Dust Collection Technical Handbook

Index Page
2 35 42 Glossary Filter Media/Fibers Gas/Air Tables Electrical References (Missing Section) 54 59 82 87 Industrial Ventilation References Material Properties Miscellaneous References Conversion Tables

The following pages were prepared as a reference for designing industrial dust collection and ventilation systems. This is not a complete application and sizing manual. DISCLAIMER: The information on the following pages is for reference only. There are no warranties, express or implied, concerning the application or use of this information.

Glossary

A
Abrasion-Flex – Where cloth has abraded in a creased area by excessive bending. Abrasion Surface – Localized area where the cloth’s surface has been abraded uniformly. Absolute Temperature – In degrees Rankine, where absolute 0°R = -459.7°F. °R = °F + 460°. ρ = Density of air ρ(actual) = ρ(std at 70°F) x Absorber – A kind of scrubber utilizing the absorption principle. Absorption – The penetration of a substance into or through another; distinct from adsorption. Acceleration Loss – The velocity pressure required to accelerate the air from rest to the duct velocity or slot velocity, whichever is higher. ACFM – Actual Cubic Feet per Minute of gas volume at the actual condition temperature, pressure, moisture, elevation and gas composition. See gas flow rate. ACGIH – The American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a Professional Society devoted to the development of administrative and technical aspects of worker health protection. Membership is limited to professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. The ACGIH issues guidelines and recommendations in the form of Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) which are published annually. Acid Deposition – (Acid Rain) A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called “acid rain”, can fall as rain, snow or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. Acrylic – A synthetic polymerized fiber which contains at least 85% acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile – A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid nitrile C3H3N used chiefly in organic synthesis and for polymerization. Actuator – Mechanical device attached to a damper to move its blades. May be manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic. Adsorbent – In addition to the adjectival meaning, the term describes any of several substances that collect gaseous pollutants. Used both for measurement and control. Adsorption – The adhesion of a substance to the surface of a solid or liquid. Aerosol – Particle of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in the air because of its small size. Particulates under 1 micron in diameter are generally called aerosols. AF – Fan wheel design with airfoil-shaped blades. 2

___70°F + 460°__ Actual °F + 460°

Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) – The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a building has one air change per hour, it means that all of the air in the building will be replaced in a one-hour period. Air Conditioning – Treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution. Air Contaminant – An impurity emitted to the outside air. It can be solid (dust, particulate matter), liquid (vapor/mist), or gas (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide). Air Curtain – Mechanical air-moving device designed to limit the influx of unwanted air at a building opening. Air Handling Unit – Factory-made encased assembly consisting of a fan or fans and other equipment to circulate, clean, heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, or mix air. Air Horsepower – The theoretical horsepower required to drive a fan if there are no losses in the fan, that is, if its efficiency is 100%. Air Leakage – Unwanted air intruding into an exhaust system (holes in ducts, missing and ineffective seals, etc.). Airlock – Term generally applied to a rotary vane valve that keeps air from entering a dust collector, yet allows a collected particulate to continuously discharge from the device. Air Monitoring – The continuous sampling for and measuring of pollutants present in the atmosphere. Air Quality Criteria – As the Federal government uses the term, the varying amounts of pollution and lengths of exposure at which specific adverse effects to health and welfare take place. Air Quality Standards – The approximate concentration level of a selected pollutant that is permitted in the atmosphere to minimize detrimental effects. Air Pollution – The presence in the atmosphere of gases, fumes, or particulate matter alone or in combination with each other, in sufficient concentration to disturb the ecological balance; cause objectionable effects, especially sensory offenses; cause transient or chronic illnesses; or impair or destroy property. Air, Standard – Dry air at 70°F and 29.92 inches (Hg) barometer. This is substantially equivalent to 0.075 lb/ ft³. Air-to-Cloth Ratio – See air to media ratio. Air-to-Media Ratio – The ratio of air volume (ACFM) to square feet of effective filter media area. Also referred to as the apparent or face velocity through the media (FPM). Typically 3 to 12 fpm for bag medias and 0.5 to 6 for pleated type medias. Air Toxics – Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e., excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans. Air Velocity – Rate of speed of an airstream, expressed in FPM.

3

Aromatics – A type of hydrocarbon. Refrigeration. 408” water gauge. Aspect Ratio – The ratio of the width to the length. added to gasoline in order to increase octane.Altitude – The height above sea level of a given location. AMCA – Air Movement and Control Association. it is usually a spinningvane-type instrument used at read low velocities at registers and grills. such as benzene or toluene. Attainment Area – An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the Clean Air Act. Area Source – Any small source of non-natural air pollution which is not large enough to be classified as a major source or point source. Anodize – An electrolytic action of affixing a protective coating or film. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others. usually applied to aluminum.7 PSI. Attenuation – Absorption of sound pressure. isolation. Anemometer – A device which reads air velocity such as a wind vane. AR=W/L ASTM – American Society of Testing Materials. API – American Petroleum Institute. Some aromatics are toxic. Atmospheric Pressure – One atmosphere is approximately 14. static pressure regain. safety. 4 . etc. ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. In fan applications. and Air Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE – American Society of Heating. Attenuation reduces the amplitude only of a sound wave while leaving the frequency unchanged.73x10-6)Z]5.258 Ambient – Immediate surroundings or vicinity. wear. Airflow is the result of a difference in pressure (above or below atmospheric) between two points. APC – Air Pollution Control. ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Density (Alt) = Density (Std) x [1-(6. Appurtenances – Accessories added to a fan for the purposes of control. ANSI – American National Standards Institute. Density corrections for altitude are made using the following formula where Z is the feet above seal level. Anneal – The process of relieving stress and brittleness in metals by heating.

the process of adding (or removing) weight on a rotor in order to move the center of gravity toward the axis of rotation. BI fans are usually on the clean side of a piece of control equipment as the blades are not very abrasion resistant. Axial Fan – Fan where the airflow through the impeller is predominantly parallel to the axis of rotation. MAC Equipment acronym for its round bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. the others being vaporization and combustion. Baghouse – An air pollution abatement device that traps gas born particulates by forcing the gas through filter bags. AVR (c) – Air Vent Round. B Backdraft Damper – Damper used in a system to relieve air pressure in one direction and to prevent airflow in the opposite direction. EPA will establish BACT standards for serious.Attrition – Wearing or grinding down by friction. BACT (Best Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction achievable. (2) In a ventilation system. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. stocking. severe. the kinetic energy. Also known as tube. etc. and extreme non-attainment areas. In terms of air movement. BI Fan – Centrifugal fan with backward inclined blades that move air more efficiently than straight blade fans. standard is 29. being the sum of the potential energy. Can be unsupported (dust on inside) or used on the outside of a grid (cage) support (dust on outside). Under Title 1 of the CAAA. the theorem states that the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point upstream in the direction of airflow is equal to the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point downstream in the direction of airflow plus the friction and dynamic losses between the points. Blade Liners – Pieces of material added over the wheel blades to reduce abrasion of the blades.92” Hg. 5 . up to 64 bags. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Bag – The customary form of filter element. Blade-Pass Frequency – The tone generated by the blades passing a fixed object. BACM (Best Available Control Measure) – A term used in the CAAA referring to the “best” measures (according to EPA guidance) for controlling emissions. Barometric Pressure – A measurement of the pressure of the atmospheric. Balancing – (1) On a fan. it’s the process of measuring or calculating the airflow at a branch and altering duct size or a valve to attain desired airflow at that branch. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. Bernoulli’s Theorem – The principle that the total energy per unit of mass in the streamline flow of a moving fluid is constant. and the energy due to pressure. AVS (c) – Air Vent Square. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Axial Flow – In-line air movement parallel to the fan or motor shaft. The impeller is contained in a cylindrical housing. Blast Area – The fan outlet area less the projected area of the cut-off.

085 Bulked Yarn – Filament yarn which has been processed by high pressure air passing through the yarn and relaxing it into gentle loops. at sea level. Blind (Blinding) – The blockage of filtration media by dust. where heat and pressure press down “hairs” on the felt. Once enough material has built up. 6 . thereby reducing the thickness of the cloth by spreading the warp and filling yarns into a ribbon shape. Rise x CFM x 1. Brake Horsepower – The horsepower actually required to drive a fan.Bleed – Particles of dust or fumes that are able to leak through filter media. Boiler Horsepower – The capability to evaporate 34. The BTU/hr. Felt is drawn between two hot oil-filled rolls. required to raise the temperature of a volume of standard air a specific number of degrees is calculated by the formula: Btu/hr = Temp. BTU – British Thermal Unit. Calendered Finish – An available smooth finish for felt bags. heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F. air flow is severely restricted and the elements have to be cleaned or replaced. etc. 33. Breakdown Torque – Maximum torque a motor will produce without a sudden decrease in speed. Calendering – The application of either hot or cold pressure to smooth or polish a fabric. fume or liquid covering the filter media and not being discharged by the cleaning mechanism. Often referred to as pull-out torque or maximum torque. This includes the energy losses in the fan and can be determined only by actual tests of the fan (this does not include the drive losses between motor and fan). Bridge – Material building across an opening (such as a screw conveyor) and blocking off that opening.5 pounds of water per hour into dry steam at 212°F. Title I: Nonattainment: Ambient Air Quality Title II: Motor Vehicles Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV: Acid Rain Title V: Permits Title VI: Stratospheric Ozone Title VII: Enforcement Title VIII: Miscellaneous Caking – Material crusted on a bag that cannot be removed by the cleaning mechanism. imparting a smooth finish that improves dust release. Blue Smoke – A descriptive term for the gaseous hydrocarbons that escape from hot asphalt and other sources of VOC. C CAAA – Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. bends. Frequently caused by the dust on the bags getting wet. Blow-pipe – See manifold.500 BTU/hr.

or as solvents or aerosol propellants. compressors. Recently. Celsius – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 100° and freezes at 0°. medium starting current. same as centigrade: °C = . 7 . Also referred to as “paper” media. etc. Cartridge – See pleated filter elements. Capture Velocity – The air velocity at any point in front of a hood or at a hood opening necessary to overcome opposing air currents and to capture the contaminated air at the point by causing it to flow into the hood. CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) – Registry Number is a numeric designation assigned by the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts Service which uniquely identifies a specific chemical compound. and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration. see interstitial velocity. CFM – Cubic Feet (of any gaseous matter) per Minute. Can Vel = __CFM__ ABH CFM = Gas volume through baghouse ABH = Cross sectional area of baghouse Capacitor Start Motor – Type of single-phase induction motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where chlorine is released and destroys ozone. Carbon Monoxide – A colorless. packaging insulation. High-starting and breakdown torque. Dividing the gas volume by the cross sectional area of the collector determines “can velocity”. the gas velocity within the collector. See gas flow rate. Cellplate – See tubesheet. Also. Centrifugal Collector – Any of several mechanical systems using centrifugal force to remove particulate from a gas stream. Used in hard-starting applications. Cartridge Filter – An air pollution control device that traps gas-borne particulates by forcing the gas through filter element cartridges. 100% spun bonded media equipped filters have been placed in commerce.5556 x [°F. odorless gas which is toxic because of its tendency to reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Usually 3500 to 4599 ft/min in ductwork depending upon the nature of the dust. Carrying Velocity – The gas velocity that is necessary to keep the dust airborne. air conditioning. pumps. Cellulose – The chief part of fibrous products which are used to make the filter media for many cartridge filters.Can Velocity – As related to baghouses. – 32°] CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) – A family of inert. non-toxic. The cartridges are typically made with pleated cellulose paper media. CFC-12 – A chlorofluorocarbon with a trademark name of Freon. commonly used in refrigeration and automobile air conditioning.

Conventional catalytic converters are less efficient upon start-up at low temperatures. wire. the volume of air at the inlet of a fan may have to be adjusted by the ratio of absolute pressure at the entrance of the fan versus the design requirements in the system. felted or otherwise formed of any textile fiber. and called by the symbol “K”.. nitrogen. 20°F). When air is forced into a system it is compressed and becomes more dense. Combustion Products – 1) Primarily gaseous matter such as carbon oxides. such as wood or insulation. inlet loading – outlet loading x 100 inlet loading Collector – Used interchangeably with “baghouse. or other suitable material. as in “cyclone.Clean Coal Technology – Any technology not in widespread use as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments which will achieve significant reductions. Usually understood to mean a woven felted or textile fabric. particles leaving is expressed in percent.” Compressibility – A factor used by fan manufacturers to correct performance ratings in higher pressure ranges to account for the fact that air is a compressible gas that does not follow the perfect gas laws. the others being attrition and vaporization. Collecting Efficiency – The ability of a dust collector to remove particulate from the exhaust gas. The ratio of particles entering the collection device vs. ethanol. methanol. Cloth – In general. and water vapor – resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Combustion Air – Amount of air necessary to burn the available fuel. 2) In the context of emission control – the gaseous products resulting from the burning of any kind of material containing carbon in a free or combined state. a point where metal goes through insulation. Clean Fuel – Blends and/or substitutes for gasoline fuels. knitted. Cloth Weight – Is usually expressed in ounces per square yard or ounces per square foot. usually oxidation.e. cotton sateen is often specified as a certain number of linear yards per pound of a designated linear yards per pound in a 54” width. 8 . unit of measurement of visibility interference. COH – Abbreviation for coefficient of haze. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. creating an uninsulated area where heat dissipates rapidly.” or mechanical collector. woven . a plant fabric. Coefficient of Conductivity – The rate of heat transfer through a material. Cold Spot – On an insulated baghouse. Depending on the volume or weight of air required down stream in the positive pressure portion of the system. expressed in Btu transmitted per hour through one square foot of surface per degree difference in temperature across the material. These include compressed natural gas. Cold Temperature – A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) to be met at a low temperature (i. Figures are usually expressed for basic materials. which is one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into iron. and others. oxygen. per inch of thickness. Compression – A phenomenon related to positive pressure. Also referred to as “combustion contaminants.” Combustion – The production of heat and light energy through a chemical process. Coke Oven – An industrial process which converts coal into coke.” “cartridge filter. However.

Cotton Number – Staple yarns are generally sized on the cotton system. Fan Performance – A graphic representation of static or total presence and fan BHP requirements over an airflow volume range at a stated inlet density and fan speed. Curve. or other agents in the environment in which it is placed. Conveying Velocity – The air velocity required in a duct system to maintain entrainment of a specific material. moisture. Decibel – The logarithmic ratio between some known reference and some quantity of electrical or acoustic signal power. Cyclone Collector – A kind of centrifugal collector equipment. Usually expressed in terms of grains per ft³. Silicone Treated) – A type of filter media used in high quality cartridges. chemical. Curve. Example: an 18 singles yarn is of such a size that 18 hanks weighs one pound (each hank contains 840 yards). Delta P (∆P) – Change in pressure. Convection – The transfer of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the molecules. Conduction – The transfer of heat by physical contact between substances. dbA – Sound-pressure level corrected to the “A” weighing network. 9 . Corrosion – The deterioration of a material by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering. CRST (Cellulose Fibers. CSA – Canadian Standards Association. Cotton System – A system of yarn manufacturing for spinning cotton fiber yarn whereby the individual fibers are aligned parallel. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. D Damper – Change in pressure. Conversion Factors – See pages 87 through 106. or milligrams per cubic meter. CTG (Control Techniques Guideline) – Guidance documents issued by EPA which define Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) to be applied to existing facilities that emit certain threshold quantities of air pollutants. Sets safety standards for motors and other electrical equipment used in Canada. System – A graphic representation of the pressure versus flow characteristics of a given system and density. CRP – Certified Ratings Program. The treatments enhance filter life and moisture resistance. they contain information both on the economic and technological feasibility of available techniques. lbs per 1000 lbs of gas. parts per million.Concentration – The amount of dust in gas. Resin Impregnated. Denier – The weight in grams that 9000 meters of a fiber weighs.

See gas flow rate. standard air is . Dew Point – The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the existing partial pressure of the respective vapor. Dust Collector – An air-cleaning device used to remove heavy-particulate loadings from exhaust systems prior to discharge. The product of the density factor and the density of standard air (0. They move across the direction of air flow in a random fashion. knockout boxes. centrifugal collectors. Such as: expansion chambers. it is the set of conditions at which liquid sulphuric acid begins to condense as the temperature is reduced. Dry Bulb Temperature – The actual temperature of a gas. impingement. Diffusion – Takes place on particles so small that their direction and velocity are influenced by molecular collisions. Dilution Ventilating – The mixing of contaminated air with uncontaminated supply air for the purpose of attaining acceptable working or living conditions. but not necessarily effective. a chemical. it is the temperature at which liquid water begins to condense for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature is reduced. Density Factor – Ratio of actual air density of standard air. Devices not using H2O. or the transfer of a powder into a state of suspension through the action of air currents or by vibration. Diaphragm Valve – A compressed air operated valve that opens to allow a pulse to go the filter bags or cartridges. filtration) to remove particulate matter from exhaust gas. Dry Collector – Dust collectors which use mechanical means (centrifugal force. Dust Collector. DOP – Acronym for dioctylphthalate.075 lbs/ft³) will give the actual air density in pounds per cubic foot. taken with a conventional thermometer. with the bottom open for dirty air entrance. it is retained by the van der Waals forces existing between the particle and the fiber.075 lbs. Dust Collector Efficiency – See collecting efficiency. cartridge filters and baghouses. out. For flue gas containing water vapor and SO3. These particles do not follow the air stream. used in aerosol form./ft³. Puts more. Double Bag – Features a conventional bag on a cage and an inner bag that filters from inside. Cyclone – A mechanical device that utilizes the centrifugal force of the inlet gas to remove large particulate matter suspended in the gas. cloth area in a given size baghouse. 10 . DSCFM – Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. When a particle does strike a fiber. to non-destructively test high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.Density – The measure of unit mass equal to its weight divided by its volume (lbs/ft³). DNAPLS – Dense non-aqueous phased liquids. (For air containing water vapor. Dust – A dispersion aerosol formed by the grinding or atomizing of a solid. but behave more like gases than particulate.) DFT – Dry-film thickness usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils). Dimensional Stability – Ability of the fabric to retain its size in hot or moist atmosphere.

It is the actual stack height plus the plume rise.Dust Permeability – Defined as the mass of dust (grains) per square foot of media divided by the resistance (pressure drop) in inches of water gauge (WG) per unit of filtering velocity. Emission Control Diagnostics – Computerized devices placed on vehicles to detect malfunction of emissions controls and notify the owner of the need for repair. MAC Equipment’s airlock to place under a dust collector when a pneumatic convey system will be utilized beneath the airlock. or manufacturer for the same application: ME = ______TP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Efficiency. Elevation – The distance of the subject site above or below sea level. DYNE – A unit of force equal to that which would accelerate one gram by one centimeter per second. Emission Control Equipment – Machinery used to remove air contaminants from the discharge of industrial exhaust streams. Electrostatic Precipitator – A kind of precipitator that first charges particulate (ESD). Efficiency. type. DWDI – Double-width. Static – The ratio of fan output less the kinetic energy [outlet-velocity pressure] leaving the fan to the power applied to the fan: SE = ______SP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Effluent – A discharge or emission of a fluid (liquid or gaseous). Mechanical Total – The ratio of fan output to the power applied to the fan. Effective Stack Height – The height at which a plume becomes essentially level. EMD Airlock – Environmental Multi Duty airlock. Dynamic Insertion Loss – A reduction of airborne noise levels affected by the installation of an acoustical silencer. Emission – Release of pollutants into the air from a source. 11 . E Early Reduction/Early Compliance – A provision in the CAAA which provides incentives to a company for complying with new standards before they are required to by Law. double-inlet fans. Can be helpful in selecting fan size. Arrangement 3. Dynamic Balance – The mechanical balancing of a rotating part of assembly in motion. by which particles tend to draw together or adhere. feet per minute (fpm). Not to be compared with cloth permeability. Electrostatic Attraction – Mutual attraction. caused by static electricity. allowing electrostatic forces to attract particles to a collection point.

by type of source. normally expressed in fractions of velocity pressure.g. Excess Air – Air in excess of the amount necessary to combust all the available fuel. E. Emission Inventory – A list of primary air pollutants emitted into a given community’s atmosphere. 12 . End Count – See warp count. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of material used by a given source. Enthalpy – The heat content per unit mass of a substance. or centralized inspections. in amounts (commonly tons) per day. Evase – A diffuser at the fan outlet which gradually increases in area to decrease velocity and to convert kinetic energy to static pressure [regain]. Emission Standard – The maximum amount of a pollutant that is permitted to be discharged from a single polluting source.g. the emission factor of oxides in nitrogen in fuel oil combustion is 119 lbs. and increased repair waiver cost. Exhaust Gas – The gases emitting from an industrial process.Emission Factor – The statistical average of the amount of a specific pollutant emitted from each type of polluting source in relation to a unit quantity of material handled. as a minimum. Entry Loss – The loss in pressure caused by air flowing into a system. The emission inventory is basic to the establishment of emission standards. e. Exhaust Volume – The amount of exhaust gas (air.000 gallons of fuel oil used. per 1. Also see emission factor. The purpose of Enhanced I&M is to reduce automobile emissions by assuring that cars are running properly. under-the-hood inspections to detect tampering with pollution control equipment. Exhaust Stack Temperature – The temperature of the exhaust gas. the number of pounds of fly ash per cubic foot of gas that may be emitted from a coal-fired boiler. Enhanced I&M (Enhanced Inspection & Maintenance) – An improved automobile inspection and maintenance program that includes. End – See warp thread. processed or burned. tighter stringency of inspections and improved management practices to ensure more effectiveness. generally a combustion process. Rule or measurement established to regulate or control the amount of a given pollutant that may be discharged to the outdoor atmosphere from its source. it is possible to compute emissions for that source – information necessary for an emission inventory. increases in coverage of vehicle types and model years. computerized. products of combustion and water vapor) leaving the exhaust stack usually measured in ACFM.. measured in the discharge stack. Equivalent Duct Diameter – For rectangular duct with sides a and b is: D = (4ab/π)0. End Reflection – A known value of sound radiated back into duct or opening.5 Evaporation – The physical transformation of a liquid to a gas at any temperature below its boiling point. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. This may also include annual.

