Dust Collection Technical Handbook

Index Page
2 35 42 Glossary Filter Media/Fibers Gas/Air Tables Electrical References (Missing Section) 54 59 82 87 Industrial Ventilation References Material Properties Miscellaneous References Conversion Tables

The following pages were prepared as a reference for designing industrial dust collection and ventilation systems. This is not a complete application and sizing manual. DISCLAIMER: The information on the following pages is for reference only. There are no warranties, express or implied, concerning the application or use of this information.

Glossary

A
Abrasion-Flex – Where cloth has abraded in a creased area by excessive bending. Abrasion Surface – Localized area where the cloth’s surface has been abraded uniformly. Absolute Temperature – In degrees Rankine, where absolute 0°R = -459.7°F. °R = °F + 460°. ρ = Density of air ρ(actual) = ρ(std at 70°F) x Absorber – A kind of scrubber utilizing the absorption principle. Absorption – The penetration of a substance into or through another; distinct from adsorption. Acceleration Loss – The velocity pressure required to accelerate the air from rest to the duct velocity or slot velocity, whichever is higher. ACFM – Actual Cubic Feet per Minute of gas volume at the actual condition temperature, pressure, moisture, elevation and gas composition. See gas flow rate. ACGIH – The American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a Professional Society devoted to the development of administrative and technical aspects of worker health protection. Membership is limited to professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. The ACGIH issues guidelines and recommendations in the form of Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) which are published annually. Acid Deposition – (Acid Rain) A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called “acid rain”, can fall as rain, snow or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. Acrylic – A synthetic polymerized fiber which contains at least 85% acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile – A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid nitrile C3H3N used chiefly in organic synthesis and for polymerization. Actuator – Mechanical device attached to a damper to move its blades. May be manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic. Adsorbent – In addition to the adjectival meaning, the term describes any of several substances that collect gaseous pollutants. Used both for measurement and control. Adsorption – The adhesion of a substance to the surface of a solid or liquid. Aerosol – Particle of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in the air because of its small size. Particulates under 1 micron in diameter are generally called aerosols. AF – Fan wheel design with airfoil-shaped blades. 2

___70°F + 460°__ Actual °F + 460°

Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) – The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a building has one air change per hour, it means that all of the air in the building will be replaced in a one-hour period. Air Conditioning – Treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution. Air Contaminant – An impurity emitted to the outside air. It can be solid (dust, particulate matter), liquid (vapor/mist), or gas (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide). Air Curtain – Mechanical air-moving device designed to limit the influx of unwanted air at a building opening. Air Handling Unit – Factory-made encased assembly consisting of a fan or fans and other equipment to circulate, clean, heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, or mix air. Air Horsepower – The theoretical horsepower required to drive a fan if there are no losses in the fan, that is, if its efficiency is 100%. Air Leakage – Unwanted air intruding into an exhaust system (holes in ducts, missing and ineffective seals, etc.). Airlock – Term generally applied to a rotary vane valve that keeps air from entering a dust collector, yet allows a collected particulate to continuously discharge from the device. Air Monitoring – The continuous sampling for and measuring of pollutants present in the atmosphere. Air Quality Criteria – As the Federal government uses the term, the varying amounts of pollution and lengths of exposure at which specific adverse effects to health and welfare take place. Air Quality Standards – The approximate concentration level of a selected pollutant that is permitted in the atmosphere to minimize detrimental effects. Air Pollution – The presence in the atmosphere of gases, fumes, or particulate matter alone or in combination with each other, in sufficient concentration to disturb the ecological balance; cause objectionable effects, especially sensory offenses; cause transient or chronic illnesses; or impair or destroy property. Air, Standard – Dry air at 70°F and 29.92 inches (Hg) barometer. This is substantially equivalent to 0.075 lb/ ft³. Air-to-Cloth Ratio – See air to media ratio. Air-to-Media Ratio – The ratio of air volume (ACFM) to square feet of effective filter media area. Also referred to as the apparent or face velocity through the media (FPM). Typically 3 to 12 fpm for bag medias and 0.5 to 6 for pleated type medias. Air Toxics – Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e., excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans. Air Velocity – Rate of speed of an airstream, expressed in FPM.

3

API – American Petroleum Institute. usually applied to aluminum. Anneal – The process of relieving stress and brittleness in metals by heating. Anodize – An electrolytic action of affixing a protective coating or film. Attainment Area – An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the Clean Air Act. Area Source – Any small source of non-natural air pollution which is not large enough to be classified as a major source or point source. isolation. ANSI – American National Standards Institute. static pressure regain. Refrigeration.7 PSI. AR=W/L ASTM – American Society of Testing Materials.258 Ambient – Immediate surroundings or vicinity. safety. etc.Altitude – The height above sea level of a given location. APC – Air Pollution Control. Anemometer – A device which reads air velocity such as a wind vane. Some aromatics are toxic. ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Attenuation reduces the amplitude only of a sound wave while leaving the frequency unchanged. Atmospheric Pressure – One atmosphere is approximately 14. 408” water gauge. such as benzene or toluene. AMCA – Air Movement and Control Association. added to gasoline in order to increase octane. wear. Aspect Ratio – The ratio of the width to the length. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others. In fan applications.73x10-6)Z]5. Density (Alt) = Density (Std) x [1-(6. Aromatics – A type of hydrocarbon. it is usually a spinningvane-type instrument used at read low velocities at registers and grills. and Air Conditioning Engineers. Density corrections for altitude are made using the following formula where Z is the feet above seal level. Attenuation – Absorption of sound pressure. Airflow is the result of a difference in pressure (above or below atmospheric) between two points. ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. 4 . Appurtenances – Accessories added to a fan for the purposes of control. ASHRAE – American Society of Heating.

it’s the process of measuring or calculating the airflow at a branch and altering duct size or a valve to attain desired airflow at that branch. the process of adding (or removing) weight on a rotor in order to move the center of gravity toward the axis of rotation. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. stocking. Blade-Pass Frequency – The tone generated by the blades passing a fixed object. Barometric Pressure – A measurement of the pressure of the atmospheric. EPA will establish BACT standards for serious. and extreme non-attainment areas. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. Can be unsupported (dust on inside) or used on the outside of a grid (cage) support (dust on outside). Also known as tube.Attrition – Wearing or grinding down by friction. etc. being the sum of the potential energy. In terms of air movement. Bernoulli’s Theorem – The principle that the total energy per unit of mass in the streamline flow of a moving fluid is constant. Bag – The customary form of filter element. standard is 29. the others being vaporization and combustion. B Backdraft Damper – Damper used in a system to relieve air pressure in one direction and to prevent airflow in the opposite direction. 5 . AVS (c) – Air Vent Square. Axial Flow – In-line air movement parallel to the fan or motor shaft. Under Title 1 of the CAAA. BI Fan – Centrifugal fan with backward inclined blades that move air more efficiently than straight blade fans. BACT (Best Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction achievable. MAC Equipment acronym for its round bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. the theorem states that the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point upstream in the direction of airflow is equal to the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point downstream in the direction of airflow plus the friction and dynamic losses between the points. Blast Area – The fan outlet area less the projected area of the cut-off. BACM (Best Available Control Measure) – A term used in the CAAA referring to the “best” measures (according to EPA guidance) for controlling emissions.92” Hg. Blade Liners – Pieces of material added over the wheel blades to reduce abrasion of the blades. up to 64 bags. Axial Fan – Fan where the airflow through the impeller is predominantly parallel to the axis of rotation. (2) In a ventilation system. severe. AVR (c) – Air Vent Round. Balancing – (1) On a fan. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. Baghouse – An air pollution abatement device that traps gas born particulates by forcing the gas through filter bags. the kinetic energy. BI fans are usually on the clean side of a piece of control equipment as the blades are not very abrasion resistant. and the energy due to pressure. The impeller is contained in a cylindrical housing.

This includes the energy losses in the fan and can be determined only by actual tests of the fan (this does not include the drive losses between motor and fan). where heat and pressure press down “hairs” on the felt. Often referred to as pull-out torque or maximum torque.085 Bulked Yarn – Filament yarn which has been processed by high pressure air passing through the yarn and relaxing it into gentle loops. C CAAA – Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Blue Smoke – A descriptive term for the gaseous hydrocarbons that escape from hot asphalt and other sources of VOC. imparting a smooth finish that improves dust release. Once enough material has built up. Frequently caused by the dust on the bags getting wet. Title I: Nonattainment: Ambient Air Quality Title II: Motor Vehicles Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV: Acid Rain Title V: Permits Title VI: Stratospheric Ozone Title VII: Enforcement Title VIII: Miscellaneous Caking – Material crusted on a bag that cannot be removed by the cleaning mechanism. Rise x CFM x 1. Blow-pipe – See manifold. Calendered Finish – An available smooth finish for felt bags. Blind (Blinding) – The blockage of filtration media by dust.500 BTU/hr. heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F. Bridge – Material building across an opening (such as a screw conveyor) and blocking off that opening. bends. BTU – British Thermal Unit. Breakdown Torque – Maximum torque a motor will produce without a sudden decrease in speed. at sea level.Bleed – Particles of dust or fumes that are able to leak through filter media.5 pounds of water per hour into dry steam at 212°F. Brake Horsepower – The horsepower actually required to drive a fan. 6 . fume or liquid covering the filter media and not being discharged by the cleaning mechanism. Boiler Horsepower – The capability to evaporate 34. air flow is severely restricted and the elements have to be cleaned or replaced. etc. Felt is drawn between two hot oil-filled rolls. 33. Calendering – The application of either hot or cold pressure to smooth or polish a fabric. The BTU/hr. thereby reducing the thickness of the cloth by spreading the warp and filling yarns into a ribbon shape. required to raise the temperature of a volume of standard air a specific number of degrees is calculated by the formula: Btu/hr = Temp.

see interstitial velocity. pumps. because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where chlorine is released and destroys ozone. Carrying Velocity – The gas velocity that is necessary to keep the dust airborne. Can Vel = __CFM__ ABH CFM = Gas volume through baghouse ABH = Cross sectional area of baghouse Capacitor Start Motor – Type of single-phase induction motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. Cartridge Filter – An air pollution control device that traps gas-borne particulates by forcing the gas through filter element cartridges. same as centigrade: °C = . High-starting and breakdown torque. Capture Velocity – The air velocity at any point in front of a hood or at a hood opening necessary to overcome opposing air currents and to capture the contaminated air at the point by causing it to flow into the hood. Centrifugal Collector – Any of several mechanical systems using centrifugal force to remove particulate from a gas stream. See gas flow rate. commonly used in refrigeration and automobile air conditioning. and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration. 100% spun bonded media equipped filters have been placed in commerce. Cellulose – The chief part of fibrous products which are used to make the filter media for many cartridge filters.Can Velocity – As related to baghouses. Usually 3500 to 4599 ft/min in ductwork depending upon the nature of the dust. packaging insulation. Celsius – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 100° and freezes at 0°. CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) – Registry Number is a numeric designation assigned by the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts Service which uniquely identifies a specific chemical compound.5556 x [°F. Cellplate – See tubesheet. Carbon Monoxide – A colorless. 7 . Used in hard-starting applications. the gas velocity within the collector. Dividing the gas volume by the cross sectional area of the collector determines “can velocity”. odorless gas which is toxic because of its tendency to reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. etc. Cartridge – See pleated filter elements. or as solvents or aerosol propellants. CFC-12 – A chlorofluorocarbon with a trademark name of Freon. Recently. compressors. – 32°] CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) – A family of inert. Also. non-toxic. Also referred to as “paper” media. air conditioning. medium starting current. CFM – Cubic Feet (of any gaseous matter) per Minute. The cartridges are typically made with pleated cellulose paper media.

.” Compressibility – A factor used by fan manufacturers to correct performance ratings in higher pressure ranges to account for the fact that air is a compressible gas that does not follow the perfect gas laws. When air is forced into a system it is compressed and becomes more dense. and called by the symbol “K”. or other suitable material. Coefficient of Conductivity – The rate of heat transfer through a material. Figures are usually expressed for basic materials. Also referred to as “combustion contaminants. Combustion Air – Amount of air necessary to burn the available fuel. inlet loading – outlet loading x 100 inlet loading Collector – Used interchangeably with “baghouse. particles leaving is expressed in percent. usually oxidation. 20°F). oxygen. Depending on the volume or weight of air required down stream in the positive pressure portion of the system. wire. woven . felted or otherwise formed of any textile fiber. nitrogen. such as wood or insulation. These include compressed natural gas. methanol. creating an uninsulated area where heat dissipates rapidly. unit of measurement of visibility interference. the others being attrition and vaporization. COH – Abbreviation for coefficient of haze. Cold Spot – On an insulated baghouse. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. the volume of air at the inlet of a fan may have to be adjusted by the ratio of absolute pressure at the entrance of the fan versus the design requirements in the system. as in “cyclone. Usually understood to mean a woven felted or textile fabric. a plant fabric. per inch of thickness. Compression – A phenomenon related to positive pressure. Coke Oven – An industrial process which converts coal into coke. ethanol.” or mechanical collector. Cloth – In general. However. Combustion Products – 1) Primarily gaseous matter such as carbon oxides. knitted. cotton sateen is often specified as a certain number of linear yards per pound of a designated linear yards per pound in a 54” width.” “cartridge filter. 2) In the context of emission control – the gaseous products resulting from the burning of any kind of material containing carbon in a free or combined state. Cloth Weight – Is usually expressed in ounces per square yard or ounces per square foot. and water vapor – resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Collecting Efficiency – The ability of a dust collector to remove particulate from the exhaust gas.Clean Coal Technology – Any technology not in widespread use as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments which will achieve significant reductions. and others. a point where metal goes through insulation. Cold Temperature – A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) to be met at a low temperature (i. which is one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into iron. Clean Fuel – Blends and/or substitutes for gasoline fuels. Conventional catalytic converters are less efficient upon start-up at low temperatures. expressed in Btu transmitted per hour through one square foot of surface per degree difference in temperature across the material. The ratio of particles entering the collection device vs.e.” Combustion – The production of heat and light energy through a chemical process. 8 .

CSA – Canadian Standards Association. Cotton Number – Staple yarns are generally sized on the cotton system. Cotton System – A system of yarn manufacturing for spinning cotton fiber yarn whereby the individual fibers are aligned parallel. Curve. Denier – The weight in grams that 9000 meters of a fiber weighs. CRP – Certified Ratings Program. moisture. 9 . Corrosion – The deterioration of a material by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering. The treatments enhance filter life and moisture resistance. Conversion Factors – See pages 87 through 106. D Damper – Change in pressure. CRST (Cellulose Fibers. Curve. CTG (Control Techniques Guideline) – Guidance documents issued by EPA which define Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) to be applied to existing facilities that emit certain threshold quantities of air pollutants. they contain information both on the economic and technological feasibility of available techniques. parts per million. Example: an 18 singles yarn is of such a size that 18 hanks weighs one pound (each hank contains 840 yards). or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. lbs per 1000 lbs of gas. Decibel – The logarithmic ratio between some known reference and some quantity of electrical or acoustic signal power. Sets safety standards for motors and other electrical equipment used in Canada. System – A graphic representation of the pressure versus flow characteristics of a given system and density.Concentration – The amount of dust in gas. Fan Performance – A graphic representation of static or total presence and fan BHP requirements over an airflow volume range at a stated inlet density and fan speed. Conduction – The transfer of heat by physical contact between substances. Usually expressed in terms of grains per ft³. Conveying Velocity – The air velocity required in a duct system to maintain entrainment of a specific material. dbA – Sound-pressure level corrected to the “A” weighing network. Convection – The transfer of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the molecules. or other agents in the environment in which it is placed. Delta P (∆P) – Change in pressure. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. Silicone Treated) – A type of filter media used in high quality cartridges. or milligrams per cubic meter. chemical. Resin Impregnated. Cyclone Collector – A kind of centrifugal collector equipment.

Dust Collector – An air-cleaning device used to remove heavy-particulate loadings from exhaust systems prior to discharge. used in aerosol form. DSCFM – Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. They move across the direction of air flow in a random fashion. Dust Collector Efficiency – See collecting efficiency. it is the set of conditions at which liquid sulphuric acid begins to condense as the temperature is reduced. These particles do not follow the air stream. taken with a conventional thermometer. cartridge filters and baghouses. DOP – Acronym for dioctylphthalate. standard air is . For flue gas containing water vapor and SO3. Puts more. or the transfer of a powder into a state of suspension through the action of air currents or by vibration. (For air containing water vapor. knockout boxes. filtration) to remove particulate matter from exhaust gas. a chemical. out. DNAPLS – Dense non-aqueous phased liquids. Dilution Ventilating – The mixing of contaminated air with uncontaminated supply air for the purpose of attaining acceptable working or living conditions. When a particle does strike a fiber. Dust Collector.075 lbs/ft³) will give the actual air density in pounds per cubic foot. The product of the density factor and the density of standard air (0.Density – The measure of unit mass equal to its weight divided by its volume (lbs/ft³)./ft³. Density Factor – Ratio of actual air density of standard air. with the bottom open for dirty air entrance.) DFT – Dry-film thickness usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils). Diffusion – Takes place on particles so small that their direction and velocity are influenced by molecular collisions. Cyclone – A mechanical device that utilizes the centrifugal force of the inlet gas to remove large particulate matter suspended in the gas. Devices not using H2O. Double Bag – Features a conventional bag on a cage and an inner bag that filters from inside. cloth area in a given size baghouse. Dimensional Stability – Ability of the fabric to retain its size in hot or moist atmosphere. centrifugal collectors. Dust – A dispersion aerosol formed by the grinding or atomizing of a solid. Diaphragm Valve – A compressed air operated valve that opens to allow a pulse to go the filter bags or cartridges. but behave more like gases than particulate. it is the temperature at which liquid water begins to condense for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature is reduced. it is retained by the van der Waals forces existing between the particle and the fiber. Dew Point – The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the existing partial pressure of the respective vapor. Dry Collector – Dust collectors which use mechanical means (centrifugal force. but not necessarily effective. See gas flow rate. to non-destructively test high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. impingement. Such as: expansion chambers.075 lbs. 10 . Dry Bulb Temperature – The actual temperature of a gas.

