Path loss as function of distance
The instantaneous path loss in dB-domain is
path sf ff
L L L L = + +
- L is the distance-dependent average path loss in dB
-
sf
L is the additional slow fade loss caused by large nearby obstacles,
- changes over distances of tens of meters
- is the additional loss caused by multipath propagation interference (fast fading)
ff
L
- changes over distances of half a wavelength
sf
L and are modelled as random variables.
ff
L
In link budget calculations slow & fast fading are taken into account
- by defining a slow fade margin (SFM), e.g. giving a certain degree of coverage at cell
border or in the entire cell, and
- by defining a fast fade margin (FFM) or including the effects of multipath fading
into the receiver sensitivity
- or by calculating a receiver sensitivity for a specific channel with a specific receiver
(Es/N0 target)
A! 11/24
Free Space Average Path Loss
- average path loss in free space:
2
4
path
L
r t
ì
| |
|
=
|
\ .
o distance between Tx and Rx: r
o frequency (wave-length:
ì
)
ƒ the higher frequency, the larger path loss
ƒ this is not a law of nature, but a consequence of the definition of
antenna gains
- path loss with Rx antenna gain:
2
/
4
Rx
A
G L
Rx path
r t
=
o no dependence of frequency
o fraction of the whole space solid angle seen by the antenna aperture
- In other propagation environments (non-free space), similar path loss
models are used
o Path loss exponent changed from 2
o ÷
,
o
=1, … 6
o Fitting to measurement results.
o
o if <2, attenuation smaller than in free space: wave guide
A! 12/24
Average path loss as function of distance r between
transmitter and receiver
¾single-slope model is often used
( )
10 lg
o o
L L r r o = + (dB)
¾ is the average path loss at the reference distance r
o
L
o
, (e.g. 1 km, 1m etc.)
10 lg(4 / ) 10 lg(4 / ) -
o o o o
L r r f c o t ì o t = =
- where the speed of light is c=3*10
8
m/s and is the carrier frequency
o
f
¾o is the path loss exponent, which depends on:
- antenna heights
- frequency
- propagation environment
Example: Free space propagation at 2 GHz: o = 2
92.45 20lg(2) 98.47
o
L = + = if r is given in km,
A! 13/24
Average path loss as function of distance r II
Dual-slope model, e.g.
( )
( )
1
2
10 lg ,
10 lg ,
o o o
o o o
L L r r r r
L L r r r r
o
o
= ÷ s
= + >
suitable when both short and long distance loss is modelled
Linear loss model
o
L L br + in linear scale: exponential in distance =
- suitable for situations where the medium absorbs radiation e.g.
propagation through walls, oxygen absorption at 60 GHz etc.
Hybrid one-slope/linear loss model
r 10 lg( )
o
L L r b o + + =
Suitable on some mixed paths, e.g. outdoor-indoor paths
A! 20/24
Shadow Fading
A! 21/24
Shadow (Slow) Fading
- models large scale deviations from the average path loss
- buildings, foliage, etc
- modelled statistically by a log-normal random variable
2
2
( )
2
1
( )
2
i
L
L L
L
p L e
o
to
÷
÷
=
o L is the attenuation in dB (this makes it log-normal)
o L
i
is the average distance-dependent path loss
o o
L
is the standard deviation of the shadow fading, typically 6-8 dB
- Shadow fading correlation:
o The shadow fading of paths to/from different base stations may be
correlated
- Often shadow fading correlation 0.5 is assumed between base
stations
o The shadow fading at different MS locations are correlated
- Often a correlation distance of 50 m is assumed for MS locations
A! 22/24
Shadow Fading Margin
- In link budget calculations, shadow fading may be taken into account
through a shadow fading margin
- By adding a margin SFM L =A in the link budget, you can guarantee the
availability of the link budgeted service with probability P
1 o Outage probability due to shadow fading would be P ÷
- Probability that path loss [dB] is larger than average path loss + L
1
L L A is
{ } { }
( )
1
2
2
1
2
1 1
exp
exp
2 2
2 2
L
L
L L
L
L L
L L
x
L
P L L L P L L L dL dx Q
o
o
o to t
(
(
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
J
J
·
·
A
+A
| |
| | ÷
| ÷
÷ |
| |
| | A
\ . \ .
> + A = A > ÷ = = =
|
\ .
L L
90%
50%
L
90%
=150.0 dB
SFM
= L
path
A! 23/24
Fast Fading, Recapitulation
- Fast fading channel channel coefficients are modelled as random
variables
( )
n
h t
- Most commonly modeled by zero mean complex Gaussian
distribution
( )
n
h t
2
1
( )
h
P
p h e
P t
÷
=
o The average power channel power is P
- When is complex Gaussian, amplitude is Rayleigh distributed h
- Channel power
2 2
| | P h a = = has exponential distribution
1
( )
P
P
p P e
P
÷
=
A! 24/24
Wideband Channel Modeling
- Captures the effect of echoes (multipath propagation) in the channel
- Impacts physical layer performance
o Inter-Symbol Interference
- For standardization and evaluation purposes some typical scenarios have been
developed. Examples of 6-tap channels used in GSM evaluation:
Bad urban
i 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
i
/us 0 0.3 1.0 1.6 5.0 6.6
P
im
/dB ÷2.5 0 ÷3.0 ÷5.0 ÷2.0 ÷4.0
Typical urban
i 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
i
/us 0 0.2 0.5 1.6 2.3 5.0
P
im
/dB ÷3.0 0 ÷2.0 ÷6.0 ÷8.0 ÷10.0
Hilly terrain
i 1 2 3 4 5 6
t
i
/us 0 0.1 0.3 0.5 15.0 17.2
P
im
/dB 0 ÷1.5 ÷4.5 ÷7.5 ÷8.0 ÷17.7