Filament – Multi – More than one mono-filament strand grouped together of definite length. Fahrenheit – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 212° and freezes at 32°. etc. Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) – Under current law. or control. This cake assists in the filtering of dust. Filter Cake – The accumulation of dust on a bag before cleaning. Felted Fabric – Type bag used on most all pulse jet dust collectors. thick cloth of short fibers on a woven backing.8 x °C) +32° Fan – A power-driven machine which moves a continuous volume of air by converting rotational mechanical energy to an increase in the total pressure of the moving air. Fan Class – Operating limits at which a fan must be physically capable of operating safely. SP. RPM. Fan Capacity – Performance requirement for which a fan is selected to meet specific system calculations given in terms of ACFM at the fan inlet. 13 . Also called bag collector. aerosol. for measurement. analysis. a Federally implemented plan to achieve attainment of an air quality standard. °F = (1. Fan Laws – Theoretical constant relationships between CFM.F Fabric – A collective term applied to cloth no matter how constructed. Filter Collector – A mechanical filtration system for removing particulate matter from a gas stream. Fill – Crosswise threads woven by loom. Features a heavy. a plan containing control measures developed and promulgated by EPA in order to fill gaps in a State Implementation Plan (SIP). wool. Flashing – Sheet metal strip placed at the junction of intersecting exterior building surfaces to make the joint watertight. Under the Senate bill. regardless of the kind of fiber used. used when a State is unable to develop an adequate plan. Fiber – The fundamental unit comprising a textile raw material such as cotton. Fines – Fine particulate. Also called bag collector or cartridge. Filters are designed in a variety of sizes and materials for specific purposes. and BHP for a given fan used in a given fixed system: CFM varies as RPM SP varies as (RPM)² BHP varies as (RPM)³ FC – Fan wheel design using forward-curved blades. Filament – Mono – One continuous strand of fiber to indefinite length. Fill Count – Number of threads per inch of cloth.

alternating current. Full-Load Speed – The speed at which the rated horsepower is developed. oil. shaft height. shaft/bearing speeds (used to determine lubrication requirements) and wheel tip speeds. such as oxidation. Fume – Solid particulates generated by condensation from the gaseous state. This is normally done by surrounding the dryer opening by a plenum or windbox and supplying the air with a low pressure fan. Also see Smog. given in terms of static pressure. generally after volatilization from molten metal. Also see induced draft. Fumes flocculate and sometimes coalesce. FRP – Abbreviation for fiberglass-reinforced-plastic. This speed is less than synchronous speed and varies with the motor type and manufacturer. Under Title III of the CAAA. commonly defines air velocity (to determine velocity pressure or suitability for material conveying). Fossil Fuels – Coal. or contracting and expanding. it is known as a “forced draft” system. EPA will establish either GACT or MACT standards for each source of HAPs.-Lb. so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life. Dimensions include: shaft diameter.Flexing – Bending. and techniques which are commercially available and appropriate considering economic impacts and the technical capabilities of the firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. G Garbadine Weave – A regular or “steep” twill with higher warp than fill count.) – Torque rating or requirement. practices. and often accompanied by a chemical reaction. 14 . Forced Draft Burner – A burner which has its secondary air supplied under pressure. FPM – Feet per minute. Usually expressed in cycles per second (cps) or just “cycles”. equal to 12 in-lb. and natural gas. or rotational speed. Fog – The condensation of water vapor in air. GACT – (Generally Available Control Technology) Methods. equivalent to the force required to move a one-pound weight one foot in distance. Foot-Pound (Ft. when air is blown or forced into a process. Frame Size – A set of physical dimensions of motors as established by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for interchangeability between manufacturers. Forced Draft – How air is provided in a process such as a combustion process. Free Field – The surroundings of a specific equipment location in which no obstructions or reverberant surfaces exist to distort or amplify sound waves. Friction Loss – Resistance to air flow through any duct or fitting. Frequency – Any cyclic event whether vibration. Fugitive Emissions – Emissions not caught by a capture system. and motor mounting footprint. Full-Load Torque – The torque required to produce the rated horsepower at full-load speed. Fly Ash – The particulate impurities resulting from the burning of coal and other material.

that break down in the atmosphere depleting stratospheric ozone. H Halons – A family of compounds containing bromine.Gases – Normally. Gas Flow Rate. H Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s medium efficiency cyclone dust collector. Does not imply a grey (gray) color. (See page 33 for a complete listing).625 4. Gasoline vapor is a VOC (Volatile Organic Compound).50 Gauge Pressure – The pressure differential between atmospheric and that measured in the system. Gauge (gage) – Metal manufacturers’ standard measure of thickness for sheer stock. Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) – The volume of process gas at any point of the plant exhaust system measured in terms of minutes. and chlorine used in fighting fires. SCFM – The gas flow volume reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) by calculation (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). There are several units of measurement: ACFM – The actual gas flow measured (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute).²) 7. Gasoline volatility is measured in pounds per square inch (psi). Equal to one seven thousandth of a pound. Gasoline Volatility – The property of gasoline whereby it evaporates into a vapor. DSCFM – The gas flow reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) and without volume of steam or water vapor contained in the exhaust gas (Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). Measurement is made by the number of grains per cubic foot of gas emitted. Ground Motor – A short circuit between any point in the motor’s electrical circuit and its connection to the ground.0598 Weight of Steel (Lbs/Ft. Gases diffuse. Griege (Griege goods) – Same as grey or unfinished goods.1345 .1793 . fluorine.0747 .1046 .50 5. with a higher number reflecting more gasoline evaporation. iodine. HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants) – Any of the 189 chemicals listed under Title III of the CAAA. One grain = 1 LB 7000 Grain Loading – The rate at which particles are emitted from a pollution source. Grain – A dust weight unit commonly used in air pollution control.375 3. All HAP sources will have to comply with GACT or MACT standards. formless fluids which occupy the space of its enclosure and which can be changed to a Liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature. some examples for steel are: Gauge 7 10 12 14 16 Thickness (Inches) . 15 .125 2.

lbs. insufficient cleaning air will flow through the valve.64” WG) High Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 80-100 PSIG used for cleaning air in baghouses and cartridge filters. If it is undersized. Hydrophobic Fibers – Those fibers or materials not readily water absorbent. Pressure is often measured in inches of mercury. lowest priced cast iron airlock.HCFC’s – Chlorofluorocarbons that have been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen. (1” Hg = 13. HD Airlock – Heavy Duty airlock.746 kilowatts.lbs. HON – Hazardous Organic NESHAPS.97% by count of a standard 0. found especially in fossil fuels. HEPA Filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) – Capable of removing at least 99. Relative – The ratio of the actual partial pressure of water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water at the same temperature. ventilating. also equal to 0. they may be carcinogenic or active participants in the photochemical smog process. HVAC – Heating. 1HP equals 33. Heat Exchanger – A device such as a coil or radiator which is used to transfer heat between two physically separate fluids. Humidity. A device used in the measurement and analysis of suspended particulate pollution. Absolute – The weight of water vapor per unit volume. Header – As applied to pulse-jet baghouses. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are major air pollutants.3 micron challenge particulate (DOP test). HE Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s High Efficiency cyclone dust collector. Horsepower – (As applied to motors) is an index of the amount of work the machine can perform in a period of time. Horsepower can be calculated by: HP = _Torque (ft.000 ft. and which are significantly less damaging to stratospheric ozone than other CFC’s. Hg – Symbol for mercury. and air conditioning. Hi-Volume Sampler – Also called a Hi-Vol. 16 . of work per minute. the pressurized pipe that contains the compressed air supply for pulsing. Hydrocarbon – Any of the vast family of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in various combinations. Hertz – Frequency measured in cycles per second.) x RPM_ 5250 Humidity. MAC Equipment’s all purpose. pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. Hygroscopic – Materials having an affinity for water.

but. Larger dust particles.e.. the voids. Induced Draft – How air is provided in a process. In baghouses. where air is drawn or pulled through a process. enable a fiber to trap a particle without the use of inertia. Inertial Separators – Air pollution control equipment that uses the principle of inertia to remove particulate matter from a stream of air or gas. set at an incline to increase reading accuracy. Also see forced draft. to measure pressure. 17 . see WR². because its size is very small in relation to the fiber. called van der Waals forces. (407” WC = 14. i. Inlet-Vane Damper – Round multiblade damper mounted to the inlet of a fan to vary the airflow. The contact is not dependent on inertia and the particle is retained on the fiber because of the inherent adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. it is commonly a lightweight fiberglass mat. Normally used to read velocity pressure. Insulation – Any method which will retard the flow of heat through a wall. liquid or gaseous wastes under controlled conditions. Inclined Manometer – A testing instrument using a liquid column. common in FC fans and some other fan types where the point of operation is left of the peak of the static-pressure curve. See mechanical and cyclone collectors. they do not follow the air stream and collide with a fiber. Inertia – Tendency of an object to remain in the state it is in. it changes direction as it passes around each fiber. Induction – The production of an electric current in a conductor in a changing magnetic field. Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) – A program providing for periodic inspections of motor vehicles to ensure that emissions of specified pollutants are not exceeding established limitations. however cannot follow the abrupt changes in direction because of their inertia. makes contact with a fiber while following the tortuous air flow path of the filter. Interception – A special case of impingement where a particle is small enough to move with the air stream.7 PSI) Inches WG (Inches of Water Gauge) – See inch of water. The rotating portion of the fan designed to increase the energy level of the gas stream. Interstices – The openings between the interlacings of the warp and filling yarns. pathological. such as a combustion process. Incinerator – A device which burns household. Inch of Water – A unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of water one inch high at a standard temperature. or hazardous solid. Instability – The point of operation at which a fan or system will “hunt” or pulse.I Impeller – Another term for fan “wheel”. These forces. As a result. industrial. Impeller Diameter – The maximum diameter measured over the impeller blades. Impingement – When air flows through a filter.

K Kelvin – Absolute Temperature in the SI system scale. Interstitial Velocity – The apparent velocity of a gas as it passes by a filter bag matrix. L L-10 Bearing Life – The theoretical number of hours after which 90% of the bearings subjected to a given set of conditions will still be in operation. Low Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at less than 30” WC used for cleaning baghouses. metric pressure unit. It is found by dividing the collector gas volume by its cross sectional area. Liquide Flowrate – The amount of water or “scrubbing liquid” introduced into a wet collector. 18 . Kilowatt – Kw. LVS (c) – Large Air Vent Square. whichever is most stringent. This prevents the rise of pollutants that might otherwise be dispersed and results in a concentration of the air pollution. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. LST (c) – Large Square Top removal.Inversion – An atmospheric condition caused by a layer of warm air preventing the rise of cooling air trapped beneath it.34 horsepower. permits the flow of air but inhibits the entrance of undesirable elements. also known as B-10. Louver – A device comprised of multiple blades which. LAER (Lowest Achievable Emission Rate) – The rate of emissions which reflects either the most stringent emission limit contained in the implementation plan of any state (unless it is proved that such limitations are not achievable). MAC Equipment acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. or the most stringent emission limit achieved in practice. Low Nox Burners – One of several combustion technologies used to reduce emission of Nox. after the cross sectional of the bags have been subtracted from the collector cross sectional area. Kilopascal – Kpa. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. Lower Explosive Limit – The lower limit of flammability or explosibility of a gas or vapor at ordinary ambient temperature expressed in percent of a gas or a vapor in air by volume. measure of power equal to 1. one inch water gauge is 0.24836 Kpa. Knockout Box – See primary collector. Laminar Flow – Gas or fluid in parallel layers with some sliding motion between the layers. when mounted in an opening. Leno – A weave in which the adjacent warp yarns are twisted on either side of the interlacing filling yarn. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags.

25. Manifold – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. and various types of impingement collectors. used in fan engineering where air moving at a mach of 0. a major source is one which can emit more than 10 TPY of any one HAP or 25 TPY of total HAPs. begins to deviate from the fan laws. Manometer – A u-shaped device for measuring the static pressure at a point relative to some other point. 19 . under Title III of the CAAA.0000146 PSI.M Mach Number – A fraction of the speed of sound.” MACT standards for existing sources must be at least as stringent as the average level of control achieved at the best controlled 12 percent of facilities. or 10 tons per year depending on whether the area is classified as Marginal or Moderate. Miasma is a word meaning toxic materials in the air. Sometimes called a blow-pipe.. 0. Microbar – A unit of pressure equal to one-millionth of an atmospheric pressure. For hazardous air pollutants. Micro – A prefix meaning 1/1. and MACT for new sources will have to be even stricter.achievable for new or existing sources. the pressure difference causes water to rise or fall. or 9/10 the speed of sound. Severe. the CAAA defines MACT as “the maximum degree of reduction in emissions. In non-attainment areas. MCF (c) – Medium Pressure Controlled Fire..000 abbreviated by the Greek letter µ. respectively. Mechanical Collector – Devices that are functionally dependent on the laws of mechanics governing the motion of bodies in space. Medium Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 5-10 PSIG used for cleaning baghouses. It distributes the compressed pulse to the bags. a major source is one which emits more than 100. Can be operated dry or wet.000. the pipe that extends over the bags with a hole over each bag. MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) – The standard to which sources of HAPs will have to comply.9. MIASMACT is an overlay of the words Miasma and MIACT.taking into account the cost of achieving such reductions.. Examples of mechanical collectors are cyclones. and MACT is Maximum Achievable Control Technology. When operated wet. The difference in the level of the water columns is equivalent to the pressure differential. Major Source – A stationary source which emits a large amount of pollution. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Micrometer – See micron. devices are generally called scrubbers. Make-up Air – A ventilating term which refers to the replacement of air lost because of exhaust air requirements. 50. under Title I of the CAAA. Mactiflo – MAC Equipment’s trademark name for its down flow cartridge filter. Mega – A prefix meaning 1 million. MAC Equipment acronym for its dust collector that utilizes 7 psi air to clean the bags through a rotating mechanism that is timed to release the air precisely over the bags. settling chambers. or Extreme. Maximum Continuous Rating – The point at which the fan is expected to operate. This patented dust collector is available from 22 to 1652 bags. MIASMACT – MAC Equipments trademark name for its Automatic Cleaning HEPA filter.. Serious.

29 CFR 1910. Modeling – An investigate technique using computer mathematical.0. such as by splashing. Molecular Weight – The weight of a molecule expressed on a scale in which the carbon isotope weighs exactly 12. Montreal Protocol – An international environmental agreement to control chemicals that deplete the ozone layer. Needled Felt – A felt made by the placement of loose fiber in systematic alignment with barbed needles. as required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. NEDS – National Emission Data System. In general. NEC – National Electrical Code. Milli – A prefix meaning 1/1. calls for phase-out of CFCs.1200. MIL – A unit of measure equal to 25 microns or one thousandth of an inch. It is the most commonly used construction method since it is stronger than pressed felt. but an apparent molecular weight determined by the percentages of the molecular weights of each gas in a composition.000. particles down to 10 microns can be seen without the aid of magnification. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) – Compilation of data and information on individual hazardous chemicals produced by the manufacturers and importers of that chemical. a phase-out of chloroform by 2005. a unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter. N NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers. Mildew Resistant Finish – An organic or inorganic finish to repel the growth of fungi on natural fibers. and provides financial assistance to help developing countries make the transition from ozone-depleting substances. As air is a gas mixture. The needles move up and down. Multi-Filament (Multi-fill) – A yarn composed of a number of filaments. which was renegotiated in June 1990. or physical representation of a system that accounts for all or some of its known properties. Natural Frequency – The frequency at which a component or system resonates. foaming and atomizing. halons.Micron – Symbol µ. it does not have a true molecular weight. Napped – The rupturing of the filling yarns to produce a fleecy surface on woven fabrics. represents the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule. An average human hair is 70 microns in diameter. 20 . usually expressed in pounds per square inch. Mullen Burst – The pressure necessary to rupture a secured cloth specimen. The protocol. pushing and pulling fibers to form an interlocking of adjacent fibers. Mist – Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state. and carbon tetrachloride by the year 2000. Modacrylic – A synthetic fiber which contains less than 85% acrylonitrile.

OSI – Ounces per square inch. Capacity – Refers to the amount of light that can pass through.). A wire in which one volt produces a current of one ampere has a resistance of one Ohm. Also NSPS (New Source Performance Standard). training materials. approximately 45% of Nox emissions come from mobile sources. normally refers to the degree of visibility of an exhaust plume. a unit of pressure equal to one-sixteenth PSI or 1. Onboard Controls – Devices placed on vehicles to capture gasoline vapor during refueling. O OCIS (OSHA Computerized Information System) – A comprehensive database that contains information and data on standards interpretation. Normal measurement technique used by EPA method 9. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control under the Department of Health and Human Services. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) – Created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. 35% from electric utilities. Non-Woven Felt – A felt made by either needling. and other information compiled by OSHA on subjects related to occupational safety and health. OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration. NC curves give. Noise Criteria – A way for an architect to specify the maximum permissible sound-power level in each of the eight octave bands. in the presence of heat and sunlight to term ozone. NESHAP – National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. etc. maximum permissible intensity per octave band. hazardous waste activity 5(a)(1) citations. 21 . chemical information. insulation. in a graphical form. matting of fibers or compressed with a bonding agent for permanency. reacts with volatile organic compounds. a health hazard evaluation index. the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the proposal date of the standard. Octave Bands – Ranges of frequencies. 250. Non-Attainment – An area which has not achieved air quality as good as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the CAAA.NEMA – The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. and other design criteria for electric motors. These octave bands are identified by their center frequencies (63. and control technologies. and 15% from industrial fuel combustion. Ohm – A measure of electrical resistance. Nox (Nitrogen Oxides) – Chemical compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen. ratings enclosures. It is also a major precursor to acid rain. and providing professional education as well as health and safety information.733 inches of water. 125. the trade association establishing standards of dimensions. identifying and evaluating workplace hazards. measurement techniques. Nationwide. Opposed-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the opposite direction. Its mandate includes conducting research in developing criteria and/or recommendations to be used in setting occupational exposure standards. New Source – A stationary source.