Emission Control Diagnostics – Computerized devices placed on vehicles to detect malfunction of emissions controls and notify the owner of the need for repair. Dynamic Insertion Loss – A reduction of airborne noise levels affected by the installation of an acoustical silencer. Static – The ratio of fan output less the kinetic energy [outlet-velocity pressure] leaving the fan to the power applied to the fan: SE = ______SP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Effluent – A discharge or emission of a fluid (liquid or gaseous). DWDI – Double-width. double-inlet fans. E Early Reduction/Early Compliance – A provision in the CAAA which provides incentives to a company for complying with new standards before they are required to by Law. Efficiency. Emission – Release of pollutants into the air from a source. allowing electrostatic forces to attract particles to a collection point. Not to be compared with cloth permeability. Emission Control Equipment – Machinery used to remove air contaminants from the discharge of industrial exhaust streams. feet per minute (fpm). Arrangement 3. Mechanical Total – The ratio of fan output to the power applied to the fan. It is the actual stack height plus the plume rise. Elevation – The distance of the subject site above or below sea level. by which particles tend to draw together or adhere. MAC Equipment’s airlock to place under a dust collector when a pneumatic convey system will be utilized beneath the airlock. or manufacturer for the same application: ME = ______TP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Efficiency. type.Dust Permeability – Defined as the mass of dust (grains) per square foot of media divided by the resistance (pressure drop) in inches of water gauge (WG) per unit of filtering velocity. Can be helpful in selecting fan size. EMD Airlock – Environmental Multi Duty airlock. Effective Stack Height – The height at which a plume becomes essentially level. Dynamic Balance – The mechanical balancing of a rotating part of assembly in motion. DYNE – A unit of force equal to that which would accelerate one gram by one centimeter per second. Electrostatic Attraction – Mutual attraction. caused by static electricity. 11 . Electrostatic Precipitator – A kind of precipitator that first charges particulate (ESD).

Also see emission factor. generally a combustion process. Emission Inventory – A list of primary air pollutants emitted into a given community’s atmosphere. Exhaust Stack Temperature – The temperature of the exhaust gas. Rule or measurement established to regulate or control the amount of a given pollutant that may be discharged to the outdoor atmosphere from its source. or centralized inspections.. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of Enhanced I&M is to reduce automobile emissions by assuring that cars are running properly. e. and increased repair waiver cost. This may also include annual.g. the number of pounds of fly ash per cubic foot of gas that may be emitted from a coal-fired boiler.5 Evaporation – The physical transformation of a liquid to a gas at any temperature below its boiling point. 12 . Excess Air – Air in excess of the amount necessary to combust all the available fuel. Entry Loss – The loss in pressure caused by air flowing into a system. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of material used by a given source. Enhanced I&M (Enhanced Inspection & Maintenance) – An improved automobile inspection and maintenance program that includes. per 1. Emission Standard – The maximum amount of a pollutant that is permitted to be discharged from a single polluting source.Emission Factor – The statistical average of the amount of a specific pollutant emitted from each type of polluting source in relation to a unit quantity of material handled.000 gallons of fuel oil used. End Count – See warp count. in amounts (commonly tons) per day. processed or burned. increases in coverage of vehicle types and model years. Exhaust Gas – The gases emitting from an industrial process. products of combustion and water vapor) leaving the exhaust stack usually measured in ACFM. normally expressed in fractions of velocity pressure. Equivalent Duct Diameter – For rectangular duct with sides a and b is: D = (4ab/π)0. E. End Reflection – A known value of sound radiated back into duct or opening. End – See warp thread. under-the-hood inspections to detect tampering with pollution control equipment. The emission inventory is basic to the establishment of emission standards. tighter stringency of inspections and improved management practices to ensure more effectiveness. as a minimum. computerized. measured in the discharge stack. it is possible to compute emissions for that source – information necessary for an emission inventory. by type of source. Evase – A diffuser at the fan outlet which gradually increases in area to decrease velocity and to convert kinetic energy to static pressure [regain]. Exhaust Volume – The amount of exhaust gas (air. the emission factor of oxides in nitrogen in fuel oil combustion is 119 lbs. Enthalpy – The heat content per unit mass of a substance.g.

Fan Laws – Theoretical constant relationships between CFM. This cake assists in the filtering of dust. Also called bag collector or cartridge. 13 .F Fabric – A collective term applied to cloth no matter how constructed. Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) – Under current law. Fill – Crosswise threads woven by loom. Fan Class – Operating limits at which a fan must be physically capable of operating safely. a plan containing control measures developed and promulgated by EPA in order to fill gaps in a State Implementation Plan (SIP). thick cloth of short fibers on a woven backing. and BHP for a given fan used in a given fixed system: CFM varies as RPM SP varies as (RPM)² BHP varies as (RPM)³ FC – Fan wheel design using forward-curved blades. Features a heavy. regardless of the kind of fiber used. °F = (1. Filament – Multi – More than one mono-filament strand grouped together of definite length. Filter Cake – The accumulation of dust on a bag before cleaning. Fines – Fine particulate. Fan Capacity – Performance requirement for which a fan is selected to meet specific system calculations given in terms of ACFM at the fan inlet. SP. etc. Fahrenheit – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 212° and freezes at 32°. a Federally implemented plan to achieve attainment of an air quality standard. Felted Fabric – Type bag used on most all pulse jet dust collectors. wool. Filters are designed in a variety of sizes and materials for specific purposes. Fill Count – Number of threads per inch of cloth. analysis.8 x °C) +32° Fan – A power-driven machine which moves a continuous volume of air by converting rotational mechanical energy to an increase in the total pressure of the moving air. Under the Senate bill. Flashing – Sheet metal strip placed at the junction of intersecting exterior building surfaces to make the joint watertight. aerosol. for measurement. Filter Collector – A mechanical filtration system for removing particulate matter from a gas stream. RPM. Filament – Mono – One continuous strand of fiber to indefinite length. used when a State is unable to develop an adequate plan. Also called bag collector. Fiber – The fundamental unit comprising a textile raw material such as cotton. or control.

Full-Load Speed – The speed at which the rated horsepower is developed. alternating current. Fog – The condensation of water vapor in air. Friction Loss – Resistance to air flow through any duct or fitting. so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life. Foot-Pound (Ft. Fossil Fuels – Coal. it is known as a “forced draft” system. Usually expressed in cycles per second (cps) or just “cycles”. commonly defines air velocity (to determine velocity pressure or suitability for material conveying).) – Torque rating or requirement. shaft/bearing speeds (used to determine lubrication requirements) and wheel tip speeds. Fumes flocculate and sometimes coalesce. such as oxidation. Forced Draft Burner – A burner which has its secondary air supplied under pressure. Fugitive Emissions – Emissions not caught by a capture system. given in terms of static pressure. shaft height. generally after volatilization from molten metal. and often accompanied by a chemical reaction. or contracting and expanding. G Garbadine Weave – A regular or “steep” twill with higher warp than fill count. Dimensions include: shaft diameter. Frame Size – A set of physical dimensions of motors as established by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for interchangeability between manufacturers. and motor mounting footprint. Fume – Solid particulates generated by condensation from the gaseous state. Under Title III of the CAAA. 14 . FRP – Abbreviation for fiberglass-reinforced-plastic. Forced Draft – How air is provided in a process such as a combustion process.Flexing – Bending. practices. Full-Load Torque – The torque required to produce the rated horsepower at full-load speed. oil. and techniques which are commercially available and appropriate considering economic impacts and the technical capabilities of the firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems.-Lb. GACT – (Generally Available Control Technology) Methods. and natural gas. Also see Smog. This is normally done by surrounding the dryer opening by a plenum or windbox and supplying the air with a low pressure fan. equal to 12 in-lb. FPM – Feet per minute. equivalent to the force required to move a one-pound weight one foot in distance. EPA will establish either GACT or MACT standards for each source of HAPs. Free Field – The surroundings of a specific equipment location in which no obstructions or reverberant surfaces exist to distort or amplify sound waves. Frequency – Any cyclic event whether vibration. when air is blown or forced into a process. Fly Ash – The particulate impurities resulting from the burning of coal and other material. Also see induced draft. or rotational speed. This speed is less than synchronous speed and varies with the motor type and manufacturer.

0598 Weight of Steel (Lbs/Ft. Gas Flow Rate.375 3. and chlorine used in fighting fires. some examples for steel are: Gauge 7 10 12 14 16 Thickness (Inches) . Gasoline vapor is a VOC (Volatile Organic Compound). Gases diffuse. SCFM – The gas flow volume reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) by calculation (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). All HAP sources will have to comply with GACT or MACT standards. DSCFM – The gas flow reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) and without volume of steam or water vapor contained in the exhaust gas (Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). Measurement is made by the number of grains per cubic foot of gas emitted. Ground Motor – A short circuit between any point in the motor’s electrical circuit and its connection to the ground. H Halons – A family of compounds containing bromine. (See page 33 for a complete listing). Equal to one seven thousandth of a pound.1046 . There are several units of measurement: ACFM – The actual gas flow measured (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute). Does not imply a grey (gray) color. Gauge (gage) – Metal manufacturers’ standard measure of thickness for sheer stock. Grain – A dust weight unit commonly used in air pollution control. Gasoline volatility is measured in pounds per square inch (psi). that break down in the atmosphere depleting stratospheric ozone. iodine. One grain = 1 LB 7000 Grain Loading – The rate at which particles are emitted from a pollution source. Gasoline Volatility – The property of gasoline whereby it evaporates into a vapor.0747 . fluorine. H Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s medium efficiency cyclone dust collector.125 2. formless fluids which occupy the space of its enclosure and which can be changed to a Liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature.50 5. HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants) – Any of the 189 chemicals listed under Title III of the CAAA.²) 7.625 4.1793 . Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) – The volume of process gas at any point of the plant exhaust system measured in terms of minutes.1345 . Griege (Griege goods) – Same as grey or unfinished goods. 15 . with a higher number reflecting more gasoline evaporation.50 Gauge Pressure – The pressure differential between atmospheric and that measured in the system.Gases – Normally.

lbs. ventilating. If it is undersized.3 micron challenge particulate (DOP test). pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. HE Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s High Efficiency cyclone dust collector. Horsepower – (As applied to motors) is an index of the amount of work the machine can perform in a period of time.) x RPM_ 5250 Humidity. Hi-Volume Sampler – Also called a Hi-Vol. Absolute – The weight of water vapor per unit volume. Relative – The ratio of the actual partial pressure of water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water at the same temperature. HEPA Filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) – Capable of removing at least 99. also equal to 0. 1HP equals 33. 16 . Humidity. HVAC – Heating. insufficient cleaning air will flow through the valve.lbs. lowest priced cast iron airlock. Hydrocarbon – Any of the vast family of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in various combinations. found especially in fossil fuels. the pressurized pipe that contains the compressed air supply for pulsing. Heat Exchanger – A device such as a coil or radiator which is used to transfer heat between two physically separate fluids. HON – Hazardous Organic NESHAPS. Hertz – Frequency measured in cycles per second. Horsepower can be calculated by: HP = _Torque (ft. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are major air pollutants. A device used in the measurement and analysis of suspended particulate pollution. HD Airlock – Heavy Duty airlock. Hydrophobic Fibers – Those fibers or materials not readily water absorbent.HCFC’s – Chlorofluorocarbons that have been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen. of work per minute. and which are significantly less damaging to stratospheric ozone than other CFC’s. Header – As applied to pulse-jet baghouses. (1” Hg = 13.000 ft.97% by count of a standard 0. Hg – Symbol for mercury. MAC Equipment’s all purpose. Pressure is often measured in inches of mercury. Hygroscopic – Materials having an affinity for water. and air conditioning.746 kilowatts.64” WG) High Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 80-100 PSIG used for cleaning air in baghouses and cartridge filters. they may be carcinogenic or active participants in the photochemical smog process.

The rotating portion of the fan designed to increase the energy level of the gas stream. enable a fiber to trap a particle without the use of inertia. or hazardous solid. In baghouses. industrial.7 PSI) Inches WG (Inches of Water Gauge) – See inch of water. Induction – The production of an electric current in a conductor in a changing magnetic field. Inch of Water – A unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of water one inch high at a standard temperature. such as a combustion process. they do not follow the air stream and collide with a fiber. called van der Waals forces.. Impingement – When air flows through a filter. it is commonly a lightweight fiberglass mat. Inlet-Vane Damper – Round multiblade damper mounted to the inlet of a fan to vary the airflow. but. where air is drawn or pulled through a process. Incinerator – A device which burns household. makes contact with a fiber while following the tortuous air flow path of the filter. however cannot follow the abrupt changes in direction because of their inertia. Inclined Manometer – A testing instrument using a liquid column. Induced Draft – How air is provided in a process. 17 . it changes direction as it passes around each fiber. common in FC fans and some other fan types where the point of operation is left of the peak of the static-pressure curve. Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) – A program providing for periodic inspections of motor vehicles to ensure that emissions of specified pollutants are not exceeding established limitations. Also see forced draft. liquid or gaseous wastes under controlled conditions. The contact is not dependent on inertia and the particle is retained on the fiber because of the inherent adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber.e. Larger dust particles. Insulation – Any method which will retard the flow of heat through a wall. set at an incline to increase reading accuracy. (407” WC = 14. i. As a result.I Impeller – Another term for fan “wheel”. see WR². See mechanical and cyclone collectors. Impeller Diameter – The maximum diameter measured over the impeller blades. Instability – The point of operation at which a fan or system will “hunt” or pulse. Interstices – The openings between the interlacings of the warp and filling yarns. Normally used to read velocity pressure. These forces. the voids. because its size is very small in relation to the fiber. Inertial Separators – Air pollution control equipment that uses the principle of inertia to remove particulate matter from a stream of air or gas. Interception – A special case of impingement where a particle is small enough to move with the air stream. Inertia – Tendency of an object to remain in the state it is in. to measure pressure. pathological.

measure of power equal to 1. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. Leno – A weave in which the adjacent warp yarns are twisted on either side of the interlacing filling yarn. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Kilopascal – Kpa. Louver – A device comprised of multiple blades which. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. 18 . LAER (Lowest Achievable Emission Rate) – The rate of emissions which reflects either the most stringent emission limit contained in the implementation plan of any state (unless it is proved that such limitations are not achievable). LST (c) – Large Square Top removal. K Kelvin – Absolute Temperature in the SI system scale. one inch water gauge is 0. Low Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at less than 30” WC used for cleaning baghouses.Inversion – An atmospheric condition caused by a layer of warm air preventing the rise of cooling air trapped beneath it. whichever is most stringent. when mounted in an opening.24836 Kpa.34 horsepower. Laminar Flow – Gas or fluid in parallel layers with some sliding motion between the layers. after the cross sectional of the bags have been subtracted from the collector cross sectional area. Kilowatt – Kw. MAC Equipment acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. L L-10 Bearing Life – The theoretical number of hours after which 90% of the bearings subjected to a given set of conditions will still be in operation. This prevents the rise of pollutants that might otherwise be dispersed and results in a concentration of the air pollution. Knockout Box – See primary collector. or the most stringent emission limit achieved in practice. Lower Explosive Limit – The lower limit of flammability or explosibility of a gas or vapor at ordinary ambient temperature expressed in percent of a gas or a vapor in air by volume. permits the flow of air but inhibits the entrance of undesirable elements. LVS (c) – Large Air Vent Square. Low Nox Burners – One of several combustion technologies used to reduce emission of Nox. also known as B-10. Liquide Flowrate – The amount of water or “scrubbing liquid” introduced into a wet collector. metric pressure unit. Interstitial Velocity – The apparent velocity of a gas as it passes by a filter bag matrix. It is found by dividing the collector gas volume by its cross sectional area.