3807 10 NT 4. T0 293K and 1.04 10 21 W / Hz 174 dBm / Hz Noise power spectral density N0 kBT0 N F o White noise power spectral density at base band o Receiver noise figure N F Additional signal degradation in receiver.A! Received power Received power at receiver base-band input 3/24 PRx PTxGTxGRx / Lpath LRx LTx o Trasmitted/receiver power: PRx /Tx o Path loss: Lpath Frequency dependence will be returned to o Transmit/receive antenna gains: GRx /Tx Wavelength: Effective antenna aperture (size): A 4 ARx/Tx 2 Rx /Tx Antenna directivity proportional to aperture size/ 2 Measured over an isotropic antenna radiating to 4 solid angle Isotropic radiator has G=1 (0 dBi) Typical value for omni antenna BS: G=13 dBi. : LRx /Tx A! Noise power Thermal noise level 4/24 NT kBT0 W / Hz 23 J / K o Bolzman’s constant: kB o Noise temperature: T0 o At 20 C. typically 5-9 dB Received noise power: N N0 B0 o “noise floor” o Noise bandwidth: B0 . for MS: G=2dBi BS gain from concentrating radiation in horizontal plane o Receiver/Transmitter losses (cable /connector losses etc).

A! Signal-to-noise Power Ratios Carrier-to-Noise power ratio: PRx / N Signal-to-noise power ratio SNR 5/24 PRx B0 / RS PRx / RS ES N N0 N0 o Ratio of power per modulated symbol and noise o Modulated symbol rate: RS o Processing gain against noise = ratio of sampling bandwidth and symbol bandwidth: B0 RS A! Receiver SensitivityI SRx N RS ES B0 N0 N0 RS min 6/24 ES N0 min The smaller the sensitivity. energy per bit is Eb ES / log M where M is the number of constellation points and log M is the number of bits per symbol 2 2 . the better the receiver Required minimum SNR for reliable reception: ES / N0 min o The connection to baseband (BB) processing o Depends on the modulation & coding scheme & BB receiver details o Note: if performance of modulation is characterized in terms of Eb / N0 .

statistical impairments can be taken into account directly in the sensitivity when defining ES / N0 min The link budget is calculated for a specified service Fast Fading Margin (FFM) o An increase in the average received power required to guarantee service availability with a given probability.g. Rayleigh distribution Shadow Fading Margin (SFM) o As above Interference Margin (IM) o Increase in the received power required to guarantee service availability when a specified interference scenario taken into account . N0 RS = -118 dBm + noise figure Rx sensitivity is a measurable quantity: Testing & standardization A! Fading and Interference Margins 8/24 Various statistical system impairments may be taken into account in the link budget by using margins.g. o Alternatively. affects sensitivity o E. if RS =12 kbps. if RS =384 kbps. when fast fading taken into account o Fast fading distribution assumed known. N0 RS = -131 dBm + noise figure o E. e.A! Receiver Sensitivity II SRx N RS ES B0 N0 N0 RS min 7/24 ES N0 min Oversampling B0 RS increases noise power N and improves sensitivity through processing gain => noise power on modulated symbol bandwidth N0 RS . not on noise bandwidth.g.