5 H2O pressure differential. or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation. Two identical fans in parallel will effectively deliver twice the rated flow of any one of the fans at the same static pressure. Fabric – Measured on Frazier porosity meter or Gurley permeometer. and sunlight. A parallel fan arrangement is generally used to meet volume requirements beyond that of single fans. Pitch Diameter – The mean diameter or point at which V-belts ride within a sheave. pH – A symbol as part of a logarithmic designation to indicate acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 to 14. Ozone – A compound consisting of three oxygen atoms. 22 . pH7 is taken as neutral. 6 to 0 increasingly acid. license. that is the primary constituent of smog. Permeability. Particulate – A particle of solid or liquid matter. There is a natural layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.. 8 to 14 increasingly alkaline.g. PEL (Permissible Exposure Limits) – Limits developed by OSHA to indicate the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant to which an employee may be exposed. This dimension is necessary for accurate drive calculations. Particulate Matter – Any solid or liquid material in the atmosphere. Piezometer Ring – A device consisting of a number of pressure taps connected to a common manifold to measure pressure. P Parallel-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the same direction. Permanent Split Capacitor Motor – Very low starting torque. Not to be confused with dust permeability. etc. The ability of air to pass through the fabric. crops. Pilot Valve – The small solenoid valve that is electrically operated to relieve pressure on one side of the diaphragm and cause the operation of a larger diaphragm valve. Permit – An authorization. Pick – See fill. The products are known as photochemical smog. It is formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving volatile organic compounds. Ozones can initiate damage to the lungs as well as damage to trees. with lower line current and higher horsepower capabilities. expressed in cubic feet of air per minute per square foot of fabric with 0. Photochemical Process – The chemical changes brought about by the radiant energy of the sun acting upon various polluting substances. nitrogen oxides. a permit to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions. and materials. e. Parallel Fans – Two or more fans which draw air from a common source and exhaust into a common duct or plenum. Performance and applications similar to shaded pole but more efficient.Oxygenated Fuels – Gasoline which has been blended with alcohols or ethers that contain oxygen in order to reduce carbon monoxide and other emissions.

may be designated as velocity pressure divided by static pressure or by a given CFM and SP. blankets. but primarily applying those equipped with 100% synthetic fabric. Precipitators – Any number of devices using mechanical. Pressure. See electrostatic precipitator. Atmospheric – The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere. i. Polymerized – A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. 23 . Porosity – Sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for permeability. dry dust to a bag or cartilage before start-up to provide an initial filter cake to enhance immediate high efficiency. POLIPLEET – MAC Equipment’s trademark for its line of pleated spun bond 100% polyester cartridges. Pounds Per 100 Pounds of Gas – A common quantitative definition of air pollution concentration. electrical. It is the pressure indicated by a barometer.Pilot Tube – A metering device consisting of a double-walled tube with a short right-angle bend. Plenum – Pressure equalizing chamber. Pressed Felt – A type of felt manufactured by pressing fibers into the skrim. Units are expressed by weight or volume.92 inches of mercury. affecting sensitive population groups such as children and people with respiratory diseases. Pressure Drop – The differential pressure between two points in a system. The smaller PM10 particles penetrate to the deeper portions of the lung. Pre-Coating – The application of a relatively coarse. Also. Originally a designation for the amount of air in a fabric. Ply – Two or more yams joined together by twisting. The POLIPLEET can be used in MAC Equipment’s entire product line of dust collectors. PPM (Parts Per Million) – The number of parts of a given pollutant in a million parts of air. or chemical means to collect particulates. any single identifiable source of pollution. the bend end of the tube has a hole through which total pressure is measured when pointed upstream in a moving gas stream. The resistance to flow between the two points. Used for measurement. the periphery of the tube has several holes through which static pressure is measured. PM 10 – A new standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere (“particulate matter”). standard atmospheric pressure is 29. Point Source – A stationary location or facility from which pollutants are emitted.e. Refers to the amount of particulate matter under 10 micrometers in diameter. Point of Operation – The intersection of a fan’s static pressure curve and the system curve to which the fan is being applied. Pleated Filter Element – Filter elements made from any pleated filter media. analysis or control. Plenum Pulse – Type of pulsing collector where entire sections of the clean air plenum are isolated and pulsed with either compressed air or air from a high pressure blower.

Pulse Jet – Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. Static – The potential pressure exerted in all directions by fluid at rest. Pressure. Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. Generally described as the length of time the electrical signal the pilot valve open (20-40 milliseconds). R RACM (Reasonably Available Control Measures) – A broadly defined term referring to technologies and other measures that can be used to control pollution. 10 PSIG equals 24. Pulse Jet Cleaning – A cleaning method where a momentary burst of compressed air is introduced through tube or nozzle to the top cap of a bag. The EPA promulgates a rule when it issues the final version in the Federal Register. Pulse Cycle – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. PSIA (Pounds per Square Inch Absolute) – The absolute pressure without reference to another point. Process Weight – The weight per hour that is run through the process.Pressure. In the case of PM10. Pulse Duration – The length of time a pulse lasts. A bubble of air flows down the bag. density. Usually expressed in inches water gauge. temperature. PSI (Pounds per square inch) – A measure of pressure. 24 . Usually expressed in inches water gauge when dealing with air. Pulse Interval – The time between pulsing one row of bags and pulsing the next row. it refers to approaches for controlling small or dispersed source categories such as road dust. however would more correctly be the description of the length of time the manifold is pressurized (120-180) milliseconds. Commonly used in APC codes to determine the maximum allowance pollution exhausted.7 PSIA. woodstoves.7” water gauge. Primary Collector – A dry or wet collector which is followed by a secondary collector with greater filtering efficiency. and open burning.7 PSIA. 1 psi equals 27. For a fluid in motion it is measured in a direction normal (90°) to the direction of now. and enthalpy for any gas-vapor mixture. the interval of time between pulsing a row of bags and that row being pulsed again. Promulgate – To make a new law known and put it into effect. PSIG (Pounds per Square Inch Gauge) – The pressure relative to atmosphere. humidity. For instance. used extensively in comfort ventilation. Atmospheric pressure is 14. Velocity – The kinetic pressure in the directional flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) – EPA program in which state and/or federal permits are required that are intended to restrict emissions for new or modified sources in places where air quality is already better than required to meet primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. Psychromatic Chart – A graphic depiction of the relationship between pressure. This is the more common pressure term. causing bag walls to collapse behind it. includes Reasonably Available Control Technology and other measures.

and serious non-attainment areas. Rarefication – A phenomenon related to negative pressure. They can have a long life as pollutants. Reverse Air Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. moderate. When air is drawn put through resistance into a fain inlet. These limits are generally expressed as 8 or 10 hour TWAs for a 40-hour work week and/or calling levels with time limits ranging from instantaneous to 120 minutes. in pounds per inch of a 6” long textile sample cut. EPA will establish RACT standards for marginal.RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation on existing sources in non-attainment areas. Relative Humidity – The ratio of existing water vapor to that of saturated air at the same dry-bulb temperature. high pressure fan selection must be based on rarefied inlet density. inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks. Ravel Strip Tensile – The tension strength. REL (Recommended Exposure Limits) – Issued by NIOSH to aid in controlling hazards in the workplace. Same as reverse air baghouse. Repeat – The number of threads in a weave before the weave repeats or starts over again. Re-entrainment – The phenomenon whereby dust is collected from the air stream and then is returned to the air stream. Radionuclide – Radioactive element which can be man made or naturally occurring. or by changing the momentum of the gas. Resistance – In air flow. naturally occurring. or rarefied. While negligible at low pressure and volumes. 25 . Radial Blade – Fan wheel design. Repowering – The replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies. radioactive. Residual Risk – The quantity of health risk remaining after application of the MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). Under Title I of the CAAA. and becomes less dense than at the entry to the system. it is caused by friction of the air against any surface. to cause dust cake release. Repressuring Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. Random Noise – A sound that has an average amplitude and constantly changing frequency. and are believed to have potentially mutagenic effects on the human body. in order to achieve significantly greater emission reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread use as of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments. (with yarns peeled off each side down to exactly one inch wide) pulled in two lengthwise between jaws set 3” apart and pulled at a constant specified speed. Radon – A colorless. The number of ends and picks in the repeat may be equal or unequal but in every case the repeat must be in a rectangular form. defined by EPA in a Control Techniques Guideline (CTG) and adopted and implemented by states. ASTM specs are available at technical libraries. Occurs when dust is pulsed from a bag and then caught up by an upward moving air stream. the air is stretched out. cut just over one inch wide. with blades positioned in straight radial direction from the hub. The type of test always used unless specified. Rankine – See Absolute Temperature.

the formed piece to which housing sides are welded. Saturated Air – Air containing the maximum amount of water vapor for a given temperature and pressure. a ban on construction of new sources. Reynolds Number – A mathematical factor used to express the relation between velocity. viscosity. OSHA and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) air exposure limits. 5. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) – A database that lists an identification number. Scour – A soap and water wash to “off loom” fabric. Grades opacity from 0 to 5. Scroll – The general shape of a centrifugal fan housing. by presenting different percentages of black. Ringelman Chart – Actually. Rotor – The rotating part of most AC motors. and dimensions in a system of flow. (C) designates cartridges instead of bags. e. SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) – The volume that a gas would occupy at standard temperature and pressure conditions (70°F and 14. to 100 percent. by matching with the actual effluent. Ringelman – A measure of the opacity caused by pollution from a stack. They are used for measuring the opacity of smoke rising from stacks and other sources. synonyms. RT (c) – Round top removal. a series of charts. density. MAC Equipment acronym for its round top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. See gas flow rate. indicated by the charts.7 PSIA). MAC equipment acronym for its large rectangular. the various numbers.. SB Fan – MAC Equipment’s Strait Blade fan. used to define fan proportionality. expressed as warp sateen or filling sateen. RPT (c) – Rectangular Pulse Top removal. Satin Weave – A form of twill except that the points of intersection are separated from one another in a consistent or inconsistent manner. or densities. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. A Ringelman No.g. and animal and human toxicologic data. that simulate various smoke densities. This all purpose fan can be placed on the clean air or dirty air side of the dust collector in most cases. 26 . where 0 is an invisible discharge and 5 is totally opaque. Sateen – Cotton cloth made with a satin weave. Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard label information. S Sanctions – Actions taken against a State or local government for failure to plan or to implement a SIP. EPA Toxic Substances Control Ad (TSCA) Information. top bag removal pulse jets that start at 196 bags and go up as high as needed. a Ringelman No. numbered from 0 to 5. RPM – Revolutions per minute. 1 is equivalent to 20 percent black.Reverse Jet – See pulse jet. Ringelman numbers were sometimes used in setting emission standards.

Usually used on direct-drive fans. Singles – The term used to imply only one yarn. The “hairs” are burned off to provide a smoother finish. dry dust to a bag or cartridge before start-up to provide an initial filter cake for immediate high efficiency and to protect bags from blinding. Scrubber. jet scrubbers. Solid and liquid particulates are removed through contact with the spray. (Types include spray towers. Singeing – The burning off of the protruding fibers from the warp and filling yarns of the fabric. Low starting torque. Also. Settling Chamber – A dry collection device which removes particulate matter from the gas stream by slowing down the exhaust gas velocity. cyclone scrubbers. cleaning occurs by shaking bags from the top. Gas – Any device in which a contaminant. Shaker Baghouse – A baghouse using woven cloth bags. International System of Units. Scrubbers are used for both the measurement and control of pollution. which identifies actions and programs to be undertaken by the State and its subdivisions to implement their responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. SI Units – Systeme International d’Unites. Seeding – The application of a relatively coarse. Singed Finish – A felted bag finish that is designed to provide a finish similar to calendering. in crystallizing. low cost. impingement scrubbers. Service Factor – The number by which the horsepower rating is multiplied to determine the maximum safe load that a motor may be expected to carry continuously. solid or gaseous. orifice scrubbers. venturi scrubbers. Shaded-Pole Motor – A special type of single-phase induction motor. and mechanical scrubbers). Fans connected in this manner are capable of higher pressures than a single fan and are used to meet pressure requirements greater that single fans. The secondary filter normally has a higher filtering efficiency. seeding is used to start the crystallization process. The gases are removed either by absorption or chemical reaction. Sensible Heat – Any portion of heat which affects a change in a substance’s temperature but does not alter that substance’s state. Shaft Seal – A device to limit gas leakage between the shaft and fan housing. 27 . Silicone Finish – A treatment of felted bags with silicone to provide a slick finish for improved dust release.Scrubber – A device that uses a liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream. Series Fans – A combination of fans connected such that the outlet of one fan exhausts into the inlet of another. Most commonly used on Dacron polyester and fiberglass bags. SIP (State Implementation Plan) – Documents prepared by states. any one of the units of measure in the international meter-kilogram-second system. and submitted to EPA for approval. Secondary Collector – A dust collector which is preceded by primary collector(s). packed towers. is removed from a gas stream by liquid droplets.

. having its conductors uniformly distributed around the periphery of the machine and joined by continuous end rings. such as belt-drive fans. or vapors. Expressed in watts or decibels. pressure as measured in all directions within an air-handling system. Split-Phase Motor – The most common type of single-phase induction motor. Specific Gravity – The ratio of the weight or mass of a given volume of any substance to that of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard. SP – Static pressure. high starting current. abrasion-free during weaving. Smoke – Carbon or soot particles. tar and tobacco. less than 0. Squirrel-Cage Winding – A permanently short-circuited winding . Sound-Pressure Level – The acoustic pressure at a point in space where the microphone or listener’s ear is situated. see photochemical process.g. SO3 – Sulfur trioxide oxidized from SO2 combines with atmospheric moisture to form sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4). Slippage – The movement of yarns in a fabric due to insufficient interlacings.1 micrometers in size which result from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal. non-flammable acidic gas. moderate starting torque. SPI – Society of the Plastics Industry. used on easy-starting equipment. Skrim – A woven fabric that felt is needled onto. formed during combustion of fuel containing sulfur. fumes. Smog – The irritating haze resulting from the sun’s effect on certain pollutants in the air. Specific Heat – The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise a certain volume one degree to that required to raise an equal volume of water one degree. Spun Fabric – Fabric woven from staple spun fabric. not including the force or pressure of air movement. Also a mixture of fog and smoke. notably those from automobile exhaust. Soot – Very finely divided carbon particles clustered together in long chains. Slip – The percentage difference between synchronous and operating speeds. Source – Any place or object from which pollutants are released. SRC – Spark-Resistant Construction. The ratio of the density of andy gas to the density of dry air at the same temperature and pressure is the specific gravity of the gas. SO2 – Sulfur dioxide is an invisible. oil. AMCA standard of guidelines for general methods of fan construction when handling potentially explosive or flammable particles.Sizing – A protective coating applied to yarn to ensure safe handling. e. SSPC – Steel Structure Painting Council 28 . usually uninsulated and chiefly used in induction motors. Expressed in units or pressure or in decibels. Second-Power Level – Acoustic power radiating from a sound source. high breakdown torque.

Static Pressure (Cold) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system if the gas were at standard conditions or colder. colorless gases formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. corresponds approximately to dry air at 70°F. considered major air pollutants. Starting Torque – The torque produced by a motor as it begins to turn from a standstill and accelerate. Synchronous speed = 120 x frequency divided by number of poles. STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) – The employee’s 15 minute time weighted average exposure which cannot be exceeded at any time. air in excess of the stoichlometric ratio is usually provided to encourage complete combustion of the fuel. It is a respiratory irritant. Measured in inches of water (WG). Hg. Sulfur Oxides – Pungent. Static Pressure (Fan) – The static pressure for which a fan is to be selected based on system calculations. if this is a possibility. a vertical pipe or flue designed to exhaust gases. Stator – The stationary parts of a magnetic circuit with associated windings.92 in. In reality. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – A heavy. especially for asthmatics and is the major precursor to the formation of acid rain./ft³. SWSI – Single-Width Single-Inlet Centrifugal Fans. Streamline Flow – Fluid flow in which the velocity pressure and fluid density of a given particle remains constant with time. Stoichlometric Air – The exact quantity of air required to combine with the given fuel so that the ensuing combustion reaction is perfect and no free oxygen or unburned constituents remain. and 29. Stage II Controls – Systems placed on service station gasoline pumps to control and capture gasoline vapors during an automobile refueling. Synchronous Speed – Rated motor speed expressed in RPM. Surge Limit – That point near the peak of the pressure curve which corresponds to the minimum flow at which the fan can be operated without instability. fan SP = SP outlet-Sp inlet-VP inlet.ST (c) – Square Top removal. colorless air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. sulfur oxides may damage the respiratory tract as well as vegetation. 29 . Sometimes called locked rotor torque. STEL is set by OSHA for each pollutant and expressed in terms of ppm or mg/m³. MAC acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors up to 64 bags. Standard Air Density – 0.0750 lbs. Static Pressure (Hot) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system at actual conditions. Static Balance – The mechanical balance of a rotating part or assembly by adding weights to counter-balance gravitational rotating of the part without power driving it. pungent. Stack – A smokestack.

usually in RPM. 30 . Tape Sampler – A device used in the measurement of both gases particulates. produces a torque of one ft.-lb. Torque can be calculated by: Torque (Ft. Tensile Strength – The maximum stress a material can withstand before it breaks. Comes from the Latin “Texere” to weave. filters. and the standardized connections used in laboratory tests to obtain fan-performance ratings. gas. A listing of TLVs may be found in the ACGIH’s “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989. rotation. Thread Count – The number of warp and filling yarns in a fabric commonly expressed in square inch. T Tachometer – an instrument which measures the speed of rotation. elbows. designed to guide the flow of air. not along the crank.) = HP x 5250 RPM Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) – A listing of pollutants and emissions Levels from each major source. diffusers. A force of one pound applied to the handle of a crank. Textile – That which is or may be woven.” Torque – A force which produces. A fan provides the energy necessary to overcome the system’s resistance to flow and causes air or gas to flow through the system. or vapor to and from one or more locations. TP – Total pressure. leakage air). on the shaft if the force is provided perpendicular to. System Curve – Graphic presentation of the pressure versus volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system. Hence any kind of fabric. scavenger air. or lends to produce. or in. conduits.-lbs. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – Represents the air concentrations of chemical substances to which it is believed that workers may be exposed daily without adverse effect.System – A series of ducts. Test Block – An operating point above and beyond the maximum specified continuous rating demonstrating the fan margin to the customer. the sum of velocity pressure plus static pressure. System Effect – The effect on the performance of a fan resulting from the difference between the fan inlet and outlet connections to the actual system. expressed in pounds per square inch. It allows air sampling to be made automatically at predetermined times. Tip Speed – Fan wheel velocity at a point corresponding to the outside diameter of the wheel blades. TLV®(Threshold Limit Value) – A registered trademark for an exposure limit developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).. System gas Volume – All gases flowing through the exhaust gas system (including excess air.-lbs. commonly measured in ft. normally expressed in feet per minute (circumference times RPM). etc.-lbs. the center of which is displaced one foot from the center of the shaft.

g. frequently the pilot valve and the diaphragm valve pulse are considered as one. in a right or left direction. Sometimes called cellplate. Traverse – A method of sampling points in a duct where pressure readings will be taken to determine velocity. V Valve – In baghouses. 31 . Twist – The number of complete spiral turns in a yarn. Transportation Control Measures (TCM’s) – Steps taken by a locality to adjust traffic patterns (e. and variable-pitch impellers. Includes fixed-pitch. evenly distributed areas that are each tested. right turn on red) or reduce vehicle use (ridesharing. Vaneaxial Fan – Axial fan with either inlet or discharge guide vanes or both. Tubesheet – The steel plate that bags and cages are suspended from.g. Tubular Centrifugal Fan – Fan with a centrifugal impeller within a cylindrical housing discharging the gas in an axial direction. TWA is set by OSHA and expressed in mg/m³. high-occupancy vehicle Lanes) to reduce vehicular emissions of air pollutants. TWA (Time Weighted Average) – Employee’s average airborne exposure which can not be exceeded in any 8 hour work shift. simply called “valve. adjustable-pitch. compensating for errors caused by uneven gas flow in the duct. U Unbalance – The condition of a rotor in which its rotation results in centrifugal force being applied to the rotor’s supporting bearings. TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) – Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tubeaxial Fan – Axial fan without guide vanes. lanes. A traverse divides the duct into equal.. TPY – Tons per year. e. was passed by Congress to protect human health and the environment by requiring testing and necessary use restrictions to regulate the commerce of certain chemical substances. Turning Vanes – Baffles put in a duct to straighten out the air flow. Uniform Flow – Airflow in which velocities between any two given points remain fairly constant.TPI – Twist Per Inch. “Z” or “S” respectively. TSD (Facility) – Treatment. and Disposal. Storage.” van der Waals – Adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. a term usually used for inside collector baghouses. Turbulent Flow – Airflow in which true velocities at a given point vary erratically in speed and direction. Separates the clean air and dirty air sections of the baghouse.

frequency. Vibration – Alternating mechanical motion of an elastic system. Each system curve has a unique VP/SP value. and phase. Volt – A unit of electrical potential or pressure. VP is used to get the velocity of a gas stream. 110 or 220 volts are normally found in the U. Vena Contracta – The smallest flow area for flow through a sharp-edged orifice. increasing cleaning energy. Variance – Permission granted for a limited time. Designed with converging circular sides to a throat and then diverging sides. Ventilation – Supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. Usually granted to allow time for engineering and fabrication of abatement equipment to bring the operation into compliance. the kinetic energy pressure of air in motion. components of which are amplitude. VP – Velocity pressure. Vapors diffuse. but requires large horsepower to do so. Examples of VOC’s include gasoline fumes and oil-based paints. VOC’s (Volatile Organic Compounds) – A group of chemicals that react in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone.Vaporization – The change of a substance from the liquid to a gaseous state. where finely atomized water is introduced and water/dust take place. Venturi Scrubber – A wet type dust collector that can obtain very high efficiency. The gas and dust particles are accelerated in a venturi throat. does not include methane and other compounds determined by EPA to have negligible photochemical re-activity. Viscosity – The characteristic of all fluids to resist flow. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. Venturi – Device used to theoretically increase the efficiency of a compressed air pulse. Velometer – A simple instrument for determining the velocity of gas in a duct. a negative pressure zone is created outside the top. for a person or company to operate outside the limits prescribed in a regulation.S. a single number reference used to define a fan’s point of operation. either by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature alone. except that it automatically converts the reading to velocity. its operation is similar to an inclined manometer. 32 . ______ Velocity (SFPM) = 4005√ VP ______ Velocity (AFPM) = 1096√ VP/ρ ρ = Actual density of the air (lb/ft³) VP = inches of water column VP/SP – Velocity pressure divided by static pressure. the others being attrition and combustion. and secondary air is induced into the venturi. Designed such that when a pulse is introduced at the top. Vapors – The gaseous form of substances which are normally in the solid or liquid state and which can be changed to these states. under stated conditions.