19 . MIASMACT – MAC Equipments trademark name for its Automatic Cleaning HEPA filter.taking into account the cost of achieving such reductions.000 abbreviated by the Greek letter µ. or Extreme.M Mach Number – A fraction of the speed of sound. For hazardous air pollutants. Medium Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 5-10 PSIG used for cleaning baghouses. Mactiflo – MAC Equipment’s trademark name for its down flow cartridge filter. MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) – The standard to which sources of HAPs will have to comply. 25. Can be operated dry or wet.achievable for new or existing sources. or 10 tons per year depending on whether the area is classified as Marginal or Moderate.. MIASMACT is an overlay of the words Miasma and MIACT. The difference in the level of the water columns is equivalent to the pressure differential. the CAAA defines MACT as “the maximum degree of reduction in emissions. used in fan engineering where air moving at a mach of 0.9.0000146 PSI. MCF (c) – Medium Pressure Controlled Fire. Severe.” MACT standards for existing sources must be at least as stringent as the average level of control achieved at the best controlled 12 percent of facilities. It distributes the compressed pulse to the bags. and MACT is Maximum Achievable Control Technology. respectively.. Mega – A prefix meaning 1 million. When operated wet. Microbar – A unit of pressure equal to one-millionth of an atmospheric pressure. In non-attainment areas. Micro – A prefix meaning 1/1. Miasma is a word meaning toxic materials in the air. 0.. and various types of impingement collectors. the pressure difference causes water to rise or fall. the pipe that extends over the bags with a hole over each bag. Mechanical Collector – Devices that are functionally dependent on the laws of mechanics governing the motion of bodies in space. a major source is one which emits more than 100.000. MAC Equipment acronym for its dust collector that utilizes 7 psi air to clean the bags through a rotating mechanism that is timed to release the air precisely over the bags. Maximum Continuous Rating – The point at which the fan is expected to operate. Manometer – A u-shaped device for measuring the static pressure at a point relative to some other point. This patented dust collector is available from 22 to 1652 bags. Examples of mechanical collectors are cyclones. Serious.. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. or 9/10 the speed of sound. a major source is one which can emit more than 10 TPY of any one HAP or 25 TPY of total HAPs. Micrometer – See micron. Sometimes called a blow-pipe. and MACT for new sources will have to be even stricter. begins to deviate from the fan laws. under Title III of the CAAA. Make-up Air – A ventilating term which refers to the replacement of air lost because of exhaust air requirements. settling chambers. 50. Manifold – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. Major Source – A stationary source which emits a large amount of pollution. under Title I of the CAAA. devices are generally called scrubbers.

In general. Modacrylic – A synthetic fiber which contains less than 85% acrylonitrile. NEDS – National Emission Data System. Modeling – An investigate technique using computer mathematical. The protocol.000. As air is a gas mixture. Natural Frequency – The frequency at which a component or system resonates. as required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. It is the most commonly used construction method since it is stronger than pressed felt. which was renegotiated in June 1990. Mildew Resistant Finish – An organic or inorganic finish to repel the growth of fungi on natural fibers. Molecular Weight – The weight of a molecule expressed on a scale in which the carbon isotope weighs exactly 12. and carbon tetrachloride by the year 2000. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) – Compilation of data and information on individual hazardous chemicals produced by the manufacturers and importers of that chemical. N NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers. a unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter. An average human hair is 70 microns in diameter. it does not have a true molecular weight. calls for phase-out of CFCs. 29 CFR 1910. Mullen Burst – The pressure necessary to rupture a secured cloth specimen.Micron – Symbol µ. such as by splashing. Milli – A prefix meaning 1/1. foaming and atomizing. MIL – A unit of measure equal to 25 microns or one thousandth of an inch. Needled Felt – A felt made by the placement of loose fiber in systematic alignment with barbed needles. particles down to 10 microns can be seen without the aid of magnification. Napped – The rupturing of the filling yarns to produce a fleecy surface on woven fabrics. represents the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule. NEC – National Electrical Code. pushing and pulling fibers to form an interlocking of adjacent fibers. Multi-Filament (Multi-fill) – A yarn composed of a number of filaments. Mist – Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state. halons. usually expressed in pounds per square inch. or physical representation of a system that accounts for all or some of its known properties. Montreal Protocol – An international environmental agreement to control chemicals that deplete the ozone layer. a phase-out of chloroform by 2005. 20 . but an apparent molecular weight determined by the percentages of the molecular weights of each gas in a composition. The needles move up and down.0. and provides financial assistance to help developing countries make the transition from ozone-depleting substances.1200.

a health hazard evaluation index. insulation. reacts with volatile organic compounds. Its mandate includes conducting research in developing criteria and/or recommendations to be used in setting occupational exposure standards. A wire in which one volt produces a current of one ampere has a resistance of one Ohm. identifying and evaluating workplace hazards. etc.733 inches of water. Octave Bands – Ranges of frequencies. These octave bands are identified by their center frequencies (63. and control technologies. Nox (Nitrogen Oxides) – Chemical compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen. a unit of pressure equal to one-sixteenth PSI or 1. Ohm – A measure of electrical resistance. chemical information. 21 . Normal measurement technique used by EPA method 9. It is also a major precursor to acid rain. NESHAP – National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. Opposed-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the opposite direction. training materials. OSI – Ounces per square inch. and 15% from industrial fuel combustion. 125. Capacity – Refers to the amount of light that can pass through. O OCIS (OSHA Computerized Information System) – A comprehensive database that contains information and data on standards interpretation. ratings enclosures.). OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Nationwide. in a graphical form. and other information compiled by OSHA on subjects related to occupational safety and health. New Source – A stationary source. and other design criteria for electric motors. the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the proposal date of the standard. normally refers to the degree of visibility of an exhaust plume. matting of fibers or compressed with a bonding agent for permanency. Non-Attainment – An area which has not achieved air quality as good as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the CAAA. 35% from electric utilities. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control under the Department of Health and Human Services. the trade association establishing standards of dimensions. hazardous waste activity 5(a)(1) citations. 250.NEMA – The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Also NSPS (New Source Performance Standard). NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) – Created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. in the presence of heat and sunlight to term ozone. Non-Woven Felt – A felt made by either needling. maximum permissible intensity per octave band. and providing professional education as well as health and safety information. measurement techniques. Onboard Controls – Devices placed on vehicles to capture gasoline vapor during refueling. Noise Criteria – A way for an architect to specify the maximum permissible sound-power level in each of the eight octave bands. NC curves give. approximately 45% of Nox emissions come from mobile sources.

6 to 0 increasingly acid.g. etc. and sunlight. It is formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving volatile organic compounds. Pick – See fill.Oxygenated Fuels – Gasoline which has been blended with alcohols or ethers that contain oxygen in order to reduce carbon monoxide and other emissions. and materials. or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation. that is the primary constituent of smog. 8 to 14 increasingly alkaline. The products are known as photochemical smog. Two identical fans in parallel will effectively deliver twice the rated flow of any one of the fans at the same static pressure. This dimension is necessary for accurate drive calculations. Permeability. license. A parallel fan arrangement is generally used to meet volume requirements beyond that of single fans. nitrogen oxides.5 H2O pressure differential. Pilot Valve – The small solenoid valve that is electrically operated to relieve pressure on one side of the diaphragm and cause the operation of a larger diaphragm valve. a permit to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions. Ozones can initiate damage to the lungs as well as damage to trees. Piezometer Ring – A device consisting of a number of pressure taps connected to a common manifold to measure pressure. Photochemical Process – The chemical changes brought about by the radiant energy of the sun acting upon various polluting substances. 22 . The ability of air to pass through the fabric. PEL (Permissible Exposure Limits) – Limits developed by OSHA to indicate the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant to which an employee may be exposed. Performance and applications similar to shaded pole but more efficient. Pitch Diameter – The mean diameter or point at which V-belts ride within a sheave. Not to be confused with dust permeability.. expressed in cubic feet of air per minute per square foot of fabric with 0. with lower line current and higher horsepower capabilities. Ozone – A compound consisting of three oxygen atoms. crops. pH – A symbol as part of a logarithmic designation to indicate acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 to 14. P Parallel-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the same direction. Fabric – Measured on Frazier porosity meter or Gurley permeometer. pH7 is taken as neutral. e. Permanent Split Capacitor Motor – Very low starting torque. Particulate – A particle of solid or liquid matter. Parallel Fans – Two or more fans which draw air from a common source and exhaust into a common duct or plenum. There is a natural layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Permit – An authorization. Particulate Matter – Any solid or liquid material in the atmosphere.

Pressed Felt – A type of felt manufactured by pressing fibers into the skrim. Pounds Per 100 Pounds of Gas – A common quantitative definition of air pollution concentration. POLIPLEET – MAC Equipment’s trademark for its line of pleated spun bond 100% polyester cartridges. any single identifiable source of pollution. Polymerized – A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. may be designated as velocity pressure divided by static pressure or by a given CFM and SP. Precipitators – Any number of devices using mechanical. Porosity – Sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for permeability. blankets. Plenum Pulse – Type of pulsing collector where entire sections of the clean air plenum are isolated and pulsed with either compressed air or air from a high pressure blower. affecting sensitive population groups such as children and people with respiratory diseases. Pressure. 23 . It is the pressure indicated by a barometer.92 inches of mercury. The resistance to flow between the two points. The smaller PM10 particles penetrate to the deeper portions of the lung. or chemical means to collect particulates. Units are expressed by weight or volume. PPM (Parts Per Million) – The number of parts of a given pollutant in a million parts of air. Point of Operation – The intersection of a fan’s static pressure curve and the system curve to which the fan is being applied. Point Source – A stationary location or facility from which pollutants are emitted. The POLIPLEET can be used in MAC Equipment’s entire product line of dust collectors. Also. the periphery of the tube has several holes through which static pressure is measured. See electrostatic precipitator. electrical. Atmospheric – The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere. PM 10 – A new standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere (“particulate matter”). Originally a designation for the amount of air in a fabric. i. standard atmospheric pressure is 29. analysis or control. Pre-Coating – The application of a relatively coarse.Pilot Tube – A metering device consisting of a double-walled tube with a short right-angle bend. Pleated Filter Element – Filter elements made from any pleated filter media. the bend end of the tube has a hole through which total pressure is measured when pointed upstream in a moving gas stream.e. Plenum – Pressure equalizing chamber. dry dust to a bag or cartilage before start-up to provide an initial filter cake to enhance immediate high efficiency. Pressure Drop – The differential pressure between two points in a system. but primarily applying those equipped with 100% synthetic fabric. Ply – Two or more yams joined together by twisting. Refers to the amount of particulate matter under 10 micrometers in diameter. Used for measurement.

Pulse Interval – The time between pulsing one row of bags and pulsing the next row. and open burning. the interval of time between pulsing a row of bags and that row being pulsed again. PSIG (Pounds per Square Inch Gauge) – The pressure relative to atmosphere. Process Weight – The weight per hour that is run through the process. includes Reasonably Available Control Technology and other measures. 10 PSIG equals 24.7 PSIA. woodstoves. 24 . Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) – EPA program in which state and/or federal permits are required that are intended to restrict emissions for new or modified sources in places where air quality is already better than required to meet primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. In the case of PM10. The EPA promulgates a rule when it issues the final version in the Federal Register.7 PSIA. A bubble of air flows down the bag. temperature. Pressure. Velocity – The kinetic pressure in the directional flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. it refers to approaches for controlling small or dispersed source categories such as road dust. Primary Collector – A dry or wet collector which is followed by a secondary collector with greater filtering efficiency. Pulse Jet Cleaning – A cleaning method where a momentary burst of compressed air is introduced through tube or nozzle to the top cap of a bag. PSIA (Pounds per Square Inch Absolute) – The absolute pressure without reference to another point. PSI (Pounds per square inch) – A measure of pressure. Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. Atmospheric pressure is 14. causing bag walls to collapse behind it. Usually expressed in inches water gauge. Usually expressed in inches water gauge when dealing with air. This is the more common pressure term. however would more correctly be the description of the length of time the manifold is pressurized (120-180) milliseconds.Pressure. For a fluid in motion it is measured in a direction normal (90°) to the direction of now. Generally described as the length of time the electrical signal the pilot valve open (20-40 milliseconds).7” water gauge. R RACM (Reasonably Available Control Measures) – A broadly defined term referring to technologies and other measures that can be used to control pollution. Pulse Cycle – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. For instance. Pulse Jet – Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. Commonly used in APC codes to determine the maximum allowance pollution exhausted. and enthalpy for any gas-vapor mixture. 1 psi equals 27. density. Pulse Duration – The length of time a pulse lasts. humidity. Psychromatic Chart – A graphic depiction of the relationship between pressure. used extensively in comfort ventilation. Static – The potential pressure exerted in all directions by fluid at rest. Promulgate – To make a new law known and put it into effect.

Radionuclide – Radioactive element which can be man made or naturally occurring. or by changing the momentum of the gas. Same as reverse air baghouse. defined by EPA in a Control Techniques Guideline (CTG) and adopted and implemented by states. Repressuring Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. Radial Blade – Fan wheel design. Relative Humidity – The ratio of existing water vapor to that of saturated air at the same dry-bulb temperature. Occurs when dust is pulsed from a bag and then caught up by an upward moving air stream. Residual Risk – The quantity of health risk remaining after application of the MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). The number of ends and picks in the repeat may be equal or unequal but in every case the repeat must be in a rectangular form. Repeat – The number of threads in a weave before the weave repeats or starts over again. the air is stretched out. ASTM specs are available at technical libraries. Rankine – See Absolute Temperature. Resistance – In air flow. and serious non-attainment areas. While negligible at low pressure and volumes. They can have a long life as pollutants.RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation on existing sources in non-attainment areas. high pressure fan selection must be based on rarefied inlet density. Ravel Strip Tensile – The tension strength. 25 . moderate. cut just over one inch wide. and are believed to have potentially mutagenic effects on the human body. Under Title I of the CAAA. and becomes less dense than at the entry to the system. Radon – A colorless. The type of test always used unless specified. inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks. naturally occurring. REL (Recommended Exposure Limits) – Issued by NIOSH to aid in controlling hazards in the workplace. When air is drawn put through resistance into a fain inlet. to cause dust cake release. Rarefication – A phenomenon related to negative pressure. in pounds per inch of a 6” long textile sample cut. (with yarns peeled off each side down to exactly one inch wide) pulled in two lengthwise between jaws set 3” apart and pulled at a constant specified speed. with blades positioned in straight radial direction from the hub. it is caused by friction of the air against any surface. in order to achieve significantly greater emission reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread use as of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Re-entrainment – The phenomenon whereby dust is collected from the air stream and then is returned to the air stream. EPA will establish RACT standards for marginal. radioactive. Reverse Air Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. Random Noise – A sound that has an average amplitude and constantly changing frequency. These limits are generally expressed as 8 or 10 hour TWAs for a 40-hour work week and/or calling levels with time limits ranging from instantaneous to 120 minutes. Repowering – The replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies. or rarefied.

the various numbers. viscosity. numbered from 0 to 5. indicated by the charts. This all purpose fan can be placed on the clean air or dirty air side of the dust collector in most cases.Reverse Jet – See pulse jet. Ringelman numbers were sometimes used in setting emission standards.g. EPA Toxic Substances Control Ad (TSCA) Information. Saturated Air – Air containing the maximum amount of water vapor for a given temperature and pressure. a ban on construction of new sources. Satin Weave – A form of twill except that the points of intersection are separated from one another in a consistent or inconsistent manner. See gas flow rate. e. a series of charts. MAC equipment acronym for its large rectangular. Ringelman Chart – Actually. that simulate various smoke densities. top bag removal pulse jets that start at 196 bags and go up as high as needed. 5. by presenting different percentages of black. to 100 percent. S Sanctions – Actions taken against a State or local government for failure to plan or to implement a SIP. Rotor – The rotating part of most AC motors. SB Fan – MAC Equipment’s Strait Blade fan. RT (c) – Round top removal. RPM – Revolutions per minute. a Ringelman No. expressed as warp sateen or filling sateen. MAC Equipment acronym for its round top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. A Ringelman No. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Sateen – Cotton cloth made with a satin weave. Reynolds Number – A mathematical factor used to express the relation between velocity. OSHA and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) air exposure limits. (C) designates cartridges instead of bags. They are used for measuring the opacity of smoke rising from stacks and other sources. 1 is equivalent to 20 percent black. or densities. 26 . Grades opacity from 0 to 5. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) – A database that lists an identification number. density. by matching with the actual effluent. Scour – A soap and water wash to “off loom” fabric. Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard label information. used to define fan proportionality. the formed piece to which housing sides are welded. and animal and human toxicologic data. Ringelman – A measure of the opacity caused by pollution from a stack. Scroll – The general shape of a centrifugal fan housing. SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) – The volume that a gas would occupy at standard temperature and pressure conditions (70°F and 14. where 0 is an invisible discharge and 5 is totally opaque.7 PSIA). synonyms.. and dimensions in a system of flow. RPT (c) – Rectangular Pulse Top removal.

The “hairs” are burned off to provide a smoother finish. (Types include spray towers. impingement scrubbers.Scrubber – A device that uses a liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream. Sensible Heat – Any portion of heat which affects a change in a substance’s temperature but does not alter that substance’s state. Silicone Finish – A treatment of felted bags with silicone to provide a slick finish for improved dust release. Also. seeding is used to start the crystallization process. Low starting torque. cleaning occurs by shaking bags from the top. is removed from a gas stream by liquid droplets. Singed Finish – A felted bag finish that is designed to provide a finish similar to calendering. Most commonly used on Dacron polyester and fiberglass bags. and submitted to EPA for approval. venturi scrubbers. Settling Chamber – A dry collection device which removes particulate matter from the gas stream by slowing down the exhaust gas velocity. which identifies actions and programs to be undertaken by the State and its subdivisions to implement their responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. International System of Units. 27 . any one of the units of measure in the international meter-kilogram-second system. Scrubbers are used for both the measurement and control of pollution. Shaker Baghouse – A baghouse using woven cloth bags. packed towers. Gas – Any device in which a contaminant. Shaded-Pole Motor – A special type of single-phase induction motor. Series Fans – A combination of fans connected such that the outlet of one fan exhausts into the inlet of another. Solid and liquid particulates are removed through contact with the spray. jet scrubbers. solid or gaseous. SI Units – Systeme International d’Unites. The secondary filter normally has a higher filtering efficiency. Fans connected in this manner are capable of higher pressures than a single fan and are used to meet pressure requirements greater that single fans. Singeing – The burning off of the protruding fibers from the warp and filling yarns of the fabric. The gases are removed either by absorption or chemical reaction. in crystallizing. and mechanical scrubbers). dry dust to a bag or cartridge before start-up to provide an initial filter cake for immediate high efficiency and to protect bags from blinding. Secondary Collector – A dust collector which is preceded by primary collector(s). SIP (State Implementation Plan) – Documents prepared by states. cyclone scrubbers. Service Factor – The number by which the horsepower rating is multiplied to determine the maximum safe load that a motor may be expected to carry continuously. Seeding – The application of a relatively coarse. Singles – The term used to imply only one yarn. low cost. Usually used on direct-drive fans. Shaft Seal – A device to limit gas leakage between the shaft and fan housing. Scrubber. orifice scrubbers.