Shadow fading due to large obstacles (“slow fading”) 9/24 Large and Small scale effects of Channel Small scale effects: 3. In link budget calculations slow & fast fading are taken into account by defining a slow fade margin (SFM).A! Large scale effects: 1. giving a certain degree of coverage at cell border or in the entire cell. e. and by defining a fast fade margin (FFM) or including the effects of multipath fading into the receiver sensitivity or by calculating a receiver sensitivity for a specific channel with a specific receiver (Es/N0 target) . changes over distances of tens of meters L ff is the additional loss caused by multipath propagation interference (fast fading) changes over distances of half a wavelength Lsf and L ff are modelled as random variables.g. (Fast) fading & Multipath effects path loss (dB) lg r A! Path loss as function of distance The instantaneous path loss in dB-domain is 10/24 L path L Lsf L ff L is the distance-dependent average path loss in dB Lsf is the additional slow fade loss caused by large nearby obstacles. Average path loss as function of distance 2.

) Lo 10 lg(4 ro / ) 10 lg(4 ro f o / c ) where the speed of light is c=3*108 m/s and f o is the carrier frequency is the path loss exponent. . similar path loss models are used o Path loss exponent changed from 2 . the larger path loss this is not a law of nature. 1 km. attenuation smaller than in free space: wave guide A! Average path loss as function of distance r between transmitter and receiver single-slope model is often used 12/24 L Lo 10 lg r ro (dB) Lo is the average path loss at the reference distance ro.g. o if <2.A! Free Space Average Path Loss average path loss in free space: o distance between Tx and Rx: 11/24 Lpath r 4 r 2 o frequency (wave-length: ) the higher frequency.47 if r is given in km. which depends on: antenna heights frequency propagation environment Example: Free space propagation at 2 GHz: Lo 92. 1m etc. =1.45 20 lg(2) =2 98. (e. … 6 o Fitting to measurement results. but a consequence of the definition of antenna gains path loss with Rx antenna gain: G Rx /L ARx path 4 r 2 o no dependence of frequency o fraction of the whole space solid angle seen by the antenna aperture In other propagation environments (non-free space).

outdoor-indoor paths A! Shadow Fading 20/24 . Hybrid one-slope/linear loss model L Lo 10 lg( r ) br Suitable on some mixed paths.g. e. 13/24 L L Lo 10 1 lg r ro .g. r ro suitable when both short and long distance loss is modelled Linear loss model L Lo br in linear scale: exponential in distance suitable for situations where the medium absorbs radiation e. r ro Lo 10 2 lg r ro . oxygen absorption at 60 GHz etc. propagation through walls.g.A! Average path loss as function of distance r II Dual-slope model. e.

A! Shadow (Slow) Fading models large scale deviations from the average path loss buildings. typically 6-8 dB Shadow fading correlation: o The shadow fading of paths to/from different base stations may be correlated Often shadow fading correlation 0. foliage. etc modelled statistically by a log-normal random variable ( L Li )2 21/24 p ( L) 1 2 L e 2 2 L o L is the attenuation in dB (this makes it log-normal) o Li is the average distance-dependent path loss o L is the standard deviation of the shadow fading. shadow fading may be taken into account through a shadow fading margin By adding a margin SFM L in the link budget.0 dB L = Lpath . you can guarantee the availability of the link budgeted service with probability P o Outage probability due to shadow fading would be 1 P 22/24 Probability that path loss L [dB] is larger than average path loss L1 + L is exp P L L1 L P L L L1 L1 L L L1 2 2 L 2 exp dL L L x2 2 2 2 dx Q L L L 90% SFM L50% L90% =150.5 is assumed between base stations o The shadow fading at different MS locations are correlated Often a correlation distance of 50 m is assumed for MS locations A! Shadow Fading Margin In link budget calculations.

0 3 0.0 5 2.2 17.3 8.A! Fast Fading.6 6.5 5 5.0 10.7 Typical urban i i/ s Pim/dB Hilly terrain i i/ s Pim/dB .5 2.0 6 17.5 3 1.1 1.5 7.0 6 6. amplitude is Rayleigh distributed Channel power P | h |2 a 2 has exponential distribution p( P ) 1 P e P P A! Wideband Channel Modeling Captures the effect of echoes (multipath propagation) in the channel Impacts physical layer performance o Inter-Symbol Interference For standardization and evaluation purposes some typical scenarios have been developed.6 4.0 6 5.0 3 0.3 0 2 0.5 1 0 3. Examples of 6-tap channels used in GSM evaluation: Bad urban i i/ s Pim/dB 24/24 1 0 2.3 4.5 4 1.0 5 15.0 4 1.2 0 2 0.0 1 0 0 2 0.0 8.0 4 0. Recapitulation Fast fading channel channel coefficients hn ( t ) are modelled as random variables Most commonly hn ( t ) modeled by zero mean complex Gaussian distribution 23/24 p( h ) 1 e P h2 P o The average power channel power is P When h is complex Gaussian.0 3.6 5.0 2.

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