7” WG equals 1 PSI. Wet Collector – Dust collector which uses water to remove particulate matter from the exhaust gas (wet washers. and hopper level and displays it in a user friendly graphical interface. 746 watts are equal to one horsepower. Woof – See fill. 33 . Water Gauge – Inches water is a pressure term defined as a pressure equal to that exerted by a column of water of the same height.The unit designation of fan wheel rotational inertia in lb. various wastes. also known as WK². airflow.-ft². 27. Watt – A unit of power in electrical terms. Includes additional processing steps resulting in the most uniform yarn. The resulting yarn is compact and level. etc. pressure drop. Warp Yarns – Yarn in a fabric running lengthwise. the light gauge steel or aluminum covering put over insulation. wet fans). Weft – See fill. Wet-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of a gas stream taken with a wetted thermometer. The MAC Baghouse Wizard controls the pulse cleaning of a dust collector and monitors emissions. Worsted System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for medium and longer wools. e. etc. It is approximately equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. reclaimed wools. WR² -. Warp Thread – Yarn or threads in a fabric running lengthwise.g. Wizard – MAC Equipment trademark for its intelligent dust collector controller.W Warp Count – Number of warp threads per inch width. Woven Cloth Bag – A bag made of woven material. Warp Sateen – The face of the cloth having the warp yarns floating over the filling yarns and being greater in number than the filling yarns. Used in re-pressuring and shaker baghouses. temperature. Woolen System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for the shorter wools. WG – Water gauge. venturis. Weave – The pattern of weaving. plain twill. Wrapper – Used in electrostatic precipitators. see inch of Water. similar to normal cloth. the product of voltage and amperage. satin.. Wet-Bulb Depression – The difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature at the same location.

The smaller the number in spun yarns. Yield Strength – Maximum stress to which a ductile material can be subjected before it physically distorts.” 34 . the coarser the yarn.Y Yarn – A term for an assemblage of fibers or filaments forming a strand (thread) which can be otherwise formed into a textile material. Yarn Size – A relative measure of fineness or coarseness of yarn. Z Z-Twist – The yarn spirals conform in slop to the center portion of the letter “Z.

fiber structures are simultaneously formed and manipulated. Accordingly. process for manufacturing nonwoven fabric can be grouped into four general technology bases: textile. generically. carding and aerodynamic forming of textile fibers into preferentiallyoriented webs. These fabrics are manufactured with machinery associated with pulp fiberizing (i. hammer mills) and paper forming (i. Like all fabrics. slurry pumping onto continuous screens) designed to manipulate short fibers suspended in a fluid. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 1117-80) defines a nonwoven fabric as: “A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers. and porous film systems. as “polymer laid” nonwovens. Nonwoven – Nonwovens are defined by what they are not. and extrusion and various combinations of established processes from one or more of these industries. perforating films. nonwovens are fabrics that are made by: (a) (b) (c) (d) mechanically. more broadly.” These fabrics. or thermally interlocking layers of networks or fibers or filaments or yarns. or. nonwovens are planar structures that are relatively flat. manufactured fiber spinning. Paper technology base includes dry laid pulp and modified wet laid paper systems designed to accommodate fibers longer than wood pulps. porous.Filter Media / Fibers Definitions Every industry has unique buzz words. or both. Technologies used in three primary manufacturing industries: textile. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to as dry laid nonwovens and carry terms such as “garneted”. Most cartridge filter media is produced by the wet laid systems. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to individually as “spun bounded”. accomplished by mechanical chemical. “carded”. are manufactured with machinery associated with staple fibers bonded by stitching filaments or yarns. Unlike traditional fabrics that re made by mechanically interlacing (weaving) or interlooping (knitting) yarns composed of fibers of filaments.e. or forming porous films concurrent with their extrusion.e. This section has been prepared to give you a basic understanding of the different filtration medias in the dust collection marketplace.e. reducing its resistance to moisture. Nonwoven is a generic term used to describe fabric that is produced differently from a fabric made by weaving or. flexible. Jargon associated with fabrics. Fabric filtration is especially blessed with a full vocabulary. In practice. Fabric produced by these systems are referred to as “dry laid pulp” and “wet laid” nonwovens. The fabrics are produced with machinery associated with polymer extrusion (i. terms and acronyms. and “air laid. paper. sheet structures with fabric characteristics. depending on the fiber material used and/or the fabric characteristics desired. Needle-felt fabric is produced by textile-based technology. chemically. paper. The textile technology base includes garneting. extrusion coating). In polymer laid systems. flexible. can be nearly as arcane as any found in the Military’s or Silicon Valley’s lexicon. All wet laid cartridge paper contains high percentages of cellulose.” How nonwoven fabrics are made – A basic concept used in making a nonwoven is to transform fiber-based materials into flat. 35 . or solvent means and combinations thereof. “meltblown”. wet laid equipment. form the basis of the processes for manufacturing nonwovens. and “textured” or “apertured film” nonwovens. meltblown. The extrusion technology base includes spunbound. and porous. or fiber-network structures. a fabric that is different from traditional woven or knitted fabrics. this is accomplished several ways. film casting. or hybrid (combination). HEPA media is also produced on specialized. interlocking fibers or filaments concurrent with their extrusion. extrusion.

wet laid media is laminated with spun bounded support sheets. 250°F degrees. high active oxidizing agents. Polyester – a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephtalic acid. duPont de Nemours.I. An example of a hybrid product. mild alkali. Characteristics of Selected Fibers Acrylic Fibers – Acrylic fibers are man made fibers. in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain polymer composed of at least 85% acrylonitrile units. to form a combination media. However. near-saturation. In dry heat up to and including 375 degrees F. However. is a widely used acrylic. carbon bake. It is unaffected by florines and gases from metallurgical and rock processing operations. Enka Polyester® (American Enka). will rapidly degrade Nomex®. and low temperature flue gas applications. Orlon® (Dupont). Diameters are typically 15 to 35 microns. For MAC Equipment applications. Acrylic felts are used in drying raw flour. This material is a thermoplastic. Aromatic polymide (Nomex®) – Nomex® nylon was a proprietary (patent has expired) aromatic-polymide (aramide) linked structure. Creslan® (American Cyanimid). particularly under acid conditions. degradation sets in rapidly. The single biggest use for Nomex®. Zefran® (BASF). because of potential hydrolysis. clinker coolers. polyester is inferior to other synthetics. Polyester (PE) is superior to most synthetics in dry heat installations but it is not comparable to Teflon® nor Nomex®. is asphalt batch plant dryers and drum-mix plants. and surfaces are striated. for high-pressure cleaned needled felts. Fortrel® (Fiber Industries/Celanese). Nomex® is a non-thermoplastic so it does not melt. this fabric may be used satisfactorily as long as there is no acid dew point problem. and the remainder a copolymer. and most hydrocarbons. acrylics offer a combination of abrasion resistance and resistance to wet heat degradation. Nomex® will progressively lose strength. the fibers will hydrolyze. heat conditions. but at temperatures above 700 degrees F.The hybrid base combine elements of the first three technologies. Draylon-T® (or equivalents). coal. Polyester is superior for most dry heat applications. gold and copper ores. Crylor® (Crylor SA). Where polyesters are not suitable. Fiber is available under various trade names: Dacron® (duPont). In the presence of a saturated vapor. Temperature resistance of copolymers is less. developed by E. galvanizing. Homopolymer felt is a candidate for hot gas applications of less than 284 degrees F. Fiber cross sections are dumbbell-shaped. needled felt. Nomex® is unaffected by small amounts of water vapor and high temperatures. Acrylic is non-thermoplastic. 36 . Recommended operating temperature is 275 degrees F maximum. for applications requiring dimensional stability and high heat resistance. and Draylon-T® (Bayer) are trade names used by various producers of acrylic fibers. Acilian® (Monsanto). it withstands these conditions better than many other fibers. Under moist. and Kodel® (Eastman Chemical). weakening the fabric. When exposed to saturated steam at high temperatures. such as sulphur oxides. Other uses include raw and finish mill grinding on cement plants. Nomex® withstands the attack by mild minerals and inorganic acids. a homopolymer (100% acrylonitrile). only acrylic homopolymer fabric should be used. and many other hot gas processes. Polyester is the most widely used needled felt for pulse jet applications. is the MIASMACTTM HEPA media.

at high temperatures. woodworking. polypropylene provides good resistance to mineral and organic acids. with efficient filtration and good energy absorption characteristics.I. duPont. It is. having a high surface area-todiameter ratio. 37 . will dissolve the fabric. water/oil resistant (TR). incinerators. reducing agents and organic solvents. It resists alkalis. Teflon® is the most chemically resistant fiber used in conventional dust filtration. plus high strength. soluble at 160 degrees F in chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polypropylene has very low heat resistance. 16. PP absorbs no moisture and provides excellent cake discharge and resistance to blinding. although it is slow to develop. The fibers combine excellent resistance to most acids and alkalis. Teflon® . Extensive testing has shown that P84 fabric approaches Gortex® in efficiency. Polyester fiber makes an excellent filter fabric. Within its limited temperature range. and is one of the most economical synthetics. PP is a good choice for replacement of cotton in low temperature applications. Teflon® bags shrink when exposed to high temperatures. will cause some decomposition. but at lower costs than a 100% version of the P84 felt. However. It resists weak alkalis. Polypropylene – (polyolefin) is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer. handling large particulate. it is available in 12. Herculon® (Hercules) and Reevon® (Phillips) are trade names used by various producers of polypropylene (PP) fibers.is a proprietary fluorocarbon fiber. Composites generally have a 4 oz. and should not be exposed to prolonged temperatures of over 165 degrees F. P84 (Polyimide) – P84 is a proprietary fiber produced by Lenzing in Austria. even less than cotton. Examples are: gold and copper ore processing. composed of at least 85% by weight of olefin units. (about the same price as polyester). and with a laminated PTFE membrane. and composites. its degradation characteristics in dry heat and moist heat are virtually the same.yd² P84 fiber layer. Exposure to temperatures above 550 degrees F. Its fiber is highly convoluted. but other weights are available. It may be layered on top of lower cost fibers. It has one of the lowest specific gravities of any synthetic fiber. The use of 12 oz. It is composed of long chain carbon molecules in which all of the available bonds are completely saturated with fluorine. The fabric is widely used in many of the industries served by MAC Equipment. Teflon® is not affected by any known solvents except some prefluorinated organic liquids at temperatures above 570 degrees F. Filtration efficiency is not quite as good as polyester. Since it does not absorb moisture. 100% P84 is readily available in 14 oz. carbolic and nitric acids. however. It is used in agricultural. and various chemical processes. These strong carbon-to-fluorine bonds create fibers that are exceptionally stable to both heat and chemicals. boilers. to provide the benefits of the base fiber. needled to a 12 oz. but has all of the advantages of a needled felt./yd² versions. and most organic solvents except high concentrations of sulfuric. chemical and other applications where chemical and mechanical characteristics are compatible. metalized-antistatic (ME). especially in length. are used in many industrial applications where high efficiency is required. As needled felt. Spunbonded POLIPLEETTM media is available in plain. P84 is a non-thermoplastic./yd² should be reserved for non-critical applications. P84 needled felt. and in 100% form may be used for temperatures of 500 degrees F. mineral acids. manufactured by E. weight.yd² carrier base. and 18 oz. strong alkalis.PE provides good resistance to most oxidizing agents.

and incinerators have been equipped with Teflon® products. Gas stream oxygen content should not exceed 15%. is a borosilicate microfiber glass. The fibers are then treated with a lubricant which is of great importance in the durability of the eventual fabric. involving high (up to 500 degrees F. pressure drop. Teflon® fibers’ chemical inertness and resistance to dry and moist heat degradation makes it ideal for use under severe conditions./yard². chemical. soil remediation systems. Woven fiberglass. Bag/cage fit & support is very critical – check with the vendors involved for specific recommendations. Tefaire®. limestone. Rated for temperatures up to 275°F. Or. These are specialty products and are used for very specific applications.) temperatures. as the extruded glass may be drawn and broken by jets of compressed air into staple of lengths 8 to 15 inches./yd². up to 360 degrees F. with at least 85% of the sulfide linkages attached directly to two aromatic rings. Some boilers. Some common trade names for woven fiberglass are GL65 Tri-LoftTM (BHA). MAC Equipment’s style FG134/2 cleanable HEPA media. Consult MAC Equipment engineering before using these products for any application. Standard fiber is 3-denier. Glass – Glass fiber is a product of fusion. This felt is a blend of 85% Teflon® and 15% fiberglass fibers. Ryton® does not hydrolyze and has flame retarding characteristics. and is not as efficient as other medias. Usually offered as a static after filter following a dust collector. Selected silica sands. Following drying. Suitable applications for this material are limited.The low friction properties of Teflon® fibers provide excellent cake discharge. and borax or other ingredients are melted at about 2500 degrees F. has been introduced. 38 . is very easy to damage. HEPA – High Efficiency Particulate Air filter is the maximum efficiency available in particulate filtration. and the mixture is extruded through spinnarets. a pulse cleaned version is available. Typical applications are industrial/municipal solid waste incinerators and coal-fired boilers. soda ash. Refer to MAC Equipment for more application information. Ryton® is resistant to sulphur oxides. in 1973. In addition. Other fibers and medias are available for very special temperature. Recently a lower cost version. however. The resulting filaments may be drawn while still molten and later twisted and plied into filament yarn. Commercial uses are limited to extreme chemical environments where the advantages of Teflon fibers’ great chemical resistance outweighs cost disadvantages. Teflon® needled felt is extremely expensive. a non-crystalline silicate analogous to other fiber polymeric materials. other companies have similar products. Consult MAC Equipment for more details. form 14 to 27 oz. Available weights are 16 to 22 oz. Huyglas® (Air Purator Corporation) felted fiberglass medias are available in a variety of weights. or efficiency requirements. Ryton® (Polyphenylene Sulfide) – Ryton® (Phillips) is a long chain synthetic polysulfide. carbon black plants. Felted fiberglass tends to be heavy and difficult to handle. Woven fiberglass and felted fiberglass medias are available for high energy cleaned fabric filters. supported by polyester webbing on each side. the fibers are process much like the more conventional fibers. and is used for high temperature gas streams. and FL57 Hi-LoftTM (BHA). in particular. usually in the presence of oxidizing agents. The resin was developed by Phillips Petroleum.

. i.e. Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Salts Max. temperature and gas stream chemistry.Properties of Filtration Fabrics Temp. Operating Temperature °F Calcium Chloride (Ca Cl2) Ferrous Chloride (Fe Cl2 4H2O) Sodium Acetate (C2 H4 Na O2) Sodium pyrosulfite (Na2 O5 S2) (metan sulfite) Sodium Bromide (Na Br) Sodium Perchbrate (Cl Na O4) Sodium Cyanide (Na Cn) Sodium Nitrate (Na NO3) (Chile Saltpeter) Sodium Sulfate (Na2 SO4) (Glaubers Salt) Sodium Sulfide (Na2 S) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A C A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B B B B A A B B A A Polyester 275 A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 B C B A C B B B B P84 500 B B B B C B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Oxidizing Agents Max. Operating Temperature °F Bromine Calcium (Br) Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCL)2) Carbon (C) (Graphite/Diamond) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Iod Ozone (O3) Potassium Chloride (K Cl) (Sylvine) Sodium Chlorate (Na Cl O3) Sodium Hypochlorite (Na Ocl) (Eau-de-Labarraque) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B - Polyester 275 B A B B B A A B Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A B A A B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A C A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B B B B B 39 . time. °F Abrasion Energy Absorption Filtration Properties Moist Heat Hydrolysis Alkalines Mineral Acids Oxygen (15%+) Relative Cost Polypropylene 170 Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent X Polyester 275 Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Fair Excellent X Acrylic 275 Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Excellent XX Fiberglass® 500 Fair Fair Fair Excellent Fair Poor** Excellent XXX Nomex® 375 Good Good Excellent Good Good Poor Excellent XXXX Ryton® 375 Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor XXXXX P-84TM 500 Good Good Excellent Good Fair Good Excellent XXXXXX Teflon® 500 Excellent Good Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent XXXXXXX * Sensitive bag-to-cage fit ** Fair with acid resistant finishes Note: Combinations of variables alter the resistance of the fiber to the specified performance ratings.

Operating Temperature °F Ammonia (H3 N) Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) (Hydrated Lime) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) (Caustic Potash) Potassium Carbonate (K2 CO3) (Potash) (Salt of Tarter) Sodium Hydroxide (Na OH) (Caustic Soda) Sodium Carbonate (Na2 Co3) (Washing Soda) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B B A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A C B B A Nomex® 375 B A B A B A Polyester 275 C A B B B A Polypropylene 170 A A B A B A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 B A C C C C P84 500 B B B B C B 40 . Operating Temperature °F Acetic Acid (C2 H4 O2) Benzoic Acid (C7 H6 O2) Phenol (C6 H6 O) (Carbolic Acid) Formic Acid (CH2 O2) Lactic Acid (C3 H6 O3) Oxalic Acid (C2 H2 O4) (Acid of Sugar) Salicylic Acid (C7 H8 O3) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A B C B B C B Polyester 275 A A B A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A B A C P84 500 B B B C B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Bases Max.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Mineral Acids Max. Operating Temperature °F Chromium Trioxide (Cr O3) (Chromic Acid Anhydride) Hydrogen Chloride (H Cl) (Hydrochloric Acid) (Muriatic Acid) Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Nitric Acid (HN O3) Tripotic Acid (HO)3 P(O) Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4) (Sulphuric Acid) (Vitrol) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A B B Nomex® 375 C C C B A B Polyester 275 A A B A A B Polypropylene 170 B A A B A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A A A P84 500 B B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Acids Max.

Operating Temperature °F Acetaldehyde (H3 C-CHO) (Aldehyde) Vinyl Alcohol (H2 C-CH2 O) (Ethenolivinol) Glycerol (C3 H8 O3) Glycerin Clycol (C2 H6 O2) Mineral Oil Benzene. Operating Temperature °F Acetone (H3 C-CO-CH3) ((CH2)4H3) Benzene (C6 H6) (Benzol) Carbon Disulfide (C S2) Carbon Tetrachloride (C Cl3) Chloroform (CH Cl3) Cyclohexane (C6 H12) Acetoin (C2 H6 O2) Ethylalcohol or Methane Ether (C2 H6 O) (Vanillin) Butyl Alcohol or Ethyl Ether (C4 H10 O) Methanol (CH4 O) MEK Nitrogen (N) Ethylenes trichloro (C2 H CL3) Methyl Benzene (C6 H5 CH.3) (Toluene) O-Xylene (C6 H4 (CH3)2) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 B B A C B B B B A A A B B A B B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A P84 500 C C B B B B B B B C C B B B C C Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Miscellaneous Max.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Solvents Max. Nitro (C6 H5 NO2) (Essence of Mirbane) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A C A A Polypropylene 170 B A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B 41 .

964 0.500 6.0 to trace 0.02 parts/million 0.869 0. dry air at sea level.457 0.0282 0.0328 0.0560 0.0375 0.743 0.0292 0.0536 0.000 Density factor 1.801 0.729 0.0 to trace >99.0303 0.880 0. 0.747 0.421 0.1 parts/million 1.033 percent 18.982 0.0709 0.616 0.Gas / Air Tables Temperature and Altitude Corrections Temperature – Density* Temp. Composition of Air Component of Air Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Krypton Sulfur dioxide Methane Hydrogen Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Ozone Ozone – Winter Nitrogen dioxide Iodine Carbon monoxide Ammonia Symbol N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He Kr SO2 CH4 H2 N2O H2 Xe O3 O3 NO2 I2 CO NH3 Content .2 parts/million 1.0515 Density factor 1. Hq.0 parts/million 2.438 0.525 0.0589 0.390 0.0557 0.% Volume 78.000 3.000 9.0001 percent.0578 0.5 parts/millions 0.2 parts/million 5.500 3.848 0.0525 0.500 7.0 parts/million 0.404 0.500 0.0600 0.000 1.947 percent 0.0342 0.500 5.084 percent 20.817 0.0659 0.09 parts/million 0.654 0.947 0.552 0.000 7.0749 0.000 0.500 8.0723 0.913 0.000 6.000 Altitude – Density** Elevation ft.500 10.376 0. °F 0 70 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1.477 0.0602 0.000 2.757 0.0522 0. 1 part/million = 0.02 parts/million 0.0490 0. ft.5 parts/million 0.5 parts/million 0.772 0.0 to 0.0 to 0.000 4.786 0.0272 Air density lb.500 2.0672 0./cu.075 0.363 Wt.0462 0.500 9.0647 0.688 *Table based on 29.0635 0.0697 0.896 0.998% The above table is an average for clean.000 8. ft.01 parts/million 0.0393 0.500 4.92 in.832 0.934 percent 0.0 0. per cu.1. 0 500 1. 0.0864 0.0567 0.000 5.0736 0.701 0.07 parts/million 0.715 0.946 0.0546 0.864 0.0436 0.0414 0.0612 0.930 0.0684 0.0358 0. **Dry air at 70°F.697 0.0315 0.0710 0.0651 0.582 0.52 1. 42 .0623 0.803 0.