SO3 – Sulfur trioxide oxidized from SO2 combines with atmospheric moisture to form sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4).Sizing – A protective coating applied to yarn to ensure safe handling. abrasion-free during weaving.. Smog – The irritating haze resulting from the sun’s effect on certain pollutants in the air. tar and tobacco. having its conductors uniformly distributed around the periphery of the machine and joined by continuous end rings. SSPC – Steel Structure Painting Council 28 . pressure as measured in all directions within an air-handling system. AMCA standard of guidelines for general methods of fan construction when handling potentially explosive or flammable particles. Squirrel-Cage Winding – A permanently short-circuited winding . usually uninsulated and chiefly used in induction motors.g. moderate starting torque. less than 0. high breakdown torque. Split-Phase Motor – The most common type of single-phase induction motor. Slippage – The movement of yarns in a fabric due to insufficient interlacings. e. Slip – The percentage difference between synchronous and operating speeds. high starting current.1 micrometers in size which result from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal. fumes. formed during combustion of fuel containing sulfur. SO2 – Sulfur dioxide is an invisible. such as belt-drive fans. Soot – Very finely divided carbon particles clustered together in long chains. see photochemical process. Expressed in watts or decibels. Expressed in units or pressure or in decibels. not including the force or pressure of air movement. Specific Heat – The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise a certain volume one degree to that required to raise an equal volume of water one degree. notably those from automobile exhaust. Specific Gravity – The ratio of the weight or mass of a given volume of any substance to that of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard. Spun Fabric – Fabric woven from staple spun fabric. SP – Static pressure. Skrim – A woven fabric that felt is needled onto. Second-Power Level – Acoustic power radiating from a sound source. Smoke – Carbon or soot particles. used on easy-starting equipment. Source – Any place or object from which pollutants are released. or vapors. SPI – Society of the Plastics Industry. non-flammable acidic gas. The ratio of the density of andy gas to the density of dry air at the same temperature and pressure is the specific gravity of the gas. SRC – Spark-Resistant Construction. Sound-Pressure Level – The acoustic pressure at a point in space where the microphone or listener’s ear is situated. oil. Also a mixture of fog and smoke.

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – A heavy. Static Pressure (Hot) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system at actual conditions.ST (c) – Square Top removal. It is a respiratory irritant. STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) – The employee’s 15 minute time weighted average exposure which cannot be exceeded at any time. Surge Limit – That point near the peak of the pressure curve which corresponds to the minimum flow at which the fan can be operated without instability. 29 . (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Static Balance – The mechanical balance of a rotating part or assembly by adding weights to counter-balance gravitational rotating of the part without power driving it. MAC acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors up to 64 bags. Streamline Flow – Fluid flow in which the velocity pressure and fluid density of a given particle remains constant with time. Sometimes called locked rotor torque./ft³. corresponds approximately to dry air at 70°F. pungent. if this is a possibility. colorless air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Stack – A smokestack. a vertical pipe or flue designed to exhaust gases. Starting Torque – The torque produced by a motor as it begins to turn from a standstill and accelerate. Static Pressure (Fan) – The static pressure for which a fan is to be selected based on system calculations. colorless gases formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. fan SP = SP outlet-Sp inlet-VP inlet. In reality. Static Pressure (Cold) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system if the gas were at standard conditions or colder. Sulfur Oxides – Pungent. Standard Air Density – 0. Measured in inches of water (WG). considered major air pollutants. Stage II Controls – Systems placed on service station gasoline pumps to control and capture gasoline vapors during an automobile refueling. Stator – The stationary parts of a magnetic circuit with associated windings. sulfur oxides may damage the respiratory tract as well as vegetation. Synchronous speed = 120 x frequency divided by number of poles.92 in. Stoichlometric Air – The exact quantity of air required to combine with the given fuel so that the ensuing combustion reaction is perfect and no free oxygen or unburned constituents remain. SWSI – Single-Width Single-Inlet Centrifugal Fans.0750 lbs. Hg. air in excess of the stoichlometric ratio is usually provided to encourage complete combustion of the fuel. especially for asthmatics and is the major precursor to the formation of acid rain. STEL is set by OSHA for each pollutant and expressed in terms of ppm or mg/m³. Synchronous Speed – Rated motor speed expressed in RPM. and 29.

) = HP x 5250 RPM Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) – A listing of pollutants and emissions Levels from each major source. the sum of velocity pressure plus static pressure. rotation. System Curve – Graphic presentation of the pressure versus volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system.-lbs. designed to guide the flow of air. scavenger air. leakage air). diffusers. Torque can be calculated by: Torque (Ft. It allows air sampling to be made automatically at predetermined times. A fan provides the energy necessary to overcome the system’s resistance to flow and causes air or gas to flow through the system. Hence any kind of fabric. the center of which is displaced one foot from the center of the shaft. elbows. and the standardized connections used in laboratory tests to obtain fan-performance ratings. TLV®(Threshold Limit Value) – A registered trademark for an exposure limit developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). gas. filters. A listing of TLVs may be found in the ACGIH’s “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989. Thread Count – The number of warp and filling yarns in a fabric commonly expressed in square inch. Textile – That which is or may be woven. 30 . usually in RPM. Comes from the Latin “Texere” to weave. Tensile Strength – The maximum stress a material can withstand before it breaks. or lends to produce. TP – Total pressure. Test Block – An operating point above and beyond the maximum specified continuous rating demonstrating the fan margin to the customer. Tip Speed – Fan wheel velocity at a point corresponding to the outside diameter of the wheel blades. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – Represents the air concentrations of chemical substances to which it is believed that workers may be exposed daily without adverse effect. etc.-lbs.” Torque – A force which produces. System Effect – The effect on the performance of a fan resulting from the difference between the fan inlet and outlet connections to the actual system. conduits. or in.-lb. on the shaft if the force is provided perpendicular to. T Tachometer – an instrument which measures the speed of rotation. normally expressed in feet per minute (circumference times RPM).-lbs. or vapor to and from one or more locations. Tape Sampler – A device used in the measurement of both gases particulates. commonly measured in ft. expressed in pounds per square inch. System gas Volume – All gases flowing through the exhaust gas system (including excess air. A force of one pound applied to the handle of a crank. not along the crank. produces a torque of one ft..System – A series of ducts.

and Disposal. Traverse – A method of sampling points in a duct where pressure readings will be taken to determine velocity.. compensating for errors caused by uneven gas flow in the duct. Turbulent Flow – Airflow in which true velocities at a given point vary erratically in speed and direction. “Z” or “S” respectively. frequently the pilot valve and the diaphragm valve pulse are considered as one. Sometimes called cellplate. TWA (Time Weighted Average) – Employee’s average airborne exposure which can not be exceeded in any 8 hour work shift. and variable-pitch impellers. Tubesheet – The steel plate that bags and cages are suspended from. TSD (Facility) – Treatment. right turn on red) or reduce vehicle use (ridesharing. Uniform Flow – Airflow in which velocities between any two given points remain fairly constant. 31 . TWA is set by OSHA and expressed in mg/m³. Vaneaxial Fan – Axial fan with either inlet or discharge guide vanes or both.TPI – Twist Per Inch. TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) – Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).g. a term usually used for inside collector baghouses. e. V Valve – In baghouses. lanes. Turning Vanes – Baffles put in a duct to straighten out the air flow. U Unbalance – The condition of a rotor in which its rotation results in centrifugal force being applied to the rotor’s supporting bearings. simply called “valve. Storage. Tubeaxial Fan – Axial fan without guide vanes. Twist – The number of complete spiral turns in a yarn. in a right or left direction. Includes fixed-pitch.g. was passed by Congress to protect human health and the environment by requiring testing and necessary use restrictions to regulate the commerce of certain chemical substances. evenly distributed areas that are each tested. Tubular Centrifugal Fan – Fan with a centrifugal impeller within a cylindrical housing discharging the gas in an axial direction. A traverse divides the duct into equal. Transportation Control Measures (TCM’s) – Steps taken by a locality to adjust traffic patterns (e. TPY – Tons per year. adjustable-pitch. Separates the clean air and dirty air sections of the baghouse.” van der Waals – Adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. high-occupancy vehicle Lanes) to reduce vehicular emissions of air pollutants.

VOC’s (Volatile Organic Compounds) – A group of chemicals that react in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone. Venturi – Device used to theoretically increase the efficiency of a compressed air pulse. Vapors – The gaseous form of substances which are normally in the solid or liquid state and which can be changed to these states. Venturi Scrubber – A wet type dust collector that can obtain very high efficiency. Designed such that when a pulse is introduced at the top. the others being attrition and combustion. components of which are amplitude. VP – Velocity pressure. frequency. Designed with converging circular sides to a throat and then diverging sides. Usually granted to allow time for engineering and fabrication of abatement equipment to bring the operation into compliance. a negative pressure zone is created outside the top. under stated conditions. 32 . except that it automatically converts the reading to velocity. and secondary air is induced into the venturi. but requires large horsepower to do so. Each system curve has a unique VP/SP value. VP is used to get the velocity of a gas stream. Vena Contracta – The smallest flow area for flow through a sharp-edged orifice. for a person or company to operate outside the limits prescribed in a regulation.S. Vibration – Alternating mechanical motion of an elastic system. increasing cleaning energy. Ventilation – Supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. The gas and dust particles are accelerated in a venturi throat. ______ Velocity (SFPM) = 4005√ VP ______ Velocity (AFPM) = 1096√ VP/ρ ρ = Actual density of the air (lb/ft³) VP = inches of water column VP/SP – Velocity pressure divided by static pressure. the kinetic energy pressure of air in motion. Examples of VOC’s include gasoline fumes and oil-based paints. Vapors diffuse. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. and phase. 110 or 220 volts are normally found in the U. its operation is similar to an inclined manometer. Volt – A unit of electrical potential or pressure. either by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature alone. does not include methane and other compounds determined by EPA to have negligible photochemical re-activity. Viscosity – The characteristic of all fluids to resist flow. a single number reference used to define a fan’s point of operation. where finely atomized water is introduced and water/dust take place. Velometer – A simple instrument for determining the velocity of gas in a duct.Vaporization – The change of a substance from the liquid to a gaseous state. Variance – Permission granted for a limited time.

Warp Yarns – Yarn in a fabric running lengthwise. WG – Water gauge. Woof – See fill. The MAC Baghouse Wizard controls the pulse cleaning of a dust collector and monitors emissions. the product of voltage and amperage. wet fans). Warp Thread – Yarn or threads in a fabric running lengthwise. see inch of Water. Wet Collector – Dust collector which uses water to remove particulate matter from the exhaust gas (wet washers. venturis. The resulting yarn is compact and level.The unit designation of fan wheel rotational inertia in lb. 33 . Used in re-pressuring and shaker baghouses.W Warp Count – Number of warp threads per inch width.-ft². Woolen System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for the shorter wools. Includes additional processing steps resulting in the most uniform yarn. Watt – A unit of power in electrical terms. WR² -. Wrapper – Used in electrostatic precipitators. similar to normal cloth. Woven Cloth Bag – A bag made of woven material. Wet-Bulb Depression – The difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature at the same location.g. e. plain twill. temperature. various wastes. Water Gauge – Inches water is a pressure term defined as a pressure equal to that exerted by a column of water of the same height. Wizard – MAC Equipment trademark for its intelligent dust collector controller. 746 watts are equal to one horsepower. etc. reclaimed wools. airflow. satin. the light gauge steel or aluminum covering put over insulation. Wet-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of a gas stream taken with a wetted thermometer. Weft – See fill.7” WG equals 1 PSI. It is approximately equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. and hopper level and displays it in a user friendly graphical interface.. Weave – The pattern of weaving. pressure drop. Warp Sateen – The face of the cloth having the warp yarns floating over the filling yarns and being greater in number than the filling yarns. 27. Worsted System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for medium and longer wools. also known as WK². etc.

” 34 . Z Z-Twist – The yarn spirals conform in slop to the center portion of the letter “Z. Yarn Size – A relative measure of fineness or coarseness of yarn. The smaller the number in spun yarns. the coarser the yarn. Yield Strength – Maximum stress to which a ductile material can be subjected before it physically distorts.Y Yarn – A term for an assemblage of fibers or filaments forming a strand (thread) which can be otherwise formed into a textile material.

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 1117-80) defines a nonwoven fabric as: “A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers. carding and aerodynamic forming of textile fibers into preferentiallyoriented webs. nonwovens are fabrics that are made by: (a) (b) (c) (d) mechanically. “carded”. perforating films. accomplished by mechanical chemical. or forming porous films concurrent with their extrusion.Filter Media / Fibers Definitions Every industry has unique buzz words. or fiber-network structures. Jargon associated with fabrics. In polymer laid systems. The textile technology base includes garneting. Paper technology base includes dry laid pulp and modified wet laid paper systems designed to accommodate fibers longer than wood pulps. Unlike traditional fabrics that re made by mechanically interlacing (weaving) or interlooping (knitting) yarns composed of fibers of filaments. Accordingly. These fabrics are manufactured with machinery associated with pulp fiberizing (i. paper. nonwovens are planar structures that are relatively flat. terms and acronyms. as “polymer laid” nonwovens. Nonwoven – Nonwovens are defined by what they are not.e. sheet structures with fabric characteristics. Fabric filtration is especially blessed with a full vocabulary. In practice. are manufactured with machinery associated with staple fibers bonded by stitching filaments or yarns. “meltblown”. or thermally interlocking layers of networks or fibers or filaments or yarns. form the basis of the processes for manufacturing nonwovens. flexible. film casting. extrusion coating).” How nonwoven fabrics are made – A basic concept used in making a nonwoven is to transform fiber-based materials into flat. or both. Nonwoven is a generic term used to describe fabric that is produced differently from a fabric made by weaving or. depending on the fiber material used and/or the fabric characteristics desired. paper. slurry pumping onto continuous screens) designed to manipulate short fibers suspended in a fluid. this is accomplished several ways. fiber structures are simultaneously formed and manipulated. Fabric produced by these systems are referred to as “dry laid pulp” and “wet laid” nonwovens.e. chemically. or solvent means and combinations thereof. This section has been prepared to give you a basic understanding of the different filtration medias in the dust collection marketplace. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to as dry laid nonwovens and carry terms such as “garneted”. or. and porous. Like all fabrics. interlocking fibers or filaments concurrent with their extrusion. All wet laid cartridge paper contains high percentages of cellulose. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to individually as “spun bounded”.e. 35 . and porous film systems. flexible. hammer mills) and paper forming (i. Most cartridge filter media is produced by the wet laid systems. and “textured” or “apertured film” nonwovens. a fabric that is different from traditional woven or knitted fabrics. HEPA media is also produced on specialized. more broadly. or hybrid (combination). porous. The extrusion technology base includes spunbound.” These fabrics. generically. The fabrics are produced with machinery associated with polymer extrusion (i. manufactured fiber spinning. reducing its resistance to moisture. meltblown. can be nearly as arcane as any found in the Military’s or Silicon Valley’s lexicon. Technologies used in three primary manufacturing industries: textile. and extrusion and various combinations of established processes from one or more of these industries. wet laid equipment. extrusion. and “air laid. Needle-felt fabric is produced by textile-based technology. process for manufacturing nonwoven fabric can be grouped into four general technology bases: textile.

the fibers will hydrolyze. and the remainder a copolymer. Fortrel® (Fiber Industries/Celanese). In dry heat up to and including 375 degrees F. such as sulphur oxides. degradation sets in rapidly. and surfaces are striated. developed by E. is the MIASMACTTM HEPA media. polyester is inferior to other synthetics. Nomex® withstands the attack by mild minerals and inorganic acids. Nomex® will progressively lose strength. Crylor® (Crylor SA). However. For MAC Equipment applications. Nomex® is a non-thermoplastic so it does not melt. and Draylon-T® (Bayer) are trade names used by various producers of acrylic fibers. this fabric may be used satisfactorily as long as there is no acid dew point problem. Fiber cross sections are dumbbell-shaped. it withstands these conditions better than many other fibers. Where polyesters are not suitable. Acrylic is non-thermoplastic. needled felt. but at temperatures above 700 degrees F. is a widely used acrylic. 250°F degrees. and Kodel® (Eastman Chemical). This material is a thermoplastic. will rapidly degrade Nomex®. In the presence of a saturated vapor. acrylics offer a combination of abrasion resistance and resistance to wet heat degradation. because of potential hydrolysis. mild alkali. Polyester – a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephtalic acid. for applications requiring dimensional stability and high heat resistance. Temperature resistance of copolymers is less.I. particularly under acid conditions. When exposed to saturated steam at high temperatures. Acilian® (Monsanto). and many other hot gas processes. Polyester (PE) is superior to most synthetics in dry heat installations but it is not comparable to Teflon® nor Nomex®. Zefran® (BASF). Enka Polyester® (American Enka). near-saturation. to form a combination media. Fiber is available under various trade names: Dacron® (duPont). It is unaffected by florines and gases from metallurgical and rock processing operations. However. Creslan® (American Cyanimid). Diameters are typically 15 to 35 microns. gold and copper ores. high active oxidizing agents. Draylon-T® (or equivalents). clinker coolers. Acrylic felts are used in drying raw flour.The hybrid base combine elements of the first three technologies. Nomex® is unaffected by small amounts of water vapor and high temperatures. duPont de Nemours. only acrylic homopolymer fabric should be used. and low temperature flue gas applications. Under moist. Recommended operating temperature is 275 degrees F maximum. and most hydrocarbons. is asphalt batch plant dryers and drum-mix plants. in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain polymer composed of at least 85% acrylonitrile units. Polyester is superior for most dry heat applications. Characteristics of Selected Fibers Acrylic Fibers – Acrylic fibers are man made fibers. carbon bake. Homopolymer felt is a candidate for hot gas applications of less than 284 degrees F. The single biggest use for Nomex®. for high-pressure cleaned needled felts. 36 . coal. Polyester is the most widely used needled felt for pulse jet applications. Other uses include raw and finish mill grinding on cement plants. galvanizing. weakening the fabric. a homopolymer (100% acrylonitrile). Orlon® (Dupont). wet laid media is laminated with spun bounded support sheets. heat conditions. An example of a hybrid product. Aromatic polymide (Nomex®) – Nomex® nylon was a proprietary (patent has expired) aromatic-polymide (aramide) linked structure.