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Type 12 – Dust-tight and Drip-tight – Indoor. Explosion proof. depending on specific design as defined in the National Electrical Code. May be classified Groups E. Type 12K – Same as Type 12 except enclosures have knockouts. Type 13 – Oil tight and Dust-tight – Indoor. For use in mines with atmospheric containing methane or natural gas. F. or G. Type 10 – Mining Enforcement Safety Administration. Protects against dust. by oil immersion. with or without coal dust. oil and non-corrosive coolant. Type 11 – Corrosion Resistant & Drip-proof – oil immersed indoor. Provide. protection against the corrosive effects of liquids and gases. Horsepower Formulas Air Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 Brake Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 X MEfan Where MEfan = Mechanical Efficiency of Fan 51 . Protects against dust. falling dirt and dripping non-corrosive liquids. spraying of water. Indoor hazardous locations.Type 9 – Class II.

.... 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 The above standards were established by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 52 .. ....NEMA Electric Motor Frames Motor Frame 42 48 56 66 143T 145T 182 182 184 184T 213 213T 215 215T 254T 254U 256T 256U 284T 284TS 284U 286T 286U 324T 324U 326T 326TS 326U 364T 364U 365T 365U 404T 404U 405T 405U 444T 444U 445T 445U D 2-5/8 3 3-1/2 4-1/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 NEMA Frame Dimension – Inches E F U V M+N 1-3/4 2-1/8 2-7/16 2-15/16 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5 5 5 5 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 8-1/4 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 27/32 1-3/8 1-1/2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-1/4 2-1/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/8 4-1/8 5 5 4-3/4 4-1/4 4-3/4 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 6 6 6 5-5/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-7/8 6-7/8 7-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4 8-1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8 7/8 1-1/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 1-7/8 2-3/8 2-1/8 2-318 2-1/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 .. . 2 2 2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-314 3-1/2 3-3/4 3-1/2 4-3/8 3 4-518 4-318 4-5/8 5 5-3/8 5 3-1/2 5-3/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 5-518 6-1/8 7 6-7/8 7 6-7/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 4-1/32 5-3/8 6-1/8 7-7/8 6-1/2 7 7-1/4 7-3/4 7-3/4 6-1/4 9-1/4 9-5/8 10 10-3/8 12-3/8 12-1/8 13-1/4 13 14-1/8 13-1/2 14-2/8 14-7/8 15-1/8 15-3/4 16-1/8 16-1/2 15 16-7/8 17-3/8 17-7/8 17-7/8 1-3/8 20 19-7/8 20-3/4 20-5/8 23-1/4 23-3/8 24-1/4 24-318 Keyway .... . .

NEMA Electric Motor Frames V U F F M+N Frame dimensions for previous page D E E 53 .

Industrial Ventilation References 54 .

60 7.2 12.8 24.49 7.74 9.3 19.81 10.5 12.6 20.1 15.3 20.8 17.71 4.65 6.5 18.7 27.8 32.33 9.25 9.5 19.2 13.8 20.2 11.2 22.6 10.8 25.81 10.40 7.7 12.30 9.2 14.7 13.2 27.82 9.85 9.11 9.04 9.6 15.3 22.3 10.3 13.4 14.85 9.73 8.3 15.1 18.3 18.7 19.44 9.8 13.56 8.9 12.3 28.9 31.98 7.4 13.0 16.0 11.25 8.4 17.0 14.5 15.64 7.7 17.95 8.0 12.4 12.5 17.0 13.2 16.17 4.31 8.4 16.77 10.0 13.42 6.5 14.3 15.64 5.58 5.5 15.42 6.90 4.0 22.8 13.39 9.75 7.44 6.2 16.55 7.08 6.8 18.4 15.32 5.58 6.06 5.6 17.4 14.3 10.03 8.55 9.6 15.0 21.0 13.38 8.94 6.6 23.5 20.1 15.7 14.5 16.0 23.72 6.71 9.10 5.8 21.9 11.67 9.8 12.58 8.2 20.5 26.9 19.62 9.46 8.4 10.0 15.0 14.04 9.0 16.5 21.5 18.63 7.6 11.2 12.63 9.76 10.65 3.2 19.72 9.8 15.0 19.4 24.18 5.4 15.3 25.7 11.0 14.9 5 4.3 25.3 11.4 21.51 5.7 20.28 6.7 12.2 30.86 7.3 18.50 9.8 21.4 16.0 15.9 28.9 4 4.4 18.1 19.6 22.7 18.6 13.3 10.87 8.76 5.63 8.3 22.8 22.11 6.21 7.0 18.25 9.2 10.7 25.2 31.37 8.9 11.7 28.34 8.1 12.4 26.5 13.8 11.0 29.9 16.38 7.42 6.5 16.3 15.5 25.3 11.48 5.2 14.6 21.8 23.2 15.1 10.5 23.2 11.75 6.2 17.5 13.9 17.88 10.1 10.6 24.02 8.96 6.58 7.43 4.1 25.66 6.22 9.5 14.70 10.2 12.17 8.4 10.46 9.8 24.3 22.3 13.1 14.1 20.7 14.3 11.5 24.3 21.3 12.2 16.6 16.9 11.8 20.8 16.5 12.6 30.27 8.1 24.8 27.3 27.4 19.5 11.79 8.47 6.8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7.0 24.3 10.3 17.0 13.04 7.51 6.5 26.8 23.0 11.85 10.7 10.8 3 1/2 4.4 17.07 7.3 14.83 8.74 7.4 14.3 12.07 8.7 15.74 5.0 19.1 16.21 5.3 13.56 7.8 15.6 10.99 8.1 11.16 7.9 16.4 17.5 16.7 18.4 11.7 15.9 11.84 7.8 14.3 19.0 16.5 13.0 25.54 8.7 14.9 23.5 12.6 11.21 5.47 8.9 29.9 12.1 9.4 12.3 16.8 13.7 16.00 8.2 12.17 7.45 8.86 10.6 21.08 6.0 25.4 21.5 10.0 12.9 19.90 10.5 24.7 28.1 10.9 16.33 7.0 11.5 17.1 17.5 10.7 14.3 16.1 18.2 29.27 6.0 15.5 11.0 26.0 28.3 26.97 5.2 10.4 23.5 21.6 19.1 21.1 14.4 18.9 12.2 13.40 5.0 11.8 18.2 11.1 13.5 29.54 4.91 5.12 4.2 15.1 17.3 22.1 22.69 9.10 2 1/2 3.2 19.76 6.6 26.7 16.5 11.93 8.5 12.5 13.4 11.2 16.5 14.7 17.08 8.98 7.6 17.6 21.98 6.34 5.1 12.8 20.0 14.2 10.88 5.6 15.5 14.0 22.3 31.67 5.33 9.8 20.4 11.87 10.3 21.59 8.0 14.8 15.0 25.65 7.5 8.5 15.3 10.6 29.9 12.0 12.88 5.0 23.2 19.1 13.3 13.04 3.5 14.8 11.1 18.7 16.9 15.6 11.55 4.85 7.9 30.0 10.66 8.2 30.8 12.0 22.5 20.1 22.5 28.77 4.24 6.34 4.79 9.25 7.3 15.2 21.7 28.9 14.3 27.22 6.1 12.9 13.2 23.37 4.97 6.6 24.2 25.7 11.90 5.8 17.9 26.63 5.1 17.7 17.24 8.7 10.Circular equivalents of rectangular ducts for equal friction Sides 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 2 3.8 12.72 4.5 19.2 20.6 13.29 7.5 27.3 32.9 23.99 9.68 9.1 23.01 6.90 10.8 22.9 11.75 7.37 9.7 13.21 7.6 19.03 8.6 14.25 6.4 13.7 15.1 10.0 26.62 7.1 22.7 16.9 18.1 11.0 21.96 5.62 9.8 31.0 26.4 10.22 7.36 5.6 14.7 19.2 18.44 6.1 16.12 7.1 10.7 20.9 4 1/2 4.43 7.8 27.1 13.3 18.53 8.1 14.5 3 3.09 4.5 11.6 13.3 22.06 9.18 4.8 13.8 17.80 8.25 8.73 6.4 10.1 15.6 16.66 9.6 19.7 25.4 30.1 15.17 8.02 9.72 9.5 18.5 23.9 13.09 9.7 23.7 19.3 12.86 7.42 3.5 18.5 14.7 12.7 26.3 14.9 27.2 25.87 8.8 55 .46 9.4 25.6 12.10 9.81 4.5 12.2 20.06 9.9 22.89 8.0 27.0 24.80 6.9 5 1/2 5.9 14.55 4.20 5.7 18.3 27.9 17.7 11.45 5.4 11.7 22.4 26.9 20.8 30.37 3.7 29.3 22.4 26.8 26.02 7.5 29.2 20.34 8.5 24.03 9.6 23.61 6.8 12.3 19.4 21.9 24.4 25.9 6 6.2 28.8 21.9 11.0 19.

25 0.52 0.13 2.283 13.392 9.253 5.90 0.418 VP 0.842 3.89 1.96 1.28 2.699 1.89 0.80 5.48 1.807 7.734 5.327 3.879 1.513 4.127 3.07 1.005 4.119 3.96 0.19 0.21 0.927 5.22 1.460 4.18 2.20 4.282 6.804 5.891 9.02 0.92 1.506 5.19 1.55 1.204 3.581 6.82 1.67 0.810 9.179 6.447 5.07 2.774 8.36 1.374 5.320 6.29 2.53 1.102 3.100 VP 1.313 5.595 2.56 1.590 8.78 0.583 4.350 4.478 4.00 5.599 7.95 0.20 2.301 2.806 4.68 0.921 4.93 0.179 3.40 1.230 2.87 0.28 1.90 4. VP = Velocity pressure.92 0.30 4.31 2.94 0.03 1.44 2.201 1.756 4.537 3.50 2.003 2.82 0.84 1.80 6.193 2.688 4.49 0.305 8.32 V 4.005√ VP = Velocity FPM.328 11.820 6.690 3.40 0.10 1.30 0.268 5.86 0.17 0. 29.191 5.37 2.34 2.21 1.651 5.821 3.60 5.386 4.10 0.109 8.720 5.11 1.423 4.114 5.008 6.716 2.10 6.440 14.64 1.90 1.704 7.78 1.103 4.76 0.16 1.520 10.865 8.477 5.845 5.69 0.002 5.60 3.33 0.676 12.445 3.328 1.85 1.25 2.205 6.531 4.140 6.113 6.566 4.91 1.563 2.981 5.042 2.31 1.84 1.61 14.30 6.501 2.14 0.779 3.88 0.23 1.705 4.593 8.938 4.63 1.307 6.823 4.175 5.010 8.60 4.39 2.67 1.01 2.994 6.665 13.90 5.70 6.86 1.97 0.128 6.921 1.904 3.90 7.24 0.70 5.645 9.Velocity pressures for different velocities: standard air Design procedure Dry air at 70°F.50 3.87 1.916 2.468 3.303 3.43 0.46 V 3.09 2.066 5.081 4.40 V 5.775 2.955 9.047 6.70 3.133 9.07 0.03 0.00 8.29 0.269 6.90 6.33 2.619 4.954 5.729 3.62 1.73 0.10 4.940 5.044 9.222 5.50 5.859 5.52 1.11 2.00 12.38 0.899 5.192 6.20 6.444 1.00 6.00 56 .521 5.050 3.30 3.375 3.237 5.15 2.758 3.80 4.37 0.257 4.16 2.57 0.133 1.05 1.00 1.886 5.98 1.14 2.307 9.26 2.385 7.70 1.398 3.79 1.625 3.88 1.514 3.36 2.653 4.13 0.41 1.153 6.965 3.970 4.70 4.80 0.30 5.314 4.02 1.53 0.166 6.00 9.074 6.65 0.00 13.369 2.21 2.05 2.098 5.56 1.63 0.219 4.687 2.13 1.144 5.03 2.73 1.294 6.986 VP 1.20 0.123 4.69 1.72 1.12 1.909 8.81 0.79 0.873 4.913 5.10 3.00 13.626 2.706 5.12 0.44 1.129 5.74 0.25 1.05 0.229 3.422 3.70 0.59 1.00 4.66 0.872 5.962 2.436 2.495 4.61 0.050 5.343 5.32 1.06 1.15 0.387 1.579 5.15 1.36 0.30 2.83 V 4.49 1.025 4.608 5.30 1.200 4.945 3.39 1.722 4.57 1.967 5.562 9.021 6.289 10.551 1.06 0.54 0.491 3.081 2.051 7.776 5.683 8.90 3.22 2.405 5.43 1.34 1.230 6.64 0.00 11.58 0.332 6.692 5.38 2.276 4.41 2.132 10.23 0.279 3.40 5. inches of water V 400 566 694 601 896 981 1.831 5.28 0.50 4.888 2.533 2. ____ From: V = 4.51 0.93 1.51 1.060 1.44 0. and less than 20” WC static pressure.791 1.462 5.27 0.11 0.48 0.71 0.082 5.50 0.550 5.08 2.164 7.45 1.02 2.351 3.535 5.43 2.657 3.40 6.208 8.40 2.54 1.92” barometer.99 1.702 6.261 2.47 0.91 0.582 3.328 5.39 0.275 7.968 11.98 0.087 6.38 1.401 VP 1.10 5.45 2.860 2.458 6.17 1.469 2.00 7.83 0.403 2.061 6.35 2.790 5.739 4.344 12.29 1.162 4.45 0.045 4.08 1.27 2.19 2.709 3.972 10.35 1.602 1.26 0.20 5.10 2.034 6.943 2.596 10.254 3.49 2.748 5.762 5.018 5.560 3.32 0.238 4.015 12.746 1.08 0.01 1.20 1.50 10.295 4.47 2.22 0.840 VP 0.064 4.24 1.50 1.368 4.42 1.42 0.75 1.94 1.636 4.81 1.442 4.283 5.33 1.863 3.491 5.997 4.26 1.95 4.492 7.678 5.298 5.210 10.18 1.024 3.46 0.256 6.48 2.623 5.80 1.181 VP 0.01 0.35 0.97 1.669 5.217 6.746 2.00 2.937 7.664 5.153 3.775 14.884 3.477 9.18 0.076 3.65 1.773 4.31 0.160 5.50 6.220 9.58 2.142 4.37 1.34 0.549 4.55 0.954 4.85 0.74 1.874 14.17 2.052 10.332 4.41 0.985 4.71 1.656 2.09 V 2.59 0.266 1.800 3.50 8.60 0.14 1.06 2.04 0.80 2.62 0.388 5.206 5.433 5.16 0.359 5.27 1.905 4.66 1.728 9.366 10.75 0.564 5.671 4.68 1.986 5.23 2.335 2.70 2.46 2.12 2.403 5.637 5.835 1.72 0.77 0.77 1.80 3.20 3.04 1.601 4.60 6.42 2.034 6.970 2.157 2.60 2.61 1.47 1.60 1.24 2.40 3.99 2.889 4.651 1.444 10.924 3.604 3.498 1.856 4.790 4.243 6.09 0.00 3.496 8.50 9.832 2.817 5.04 2.804 2.76 1.

15 9.66 4.09 6.30 29.68 2.80 3.53 1.35 11.22 3.53 6.85 16.83 3.62 19.28 8.76 4.05 11.81 4.87 8.19 10.30 44.80 21.85 16.66 5.73 14.48 2.80 42.56 3.91 17.43 7.40 7.47 1.30 10.52 4.01 4.30 16 3.10 8.60 28.86 11.05 4.86 5.27 4.10 16. length in feet Two gauges heavier than duct 14 3.43 5.62 1.54 5.60 37.22 23.97 2.25 23.71 19.00 16.47 2.34 3.18 26.13 6.70 12 5.00 49.14 2.96 3.20 25.25 18.57 2.00 29.29 16.08 1.30 12.77 6.78 11.84 16.10 3.93 13.61 6.48 3.20 11.00 2.02 7.60 22.17 2.40 8.08 2.61 6.08 22.65 1.72 5.69 2.90 27.36 14.66 14.33 7.60 32.82 11.44 57 .43 2. Ft.59 3.30 34.82 4.50 13.20 1.80 7.96 3.42 8.97 7.54 11.26 18.60 14.70 25.80 30.44 4.00 35.74 4.80 10.67 10.50 19.15 20.22 5.05 5.76 1.39 1.10 19.55 6.45 6.28 24 1.00 8.40 24. Gauge size 26 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Lbs Sq.01 5.75 10.50 2.28 16.75 2.45 11.00 17.15 9.54 7.40 3.70 22.40 24.30 23.40 5.95 1.00 28.60 9.81 18.50 4.89 3.00 27.30 18.50 20 1.40 14.25 17.47 8.20 34.85 9.01 7.70 8.00 7.15 8.80 2.90 12. 1.20 3.80 2.62 8.63 12.18 2.17 3.25 5.41 2.27 3.86 3.38 7.27 4.65 5.20 13.80 32.44 2.41 7.30 22 1.21 5.57 13.51 3.45 10.85 4.25 13.40 39.18 5.02 9.57 10.30 8.13 14.74 13.10 8.27 4.90 10.01 6.90 Elbow Equiv.72 0.42 13.21 6.67 10.50 8.20 6.18 4.22 9.83 1.83 5.87 5.50 7.63 6.51 9.88 9.91 2.38 9.05 9.75 18 2.39 5.92 6.98 4.19 3.70 2.99 6.10 17.18 12.27 12.71 7.50 15.25 12.17 12.20 15.13 1.45 13.80 4.60 47.84 21.62 9.Weights of galvanized sheet metal ducts Straight runs Weight per linear foot Duct dia.

58 6.9 804. Ft.5 314.63 Cir In Ft.66 4.4 1520.47 11.73 9.35 19.62 10.63 28.7 2290.087 .8 706.75 6.61 78.54 12.31 1.28 6.30 7.83 2.75 15.1 153.88 8.6 1385.0 2642.18 2.35 2.33 7.90 9.09 2.19 4.14 3.56 19.14 14.27 38.367 .61 3.9 615.76 2. 304 476 686 934 1221 1547 1910 2750 3610 4860 6160 7630 9240 10990 12880 14950 17180 19530 22050 24740 27560 30545 33675 36960 40395 43980 47225 51620 55665 59865 64220 68720 CFM at 4000 4500 FPM FPM Vel.39 1.196 .07 7.09 13.71 3500 FPM Vel.41 3.349 .Duct Data Chart Duct Dia Inches 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Area Sq. 1.64 3.2 2463.90 17.57 13.1 1256.42 9.00 11.48 50.6 1963.545 .1 2827.4 530.9 1134.57 13.95 10. 12.5 1661.54 113.785 1.2 380.52 12.4 Sq.80 7.91 5.61 14. 348 544 784 1066 1396 1768 2180 3140 4240 5560 7040 8720 10560 12560 14720 17080 19640 22320 25200 28380 31500 34905 38485 42235 46165 50265 54540 58990 63620 68415 73390 78540 391 612 882 1201 1570 1989 2450 3530 4770 6250 7920 9810 11880 14130 16560 19215 22090 25110 28350 31810 35440 39270 43295 47515 51935 56550 61360 66365 71570 76970 82565 88360 5000 FPM Vel. In.85 8. Vel.5 2123. 435 680 980 1335 1745 2210 2730 3920 5300 6950 8800 10900 13200 15700 18400 21350 24550 27900 31500 35350 39380 43630 48105 52795 57705 62830 68175 73740 79520 85520 91740 98175 58 .9 1017.9 1809.18 15.06 1.442 .26 63.04 12.2 907.38 8.1 245.23 5.27 4.1 452.70 5.10 18.136 .9 201.57 1.66 15.05 1.68 4. .64 14.56 11.

38 0.22 0.09 0.35 0.Material Properties Weights and specific heats of material mean values Material Air Aluminum Aluminum chips Antimony Asbestos Asbestos. dry.16 0.18 .38 0. phosphor Calcium. corn oats rye. ground Borax Borax. ft.20 0. .33 0. wheat Chalk Charcoal.24 0. loose Ashes. 0.09 0. dry Bakelite. laminated wood filler asbestos filler crushed Baking powder Bauxite. masonry Bronze Bronze. dry Ashes. wood. loose Cereals.09 0. crushed Carbonundum Carbonundum.16 0.20 . F. crushed Bone. crushed Brass Brass chips Brick.17 0. dry. coal.22 0.20 0.21 0. carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium sulphate Carbide. hard-wood softwood broken Cinders Density lb.05 0. dry.36 0.37 0. cu.0749 165 48 414 153 64 40 47 86 85 118 43 56 43 75 109 75 530 163 118 509 554 177 134 185 50 195 140 88 90 94 94 37 26 48 142 34 23 12 43 59 Specific heat Btu per lb. loose Caustic soda Celluloid Cellulose Cement. per deg. per.20 0.20 0. dry. bulk barley.19 0.

31 0.20 0. cu. crushed Concrete. 0.19 0. piled Coke.26 0. loose.30 0.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Clay.12 . crushed Ferrous. crushed Copper oxide Cork Corn meal Conundum.09 0. dry moist Coal.20 0. ft.16 0. flint pyrex ground Granite loose.20 0. grind dust Flour.13 0. per deg.19 0. dry and loose Earth.32 0.55 0. cinder stone Copper Copper ore. piled bituminous bituminous.20 0.23 0. alundum Cotton. F.48 0.44 0. dry Glass. plied Grit blast dust Gypsum compressed loose Iron. piled Coffee Coke Coke. per. baled loose Dolomite Duralumin Earth. anthracite anthracite.18 0. moist and loose Emery Feldspar Feldspar.22 0. dry. compressed barreled loose Fullers earth. gray cast 60 Density lb.20 0. loose. crown Glass. piled Graphite Gravel.32 0. 63 110 98 54 85 47 48 75 28 15 97 142 556 190 190 15 40 247 93 30 181 175 76 78 250 160 88 125 47 28 30 160 215 140 90 165 96 132 120 160 152 70 442 Specific heat Btu per lb.

40 0. 150 710 567 56 53-64 163 74 214 109 30 259 183 556 0.22 0.33 0. riprap Shavings. dry. dry Phosphate.21 0.48 0. granulated Density lb. per deg. and piled Saltpeter Sand. crushed Sawdust Shale.21 0.526 0.69 0. crushed Mica Monel metal Natural gas Nickel Nylon Paper Strawboard or newspaper Paraffin Peat.04475 547 70 58 33-44 56 30 75 150 60 165 84 67 58 115 75 30 74 27 48 80 99 110 144 82 7-15 105 7-15 172 60 61 Specific heat Btu per lb. shred Salt. wet Sandstone Sandstone. gran. India compound hard hard sponge tire reclaim.22 0. ft. planer Slag. F.13 0.55 0.11 0.36 0. loose Sand.06 0. 0.22 0.25 0. cu.20 0. ground Resin Rubber.26 0.32 0.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Iron ore. solid tire reclaim.21 0.52 . loose Lead Lead oxide (red) Leather Lime Limestone Lucite Magnesia Magnesium Magnesium dust Manganese ore.03 0. ground Porcelain Potash Quartz Quartz. per. Iron Slag.

12 62 .15 0. cu.05 1. ft.17 0.09 0. per. F. crushed Talc Tar.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Slate Soda ash Soda ash.21 0. bituminous Tile Tin Tobacco Water Zinc Zinc oxide Density lb.4 443 350 Specific heat Btu per lb.28 0.0 0. 0.21 0.28 0. granulated Sodium carbonate Sodium nitrate Sodium sulphate Starch granulated Steel Sucrose Sugar.12 0.27 0. bulk Sulphur Sulphur. 172 74 30 91 141 167 95 35 487 100 55 126 50 170 69 113 457 16 62. per deg.40 0.30 0.

000 5.05 0.01 0.000 PARTICLE SIZE .0005 0.000 10.1 0.005 0.PARTICLE CHART RAIN DROPS SAND TAILINGS MIST GROUND LIMESTONE POLLENS FLOUR MILL DUST FOUNDRY DUST ASPHALT PAVING INSECTICIDE DUST SEA FOG SPRAY DRIED MILK CEMENT DUST SOOT BLOWING – BOILER TUBES BACTERIA PLANT SPORES PLANT DUST 0.0001 0.MICRONS 63 .001 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.

0005 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.1 0.01 0.MICRONS 64 .PARTICLE CHART FERTILIZER PLANT DUST & FUMES SMELTER DUST & FUMES SULPHURIC ACID DUST & FUMES PAINT PIGMENTS COAL SMOKE OIL SMOKE PULVERIZED FUEL ASH ATMOSPHERIC DUST RESIN SMOKE TOBACCO SMOKE MAGNESIUM OXIDE SMOKE CONDENSATION NUCLEI OPEN HEARTH STEEL FURNACE FUMES CARBON BLACK VISIBLE TO EYE 0.05 0.005 0.000 5.000 10.000 PARTICLE SIZE .0001 0.001 0.

-meal etc. Soft Coal Asphalt. Hard Coal Ashes. crushed Beans. Bentonite Bicarbonate of Soda Bonemeal Bones. dry Asbestos. granulated or ground. dry Brick Buckwheat Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Carbon. channel Carbon black powder. crystalline Antimony Apple pomace. amorphous. minus 1/2” Bones. broken or whole Alum Alumina Aluminum Ammonium chloride.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Alfafa meal Almonds. spent. graphitic Carbon black powder. crushed. minus 1/8” Boneblack Bonechar Borax. crushed Ammonium sulphate Bagasse Bakelite. borings Cast Iron Caustic Soda CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N N N VA M M VA N M VA VA VA M M N N N VA N A N M M M M M VA N M N A N A A M M M VA M VA VA M 65 . powdered Bran Brass Brewers grain. powdered Baking powder Barley Bauxite. furnace Carborundum Casein Cast Iron. shred Ashes.

ground Gluten mean CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive M VA VA A A N A A N A A N N N N A A VA N M N N N A M A N N M A A N N N M A VA A N VA M N 66 . Cornmeal Cottonseed Cullet (broken glass) Dicalcium phosphate Dolomite Ebonite. Portland Cement. dry Clover seed Coal. crushed Chalk. pulverized. minus 100 mesh Charcoal Cinders. powdered Cocoa beans Coconut. granulated Glass batch Glue. petroleum Copper Copra (dried coconut) Cork. cracked. anthracite Cocoa. crushed Egg powder Epsom salts Feldspar Ferrous sulphate Fish meal Flaxseed Flour Flue dust. bituminous Coal. bituminous Coke.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Cellulose Cement. shredded Coffee Coke. shelled etc. coal Clay. fine ground Corn. dry Fluorspar Fly ash Fullers earth Gelatine. clinker Chalk.

distillery. hard Marble Marl Mica. dried Peas Phosphate rock Phosphate sand CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N A A N N N VA VA VA A A A A VA A VA A A VA VA A N A N A A M N M M N N VA N N N N N N N VA VA 67 . dry Graphite Grass seed Gypsum Hops. malted. ground Milk. dry Oxalic acid crystals Peanuts Peas. ground Lime. dried.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Grains. hydrated Limestone Litharge Lucite Magnesite Magnesium Magnesium chloride Malt. dry Ice. dry Manganese sulphate Maple. powdered Monel metal Muriate or potash Mustard seed Naphthalene flakes Nickel Oats Oak Orange peel. crushed Ilmenite ore Iron Cast Iron Oxide Lead Lead Arsenate Lead oxide Lignite Lime.

soft Rye Salt. coarse Salt. furnace. pulverized Saltpeter Sand Sandstone Sawdust Shale. light Soda ash. ground Rubber. hard Rubber. dry Sulphur Talc Tanbark. heavy Sodium Nitrate Sodium Phosphate Soybeans. dry. crushed Slag. rock Salt. ground Timothy seed Tin Titanium Tobacco Vermiculite ore Wheat White lead Zinc Oxide CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive 68 N M VA M N N N N N A A A N VA VA N A VA A N N M M M A A N N A A N N N M M N A VA N A N A A . flakes Soap powder Soapstone talc Soda ash. chips. granulated Slate Soap. crushed Sugar Sugar beet pulp.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Pine Porcelain Quartz Resin Rice Rubber. meal and whole Starch Steel Steel chips. dry.

1 St. 1 St. (Chipboard) Wood/ cardboard/jute Wood/cardboard/jute/resin Lignin dust Paper dust Paper tissue dust Paper ( henolresin treated) Peat (15% moisture) Peat (22% moisture) Peat (31% moisture) Peat (41% moisture) Peat (from bottom of sieve) Peat (dust deposit) Paper Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 98 92 58 57 Median 32 38 20 47 43 30 71 72 71 90 55 70 63 20 25 3 7 39 µm 44 51 33 80 43 26 KSt Explos. Fish meal Fructose (from filter) Fructose Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 100 38 76 100 68 99 92 11 75 23 39 15 17 3 24 100 12 7 94 71 5 4 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 2 69 . < 63 µm Class St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Cotton Wood Peat Dust Type Cotton Cellulose Wood dust Wood dust Wood dust. 1 11 49 29 Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Gravy powder (21% starch) Citrus pellets Dextrose. 1 (St. 2 St. 2 96 75 85 91 58 100 66 83 57 73 18 <10 54 208 18 52 190 157 69 64 St. 1 St. ground Dextrose Fat/whey mixture Fat powder (48% fat) Do. 1 bar•m/s 24 66 102 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 12 39 22 80 330 92 320 150 200 18 23 20 35 102 28 St. 2) 90 26 40 43 40 22 33 76 25 3 15 20 18 23 58 46 38 39 74 84 82 87 88 78 58 65 76 76 48 66 93 51 144 168 St.

1 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Fructose Barley grain dust Do. 1 St. 2) (St. 1 70 . < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 27 240 83 14 112 295 80 125 <10 St. 2 90 11 68 500 65 22 23 165 165 235 46 88 400 29 20 32 <10 16 120 18 18 20 49 44 43 21 69 29 81 117 90 75 109 83 38 74 57 79 110 43 (89) 128 158 190 190 132 12 53 St. 1 St. Oats grain dust Wheat grain dust Wheat grain dust Coffee (from filter) Coffee (refined) Cocoa bean shell dust Cocoa/sugar mixture Potato granulate Potato flour Lactose (from filter) Lactose (from cyclone) Maize seed waste (9% moisture) Milk powder Milk powder Milk powder (low fat spray dried) Milk powder (full fat spray dried) Whey fat emulator Olive pellets Rice flour Rye flour Soy bean flour Potato starch Potato starch Maize starch Maize starch Rice starch (hydrolyzed) Rice starch Rice starch Wheat starch Tobacco Tapioca pellets Weight %<Size (µm) 500 81 79 64 51 24 48 100 81 50 100 100 100 53 20 100 86 53 83 97 98 98 100 100 67 40 34 15 99 30 62 7 94 2 100 100 76 85 100 100 99 94 29 99 86 81 64 61 50 98 81 15 74 62 84 29 42 17 94 60 54 52 50 58 63 15 50 23 18 8 60 17 26 60 70 16 17 47 41 32 25 100 8 30 25 99 89 8 3 Median 32 20 µm 400 250 125 71 63 KSt Explos. 1 St. 1 St. 2 St. 2) St. 2) (St. 1 St.

1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 68 76 62 50 57 56 10 27 19 59 106 87 42 75 82 St.) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 99 88 84 83 75 71 65 69 60 56 66 93 18 91 13 82 99 95 36 83 97 76 65 54 93 46 32 85 37 99 Median 32 80 64 38 40 27 38 43 85 55 88 85 30 24 80 35 67 58 63 20 55 µm 18 22 46 41 55 60 40 <10 290 28 14 19 >500 29 <10 38 4 KSt Explos. 1 Coal Coal products Dust Type Activated Carbon Activated Carbon Activated Carbon (16% moisture) Brown coal Brown coal (from electrostatic filter) Brown coal (dust from grinding) Brown coal/ anthracite (80-20) Brown coal/ anthracite (20-80) Brown coal coke Brown coal (graphitized) Charcoal Charcoal Charcoal Asphalt Bituminous coal Bituminous coal (Petchora) Bituminous coal (high volat.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Tea (6% moisture) Tea (black from dust collector) Meat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour 550 Milk sugar Milk sugar Sugar (Icing) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 64 69 97 48 52 60 60 99 98 88 26 31 32 34 92 64 70 16 21 25 25 77 32 52 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 1 117 No Ignition 117 55 86 59 71 . < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 44 No Ignition 67 123 143 107 108 1 115 St. 1 St. 1 St. 1 20 No Ignition 10 St.

Epoxy Resin (or powder coating) Cellulose-2 5-Acetate Polyester resin with glass Rubber (dust from grinding) Resin (from filter) Epoxy resin 60% resin + 36% TO2 Epoxy resin Epoxy resin with Al Melamin resin Melamin resin Phenol resin Phenol Formaldehyde resin) Polyamid resin Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 32 20 Median µm KSt Explos. 1 (St. 2) St. malted Leather dust (from collector) Linen (containing oil) Lycopodium Oil shale dust Oil shale dust Grass dust Walnut shell powder Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 66 Median 32 26 250 125 24 71 10 57 78 61 9 63 20 5 13 57 µm 245 55 48 85 490 KSt Explos.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other natural organic products Dust Type Cotton seed expellers Dextrin Wheat gluten (after mill) Blood flour Hops. 1 St. 2 63 21 100 99 71 96 26 91 79 50 50 39 300 20 32 200 17 35 No Ignition 47 St. 2) 138 108 155 129 208 110 172 129 105 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 79 37 100 24 82 100 58 28 89 80 43 97 99 95 90 99 66 100 72 12 44 67 60 46 84 24 99 50 95 30 84 43 36 55 13 94 64 53 200 55 19 14 80 40 23 26 34 18 57 <10 60 15 147 147 180 (St. 1 100 98 81 72 . 2) 92 91 89 78 (St. 2) (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class St. 1 Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type AcryinitrateButadieneStyreneCo-polym. 1 St. 1 bar•m/s 35 109 105 90 52 93 14 27 28 5 St.

1 No Ignition 136 189 100 89 144 269 St.5% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Em. 97. 1 (St. stat.. coating powder (Epoxy) El. 1 (St..-form) Melamineformaldehyde (mold. 2) 91 86 70 66 33 95 75 70 13 14 29 22 29 10 Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Acetyl salicylic acid Amino phenazone Ascorbic acid. 97% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Susp. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 (St. 2) 73 . 1 26 14 St. 2) (St.) Polyvinylchloride (Susp.-form) El. 2) bar•m/s 217 238 48 111 (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 199 80 192 110 23 (156) 86 128 83 168 68 42 63 45 30 10 100 74 57 46 15 97 60 66 30 99 93 100 100 100 100 23 90 83 55 29 100 73 31 50 44 9 760 3 20 26 56 <10 125 25 51 105 137 St. 2) St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type Polymethacrylate Silicon resin Caoutohouc Polystyrene (Copolymer) Polystyrene (Hard-foam) Polyurethane Polyvinylacetate (Copolymer) Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride (Em.) Ureaformaldehyde (mold. 2) St. stat. coating powder (Polyurethane) Shellac Wax (NN Ethylene distearmide) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 56 91 Median 32 33 20 20 250 125 59 58 32 71 39 40 11 5 63 100 20 13 µm 100 95 155 KSt Explos. 2) (St. L(+)Ascorbic acid Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 93 92 75 38 98 61 15 <10 14 39 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos.

1 St. 2) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Adipinic acid Aging protective Anthracene Anthrachinone Anthrachinone Azodicarbonamide Benzoic acid Betaine hydrochloride Betaine monohydrate Diphenol ketylene Calcium acetate Casein Sodium caseinate (from filter) Carboxy methyl cellulose Carboxy methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 89 Median 32 92 67 100 90 100 85 80 25 75 250 125 20 71 98 7 100 63 100 20 µm <10 <32 235 <10 12 <10 <10 710 15 92 40 17 <15 KSt Explos.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Coffein Cysteine hydrate L-Crystin Digitalis leaves Dimethylaminophenazone 2-Ethoxybenzamide Fungicide (Captan) Fungicide (Org. 2) 93 34 4 74 98 41 99 100 97 50 96 100 99 89 20 87 69 12 30 10 60 17 65 77 78 (St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 154 143 128 119 156 151 St. 2) St. 2) (St. 1 115 71 22 29 St. 2) bar•m/s 97 256 231 364 91 176 114 63 270 9 24 117 184 127 157 152 (St. 1 74 . zinc comp.) Fungecide (Maneb) Methionine Methionine Sodium – L(+) ascorbate Paracetamole Pesticide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 100 100 59 Median 32 98 95 42 100 63 100 20 94 69 µm <10 15 46 <10 KSt Explos. 2) bar•m/s 165 40 142 73 337 214 100 100 99 93 99 98 100 100 97 100 99 98 98 <10 97 99 98 67 96 93 95 87 45 5 <10 <10 <10 <10 23 (St. < 63 µm Class (St. 2) St. 1 (St.

2) 27 92 61 98 61 100 99 100 100 42 89 66 35 9 74 24 95 56 79 89 48 80 12 97 69 65 50 13 88 46 112 20 67 <10 24 22 16 580 95 16 119 113 178 90 75 . 2) 99 98 8 97 83 60 93 31 49 89 71 24 <1 100 100 30 9 69 42 27 50 33 15 97 4 2 11 11 85 60 27 128 1100 71 95 215 17 2900 27 155 <10 100 75 (St. 2) (St. 2) (St. 1 St. 30% fat) Ferrocene Fumac acid Epoxy resin hardener Urea Hexamethylene tetramine Hexamethylene tetramine Cellulose ion exchange resin Cellulose ion exchange resin Condensation product (phenol) D(-)-Mannite Melamine Melamine peroxide Melamine phosphate Melamine phtalate Metal soap (Ba/Pb-stearate) Metal soap (Zn-behenate) Methacrylamide Naphtalene Naphtalic acid anhydride Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 98 69 Median 32 37 40 3 98 93 250 79 125 33 20 71 93 66 63 13 20 12 µm 37 40 170 260 <10 <10 1300 KSt Explos. 2) 64 St. 1 (St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea 1. 2) (St. 1 286 224 91 112 171 54 1 73 (St. 1 St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea Dimethyl terephtalate Diphenyl urethane Diphenyl urethane Emulgator (50% CH. 1 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Methyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose Chloroacetamide Cyanoacrylicacid methylester Dicyandiamide 1. 2) (St. 1 52 180 St. < 63 µm Class St. 2) St. 1 bar•m/s 209 162 269 9 163 116 247 218 51 167 267 (St. 2) (St. 2) (St.

2) St. 1 42 175 222 59 177 120 188 158 (St. 1 (St. 1 (St. 1 bar•m/s 137 90 63 51 89 86 86 91 100 33 36 47 St. 2) 20 31 65 58 21 41 37 21 20 86 3 12 65 23 27 34 <10 85 135 (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 2) St. 1 St. 1 76 .2-Thiodiacetic acid Thio urea Trimellitic anhydride Trisodium citrate Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 97 Median 32 96 2 28 8 250 52 125 13 95 100 65 71 100 63 5 20 94 µm <10 250 40 58 KSt Explos.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type 2-Naphtol Sodium amide Sodium cyclamate Sodium hydrogen cyanamide Sodium lingo sulphonate Oil Adsorber (hydrophobic cellulose) Paraformaldehyde Paraformaldehyde Pectin Pectinase Pentaerythrite Pentaerythrite (from filter) Pentaerythrite Phtalic acid anahydride Polyethylene oxide Polysaccharide Propyleneglycol alginate Salicylic acid Saponin Lead stearate Lead stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Magnesium stearate Sodium stearate Zinc stearate Zinc stearate Stearin/Lead Stearin/Calcium Stearic acid Terephthalic acid dinitrile 2. 1 77 90 92 92 67 86 95 89 100 78 27 65 80 90 84 80 45 72 75 64 100 43 25 92 95 99 100 13 <10 12 <10 <10 145 22 13 15 16 1300 (St. 2) 48 56 4 36 2 1 1 St. 2) 12 (St. 2) St. 2) 162 61 47 98 6 20 86 90 47 99 83 53 57 99 24 93 96 99 29 100 14 78 115 23 115 82 150 152 99 155 123 111 133 34 260 18 75 460 1250 800 72 8 33 (St. 2) St.

ign. 2) St. 1 96 74 23 11 97 100 100 100 88 14 86 45 26 <10 36 260 73 115 63 214 310 111 St. 2) (St. 1 Other Technical/ Chemical products Dust Type Organic dyestuff (blue) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (Azo. yellow) Organic dyestuff (brown) Organic dyestuff (Pthalocyanine) Fushsin base Bituminous hydrocarbon Light protection agent Light protection agent Soap Surfacer (Epoxy based) Surfacer (Polyester based) Washing agent (Na-sulph.) Wax raw material (Alkylaryl sulphonate) Wax raw material (Olefin sulphonate) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 99 Median 32 20 98 µm 95 <10 KSt Explos. 1 bar•m/s 91 100 99 27 74 94 96 14 100 94 (53) No. 2) St. 1 92 93 77 85 83 <10 <15 65 24 19 275 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 267 (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class 73 bar•m/s <10 249 237 288 65 100 33 98 23 95 52 <10 (St. 2) (St. 1) 60 28 105 115 77 . 2) (St. 1 St. St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Tyrosine (final product) Tyrosine (raw product) Viscose flock Tartaric acid Zinc cyanamide Zinc cyanamide Zinc pyridine thione Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 100 99 100 47 5 34 Median 32 48 250 125 99 96 1 71 63 20 µm 10 15 13 480 <10 600 KSt Explos.