These strong carbon-to-fluorine bonds create fibers that are exceptionally stable to both heat and chemicals. Teflon® . Its fiber is highly convoluted. needled to a 12 oz. and is one of the most economical synthetics. It may be layered on top of lower cost fibers. handling large particulate. Filtration efficiency is not quite as good as polyester. and with a laminated PTFE membrane. plus high strength. It resists weak alkalis. Polypropylene – (polyolefin) is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer. Composites generally have a 4 oz. (about the same price as polyester). it is available in 12. although it is slow to develop. water/oil resistant (TR). and in 100% form may be used for temperatures of 500 degrees F. metalized-antistatic (ME). It is used in agricultural. and 18 oz. especially in length./yd² should be reserved for non-critical applications.yd² P84 fiber layer. P84 needled felt./yd² versions. Exposure to temperatures above 550 degrees F. having a high surface area-todiameter ratio. to provide the benefits of the base fiber.yd² carrier base. P84 is a non-thermoplastic. Extensive testing has shown that P84 fabric approaches Gortex® in efficiency. PP absorbs no moisture and provides excellent cake discharge and resistance to blinding. carbolic and nitric acids. composed of at least 85% by weight of olefin units. Teflon® bags shrink when exposed to high temperatures. Teflon® is the most chemically resistant fiber used in conventional dust filtration. but has all of the advantages of a needled felt. It is. are used in many industrial applications where high efficiency is required. soluble at 160 degrees F in chlorinated hydrocarbons. and various chemical processes. will cause some decomposition. It is composed of long chain carbon molecules in which all of the available bonds are completely saturated with fluorine. The fabric is widely used in many of the industries served by MAC Equipment. Within its limited temperature range. incinerators. at high temperatures. Teflon® is not affected by any known solvents except some prefluorinated organic liquids at temperatures above 570 degrees F. Since it does not absorb moisture. polypropylene provides good resistance to mineral and organic acids. Spunbonded POLIPLEETTM media is available in plain. The fibers combine excellent resistance to most acids and alkalis. and most organic solvents except high concentrations of sulfuric. It resists alkalis. Examples are: gold and copper ore processing. mineral acids. reducing agents and organic solvents. The use of 12 oz. woodworking. but other weights are available. Polypropylene has very low heat resistance. but at lower costs than a 100% version of the P84 felt. It has one of the lowest specific gravities of any synthetic fiber. chemical and other applications where chemical and mechanical characteristics are compatible. P84 (Polyimide) – P84 is a proprietary fiber produced by Lenzing in Austria. 37 . 100% P84 is readily available in 14 oz. PP is a good choice for replacement of cotton in low temperature applications. manufactured by E. and composites. even less than cotton. 16. with efficient filtration and good energy absorption characteristics. weight.I. As needled felt.PE provides good resistance to most oxidizing agents. its degradation characteristics in dry heat and moist heat are virtually the same. duPont.is a proprietary fluorocarbon fiber. However. Polyester fiber makes an excellent filter fabric. however. will dissolve the fabric. boilers. strong alkalis. and should not be exposed to prolonged temperatures of over 165 degrees F. Herculon® (Hercules) and Reevon® (Phillips) are trade names used by various producers of polypropylene (PP) fibers.

limestone. Available weights are 16 to 22 oz. HEPA – High Efficiency Particulate Air filter is the maximum efficiency available in particulate filtration. Ryton® is resistant to sulphur oxides. supported by polyester webbing on each side. Huyglas® (Air Purator Corporation) felted fiberglass medias are available in a variety of weights. is a borosilicate microfiber glass. Usually offered as a static after filter following a dust collector.The low friction properties of Teflon® fibers provide excellent cake discharge. Gas stream oxygen content should not exceed 15%. with at least 85% of the sulfide linkages attached directly to two aromatic rings. This felt is a blend of 85% Teflon® and 15% fiberglass fibers. the fibers are process much like the more conventional fibers.) temperatures. Felted fiberglass tends to be heavy and difficult to handle. The resin was developed by Phillips Petroleum. In addition. Tefaire®. a non-crystalline silicate analogous to other fiber polymeric materials. and the mixture is extruded through spinnarets. Bag/cage fit & support is very critical – check with the vendors involved for specific recommendations. Woven fiberglass./yard². and is not as efficient as other medias. Refer to MAC Equipment for more application information. Some common trade names for woven fiberglass are GL65 Tri-LoftTM (BHA). is very easy to damage. Typical applications are industrial/municipal solid waste incinerators and coal-fired boilers. Ryton® (Polyphenylene Sulfide) – Ryton® (Phillips) is a long chain synthetic polysulfide. Teflon® fibers’ chemical inertness and resistance to dry and moist heat degradation makes it ideal for use under severe conditions. up to 360 degrees F. other companies have similar products. and FL57 Hi-LoftTM (BHA). 38 . Standard fiber is 3-denier. Woven fiberglass and felted fiberglass medias are available for high energy cleaned fabric filters. in 1973. Recently a lower cost version. involving high (up to 500 degrees F. Other fibers and medias are available for very special temperature. Following drying. and borax or other ingredients are melted at about 2500 degrees F. usually in the presence of oxidizing agents. Some boilers. Commercial uses are limited to extreme chemical environments where the advantages of Teflon fibers’ great chemical resistance outweighs cost disadvantages. MAC Equipment’s style FG134/2 cleanable HEPA media. Ryton® does not hydrolyze and has flame retarding characteristics. pressure drop. or efficiency requirements. has been introduced. chemical. soil remediation systems. in particular. The resulting filaments may be drawn while still molten and later twisted and plied into filament yarn. Selected silica sands. Teflon® needled felt is extremely expensive. Consult MAC Equipment engineering before using these products for any application. Glass – Glass fiber is a product of fusion. Or. soda ash. however. These are specialty products and are used for very specific applications. Rated for temperatures up to 275°F. and incinerators have been equipped with Teflon® products. form 14 to 27 oz. carbon black plants. as the extruded glass may be drawn and broken by jets of compressed air into staple of lengths 8 to 15 inches. a pulse cleaned version is available./yd². Consult MAC Equipment for more details. and is used for high temperature gas streams. Suitable applications for this material are limited. The fibers are then treated with a lubricant which is of great importance in the durability of the eventual fabric.

Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Salts Max. Operating Temperature °F Bromine Calcium (Br) Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCL)2) Carbon (C) (Graphite/Diamond) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Iod Ozone (O3) Potassium Chloride (K Cl) (Sylvine) Sodium Chlorate (Na Cl O3) Sodium Hypochlorite (Na Ocl) (Eau-de-Labarraque) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B - Polyester 275 B A B B B A A B Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A B A A B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A C A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B B B B B 39 .e.. °F Abrasion Energy Absorption Filtration Properties Moist Heat Hydrolysis Alkalines Mineral Acids Oxygen (15%+) Relative Cost Polypropylene 170 Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent X Polyester 275 Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Fair Excellent X Acrylic 275 Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Excellent XX Fiberglass® 500 Fair Fair Fair Excellent Fair Poor** Excellent XXX Nomex® 375 Good Good Excellent Good Good Poor Excellent XXXX Ryton® 375 Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor XXXXX P-84TM 500 Good Good Excellent Good Fair Good Excellent XXXXXX Teflon® 500 Excellent Good Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent XXXXXXX * Sensitive bag-to-cage fit ** Fair with acid resistant finishes Note: Combinations of variables alter the resistance of the fiber to the specified performance ratings. time. i.Properties of Filtration Fabrics Temp. Operating Temperature °F Calcium Chloride (Ca Cl2) Ferrous Chloride (Fe Cl2 4H2O) Sodium Acetate (C2 H4 Na O2) Sodium pyrosulfite (Na2 O5 S2) (metan sulfite) Sodium Bromide (Na Br) Sodium Perchbrate (Cl Na O4) Sodium Cyanide (Na Cn) Sodium Nitrate (Na NO3) (Chile Saltpeter) Sodium Sulfate (Na2 SO4) (Glaubers Salt) Sodium Sulfide (Na2 S) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A C A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B B B B A A B B A A Polyester 275 A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 B C B A C B B B B P84 500 B B B B C B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Oxidizing Agents Max. temperature and gas stream chemistry.

Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Mineral Acids Max. Operating Temperature °F Acetic Acid (C2 H4 O2) Benzoic Acid (C7 H6 O2) Phenol (C6 H6 O) (Carbolic Acid) Formic Acid (CH2 O2) Lactic Acid (C3 H6 O3) Oxalic Acid (C2 H2 O4) (Acid of Sugar) Salicylic Acid (C7 H8 O3) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A B C B B C B Polyester 275 A A B A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A B A C P84 500 B B B C B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Bases Max. Operating Temperature °F Ammonia (H3 N) Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) (Hydrated Lime) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) (Caustic Potash) Potassium Carbonate (K2 CO3) (Potash) (Salt of Tarter) Sodium Hydroxide (Na OH) (Caustic Soda) Sodium Carbonate (Na2 Co3) (Washing Soda) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B B A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A C B B A Nomex® 375 B A B A B A Polyester 275 C A B B B A Polypropylene 170 A A B A B A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 B A C C C C P84 500 B B B B C B 40 . Operating Temperature °F Chromium Trioxide (Cr O3) (Chromic Acid Anhydride) Hydrogen Chloride (H Cl) (Hydrochloric Acid) (Muriatic Acid) Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Nitric Acid (HN O3) Tripotic Acid (HO)3 P(O) Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4) (Sulphuric Acid) (Vitrol) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A B B Nomex® 375 C C C B A B Polyester 275 A A B A A B Polypropylene 170 B A A B A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A A A P84 500 B B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Acids Max.

Operating Temperature °F Acetaldehyde (H3 C-CHO) (Aldehyde) Vinyl Alcohol (H2 C-CH2 O) (Ethenolivinol) Glycerol (C3 H8 O3) Glycerin Clycol (C2 H6 O2) Mineral Oil Benzene. Operating Temperature °F Acetone (H3 C-CO-CH3) ((CH2)4H3) Benzene (C6 H6) (Benzol) Carbon Disulfide (C S2) Carbon Tetrachloride (C Cl3) Chloroform (CH Cl3) Cyclohexane (C6 H12) Acetoin (C2 H6 O2) Ethylalcohol or Methane Ether (C2 H6 O) (Vanillin) Butyl Alcohol or Ethyl Ether (C4 H10 O) Methanol (CH4 O) MEK Nitrogen (N) Ethylenes trichloro (C2 H CL3) Methyl Benzene (C6 H5 CH.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Solvents Max.3) (Toluene) O-Xylene (C6 H4 (CH3)2) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 B B A C B B B B A A A B B A B B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A P84 500 C C B B B B B B B C C B B B C C Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Miscellaneous Max. Nitro (C6 H5 NO2) (Essence of Mirbane) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A C A A Polypropylene 170 B A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B 41 .

**Dry air at 70°F.0560 0.0 parts/million 0. °F 0 70 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1.500 4.0651 0.% Volume 78.000 5.0567 0.0684 0.0522 0.786 0.500 8.743 0.0272 Air density lb.000 0.01 parts/million 0.000 3.934 percent 0.654 0.92 in.880 0.0375 0.404 0.0001 percent.801 0.729 0.0602 0.0515 Density factor 1.0 to 0.5 parts/million 0. 0.0659 0.0303 0.075 0.0635 0.757 0.000 4.438 0.582 0.1 parts/million 1.0672 0.0 to trace >99.817 0.0 0.701 0.0710 0.869 0.500 0.0525 0.616 0.5 parts/million 0. 42 .913 0. 0 500 1.946 0.09 parts/million 0.0292 0.457 0.0557 0.0749 0.715 0.376 0.0 to 0.982 0.832 0.390 0.000 2./cu.0436 0.0393 0.947 percent 0.Gas / Air Tables Temperature and Altitude Corrections Temperature – Density* Temp.525 0.0 to trace 0.000 Density factor 1.084 percent 20.000 9.2 parts/million 1.0462 0.02 parts/million 0.848 0. ft.2 parts/million 5. dry air at sea level.500 5.000 1.0612 0.552 0.5 parts/millions 0. 0.0864 0.0490 0.947 0.000 8.0578 0.864 0. Composition of Air Component of Air Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Krypton Sulfur dioxide Methane Hydrogen Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Ozone Ozone – Winter Nitrogen dioxide Iodine Carbon monoxide Ammonia Symbol N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He Kr SO2 CH4 H2 N2O H2 Xe O3 O3 NO2 I2 CO NH3 Content . Hq. per cu.1.964 0.0328 0.500 7.02 parts/million 0.0723 0.0736 0.0546 0.000 6.477 0.500 3.07 parts/million 0.0358 0.500 6.0623 0.363 Wt.52 1.896 0.0647 0.0709 0.500 9.0414 0.0282 0.0536 0.803 0.000 Altitude – Density** Elevation ft.421 0.000 7.0600 0.697 0.930 0.0 parts/million 2.0697 0.0342 0.688 *Table based on 29.500 10.0315 0.998% The above table is an average for clean.033 percent 18. 1 part/million = 0.772 0. ft.747 0.500 2.0589 0.

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falling dirt and dripping non-corrosive liquids. oil and non-corrosive coolant.Type 9 – Class II. Type 10 – Mining Enforcement Safety Administration. Indoor hazardous locations. Explosion proof. with or without coal dust. by oil immersion. Type 12 – Dust-tight and Drip-tight – Indoor. For use in mines with atmospheric containing methane or natural gas. Provide. Protects against dust. Protects against dust. F. Type 11 – Corrosion Resistant & Drip-proof – oil immersed indoor. depending on specific design as defined in the National Electrical Code. Type 12K – Same as Type 12 except enclosures have knockouts. May be classified Groups E. spraying of water. Type 13 – Oil tight and Dust-tight – Indoor. Horsepower Formulas Air Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 Brake Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 X MEfan Where MEfan = Mechanical Efficiency of Fan 51 . protection against the corrosive effects of liquids and gases. or G.

. 2 2 2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-314 3-1/2 3-3/4 3-1/2 4-3/8 3 4-518 4-318 4-5/8 5 5-3/8 5 3-1/2 5-3/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 5-518 6-1/8 7 6-7/8 7 6-7/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 4-1/32 5-3/8 6-1/8 7-7/8 6-1/2 7 7-1/4 7-3/4 7-3/4 6-1/4 9-1/4 9-5/8 10 10-3/8 12-3/8 12-1/8 13-1/4 13 14-1/8 13-1/2 14-2/8 14-7/8 15-1/8 15-3/4 16-1/8 16-1/2 15 16-7/8 17-3/8 17-7/8 17-7/8 1-3/8 20 19-7/8 20-3/4 20-5/8 23-1/4 23-3/8 24-1/4 24-318 Keyway ..NEMA Electric Motor Frames Motor Frame 42 48 56 66 143T 145T 182 182 184 184T 213 213T 215 215T 254T 254U 256T 256U 284T 284TS 284U 286T 286U 324T 324U 326T 326TS 326U 364T 364U 365T 365U 404T 404U 405T 405U 444T 444U 445T 445U D 2-5/8 3 3-1/2 4-1/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 NEMA Frame Dimension – Inches E F U V M+N 1-3/4 2-1/8 2-7/16 2-15/16 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5 5 5 5 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 8-1/4 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 27/32 1-3/8 1-1/2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-1/4 2-1/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/8 4-1/8 5 5 4-3/4 4-1/4 4-3/4 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 6 6 6 5-5/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-7/8 6-7/8 7-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4 8-1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8 7/8 1-1/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 1-7/8 2-3/8 2-1/8 2-318 2-1/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 .. 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 The above standards were established by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 52 ....... ..... . .

NEMA Electric Motor Frames V U F F M+N Frame dimensions for previous page D E E 53 .

Industrial Ventilation References 54 .