1 134 508 12 267 (St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 515 400 1100 415 320 100 (St. 3) 92 80 79 26 35 29 230 52 <10 St. TiN.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum shavings Aluminum shavings Aluminum/Iron (50:50) Aluminum/ Magnesium Aluminum/ Nickel Aluminum/ Nickel (50:50) Bronze powder Calcium/ Aluminum (30:70) Calcium/Silicon (from cyclone) Calcium/Silicone Iron (from dry filter) Iron Carbonyl Ferrochromium Ferromanganese FeSiMg (22:45:26) Ferrosilicon (22:78) Hard metal (TiC. VC. 2) 78 . 1) St. 2) (St. WC. Mo) Co-Al-Ti (62:18:20) Magnesium Magnesium FeSiMg (24:47:17) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 94 98 99 94 100 99 6 20 17 93 47 95 37 18 97 68 94 87 98 96 99 99 97 100 95 92 100 99 1 99 70 47 68 75 55 82 82 97 77 70 40 61 70 41 86 60 46 48 67 96 73 90 57 47 68 48 Median 32 88 70 64 60 96 16 63 20 79 45 47 17 2 µm <10 22 22 29 23 41 170 190 240 21 130 KSt Explos. 1 90 18 22 21 28 12 <10 <10 <10 17 21 43 25 28 240 21 31 420 200 50 111 86 84 169 87 (St. 1 300 St.

< 63 µm Class bar•m/s 21 71 St. 2) 90 100 97 98 77 61 40 28 91 93 12 70 74 90 55 46 6 72 70 (St. 2) St. 1 St. 1 St.) Molybdenum Niobium (6% Al) Silicon Silicon (from filter) Silicon (from cust extr. 1 53 19 21 99 97 91 72 <10 10 Other Inorganic Products Dust Type NH4NO3/ Dicyanimide (66:34) Graphite (99. 1 126 116 100 (82) 37 (St.) Steel (100 Cr6) dust Tantalum/Niobium Titanium Titanium (pre-oxidized) TiTiO2 (dust deposit) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (dust from collector) Zinc (dust from collector) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 82 70 100 87 44 24 99 9 Median 32 70 41 96 3 98 100 63 20 57 92 97 99 57 80 24 26 µm 16 33 <10 250 <10 <10 16 <10 30 35 310 KSt Explos. 3) 85 93 125 176 (St. 1 83 94 100 79 . 1 92 93 51 86 92 75 75 22 64 59 53 59 14 47 18 99 19 15 71 22 526 5 37 47 3 14 85 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Manganese (electrolyt.5% C) Carbon fibers (99% C) Molybdenum disulphide Petroleum coke Petroleum coke Petroleum coke (calcinated) Phosphorous (red) Soot Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 60 100 Median 32 42 97 63 20 35 µm 50 7 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 157 69 St.) Manganese (electrolyt.

comp. 1 (St. 1 80 . 1 St. (15:45:35:5) Bentonite/Coal (50:50) Bentonite der. bar•m/s 35 91 St. Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 100 87 90 98 86 89 98 98 99 99 99 44 60 35 93 91 26 15 2 70 95 74 87 62 55 69 41 45 23 35 89 30 80 45 Median 32 92 61 71 63 99 20 48 µm 6 21 54 42 35 KSt Explos. Ign. 1 123 (St. + org.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other Inorganic Products Dust Type Soot (from filter) Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Titanium carbide Titanium hydride Titanium monoxide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 97 96 86 53 Median 32 20 85 51 63 µm <10 71 20 40 120 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 88 12 151 70 23 7 (St. 2) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Flyash (from electrofilter) Ash concentrate Bentonite/ Asphalt/Coal/ Org. 1 100 100 70 64 44 25 85 67 10 160 (214) (24) (St. 2) <10 25 8 23 150 190 71 360 30 96 18 St. 2) St. 2) St. Pb and Ca stearate mixture Break liner (grinding dust) Brush dust (Al-brushes) CaC/Diamide lime/Mg (72:18:10) Mud from settling chamber Dust from polishing (Al) Dust from polishing (Zn) Dust from polishing (brass) Dust from grinding (Al) Dust from grinding (Zn) Dust from grinding cardbd. 1 St. 1 St. 2) (St. < 63 µm Class No.

226*Pstat) Variables: Pstat (bars) – Vent Release Pressure Pred (bars) – Max.105* Pstat) c = -0. During Venting Kst (bar*m/sec) – Deflagration Index V (mˆ3) – Volume of Vessel Av (mˆ2) – Required Vent Area See Reference #3 81 . 2) St. + synth. 68-27 Av = a*Vˆ(2/3)*Kstˆb*Predˆc where a = 0.000571 eˆ(2*Pstat) b = 0.1.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding (Ti) Dust from grinding + polishing (polyester) Blasting dust (light metals) Immersion polishing agent Textile fibers (nat.978 eˆ(-0.1. 2) 99 100 46 96 82 91 <10 242 600 11 196 137 134 145 169 (St. Press.) Toner Toner Toner Toner Toner/iron powder Toner/resin Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (90:10) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 98 97 89 64 37 84 18 Median 32 95 60 4 63 20 93 41 µm <10 25 170 KSt Explos. 1 = 200 kst or less St. 1 100 100 58 98 96 95 37 78 100 100 48 30 55 <10 <10 21 23 60 18 (St. 1) Equations per NFPA 68. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 153 237 (St. p. 2) Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (20:80) Explosion Classes St. 2 = 300 kst or less (St. 7-1.687 eˆ(. Sec. 1 St.

7.0156 to .89 82 .125 2.656 to .0822 .0149 .688 .0635 to .969 2.938 .063 4.0135 .0164 .563 6.0255 .0284 .656 to 2.812 2.65 10.313 5.874 to 1.Order limit alent inches inches .562 to 5.624 to 1.187 to 6.625 .1345 .687 to 4.74 15.0359 .1271 .500 2.718 to .0478 .1196 .188 1. ft.968 to 2.937 to 5.20 12.0344 .0269 .532 MSG no.812 to .0224 to .0194 to .1120 to .813 . Weight of rolled steel MSG no. lbs.0179 .0897 .0388 to .0172 .657 .187 to 1.0225 .593 to .657 2.312 to 4.1569 to .1570 .062 to 3.500 1.0673 .313 1.438 1.125 1.86 20. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Thickness Sheet equiv.437 to 2.688 4. lbs.0142 .062 to .125 2.50 Thickness 11/16 3/4 7/8 1 Weight per sq.0972 .0128 Weight Pounds per square foot 6.000 4.0157 .250 5.0538 .40 22.1716 to .1644 . 28.750 3.0171 to .03 30.1046 .875 . lbs.0636 .0389 .875 1.0141 to .0568 .1270 to .750 1.0508 to .000 .0567 to .95 25.375 1.0299 .0821 to . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Weights of steel plate Thickness 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 Weight per sq.250 2.625 5.719 .Misc.60 35. 17.0329 .0710 .594 .0254 to .0509 .124 to 1.375 2.250 1.0709 to .937 to .0598 .1420 .562 Order limit pounds 7.70 40.938 5.29 Thickness 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 Weight per sq.0313 to .625 1.0239 . ft.437 to 1.0747 .374 to 2.750 .0209 .0314 . ft.1121 .312 to 1.1495 .0449 .0418 .000 1.0343 to . Ref.0283 to .375 3.438 3.0195 .0448 to .675 6.0971 to .1419 to .063 1.

0024 0.0021 0.0098 0.0059 0.0469 0.0117 0.0331 0.0280 0.132 0.S.0555 0.0041 0.0017 0.0394 0.0661 0.0787 0. Standard Inch/Sieve # 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 Sieve Opening Inches Microns 0.0083 0.0049 0.111 0.0937 0.0070 0.0232 0.Standard Sieve Series* Tyler Inch/Mesh 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 35 42 48 60 65 80 100 115 150 170 200 250 270 325 400 U.0.0197 0.223 0.35 0.0029 0.0138 0.0165 0.187 0.0015 5660 4760 4000 3660 2830 2380 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 840 710 590 500 420 350 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 88 74 62 53 44 37 *Sieve analysis is limited in its usefulness in industrial ventilation and dust collection because it does not register particles in the submicron range.157 0. 83 .

b B = 90°-A. Find A. C = Angles sin A = _a_. a = c sin A.b. b. b = √(c+a) (c-a) = a√ 1 . b ________ _______ sin A = _a_ = cos B. c a. B. c = _a_ sin A Given A and b._a2 c c2 Given A and a. a b a Given a and b. and c ______ _______ tan A = _a_ = cot B. Find B. c B = 90°-A a = b tan A. Find B.Right Triangle Trig Formulas A. a. B. sec A = _c_. a. Find B.c = Distances cos A = _b_. c B = 90°-A. b = c cos A 84 . B. c = √a2 + b2 = a√ 1 + _b2 b a2 Given a and c. cosec A = _c_. Find A. b = a cot A. c = _b_ cos A Given A and c. tan A = _a_ c b cot A = _b_.

(A + B) ac Given a. c = a sin C sin A tan 1/2 (A – B) = (a – b) tan 1/2. sin A C = 180° . sin 1/2 A = √(s – b)(s – c) 2 bc __________ sin 1/2 B = √(s –a)(s – c) .(A + B). C.(A + B). C = 180° . c = a sin C sin A Given a. 2 Area = a²sin B sin C 2 sin A 85 .B and a. Find A.a and b. Area = √s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c) 2 Area = bc sin A .Given A. Find b. Find Area ________________ s = a + b + c . Find B. C.C. and c b = a sin B . c = a sin C sin A Given A. B. (A + B) a+b Given a. b and c. and c sin B = b sin A . B. Find A. and C __________ s=a+b+c. b and c. a C = 180° . and c A + B = 180° .b and C.

P.Surface and volume of Solids Cylinder (Right or Oblique. lateral length L. Area of section perpendicular to sides A. Pb. Sphere Area = 4πr² Volume = 1/2/³π Radius. Volume = π/3 h² (3r-h)=π/24 h (3c²+4h²) Curved Surface = 2πrh = π/4(4h²+c²) ___ Volume = 1/3h (B + T + √BT) Lateral Surface = Pbh Lateral Surface = PL Volume = Bh Volume = AL 86 . and top. Circular or Elliptic) Perimeter or base. Regular or Irregular) Area of base. h. length of chord. perpendicular height. perpendicular height. h. Area of base. height. perpendicular height. T. Perimeter. Pyramid or Cone (Right or Oblique. r. perpendicular height. B. c. h. B. perpendicular to sides. B. Spherical Segment Radius. ___ Volume = 1/3 √Bh = 1/3 the volume of prism or cylinder of same base and perpendicular height or 1/2 the volume of hemisphere of same base and perpendicular height. r. lateral length L. h. Frustum of Any Pyramid or Cone (Parallel Ends) Areas of base. h.

sphere cubed Circular mils U.588 2.18750 0.34375 0.) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per sq. inch Miles per hour To obtain divide into 87 .31250 0.S.330 62.350 7. of mercury (0°C) Knots by 3.4336 0.050 19.381 3.75000 0.93750 0. circle Diam.113 11.019 23.68750 0.606 25.84375 0.28125 0.081 15.256 19.09375 0.59375 0.813 24.7854 0.875 16.06250 0.431 22.556 6. gallons U.319 11.700 U. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) In. inch Pounds per sq.288 15.S.731 9.1337 8.71875 0.56250 0.S.225 23.938 8.50000 Mm 0.1516 to obtain Circumference circle Side of equal square Volume of sphere Square mils Imperial gallons (Brit.400 Conversion ratios Multiply Diam.494 14.763 5.463 18.8327 0. inch FracDecimal tion 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 0.12500 0.53125 0.638 21. circle Diam.969 4.15625 0.175 3.4912 1.90625 0.43750 0.S.81250 0.87500 0.21875 0.427 0.794 1.525 10.03125 0.96875 1. gallons U.46875 0.62500 0. inch FracDecimal tion 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 0.S.Conversion Tables Decimal and metric equivalents of common fractions of an inch U.8862 0.144 7.5236 0.00000 Mm 13.669 17.844 20.37500 0.25000 0.906 12.40625 0.78125 0.65625 0.1416 0.

5357 in. water 1 in.000 ft. water = 1. per sq. water = 0. in.96 ft. per cu. = 2. = 0. of mercury = 760 mm.000 to 6.04464 ft.61 in. of water 1 in. cm. per sq.06895 megabars (or megadynes) per sq.000 to 6. water 1 gm.000 ft.02 mm. mercury = 7. water = 0. mercury = = 0. water = 0. in.196 lb.000 ft. difference in elevation at 4. per sq.03342 atmospheres = 345. = 0.340 mm. water = 13. of water = 0.6 mm.696 lb.3 lb.2 in. water 1 mm. in. of water represents 74 ft.0361 lb. of water resistance lowers wt. in.06804 atmospheres = 703.4 mm. in. mercury = 0.Pressure equivalents 1 Atmosphere = = 14. ft. = 1. 1 in.000 ft. = 9. per sq.7 mm.1272 in. = 33. per sq.08333 ft. per sq.491 lb. water = 0. mercury = 0.70 in. = 25. mercury = 234. per sq.01934 lb. water = 0.02896 in. in.000 ft. mercury = 3.54 oz.11 in. represents 1 in. per sq.86 oz.394 in.000 ft. water = = 0. = 0.52 in. mercury 88 .03937 in. per sq. 1 oz. difference in elevation at sea level to 4. = 25.0703 kg.6 in.309 ft.000 ft. water 1 in. ft. in. per sq.4 mm. of mercury represents 1. = = 0.70 lb. water = 13. ft. difference in elevation at 4.036 in. mercury = 2.71 mm. per sq. water = 2. water = 29. represents 13.134 ft. 1 in. = 0.00425 atmospheres = 44. = = 144 lb. = 0. elevation 1.002456 atmospheres = 0. = 10. = 2116.001316 atmospheres = 0. ft. difference in elevation at sea level to 4. cm. = 0. mercury = = 0.789 lb. = 16 oz.00 lb. of mercury 1.000 ft.000 ft.733 in. mercury 1 lb. per sq. in. = 51.0625 lb. cm. of mercury represents 900 ft. per sq. = 5. per sq. = 70. mercury = 0. ft.3094 oz. in. water = 27. per sq. elevation 1 in.61 mm. ft. water = 0.1441 ft.876 mm.5774 oz. difference in elevation at sea level represents 15. in.92 in. ft. of air by 1/4 or 1% 1 in. per sq. of water = 407. of mercury 1. difference in elevation at seal level represents 1.23 mm. difference in elevation at 4. in. per sq. of water represents 66 ft. per sq. water 1.000 ft. per sq. mercury = 1.0735 in.000 ft. difference in elevation at 4. per sq. in.

cubic meter 1 metric ton Surveyors’ Measure 7. 1. mile 1 township 1 decimeter 1 liter 1 meter 1 kilometer 1 hektoliter 1 hectare 1 kilogram 1 stere or. standard gal. interest 366 days lp.8 inches 2-1/2 feet Cubic Measure 1.) Approximate Metric Equivalents 89 . 20 pwt. miles (6 miles sq.2 feet 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cord (wood) 1 ton (shipping) 1 standard bu. month in comp.42 cubic inches 231 cubic inches 1 cubic foot Dry Measure 2 pints 8 quarts 4 pecks 36 bushels Mariners’ Measure 6 feet 120 fathoms 71/2 cable lengths 5.3785 dekaliter 0.280 feet 6.3524 hektoliter 4 inches 1.6 pounds Cloth Measure 21/8 inches 4 nails 4 quarters 1 nail 1 quarter 1 yard Miscellaneous 3 inches 4 inches 6 inches 18 inches 21. yr.204.150. chains or 160 sq.0567 qt. 1 cubic centimeter about 4/5 of a bushel 1 cubic inch 1 cubic decimeter 1 cubic foot 1 quart 1 cubic meter 1 peck 1 cubic yard 1 bushel 1 stere 1 chaldron 1 cord 1 liter 1 quart dry 1 fathom 1 quart liquid 1 cable length 1 dekaliter 1 mile 1 peck 1 statute mile 1 hektoliter 1 nautical mile 1 bushel 1 link 1 rod 1 chain 1 acre 1 sq.061 cu. 1 palm 1 hand 1 span 1 cubit 1 Bible cubit 1 military pace .2759 cord 3.39 cubic cent.S. 29. 0. dry 1.06 quarts liquid. dry 1.7646 cubic meter 0. rods 640 acres 36 sq.9463 liter 0.317 cubic dec.Weights and measures Time Measure Troy Weight 24 grains 1 pwt. 0.9 qt. liq.92 inches 25 links 4 rods 10 sq.101 liters 0.308 cubic yards 0.728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet 40 cubic feet 2. 1 ounce 12 ounces 1 pound Used for weighing gold.8375 bushels 0.881 dekaliter 2.0353 cubic foot 28. 1.624 steres 0.908 qt. Measure of Volume 1 U. 30 or 31 days 1 month 30 days 365 days 1 year 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week 1 cal.080.1 yards 5/8 of a mile 2-5/8 bushels 2-1/2 acres 2-1/5 pounds 1/4 of a cord 2. silver and jewels 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days 28. inch foot 16.

) = 907.p.S. 30-1/4 sq.-cal. from and at 212°F.518 lb. Hat and energy units 1 ton (refrig.9072 ton (met.3495 9. = 4. 0. per sq. (av. = 1.) Mineral lubricating oil has specific gravity of 0.2048 lb. rods = 1 acre 43. per sq. mile 1 kw.0703 kg.76 lb. yd.4536 kg. = 0.000 grains 90 Fahrenheit Freezes 30° above Zero Freezes 32° above Zero Freezes 36° above Zero Freeze 20° above Zero Freezes 28° above Zero Boils at 173° above Zero Boils at 212° above Zero 104° above Zero Boils at 360° above Zero 98. cm.560 sq. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 3. = 1 sq.9678 normal atmosphere Heat and Energy units 1. = 0. ft.) = 200 Btu/min. 367.3410 h.3437 grains 1 ounce = 16 drams 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 quarter = 25 pounds 1 hundredweight = 4 quarters 1 short ton = 2.296 deg.-lb.4° above Zero 1 stat mile = 8 furlongs 1 stat mile = 5. = 0.655.-hr. 1 kg.) . foot = 7. 1 barrel = 31-1/2 gallons 1 hogshead = 2 barrels 1 Imp. 860 kg. Apothecaries’ weight 1 scruple = 20 grains 1 ounce = 8 drams 1 dram = 3 scruples 1 pound = 12 ounces Grain = 0.) = 0. per sq.000 joules 3.0648 9. ft.235 lb. gal. of water raised from 62 to 212°F. cm. = 14. inches 1 gal. = 60 minutes 1 circle = 4 quadrants = 2 πradians or 360 deg. = 1 sq. per sq. = 28.0160 ton (met.098 kg.413 Btu. rod Liquid measure 1 pint = 4 gills 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts Volume 1 cu. 1 lb. 22.600. per sq. m.) Blood Heat Linear measure 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard = 3 feet 1 rod = 5-1/2 yards 1 furlong = 40 rods Circular measure 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 deg. 2. 1 kg. = 0.217 ft. Ton (sht. 9 sq. 160 sq. per sq.135 oz.-m. = 1 sq.1848 kg. Avoirdupois weight 1 dram = 27.080 ft. per sq.94 Pressure 1 kg. 1 quadrant = 90 deg. 3.48 gallons 1 gallon = 231 cu. Oz. ft. = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 sq./min.) Ton (lg. cm.000 w/hr. ft.88 to 0.000 pounds 1 long ton = 2.2 gal (U./hr.280 feet 1 naut mile = 6. Ton (sht. 1 lb. in. Square measure 144 sq. per sq. = 2. yd. in. 1. per sq. in. Lb.) = 1. ft.223 lb.240 pounds 1 pound = 7. water evap.8824 kg.Weights and measures (cont’d) Temperatures Milk Water Olive Oil Wines Vinegar Alcohol Water Eggs Hatch Petrol. m.-hr. 1 league = 3 miles 1 radian = 57.