8 15.0 26.0 12.8 18.7 20.5 14.50 9.3 22.45 5.5 27.0 16.63 7.7 27.3 14.9 23.37 3.2 12.9 18.43 7.1 22.4 16.6 16.8 55 .1 14.25 7.5 26.4 24.4 11.93 8.8 30.2 23.12 4.6 26.7 14.0 28.6 22.6 13.03 8.63 8.31 8.8 16.75 6.1 13.1 12.6 15.4 21.5 24.65 3.55 9.3 10.3 27.24 6.90 5.98 7.3 22.1 17.5 10.4 17.71 4.6 17.5 21.55 4.75 7.7 28.8 12.1 10.0 13.91 5.3 10.0 12.44 6.0 27.72 6.6 16.1 15.2 12.0 21.9 16.3 28.5 12.4 14.64 7.33 7.95 8.7 10.2 29.86 7.2 12.1 13.2 17.4 14.24 8.8 14.34 8.3 16.9 12.11 9.9 17.8 17.5 18.47 6.2 14.72 9.32 5.0 11.0 16.0 18.3 13.67 9.9 17.00 8.8 15.1 20.9 22.1 10.74 7.39 9.90 10.0 24.7 16.1 15.4 17.1 18.3 22.06 9.4 26.3 13.1 25.2 16.08 6.7 14.25 8.2 31.63 5.73 6.5 13.5 13.8 13.65 6.8 11.7 13.3 25.3 15.71 9.2 22.2 10.16 7.8 12.34 5.0 14.4 21.9 12.6 29.88 5.1 21.0 13.8 21.38 8.9 27.85 9.25 8.4 25.7 28.0 19.4 10.8 13.5 13.76 5.0 24.17 8.04 9.0 15.5 18.0 29.8 12.4 11.7 18.1 12.4 17.7 13.03 9.87 8.6 14.2 28.97 5.68 9.4 10.01 6.8 21.7 14.11 6.22 7.9 14.62 9.3 18.74 5.1 22.80 6.5 3 3.5 15.0 22.5 14.9 11.7 17.87 10.3 17.4 13.8 15.9 23.8 20.18 4.6 12.6 13.5 10.58 5.7 12.0 22.0 25.6 10.1 12.2 13.8 27.9 4 4.03 8.88 10.40 5.79 8.09 4.2 10.02 7.42 6.79 9.5 18.3 12.4 18.8 24.2 11.0 14.2 18.58 7.9 13.46 9.10 9.81 10.9 6 6.9 5 4.5 17.1 17.7 10.0 14.3 19.63 9.9 31.7 11.2 20.83 8.9 16.8 23.89 8.3 12.1 18.04 7.51 6.6 14.20 5.1 15.3 22.86 10.7 29.2 25.1 22.7 18.8 20.5 28.4 19.9 29.7 11.7 15.5 11.8 11.9 28.90 4.18 5.76 10.0 22.4 12.6 15.5 23.22 9.29 7.34 4.5 24.8 31.88 5.1 16.8 20.7 25.84 7.22 6.66 8.0 11.21 7.9 11.9 11.7 12.96 6.85 10.7 15.0 13.02 8.3 12.10 2 1/2 3.3 15.6 23.4 11.17 7.67 5.46 8.43 4.5 12.5 20.27 6.25 6.1 10.7 11.76 6.0 11.6 15.37 4.9 12.3 20.2 12.8 3 1/2 4.0 26.75 7.8 18.3 18.58 6.0 21.66 6.2 14.6 11.9 15.28 6.1 14.0 23.2 16.08 6.5 16.73 8.4 14.4 18.69 9.7 17.3 15.1 11.3 10.0 19.25 9.62 7.3 25.7 20.1 24.9 14.3 22.4 25.2 21.8 17.17 8.2 20.9 5 1/2 5.21 5.2 30.9 19.55 7.6 24.98 6.65 7.5 24.2 19.1 9.2 15.49 7.4 30.9 12.0 26.2 25.6 19.3 21.0 10.8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7.8 23.3 21.2 27.56 8.85 9.8 20.2 10.9 30.5 23.77 4.0 25.08 8.1 13.8 22.81 4.1 11.42 6.6 23.34 8.3 18.1 16.5 16.37 8.7 18.36 5.6 10.8 13.5 16.3 14.07 8.5 14.33 9.3 26.8 24.61 6.9 26.4 12.5 14.7 23.3 32.40 7.7 19.1 23.4 26.97 6.1 17.7 17.86 7.3 22.0 19.7 14.6 11.0 25.3 27.62 9.3 13.42 6.2 16.5 25.4 10.09 9.7 19.3 27.0 13.3 11.3 10.5 15.70 10.8 21.3 31.3 15.4 13.2 15.Circular equivalents of rectangular ducts for equal friction Sides 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 2 3.5 8.7 28.04 3.8 25.82 9.59 8.5 18.0 14.9 13.53 8.0 23.8 13.66 9.0 15.5 11.8 22.72 9.5 19.54 8.6 24.45 8.6 11.2 20.9 11.5 21.77 10.1 15.4 11.7 22.12 7.4 10.5 20.25 9.48 5.94 6.5 19.1 14.9 20.02 9.80 8.2 11.0 15.5 29.5 14.55 4.8 26.17 4.5 12.21 7.4 16.04 9.6 19.38 7.7 19.0 12.06 5.3 11.3 16.6 19.6 21.98 7.07 7.47 8.5 15.7 26.72 4.2 30.81 10.1 18.7 16.4 26.5 17.3 19.6 30.5 29.60 7.2 19.54 4.3 10.06 9.9 24.90 10.7 25.87 8.42 3.6 21.2 13.7 16.8 17.21 5.4 15.1 19.2 20.8 27.96 5.33 9.0 14.4 15.9 19.5 14.37 9.0 16.3 11.85 7.8 32.99 8.46 9.7 15.56 7.5 11.5 26.3 13.3 19.44 9.74 9.64 5.9 11.7 16.2 11.30 9.8 12.9 4 1/2 4.4 23.6 21.7 12.9 11.44 6.1 10.1 10.2 19.5 13.6 13.27 8.5 12.5 12.51 5.99 9.10 5.58 8.2 16.6 20.4 21.6 17.0 11.5 11.9 16.

102 3.58 0.18 2.599 7.00 7.48 0.418 VP 0.64 0.359 5.20 2.44 2.103 4.387 1.458 6.56 1.444 10.253 5.256 6.954 5.28 2.282 6.704 7.343 5.129 5.350 4.50 9.651 5.19 1.498 1.30 6.445 3.081 4.09 2.67 0.86 0.70 6.164 7.48 2.128 6. ____ From: V = 4.098 5.779 3.581 6.018 5.99 2.38 1.533 2.47 2.00 9.133 1.13 0.88 1.289 10.34 0.965 3.90 4.831 5.729 3.89 0.65 1. inches of water V 400 566 694 601 896 981 1.20 5.20 6.78 1.00 13.153 3.874 14.657 3.64 1.804 5.985 4.81 1.95 4.03 0.208 8.132 10.477 5.123 4.842 3.492 7.75 1.706 5.905 4.970 2.33 1. and less than 20” WC static pressure.884 3.491 3.77 1.762 5.064 4.219 4.386 4.758 3.478 4.042 2.10 5.100 VP 1.29 1.35 0.09 V 2.50 2.388 5.385 7.817 5.45 1.70 4.40 1.010 8.582 3.127 3.00 5.84 1.162 4.06 2.562 9.30 0.17 1.800 3.551 1.14 0.58 2.392 9.423 4.368 4.807 7.835 1.22 2.32 1.63 0.002 5.26 1.440 14.62 1. 29.76 0.98 1.97 0.55 1.61 1.401 VP 1.25 1.637 5.59 1.40 6.40 2.664 5.60 6.40 0.403 5.00 1.65 0.80 1.16 2.05 0.865 8.06 0.96 0.90 3.496 8.50 5.15 1.60 0.11 1.91 0.506 5.295 4.307 6.59 0.79 0.32 V 4.491 5.060 1.886 5.36 2.42 0.375 3.313 5.57 0.38 0.859 5.200 4.179 3.54 1.94 1.28 1.549 4.469 2.63 1.15 2.89 1.327 3.119 3.619 4.153 6.230 2.22 1.04 0.47 0.49 2.85 0.10 1.54 0.590 8.940 5.005√ VP = Velocity FPM.671 4.294 6.275 7.034 6.970 4.30 2.88 0.60 2.50 1.636 4.86 1.77 0.93 1.860 2.92 1.447 5.879 1.820 6.669 5.005 4.301 2.82 1.804 2.775 2.30 3.12 0.94 0.746 2.924 3.25 2.191 5.076 3.268 5.73 0.19 2.07 1.50 8.15 0.845 5.80 5.13 2.70 5.05 1.70 1.11 2.025 4.50 6.14 1.791 1.08 0.699 1.41 1.20 4.937 7.074 6.332 6.24 1.09 0.46 0.78 0.823 4.531 4.71 0.021 6.210 10.967 5.422 3.16 0.403 2.645 9.728 9.55 0.303 3.90 5.66 1.142 4.109 8.50 3.229 3.69 1.00 12.47 1.790 5.61 0.972 10.775 14.676 12.46 V 3.18 1.175 5.60 1.746 1.10 6.21 2.10 4.776 5.00 3.36 0.10 0.220 9.986 VP 1.563 2.945 3.29 2.144 5.35 1.53 0.217 6.773 4.840 VP 0.40 3.986 5.00 4.653 4.374 5.579 5.206 5.40 V 5.204 3.305 8.13 1.513 4.10 3.57 1.201 1.37 0.687 2.45 2.39 2.899 5.25 0.74 0.283 13.891 9.30 4.257 4.92 0.872 5.626 2.052 10.140 6.081 2.656 2.62 0.53 1.702 6.42 1.261 2.583 4.344 12.02 0.00 11.60 3.21 0.50 10.87 1.444 1.756 4.601 4.44 0.921 1.40 5.46 2.405 5.80 3.366 10.04 2.810 9.596 10.45 0.981 5.01 1.943 2.034 6.90 1.70 2.678 5.34 2.045 4.79 1.69 0.604 3.99 1.20 0.38 2.16 1.84 1.41 0.082 5.514 3.521 5.33 0.97 1.015 12.913 5.705 4.238 4.369 2.87 0.48 1.43 0.709 3.95 0.193 2.51 1.29 0.08 1.328 1.72 0.665 13.806 4.74 1.051 7.916 2.593 8.01 0.21 1.23 0.20 1.739 4.24 0.00 6.22 0.008 6.03 2.495 4.688 4.873 4.12 2.888 2.230 6.442 4.20 3.30 1.81 0.748 5.625 3.501 2.927 5.050 5.67 1.90 6.179 6.72 1.27 0.96 1.720 5.49 0.856 4.17 0.320 6.12 1.18 0.02 2.83 0.01 2.00 8.863 3.82 0.602 1.790 4.49 1.28 0.276 4.994 6.17 2.04 1.692 5.550 5.114 5.113 6.266 1.160 5.181 VP 0.821 3.608 5.93 0.968 11.80 2.157 2.92” barometer.335 2.921 4.237 5.51 0.690 3.07 0.047 6.205 6.398 3.90 0.955 9.889 4.34 1.31 1.68 1.61 14.537 3.32 0.03 1.66 0.997 4.066 5.35 2.27 1.520 10.19 0.90 7.595 2.269 6.43 1.75 0.564 5.279 3.024 3.050 3.98 0.436 2.468 3.44 1.39 1.904 3.39 0.10 2.11 0.298 5.52 0.566 4.83 V 4.954 4.192 6.50 4.00 13.05 2.26 2.283 5.061 6.07 2.52 1.314 4.683 8.24 2.535 5.00 2.76 1.43 2.938 4.962 2.06 1.460 4.36 1.774 8. VP = Velocity pressure.33 2.85 1.462 5.716 2.044 9.328 5.02 1.254 3.560 3.68 0.31 0.328 11.003 2.832 2.31 2.23 1.60 4.30 5.41 2.909 8.433 5.351 3.73 1.56 1.087 6.623 5.166 6.08 2.Velocity pressures for different velocities: standard air Design procedure Dry air at 70°F.70 3.651 1.222 5.80 4.37 2.50 0.133 9.23 2.80 6.734 5.26 0.243 6.42 2.70 0.60 5.307 9.477 9.14 2.00 56 .91 1.27 2.71 1.332 4.722 4.80 0.37 1.

00 2.18 5.01 5.66 14.41 2.00 16.20 6.19 10.28 8.71 19.30 22 1.05 9.89 3.62 19.40 24.74 13.10 16.45 13.10 8.36 14.43 5.75 10.67 10.27 4.44 2.80 2.85 4.18 26.20 13.87 5.88 9.13 1.43 2.30 10.28 16.20 11.40 8.39 5.62 1.50 7.82 11.80 10.95 1.75 2.15 9.27 4.65 5.00 27.05 4.85 9.30 18.00 29.20 15.20 3.60 9.50 15.50 19.25 17.86 5.50 4.50 20 1.97 7.68 2.30 8.47 2.61 6.02 9.96 3. length in feet Two gauges heavier than duct 14 3.47 1.85 16.92 6.30 44.57 10.66 4.98 4.45 11.20 1.14 2.00 35.41 7.13 14.57 2.10 19.42 8.71 7.67 10.81 4.84 16.93 13.44 4.40 3. 1.22 9.70 25.25 13.21 6.66 5.80 30.97 2.17 12.22 23.63 6.75 18 2.59 3.54 5.15 8.55 6.62 8.80 21.65 1.63 12.76 1.15 9.00 49.80 32.30 16 3.90 Elbow Equiv.62 9.08 1.48 3.60 14.01 7.50 2.53 1.74 4.80 7.30 12.26 18.33 7.21 5.90 27.82 4.40 24.17 2.08 22.83 5.53 6.02 7.10 8.90 12.80 42.27 4.30 29.51 9.73 14.69 2.60 47.43 7.47 8.60 37.17 3.85 16.78 11.50 13.51 3.91 2.45 6.01 4.72 5.44 57 .29 16.25 18.90 10.40 5.22 5.84 21.00 7.30 23.25 23.28 24 1.76 4.05 5.83 1.20 34.08 2.39 1.18 4. Ft.13 6.99 6.27 12.40 14.18 12.87 8.60 22.80 3.25 5.34 3.83 3.80 2.Weights of galvanized sheet metal ducts Straight runs Weight per linear foot Duct dia.19 3.70 8.52 4.60 32.40 7.50 8.10 3. Gauge size 26 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Lbs Sq.01 6.77 6.57 13.15 20.30 34.72 0.48 2.70 2.18 2.86 11.09 6.00 28.42 13.70 22.00 17.81 18.40 39.20 25.60 28.27 3.70 12 5.38 7.56 3.00 8.61 6.38 9.80 4.10 17.96 3.05 11.22 3.45 10.91 17.54 7.86 3.35 11.25 12.54 11.

27 38.196 .349 .47 11.09 2.33 7.57 1.9 804.087 .56 11.56 19.9 1809.7 2290.48 50.66 15.2 2463.61 14.63 28.8 706.4 1520.367 . 435 680 980 1335 1745 2210 2730 3920 5300 6950 8800 10900 13200 15700 18400 21350 24550 27900 31500 35350 39380 43630 48105 52795 57705 62830 68175 73740 79520 85520 91740 98175 58 .54 12.35 19.07 7.54 113.88 8.23 5.1 245.4 530.80 7.42 9.14 14.19 4.6 1963.83 2. 348 544 784 1066 1396 1768 2180 3140 4240 5560 7040 8720 10560 12560 14720 17080 19640 22320 25200 28380 31500 34905 38485 42235 46165 50265 54540 58990 63620 68415 73390 78540 391 612 882 1201 1570 1989 2450 3530 4770 6250 7920 9810 11880 14130 16560 19215 22090 25110 28350 31810 35440 39270 43295 47515 51935 56550 61360 66365 71570 76970 82565 88360 5000 FPM Vel.73 9.75 15. . Ft. In.31 1.90 17.38 8.1 153.75 6.4 Sq.70 5.14 3.61 78.6 1385.785 1.2 907.64 3.64 14.18 2.76 2.18 15.1 2827.442 .62 10.52 12.1 452. 304 476 686 934 1221 1547 1910 2750 3610 4860 6160 7630 9240 10990 12880 14950 17180 19530 22050 24740 27560 30545 33675 36960 40395 43980 47225 51620 55665 59865 64220 68720 CFM at 4000 4500 FPM FPM Vel.10 18.04 12.57 13.9 1017.00 11.136 .35 2. 12.63 Cir In Ft.06 1.0 2642.39 1.58 6.57 13.5 314.28 6.09 13.91 5. Vel.1 1256.9 201.66 4.5 1661.27 4.95 10.41 3.90 9. 1.61 3.9 615.85 8.26 63.68 4.9 1134.Duct Data Chart Duct Dia Inches 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Area Sq.71 3500 FPM Vel.30 7.05 1.2 380.5 2123.545 .

wheat Chalk Charcoal.22 0.09 0. hard-wood softwood broken Cinders Density lb.21 0. ft.20 0. corn oats rye. loose Cereals. per deg.Material Properties Weights and specific heats of material mean values Material Air Aluminum Aluminum chips Antimony Asbestos Asbestos. laminated wood filler asbestos filler crushed Baking powder Bauxite.24 0.0749 165 48 414 153 64 40 47 86 85 118 43 56 43 75 109 75 530 163 118 509 554 177 134 185 50 195 140 88 90 94 94 37 26 48 142 34 23 12 43 59 Specific heat Btu per lb.16 0. F.18 . dry.22 0. phosphor Calcium. carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium sulphate Carbide.20 . loose Caustic soda Celluloid Cellulose Cement.16 0.19 0. dry Bakelite.33 0. dry.09 0.20 0. masonry Bronze Bronze. ground Borax Borax. bulk barley. crushed Bone. dry. crushed Carbonundum Carbonundum. cu. wood. per.20 0.37 0. crushed Brass Brass chips Brick. dry Ashes.05 0.17 0.09 0. coal. .38 0. dry. loose Ashes.20 0.36 0.35 0.38 0. 0.

compressed barreled loose Fullers earth. flint pyrex ground Granite loose. piled Coke. cinder stone Copper Copper ore.44 0. moist and loose Emery Feldspar Feldspar.20 0. F.20 0.09 0.30 0. cu. loose. baled loose Dolomite Duralumin Earth. piled Coffee Coke Coke.18 0. dry and loose Earth. crushed Ferrous. 0.16 0. crushed Copper oxide Cork Corn meal Conundum.20 0.20 0.23 0.19 0. 63 110 98 54 85 47 48 75 28 15 97 142 556 190 190 15 40 247 93 30 181 175 76 78 250 160 88 125 47 28 30 160 215 140 90 165 96 132 120 160 152 70 442 Specific heat Btu per lb.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Clay.20 0. grind dust Flour.12 .31 0. ft.48 0. per deg. anthracite anthracite. gray cast 60 Density lb. piled bituminous bituminous.32 0.13 0.22 0. plied Grit blast dust Gypsum compressed loose Iron. per. dry Glass. crushed Concrete. dry.19 0. piled Graphite Gravel. dry moist Coal.26 0. alundum Cotton.32 0. crown Glass.55 0. loose.