970.023.-lb.300. – hr.-cal.1085 lb.3814 h.-cal. ft. water evap.-hr. 0. per lb.500 joules 756.500 ft. 1.0668 lb.000 ft. 1.-cal. from and at 212°F.p. 1 Btu per cu. 1 Btu per pound = 0.-cal. from and at 212°F.2 Btu 104.-hr. dry wood oxidized (varies) 26. 14. 1 lb.-cal.-m.1124 Btu per cu.8000 Btu per lb.7457 kw.9685 Btu 1 Btu = 0.2844 kw. 1 Btu per cu.745 kg. = 0.255 kw. ft. 91 . 0.-cal.4 cu.p.-hr. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 2. per cu. ft. anthracite oxidized (varies) 2. ft. ft. 0.-m.-hr. m. 273.-cal.-lb. 0. 11.2520 kg. 1 kg.-lb. 5.37 Btu per cu.0089 kg. water evaporated from and at 212°F. m. per cu. 1 lb. 1 kg. 2. = 3. per liter = 112.545 Btu.000 ft. per kg.980. = 0. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 14.709 h.622 lb. 1 kg.97 lb.1849 lb.-hr.400 kg. = 8.5555 kg.p. per kilogram = 1.Heat and Energy units (cont’d) 1 h.-cal. 0.315 lb. natural gas (varies) 14.8987 kg. manufactured gas (varies) 12. of carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 1 kg.9 cu. ft. of water evap.520 Btu 1.

gallons (U. Petroleum – bbl x 0.52 x 29.0332 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) absolute x 1. – bbl x 0.3937 = Square meters (m²) = Inches (in) 92 .92 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 33.5 = U.06 = Cubic meters (m³) = U.96 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 1.15899 x 42 Bars – bar x 100 x 14.02358 = Horsepower (hp) Centares x1 Centimeters – cm x 0.53 x 1. gal) oil = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Atmospheres (atm) sea-level standard = Tons-force per square foot (tonf/ft²) = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) British Thermal Units – Btu (See note) x 1055 = Joules (J) x 778 = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 0.93 x 10 x 3. gal) liquid Barrels.98692 x 1.Metric Conversions Atmospheres – atm (Standard at sea-level pressure) x 101.6 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) -4 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) x 2.S.0443 x 750.93 x 10-4 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) British Thermal Units per Minute – Btu/min (See note) x 17.0197 x 0. gallons (U.504 x 33.S. U.696 = Pounds-force per square inch absolute (psia) x 76.S.S.58 = Watts (W) x 12.00 = Centimeters of mercury (cmHg) at 0°C x 29.11924 = Cubic meters (m³) x 31.0581 = Tons force per square foot (tonf/ft²) absolute x 760 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Barrels.S.01325 = Bars (bar) absolute x 1.97 = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) x 0. Liquid.252 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 107.325 = Kilopascals (kPa) absolute x 14.

S.03281 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.308 x 10-6 x 2.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Centimeters of Mercury – cm/Hg at 0°C x 1.481 x 6. gallons per day (U.S.6463 = Million U.85 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.02237 = Miles per hour (mph) Cubic Centimeters – cm³ x 3. gallons (U.4468 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 5.1247 = U.03704 x 7.4720 = Liters per second (l/s) x 0.S.362 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.013595 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 27.8 = U. gallons per second (U.32 = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd3) = U.S.6000 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.9685 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.013332 = Bars (bar) x 0.S.02832 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 1.30 = Pounds of water per minute (lbH2O/min) at 68°F Cubic Feet per Second – cfs x 0.S.013158 = Atmospheres (atm) standard x 10 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Centimeters per Second – cm/s x 1.S.19337 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.699 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 0.200 x 10-4 x 1000 x 10-3 Cubic Feet .642 x 10-4 x 2.0 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 1.S.699 = Cubic meters per minute (m³/min) x 448.832 x 104 x 1728 x 0.5315 x 10-5 x 6. gps) x 62. gallons (U.S.03600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 0. gallons per minute (U.S. gpd) 93 .3332 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) Cubic Feet per Minute – cfm x 472.ft³ x 0.229 x 28. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.02832 x 2.1024 x 10-2 x 1. gpm) x 0.

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Cubic Inches - In³ x 1.6387 x 10-5 x 16.387 x 0.016387 x 5.787 x 10-4 x 2.143 x 10-5 x 4.329 x 10-3 x 3.605 x 10-3 Cubic Meters - m³ x 1000 x 35.315 x 61.024 x 10³ x 1.3080 x 264.2 x 220.0 = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal)

Cubic Meters per Hour - m³/h x 0.2778 = Liters per second (l/s) -4 x 2.778 x 10 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 4.403 = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Meters per Second – (m³/s) x 3600 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 15.85 x 10³ = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Yards - yd³ x 0.7646 x 764.6 x 7.646 x 105 x 27 x 46,656 x 201.97 x 168.17 Degrees Angular (°) x 0.017453 x 60 x 3600 x 1.111 = Cubic meters (m³) = Liters (l) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Radians (rad) = Minutes (‘) = Seconds (“) = Grade (gon)

Degrees per Second, Angular (°/s) x 0.017453 = Radians per second (rad/s) x 0.16667 = Revolutions per minute (r/min) x 2.7778 x 10-3 = Revolutions per second (r/s) Drams (dr) x 1.7718 x 27.344 x 0.0625 = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) 94

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Fathoms x 1.8288 x6 Feet – ft x 0.3048 x 30.480 x 12 x 0.3333 = Meters (m) = Feet (ft) = Meters (m) = Centimeters (cm) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd)

Feet of Water – ftH2O, at 68°F x 2.984 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.02984 = Bars (bar) x 0.8811 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.03042 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 62.32 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.4328 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.02945 = Standard atmospheres Feet per Minute – ft/min x 0.5080 x 0.01829 x 0.0051 x 0.3048 x 0.016667 x 0.01136 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per second (mps) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph)

Feet per Second per Second – ft/s² x 0.3048 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 30.48 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) Foot-Pounds-Force – ft • lbf x 1.356 = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 1.285 x 10-3 x 3.239 x 10-4 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 0.13825 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 5.050 x 10-7 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) x 3.766 x 10-7 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h)

95

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Gallons U.S. – U.S. gal x 3785.4 x 3.7854 x 3.7854 x 10-3 x 231 x 0.13366 x 4.951 x 10-3 x8 x4 x 0.8327 x 8.328 x 8.337 Gallons, Imperial – imp gal x 4546 x 4.546 x 4.546 x 10-3 x 0.16054 x 5.946 x 10-3 x 1.20094 x 10.000 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = Pints (pt) liquid = Quarts (qt) liquid = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Pounds of water at 60°F in air = Pounds of water at 60°F in vacuo = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Pounds of water at 62°F in air

Gallons, per Minute, U.S. – U.S. gpm x 0.22715 = Cubic meters per hour (m3/h) x 0.06309 = Liters per second (l/s) x 8.021 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) x 2.228 x 10-3 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Grains – gr av. or troy x 0.0648 Grains per Cubic Foot x 2288.1 = Grams (g) = milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)

Grains per U.S. Gallon – gr/U.S. gal at 60°F x 17.12 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) x 17.15 = Parts per million by weight in water x 142.9 = Pounds per million gallons Grains per Imperial Gallon – gr/imp gal at 62°F x 14.25 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m3) x 14.29 = Parts per million by weight in water Grams – g x 15.432 x 0.035274 x 0.032151 x 2.2046 x 10.3 = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) av. = Ounces (oz) troy = Pounds (lb)

96

7 x 0.S.5 = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 2. gal) = Pounds per 1000 U. gallon (gr/U.69 x 1. gallons = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) = Parts per million by mass = Square meters (m²) = Square feet (ft²) = Watts (W) = Kilowatts (kW) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (metric) = British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (see note) = Kilowatts (kW) Horsepower-Hours – hp • h x 0.345 x 0.540 = Centimeters (cm) 97 .03613 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Grams per Liter – g/l x 58.43 x 10.42 x 8.06243 x 1002 Hectares – ha x 1.809 = Grains per U.000 x 550 x 42.43 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) x 0.S.0764 x 105 Horsepower – hp x 745.07 = Newtons per meter (N/m) = Pounds-force per inch (lbf/in) x 5.0139 Horsepower – hp boiler x 33.807 x 10-3 = Newtons (N) Grams – Force per Centimeter – gf/cm x 98.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Grams-Force – gf x 9.7457 x 33.000 x 104 x 1.7457 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 1.S.480 x 9.732 x 105 Inches – in x 2.600 x 10-3 Grams per Cubic Centimeter – g/cm3 x 62.976 x 106 x 2545 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 641.

102 x 10-3 Kilograms-force – kgf x 9.7376 x 2.2390 x 0.807 x 2.73 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.205 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Calories (cal) thermochemical = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Watt-hours (W • h) = Pounds (lb) = Tons (ton) short = Newtons (N) = Pounds-force (lbf) Kilograms-Force per Meter – kgf/m x 9.03386 = Bars (bar) x 1.135 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 13.9484 x 10-3 x 0.778 x 10-4 Kilograms – kg x 2.3864 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.807 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 0.62 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.6721 = Pounds-force per foot (lbf/ft) Kilograms-Force per Square Centimeter – kg/cm² x 98.193 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.807 = Megapascals (MPa) x 1.03342 = Standard atmospheres Inches of Water – in H2O at 68°F x 0.9807 = Bars (bar) x 32.96 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 2048 = Pounds-force per square foot (lb/ft²) x 14.535 x 10 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 0.000 x 106 = Kilograms-force per square meter (kgf/m²) 98 .03453 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 70.223 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.07342 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C -3 x 2.4912 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.03606 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 2.2046 x 1.487 x 10 x 0.87 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 28.9678 = Standard atmospheres Kilograms-Force per Square Millimeter – kgf/mm² x 9.2487 = Kilopascals (kPa) -3 = Bars (bar) x 2.07 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.454 x 10-3 = Standard atmospheres Joules – J x 0.5770 = Ounces-force per square inch (ozf/in²) x 5.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Inches of Mercury – inHg at 0°C x 3.

2778 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 27.68 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 16.1450 x 0.024 x 1.308 x 10-3 x 0.53996 = International knots (kn) x 0.667 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.90 x 14.3351 x 4.425 x 104 x 737.3410 Kilowatt-Hours – kW • h x 3.6214 = Miles per hour (mph) Kilometers per Hour per Second – km • h-1 • s-1 x 0.5144 = Meters per second (m/s) x 1.021 Kilowatts – kW x 4.9113 = Feet per second per second (ft/s²) Kilometers per Second – km/s x 37.2642 x 0.2953 x 0.78 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) x 0.S.6 x 106 x 2.78 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.9113 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 54.151 = Miles per hour (mph) Liters – l x 1000 x 0.671 x 105 x 1.28 = Miles per minute (mi/min) Kilopascals – kPa x 103 x 0.6 x 56.33 x 1. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) 99 .Metric Conversions (cont’d) Kilometers per Hour – km/h x 27.655 x 106 x 3413 x 860 x 3.035315 x 61.010197 x 0.3410 = pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 32°F = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (hp) = Joules (J) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force meters (kgf • m) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) Knots – kn (International) x 0.2200 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.

gallons per minute (U.S.0 x 0.600 x 60 x 15.6667 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.37 x 1.281 x 2.666 x 10-3 Liters per Second – l/s x 10-3 x 3.01667 x 5.237 x 0.281 x 39. gallons per second (U.6093 x 10³ x 1. gal/s) = Imperial gallons per second (imp gal/s) = Cubic meters per second (m3/s) = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) = Liters per minute (l/min) = U.S.1020 Meters – m x 3.600 x 0.885 x 10-4 x 4.000001 = Meters (m) Miles – mi x 1.281 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.8 x 3. gpm) = Imperial gallons per minute (imp gpm) = Pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square millimeter (kgf/mm²) = Feet (ft) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd) Meters per Minute – m/min x 1.0936 = Limits per second (l/s) = Cubic feet per second (cfs) = U.S.03728 = Miles per hour (mph) Meters per Second – m/s x 3.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Liters per Minute – l/min x 0.20 Megapascals – Mpa x 106 x 10³ x 145.µm (micron) x 0.0600 x 196.S.6093 x 5280 x 1760 = Meters (m) = Kilometers (km) = Feet (ft) = Yards (yd) 100 .03728 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Feet per minute (ft/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Miles per minute (mi/min) Micrometers .85 x 13.0600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 3.403 x 10-3 x 3.05468 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.

06250 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 4.4667 x 0.82 x 88 x 1.6093 x 2682 x 88 x 60 Minutes. = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av. x 28.08333 x 0.103 x 480 x 20 x 0.395 = Grams-force per square centimeter (gf/cm²) 101 .02957 x 1.70 x 1.790 x 10-5 Ounces – oz troy x 31.2248 x 7. = Ounces (oz) av.35 x 2.909 x 10-4 Newtons – N x 0.10197 x 0.835 x 10-5 x 16 x 437.0971 Ounces – oz U.06857 x 1.9115 x 2.6093 x 26. = Ounces (oz) troy = Tons (ton) long = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Pounds (lb) troy = Pounds (lb) av.06250 x 0.S.233 x 105 Ounces – oz av.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Miles per Hour – mph x 44.8690 Miles per Minute – mi/min x 1.1 = Pascals (Pa) x 0. Angular – (‘) x 2. fluid x 0.8046 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per minute (R/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = International knots (kn) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Radians (rad) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Pounds-force (lbf) = Poundals = Dynes = Grams (g) = Tonnes (t) metric ton = Drams (dr) av. = Liters (l) = Cubic inches (in) Ounces-Force per Square Inch – ozf/in² x 43.5 x 0.

450 x 10-4 x 1.2 x 12 x 240 x 5760 x 0. av.S. = Ounces (oz) av. = Tons (ton) long = Tons (ton) short = Tonnes (t) metric tons 102 .7324 x 10-4 = Newtons per square mater (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Newton-seconds per square meter (N • s/m²) = Centipoises (cP) = Pound-force-seconds per square foot (lbf • s/ft²) = Pounds per foot second (lb/ft • s) = Newtons (N) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) av.0700 = Grains per imperial gallon (gr/imp gal) at 62°F x 8.0886 x 10-3 x 0. x 453.1000 x 100 x 2.448 x 0.6735 x 10-4 x 4.S. = Drams (dr) av.0197 x 10-5 x 10-3 Pennyweights – dwt troy x 1. gallon (gr/U.8229 x 13. = Grains (fr) = Tons (ton) short = Pounds (lb) troy = Grams/cubic ft. = Mg/cubic meter = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) troy = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.166 x 3.06721 Pounds-Force – lbf av.S.6x107 Pounds – lb troy x 373.0583 = Grains per U.5552 x 24 Poises – P x 0.1143 x 10-4 x 3. gal) at 60°F x 0. x 4.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Parts per Million by Mass – mass (weight) in water x 0.328 = Pounds per million U.2153 Pounds per Cubic Foot x 7000 x 1.4536 Pounds – lb. gallons at 60°F Pascals – Pa x1 x 1.6 x 16 x 256 x 7000 x 5 x 10-4 x 1.9991 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) at 15°C x 0.

88 = Grams-force per centimeter (gf/cm) Pounds-Force per Square Foot – lbf/ft² x 47.S.944 x 10-3 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) Pounds-Force per Square Inch – psi x 6.4 x 57.01603 =Cubic feet (ft³) x 27.675 x 10-4 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Pounds per Cubic Foot – lb/ft³ x 16.70 = Cubic inches (in³) x 0.06805 = Standard atmospheres x 2.018 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 0.68 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) x 1728 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) Pounds-Force per Foot – lbt/fl x 14.895 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.787 x 10 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Pounds per Cubic Inch – lb/in³ x 2.882 x 10-4 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 6.73 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 2.1199 = U.576 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 2.59 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 1.036 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0. gallons (U. gal) Pounds of Water per Minute at 60°F x 7.S.45398 = Liters (l) x 0.07031 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) Quarts – qt dry x 1101 x 67.01605 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 4.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Pounds-Mass of Water at 60°F x 453.75 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) 103 .016018 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) -4 x 5.98 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) x 0.88 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.488 = Kilograms-force per meter (kgf/m) x 14.768 x 104 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 27.20 Quarts – qt liquid x 946.311 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 27.

54 = Pounds (lb) Brazil x 101.30 = Degrees per second (°/s) angular Stokes – St x 10-4 x 1.47 = Pounds (lb) Mexico x 101.1668 = U.9072 x 2000 x 32000 x 2430.8929 = Kilograms (kg) = Tonnes (t) = Pounds (lb) av. millier x 1000 = Kilograms (kg) x 2204.1200 = Square meters per second (m²/s) = Square feet per second (ft²/s) = Kilograms (kg) = Pounds (lb) av.43 = Pounds (lb) Peru Radians – rad x 57. av.S.7 = Newtons (N) Tons – ton short x 907.41 = Pounds (lb) Chile x 101.03789 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 83.6 = Pounds (lb) Tonnes-Force – tf metric ton-force x 980.46 = Pounds (lb) U. = Ounces (oz) av.S.30 = Degrees (°) angular Radians per Second – rad/s x 57.338 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) 104 .Metric Conversions (cont’d) Quintals – obsolete metric mass term x 100 = Kilograms (kg) x 220. = Pounds (lb) troy = Tons (ton) long Tons of Water per 24 Hours at 60°F x 0. gallons per minute (U.6 x 0. x 101.S. gpm) x 1.28 = Pounds (lb) Argentina x 129.2 x 0. = Tons (ton) short Tonnes – t metric ton.076 x 10-3 Tons-Mass – tonm long x 1016 x 2240 x 1.33 = Pounds of water per hour (lb/h H2O) at 60°F x 0.

1 = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft – lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft – lbf//s) = Horsepower (hp) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilograms-force-meters (kgf • m) NOTE: Significant Figures The precision to which a given conversion factor is know.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Watts . The advent of the pocket calculator (and the use of digital computers in process instrumentation) tends to lead to use of many figures as the calculator will handle. in the fifth or further indicates that four or five significant figures represent the precision for these factors fairly. However. such a practice is misleading and timewasting. While many handbooks and standards give factors contained in this table to six or more significant figures.413 x 2655 x 1. is in the tenth percent region at best. or the accuracy of the application. determine the number of significant figures which should be used.860 x 367.01433 Watt-Hours – W • h x 3600 x 3.25 x 0. At present the accuracy of process instrumentation.341 x 10-3 x 0. when this exceeds the precision of the data. analog or digital. Hence this table is confined to four or five significant figures.7376 x 1.W x 0. and its application. in many cases.341 x 10-3 x 0. 105 . thus needing only three significant figures. the fact that different sources disagree.05690 x 44.

2 -40.0 -94.8 32.4 °C 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 °F 170.2 19.0 338.8 185.2 109.6 60.6 -9.2 55.4 -11.4 107.4 -38.8 77.0 84.4 161.6 -36.2 -13.0 111.0 210.8 59.6 204.8 5.2 10.2 -4.0 -193.6 168.0 192.4 -20. Zero (0°K) on the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas has lost all of its energy.4 80.4 152.0 239.8 95.0 212.8 41.0 383.6 132.0 183.4 44.6 51.6 69.0 -112.0 -130.2 190.8 50.2 64.6 114.8 140.2 163.0 320.0 30.6 -27.4 98.0 66.0 -418.0 -238.6 6.2 82.0 374.8 104.4 179.4 8.0 138.16°C = -459.4 -0.6 -18.0 -76.4 26.0 -14.4 °C = Degrees Centigrade (Celsius scale). °F = Degrees Fahrenheit.2 37.6 96.6 150.2 145.8 131.0 -32.2 28. 1 unit is 1/180 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.6 186.4 197.4 35.0 230.2 199.0 248.6 87.4 125.0 201.0 459.0 102.8 149.4 188.2 172.0 21.4 206.0 347.0 156.0 174.4 -29.0 257.8 158.4 89.2 118.4 53.0 356.0 221.0 275.8 86.0 284.0 48.4 -2.0 12.0 3. This scale is based on the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas and uses the same ske degrees as the Centigrade scale.0 57.2 136.2 208.0 75.2 46.2 1.6 195.Temperature Conversions °C 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 °F 18032 17132 16232 15332 14432 13532 12632 11732 10832 9932 9032 8132 7232 6332 5432 4532 3632 2732 1832 1742 1652 1562 1472 1382 1292 1202 1112 1094 1076 1058 1040 1022 1004 986 968 950 932 914 896 878 860 842 824 °C 430 420 410 400 395 390 385 380 375 370 365 360 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 245 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 °F 806 788 770 752 743 734 725 716 707 698 689 680 671 662 653 644 635 626 617 608 599 590 581 572 563 554 545 536 527 518 509 500 491 482 473 464 455 446 437 428 419 410 401 °C 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 °F 392.4 116.0 165.6 33.0 311.4 17.8 113.4 62.0 266.2 -22.6 42.6 °C -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200 -250 -273 °F 15. °C = 5/9 (°F-32) °F = 9/5 °C + 32 Absolute Zero = 0°K = -273.8 167.2 73.8 -25.8 68. 1 unit is 1/100 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.6 123.6 78.2 127.8 -16.0 120.4 71.4 143.8 -7.0 365.2 91.8 194.0 39.8 14.6 141.0 -58.0 129.0 293.6 177.2 154.8 122.0 -328.69°F °K = Degrees Kelvin (Absolute temperature).0 329.6 24.6 105.8 23.2 100.2 -31.0 302.0 -23.0 -5.6 159.4 134.8 -34.0 °C 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 °F 93.2 181.8 203.0 147. 106 .8 176.0 -148.

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