22 0.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Iron ore.21 0. granulated Density lb. crushed Mica Monel metal Natural gas Nickel Nylon Paper Strawboard or newspaper Paraffin Peat.55 0.48 0.52 .26 0.22 0. solid tire reclaim.22 0.69 0. ground Resin Rubber. dry. cu. crushed Sawdust Shale. dry Phosphate.33 0. wet Sandstone Sandstone.21 0.32 0. planer Slag. per. loose Sand.36 0.11 0. 0.06 0.20 0. per deg.40 0.13 0. ft.04475 547 70 58 33-44 56 30 75 150 60 165 84 67 58 115 75 30 74 27 48 80 99 110 144 82 7-15 105 7-15 172 60 61 Specific heat Btu per lb. ground Porcelain Potash Quartz Quartz.21 0. 150 710 567 56 53-64 163 74 214 109 30 259 183 556 0. shred Salt. gran. riprap Shavings. loose Lead Lead oxide (red) Leather Lime Limestone Lucite Magnesia Magnesium Magnesium dust Manganese ore. F.526 0. India compound hard hard sponge tire reclaim. and piled Saltpeter Sand.25 0. Iron Slag.03 0.

0 0.12 0.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Slate Soda ash Soda ash.17 0.21 0. 172 74 30 91 141 167 95 35 487 100 55 126 50 170 69 113 457 16 62. F. per.28 0. bituminous Tile Tin Tobacco Water Zinc Zinc oxide Density lb. per deg.09 0.40 0. 0.21 0. cu.12 62 .4 443 350 Specific heat Btu per lb.30 0. ft.27 0. bulk Sulphur Sulphur.05 1. crushed Talc Tar.15 0. granulated Sodium carbonate Sodium nitrate Sodium sulphate Starch granulated Steel Sucrose Sugar.28 0.

0001 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.05 0.0005 0.000 10.005 0.MICRONS 63 .PARTICLE CHART RAIN DROPS SAND TAILINGS MIST GROUND LIMESTONE POLLENS FLOUR MILL DUST FOUNDRY DUST ASPHALT PAVING INSECTICIDE DUST SEA FOG SPRAY DRIED MILK CEMENT DUST SOOT BLOWING – BOILER TUBES BACTERIA PLANT SPORES PLANT DUST 0.001 0.000 PARTICLE SIZE .01 0.1 0.000 5.

5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.000 5.01 0.0005 0.001 0.000 10.05 0.MICRONS 64 .0001 0.1 0.005 0.000 PARTICLE SIZE .PARTICLE CHART FERTILIZER PLANT DUST & FUMES SMELTER DUST & FUMES SULPHURIC ACID DUST & FUMES PAINT PIGMENTS COAL SMOKE OIL SMOKE PULVERIZED FUEL ASH ATMOSPHERIC DUST RESIN SMOKE TOBACCO SMOKE MAGNESIUM OXIDE SMOKE CONDENSATION NUCLEI OPEN HEARTH STEEL FURNACE FUMES CARBON BLACK VISIBLE TO EYE 0.

crushed Ammonium sulphate Bagasse Bakelite. graphitic Carbon black powder. furnace Carborundum Casein Cast Iron. channel Carbon black powder. dry Asbestos. powdered Bran Brass Brewers grain. Bentonite Bicarbonate of Soda Bonemeal Bones. crystalline Antimony Apple pomace. granulated or ground. broken or whole Alum Alumina Aluminum Ammonium chloride. minus 1/2” Bones. crushed.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Alfafa meal Almonds. borings Cast Iron Caustic Soda CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N N N VA M M VA N M VA VA VA M M N N N VA N A N M M M M M VA N M N A N A A M M M VA M VA VA M 65 . -meal etc. powdered Baking powder Barley Bauxite. shred Ashes. spent. dry Brick Buckwheat Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Carbon. Soft Coal Asphalt. minus 1/8” Boneblack Bonechar Borax. Hard Coal Ashes. crushed Beans. amorphous.

coal Clay. dry Clover seed Coal. shredded Coffee Coke. crushed Chalk. anthracite Cocoa. clinker Chalk. petroleum Copper Copra (dried coconut) Cork. crushed Egg powder Epsom salts Feldspar Ferrous sulphate Fish meal Flaxseed Flour Flue dust. ground Gluten mean CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive M VA VA A A N A A N A A N N N N A A VA N M N N N A M A N N M A A N N N M A VA A N VA M N 66 . Portland Cement. shelled etc. bituminous Coke. Cornmeal Cottonseed Cullet (broken glass) Dicalcium phosphate Dolomite Ebonite. fine ground Corn. minus 100 mesh Charcoal Cinders. bituminous Coal. powdered Cocoa beans Coconut. granulated Glass batch Glue. dry Fluorspar Fly ash Fullers earth Gelatine. cracked. pulverized.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Cellulose Cement.

distillery. dry Oxalic acid crystals Peanuts Peas. powdered Monel metal Muriate or potash Mustard seed Naphthalene flakes Nickel Oats Oak Orange peel. hard Marble Marl Mica. malted. hydrated Limestone Litharge Lucite Magnesite Magnesium Magnesium chloride Malt. ground Milk. dry Ice. dry Graphite Grass seed Gypsum Hops. dried Peas Phosphate rock Phosphate sand CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N A A N N N VA VA VA A A A A VA A VA A A VA VA A N A N A A M N M M N N VA N N N N N N N VA VA 67 . dry Manganese sulphate Maple. crushed Ilmenite ore Iron Cast Iron Oxide Lead Lead Arsenate Lead oxide Lignite Lime. dried. ground Lime.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Grains.

ground Rubber. dry. crushed Sugar Sugar beet pulp. hard Rubber. ground Timothy seed Tin Titanium Tobacco Vermiculite ore Wheat White lead Zinc Oxide CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive 68 N M VA M N N N N N A A A N VA VA N A VA A N N M M M A A N N A A N N N M M N A VA N A N A A . chips. light Soda ash. dry. rock Salt. flakes Soap powder Soapstone talc Soda ash. crushed Slag. coarse Salt. granulated Slate Soap. dry Sulphur Talc Tanbark. meal and whole Starch Steel Steel chips. soft Rye Salt. furnace. heavy Sodium Nitrate Sodium Phosphate Soybeans.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Pine Porcelain Quartz Resin Rice Rubber. pulverized Saltpeter Sand Sandstone Sawdust Shale.

ground Dextrose Fat/whey mixture Fat powder (48% fat) Do. 1 St. 1 11 49 29 Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Gravy powder (21% starch) Citrus pellets Dextrose. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 12 39 22 80 330 92 320 150 200 18 23 20 35 102 28 St. 1 St. 2 96 75 85 91 58 100 66 83 57 73 18 <10 54 208 18 52 190 157 69 64 St. Fish meal Fructose (from filter) Fructose Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 100 38 76 100 68 99 92 11 75 23 39 15 17 3 24 100 12 7 94 71 5 4 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 2) 90 26 40 43 40 22 33 76 25 3 15 20 18 23 58 46 38 39 74 84 82 87 88 78 58 65 76 76 48 66 93 51 144 168 St. 2 St. < 63 µm Class St. (Chipboard) Wood/ cardboard/jute Wood/cardboard/jute/resin Lignin dust Paper dust Paper tissue dust Paper ( henolresin treated) Peat (15% moisture) Peat (22% moisture) Peat (31% moisture) Peat (41% moisture) Peat (from bottom of sieve) Peat (dust deposit) Paper Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 98 92 58 57 Median 32 38 20 47 43 30 71 72 71 90 55 70 63 20 25 3 7 39 µm 44 51 33 80 43 26 KSt Explos. 1 bar•m/s 24 66 102 St. 2 69 .Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Cotton Wood Peat Dust Type Cotton Cellulose Wood dust Wood dust Wood dust. 1 (St. 1 St.

1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 27 240 83 14 112 295 80 125 <10 St. 2) (St. 1 St. 1 St. Oats grain dust Wheat grain dust Wheat grain dust Coffee (from filter) Coffee (refined) Cocoa bean shell dust Cocoa/sugar mixture Potato granulate Potato flour Lactose (from filter) Lactose (from cyclone) Maize seed waste (9% moisture) Milk powder Milk powder Milk powder (low fat spray dried) Milk powder (full fat spray dried) Whey fat emulator Olive pellets Rice flour Rye flour Soy bean flour Potato starch Potato starch Maize starch Maize starch Rice starch (hydrolyzed) Rice starch Rice starch Wheat starch Tobacco Tapioca pellets Weight %<Size (µm) 500 81 79 64 51 24 48 100 81 50 100 100 100 53 20 100 86 53 83 97 98 98 100 100 67 40 34 15 99 30 62 7 94 2 100 100 76 85 100 100 99 94 29 99 86 81 64 61 50 98 81 15 74 62 84 29 42 17 94 60 54 52 50 58 63 15 50 23 18 8 60 17 26 60 70 16 17 47 41 32 25 100 8 30 25 99 89 8 3 Median 32 20 µm 400 250 125 71 63 KSt Explos. 1 St. 2) (St. 2 90 11 68 500 65 22 23 165 165 235 46 88 400 29 20 32 <10 16 120 18 18 20 49 44 43 21 69 29 81 117 90 75 109 83 38 74 57 79 110 43 (89) 128 158 190 190 132 12 53 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Fructose Barley grain dust Do. 1 St. 2) St. 1 70 . 2 St. 1 (St.

1 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Tea (6% moisture) Tea (black from dust collector) Meat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour 550 Milk sugar Milk sugar Sugar (Icing) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 64 69 97 48 52 60 60 99 98 88 26 31 32 34 92 64 70 16 21 25 25 77 32 52 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 68 76 62 50 57 56 10 27 19 59 106 87 42 75 82 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 44 No Ignition 67 123 143 107 108 1 115 St. 1 20 No Ignition 10 St. 1 St. 1 117 No Ignition 117 55 86 59 71 .) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 99 88 84 83 75 71 65 69 60 56 66 93 18 91 13 82 99 95 36 83 97 76 65 54 93 46 32 85 37 99 Median 32 80 64 38 40 27 38 43 85 55 88 85 30 24 80 35 67 58 63 20 55 µm 18 22 46 41 55 60 40 <10 290 28 14 19 >500 29 <10 38 4 KSt Explos. 1 Coal Coal products Dust Type Activated Carbon Activated Carbon Activated Carbon (16% moisture) Brown coal Brown coal (from electrostatic filter) Brown coal (dust from grinding) Brown coal/ anthracite (80-20) Brown coal/ anthracite (20-80) Brown coal coke Brown coal (graphitized) Charcoal Charcoal Charcoal Asphalt Bituminous coal Bituminous coal (Petchora) Bituminous coal (high volat.

1 100 98 81 72 . 1 bar•m/s 35 109 105 90 52 93 14 27 28 5 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other natural organic products Dust Type Cotton seed expellers Dextrin Wheat gluten (after mill) Blood flour Hops. 2) (St. 1 Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type AcryinitrateButadieneStyreneCo-polym. 2) 92 91 89 78 (St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 79 37 100 24 82 100 58 28 89 80 43 97 99 95 90 99 66 100 72 12 44 67 60 46 84 24 99 50 95 30 84 43 36 55 13 94 64 53 200 55 19 14 80 40 23 26 34 18 57 <10 60 15 147 147 180 (St. 2) 138 108 155 129 208 110 172 129 105 St. Epoxy Resin (or powder coating) Cellulose-2 5-Acetate Polyester resin with glass Rubber (dust from grinding) Resin (from filter) Epoxy resin 60% resin + 36% TO2 Epoxy resin Epoxy resin with Al Melamin resin Melamin resin Phenol resin Phenol Formaldehyde resin) Polyamid resin Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 32 20 Median µm KSt Explos. 1 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class St. 2 63 21 100 99 71 96 26 91 79 50 50 39 300 20 32 200 17 35 No Ignition 47 St. 1 St. 1 (St. malted Leather dust (from collector) Linen (containing oil) Lycopodium Oil shale dust Oil shale dust Grass dust Walnut shell powder Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 66 Median 32 26 250 125 24 71 10 57 78 61 9 63 20 5 13 57 µm 245 55 48 85 490 KSt Explos.

coating powder (Epoxy) El. stat.-form) Melamineformaldehyde (mold.. 2) St. 97% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Susp. 2) 73 .Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type Polymethacrylate Silicon resin Caoutohouc Polystyrene (Copolymer) Polystyrene (Hard-foam) Polyurethane Polyvinylacetate (Copolymer) Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride (Em. 2) (St. 1 (St. 1 26 14 St. coating powder (Polyurethane) Shellac Wax (NN Ethylene distearmide) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 56 91 Median 32 33 20 20 250 125 59 58 32 71 39 40 11 5 63 100 20 13 µm 100 95 155 KSt Explos. 2) bar•m/s 217 238 48 111 (St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 (St. 2) (St. 97. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 199 80 192 110 23 (156) 86 128 83 168 68 42 63 45 30 10 100 74 57 46 15 97 60 66 30 99 93 100 100 100 100 23 90 83 55 29 100 73 31 50 44 9 760 3 20 26 56 <10 125 25 51 105 137 St.-form) El. 2) 91 86 70 66 33 95 75 70 13 14 29 22 29 10 Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Acetyl salicylic acid Amino phenazone Ascorbic acid. L(+)Ascorbic acid Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 93 92 75 38 98 61 15 <10 14 39 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos.) Polyvinylchloride (Susp.. 1 No Ignition 136 189 100 89 144 269 St.5% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Em. 1 (St. 2) St.) Ureaformaldehyde (mold. stat.

2) St. zinc comp. 1 74 . 1 115 71 22 29 St. 2) 93 34 4 74 98 41 99 100 97 50 96 100 99 89 20 87 69 12 30 10 60 17 65 77 78 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Coffein Cysteine hydrate L-Crystin Digitalis leaves Dimethylaminophenazone 2-Ethoxybenzamide Fungicide (Captan) Fungicide (Org. 2) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Adipinic acid Aging protective Anthracene Anthrachinone Anthrachinone Azodicarbonamide Benzoic acid Betaine hydrochloride Betaine monohydrate Diphenol ketylene Calcium acetate Casein Sodium caseinate (from filter) Carboxy methyl cellulose Carboxy methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 89 Median 32 92 67 100 90 100 85 80 25 75 250 125 20 71 98 7 100 63 100 20 µm <10 <32 235 <10 12 <10 <10 710 15 92 40 17 <15 KSt Explos. 2) bar•m/s 97 256 231 364 91 176 114 63 270 9 24 117 184 127 157 152 (St. 2) (St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 154 143 128 119 156 151 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 2) bar•m/s 165 40 142 73 337 214 100 100 99 93 99 98 100 100 97 100 99 98 98 <10 97 99 98 67 96 93 95 87 45 5 <10 <10 <10 <10 23 (St. 1 (St. 1 St.) Fungecide (Maneb) Methionine Methionine Sodium – L(+) ascorbate Paracetamole Pesticide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 100 100 59 Median 32 98 95 42 100 63 100 20 94 69 µm <10 15 46 <10 KSt Explos. 2) St.

2) (St. 1 bar•m/s 209 162 269 9 163 116 247 218 51 167 267 (St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class St. 2) 99 98 8 97 83 60 93 31 49 89 71 24 <1 100 100 30 9 69 42 27 50 33 15 97 4 2 11 11 85 60 27 128 1100 71 95 215 17 2900 27 155 <10 100 75 (St. 2) (St. 2) (St. 2) (St. 2) (St. 1 (St. 1 St. 2) 27 92 61 98 61 100 99 100 100 42 89 66 35 9 74 24 95 56 79 89 48 80 12 97 69 65 50 13 88 46 112 20 67 <10 24 22 16 580 95 16 119 113 178 90 75 . 1 52 180 St. 1 286 224 91 112 171 54 1 73 (St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea Dimethyl terephtalate Diphenyl urethane Diphenyl urethane Emulgator (50% CH.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Methyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose Chloroacetamide Cyanoacrylicacid methylester Dicyandiamide 1. 1 St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea 1. 2) (St. 2) 64 St. 30% fat) Ferrocene Fumac acid Epoxy resin hardener Urea Hexamethylene tetramine Hexamethylene tetramine Cellulose ion exchange resin Cellulose ion exchange resin Condensation product (phenol) D(-)-Mannite Melamine Melamine peroxide Melamine phosphate Melamine phtalate Metal soap (Ba/Pb-stearate) Metal soap (Zn-behenate) Methacrylamide Naphtalene Naphtalic acid anhydride Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 98 69 Median 32 37 40 3 98 93 250 79 125 33 20 71 93 66 63 13 20 12 µm 37 40 170 260 <10 <10 1300 KSt Explos. 1 St.

1 42 175 222 59 177 120 188 158 (St. 2) 12 (St. 2) St. 2) St. 1 bar•m/s 137 90 63 51 89 86 86 91 100 33 36 47 St. 2) 48 56 4 36 2 1 1 St. 1 St. 1 77 90 92 92 67 86 95 89 100 78 27 65 80 90 84 80 45 72 75 64 100 43 25 92 95 99 100 13 <10 12 <10 <10 145 22 13 15 16 1300 (St. 2) 20 31 65 58 21 41 37 21 20 86 3 12 65 23 27 34 <10 85 135 (St. 2) St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St.2-Thiodiacetic acid Thio urea Trimellitic anhydride Trisodium citrate Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 97 Median 32 96 2 28 8 250 52 125 13 95 100 65 71 100 63 5 20 94 µm <10 250 40 58 KSt Explos. 1 St. 1 76 . 1 (St. 1 (St. 2) 162 61 47 98 6 20 86 90 47 99 83 53 57 99 24 93 96 99 29 100 14 78 115 23 115 82 150 152 99 155 123 111 133 34 260 18 75 460 1250 800 72 8 33 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type 2-Naphtol Sodium amide Sodium cyclamate Sodium hydrogen cyanamide Sodium lingo sulphonate Oil Adsorber (hydrophobic cellulose) Paraformaldehyde Paraformaldehyde Pectin Pectinase Pentaerythrite Pentaerythrite (from filter) Pentaerythrite Phtalic acid anahydride Polyethylene oxide Polysaccharide Propyleneglycol alginate Salicylic acid Saponin Lead stearate Lead stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Magnesium stearate Sodium stearate Zinc stearate Zinc stearate Stearin/Lead Stearin/Calcium Stearic acid Terephthalic acid dinitrile 2.

yellow) Organic dyestuff (brown) Organic dyestuff (Pthalocyanine) Fushsin base Bituminous hydrocarbon Light protection agent Light protection agent Soap Surfacer (Epoxy based) Surfacer (Polyester based) Washing agent (Na-sulph. ign. 2) (St. 1 St. 1) 60 28 105 115 77 . St. 1 St. 2) (St. 1 267 (St. 2) (St. 1 96 74 23 11 97 100 100 100 88 14 86 45 26 <10 36 260 73 115 63 214 310 111 St.) Wax raw material (Alkylaryl sulphonate) Wax raw material (Olefin sulphonate) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 99 Median 32 20 98 µm 95 <10 KSt Explos. 1 bar•m/s 91 100 99 27 74 94 96 14 100 94 (53) No. 1 Other Technical/ Chemical products Dust Type Organic dyestuff (blue) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (Azo.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Tyrosine (final product) Tyrosine (raw product) Viscose flock Tartaric acid Zinc cyanamide Zinc cyanamide Zinc pyridine thione Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 100 99 100 47 5 34 Median 32 48 250 125 99 96 1 71 63 20 µm 10 15 13 480 <10 600 KSt Explos. 2) St. 1 92 93 77 85 83 <10 <15 65 24 19 275 St. < 63 µm Class 73 bar•m/s <10 249 237 288 65 100 33 98 23 95 52 <10 (St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St.

2) (St. 3) 92 80 79 26 35 29 230 52 <10 St. 2) 78 . Mo) Co-Al-Ti (62:18:20) Magnesium Magnesium FeSiMg (24:47:17) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 94 98 99 94 100 99 6 20 17 93 47 95 37 18 97 68 94 87 98 96 99 99 97 100 95 92 100 99 1 99 70 47 68 75 55 82 82 97 77 70 40 61 70 41 86 60 46 48 67 96 73 90 57 47 68 48 Median 32 88 70 64 60 96 16 63 20 79 45 47 17 2 µm <10 22 22 29 23 41 170 190 240 21 130 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 515 400 1100 415 320 100 (St. 1 134 508 12 267 (St. VC. 1 300 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum shavings Aluminum shavings Aluminum/Iron (50:50) Aluminum/ Magnesium Aluminum/ Nickel Aluminum/ Nickel (50:50) Bronze powder Calcium/ Aluminum (30:70) Calcium/Silicon (from cyclone) Calcium/Silicone Iron (from dry filter) Iron Carbonyl Ferrochromium Ferromanganese FeSiMg (22:45:26) Ferrosilicon (22:78) Hard metal (TiC. 1 90 18 22 21 28 12 <10 <10 <10 17 21 43 25 28 240 21 31 420 200 50 111 86 84 169 87 (St. 1) St. WC. TiN.

) Molybdenum Niobium (6% Al) Silicon Silicon (from filter) Silicon (from cust extr. 1 St. 1 83 94 100 79 .Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Manganese (electrolyt.) Steel (100 Cr6) dust Tantalum/Niobium Titanium Titanium (pre-oxidized) TiTiO2 (dust deposit) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (dust from collector) Zinc (dust from collector) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 82 70 100 87 44 24 99 9 Median 32 70 41 96 3 98 100 63 20 57 92 97 99 57 80 24 26 µm 16 33 <10 250 <10 <10 16 <10 30 35 310 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 157 69 St. 1 92 93 51 86 92 75 75 22 64 59 53 59 14 47 18 99 19 15 71 22 526 5 37 47 3 14 85 St. 1 St. 2) St. 1 126 116 100 (82) 37 (St. 2) 90 100 97 98 77 61 40 28 91 93 12 70 74 90 55 46 6 72 70 (St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 21 71 St. 1 53 19 21 99 97 91 72 <10 10 Other Inorganic Products Dust Type NH4NO3/ Dicyanimide (66:34) Graphite (99. 3) 85 93 125 176 (St.5% C) Carbon fibers (99% C) Molybdenum disulphide Petroleum coke Petroleum coke Petroleum coke (calcinated) Phosphorous (red) Soot Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 60 100 Median 32 42 97 63 20 35 µm 50 7 KSt Explos.) Manganese (electrolyt.

1 (St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 88 12 151 70 23 7 (St. comp.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other Inorganic Products Dust Type Soot (from filter) Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Titanium carbide Titanium hydride Titanium monoxide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 97 96 86 53 Median 32 20 85 51 63 µm <10 71 20 40 120 KSt Explos. 2) St. < 63 µm Class No. 1 80 . 1 123 (St. 1 St. 2) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Flyash (from electrofilter) Ash concentrate Bentonite/ Asphalt/Coal/ Org. (15:45:35:5) Bentonite/Coal (50:50) Bentonite der. Pb and Ca stearate mixture Break liner (grinding dust) Brush dust (Al-brushes) CaC/Diamide lime/Mg (72:18:10) Mud from settling chamber Dust from polishing (Al) Dust from polishing (Zn) Dust from polishing (brass) Dust from grinding (Al) Dust from grinding (Zn) Dust from grinding cardbd. 1 St. 1 St. 2) <10 25 8 23 150 190 71 360 30 96 18 St. + org. Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 100 87 90 98 86 89 98 98 99 99 99 44 60 35 93 91 26 15 2 70 95 74 87 62 55 69 41 45 23 35 89 30 80 45 Median 32 92 61 71 63 99 20 48 µm 6 21 54 42 35 KSt Explos. 2) St. bar•m/s 35 91 St. 1 100 100 70 64 44 25 85 67 10 160 (214) (24) (St. 2) (St. Ign.

2) 99 100 46 96 82 91 <10 242 600 11 196 137 134 145 169 (St. During Venting Kst (bar*m/sec) – Deflagration Index V (mˆ3) – Volume of Vessel Av (mˆ2) – Required Vent Area See Reference #3 81 .) Toner Toner Toner Toner Toner/iron powder Toner/resin Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (90:10) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 98 97 89 64 37 84 18 Median 32 95 60 4 63 20 93 41 µm <10 25 170 KSt Explos.226*Pstat) Variables: Pstat (bars) – Vent Release Pressure Pred (bars) – Max.000571 eˆ(2*Pstat) b = 0. + synth. 2) Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (20:80) Explosion Classes St. 1 St. 68-27 Av = a*Vˆ(2/3)*Kstˆb*Predˆc where a = 0. Press. Sec.978 eˆ(-0. 1 = 200 kst or less St.105* Pstat) c = -0.1. 2 = 300 kst or less (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding (Ti) Dust from grinding + polishing (polyester) Blasting dust (light metals) Immersion polishing agent Textile fibers (nat.1. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 153 237 (St. 1 100 100 58 98 96 95 37 78 100 100 48 30 55 <10 <10 21 23 60 18 (St. 2) St. 7-1. p.687 eˆ(. 1) Equations per NFPA 68.

0449 .0224 to .313 1.625 1.0972 .0141 to .0897 .0709 to .Misc.86 20.0195 . 28.187 to 6.938 5.60 35.000 .187 to 1.0359 .875 1.0299 .0156 to .938 .375 2.688 .0389 .874 to 1.687 to 4.0157 .0225 . ft.500 2.250 2.74 15.0508 to .375 3.0567 to . lbs.0343 to .0179 .750 3.0172 .718 to .1345 .062 to .438 1.000 4.937 to 5.624 to 1.437 to 2.89 82 .656 to 2.500 1.20 12.813 .1196 .0255 .594 .0284 .0209 .1046 .0635 to .0269 .1270 to .657 .375 1.0142 .1120 to .625 .1716 to .719 .1570 .750 1. lbs.125 2.312 to 1.875 .0254 to . 17.125 2.1271 .50 Thickness 11/16 3/4 7/8 1 Weight per sq.1644 .312 to 4. 7.1495 .0344 . ft. lbs.0747 .438 3.000 1.0568 .1420 .1121 .1569 to .625 5.593 to .0313 to .250 5.0448 to .657 2.062 to 3.0135 .125 1.0329 .0673 .969 2.562 Order limit pounds 7. Weight of rolled steel MSG no.0194 to .937 to .656 to .1419 to .0149 .688 4.968 to 2.562 to 5.65 10.0710 .812 to .0171 to .0821 to .0128 Weight Pounds per square foot 6.675 6.0598 .0538 .188 1.532 MSG no.313 5.0478 .0636 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Weights of steel plate Thickness 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 Weight per sq.124 to 1.95 25.563 6.0822 .0418 .812 2.0509 .250 1.0164 . Ref.70 40. ft.03 30.Order limit alent inches inches .0283 to .40 22.750 .29 Thickness 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 Weight per sq.0314 .063 4. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Thickness Sheet equiv.0388 to .374 to 2.437 to 1.0239 .063 1.0971 to .

0024 0.0070 0.0015 5660 4760 4000 3660 2830 2380 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 840 710 590 500 420 350 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 88 74 62 53 44 37 *Sieve analysis is limited in its usefulness in industrial ventilation and dust collection because it does not register particles in the submicron range.157 0.111 0.0331 0. 83 .0017 0.0059 0.0098 0.0.0937 0.0280 0.0469 0.0117 0.0049 0.0029 0.0555 0.187 0.0083 0.0197 0.0165 0.223 0. Standard Inch/Sieve # 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 Sieve Opening Inches Microns 0.Standard Sieve Series* Tyler Inch/Mesh 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 35 42 48 60 65 80 100 115 150 170 200 250 270 325 400 U.0787 0.132 0.0232 0.0394 0.0661 0.S.0021 0.0138 0.0041 0.35 0.

c a. B. and c ______ _______ tan A = _a_ = cot B. a. C = Angles sin A = _a_. a b a Given a and b. c B = 90°-A. c = √a2 + b2 = a√ 1 + _b2 b a2 Given a and c. tan A = _a_ c b cot A = _b_._a2 c c2 Given A and a. b = c cos A 84 . Find A.Right Triangle Trig Formulas A. b ________ _______ sin A = _a_ = cos B.b. b = a cot A. b B = 90°-A. sec A = _c_.c = Distances cos A = _b_. cosec A = _c_. B. b = √(c+a) (c-a) = a√ 1 . b. a = c sin A. a. c B = 90°-A a = b tan A. c = _a_ sin A Given A and b. Find B. Find B. Find B. Find A. c = _b_ cos A Given A and c. B.

Find Area ________________ s = a + b + c . (A + B) a+b Given a. Find b. and c A + B = 180° . C = 180° . a C = 180° .b and C. c = a sin C sin A tan 1/2 (A – B) = (a – b) tan 1/2. B.(A + B). B. sin A C = 180° . c = a sin C sin A Given A. b and c. C.(A + B) ac Given a. 2 Area = a²sin B sin C 2 sin A 85 .Given A.a and b. and c b = a sin B . and C __________ s=a+b+c. and c sin B = b sin A . Find B. C. Find A. Area = √s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c) 2 Area = bc sin A .B and a. sin 1/2 A = √(s – b)(s – c) 2 bc __________ sin 1/2 B = √(s –a)(s – c) .C. b and c.(A + B). c = a sin C sin A Given a. Find A.

perpendicular height. perpendicular height. lateral length L. Regular or Irregular) Area of base. B. Volume = π/3 h² (3r-h)=π/24 h (3c²+4h²) Curved Surface = 2πrh = π/4(4h²+c²) ___ Volume = 1/3h (B + T + √BT) Lateral Surface = Pbh Lateral Surface = PL Volume = Bh Volume = AL 86 . Area of base.Surface and volume of Solids Cylinder (Right or Oblique. and top. h. perpendicular height. r. h. length of chord. Spherical Segment Radius. h. h. perpendicular to sides. Perimeter. T. Sphere Area = 4πr² Volume = 1/2/³π Radius. height. perpendicular height. P. Area of section perpendicular to sides A. Circular or Elliptic) Perimeter or base. B. B. ___ Volume = 1/3 √Bh = 1/3 the volume of prism or cylinder of same base and perpendicular height or 1/2 the volume of hemisphere of same base and perpendicular height. Frustum of Any Pyramid or Cone (Parallel Ends) Areas of base. h. r. Pb. c. lateral length L. Pyramid or Cone (Right or Oblique.

50000 Mm 0. inch Pounds per sq.15625 0.7854 0.21875 0. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) In.90625 0.28125 0.03125 0.813 24.8862 0.113 11.427 0.1416 0.638 21.938 8.906 12.494 14. inch FracDecimal tion 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 0.431 22.81250 0.68750 0.175 3. gallons U.763 5.) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per sq.93750 0.050 19.46875 0. circle Diam.12500 0.62500 0.794 1.256 19.731 9. gallons U.525 10.700 U.019 23.Conversion Tables Decimal and metric equivalents of common fractions of an inch U. circle Diam.463 18. inch Miles per hour To obtain divide into 87 .1516 to obtain Circumference circle Side of equal square Volume of sphere Square mils Imperial gallons (Brit.09375 0.669 17.844 20.S.S.5236 0. inch FracDecimal tion 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 0.556 6.65625 0.319 11.144 7.400 Conversion ratios Multiply Diam.330 62.381 3.588 2. of mercury (0°C) Knots by 3.78125 0.225 23.1337 8.S.S.18750 0.71875 0.S.31250 0.4912 1.06250 0.37500 0.53125 0.081 15.00000 Mm 13.4336 0.40625 0.288 15.25000 0.59375 0.56250 0.969 4.87500 0.84375 0.8327 0.350 7.43750 0. sphere cubed Circular mils U.75000 0.875 16.34375 0.606 25.96875 1.

water = 27.02896 in. of mercury represents 900 ft. = 0. of water resistance lowers wt. in. = 0. of mercury 1. ft. = 2. = 2116. elevation 1 in. in. of water represents 74 ft. mercury = = 0.Pressure equivalents 1 Atmosphere = = 14.789 lb.06804 atmospheres = 703. in.86 oz. mercury 88 . mercury = 0.000 ft. water = 0. = 9. = 0. water = 1. water = 2. in. = 25.7 mm.733 in.0625 lb.4 mm. water = = 0. per sq.1272 in. ft. water = 13. per sq. per sq.96 ft.61 mm. mercury = = 0.02 mm. per sq. water = 0.000 ft. ft. in. 1 in. cm.000 ft. of mercury 1. water = 13. of water 1 in. = 51. difference in elevation at sea level to 4. per sq.11 in. in.876 mm.002456 atmospheres = 0. water 1 in. per sq. = 0.000 ft. per sq.000 ft. per sq. per sq. per sq.001316 atmospheres = 0. elevation 1. mercury 1 lb. mercury = 0.000 ft.4 mm. water 1. water = 0. = 33. difference in elevation at sea level to 4.2 in.3094 oz.1441 ft. 1 in. per sq. mercury = 0. = = 0. = 0.70 in. water 1 mm.196 lb. per sq.00425 atmospheres = 44. per sq.00 lb.340 mm. = 0. difference in elevation at 4.036 in. per sq.03937 in. = 70.394 in. of water represents 66 ft. mercury = 234.08333 ft. water 1 in. = 5.491 lb.23 mm.71 mm.309 ft. difference in elevation at 4. = 25. = = 144 lb. ft. represents 13. of water = 0. represents 1 in.5357 in.3 lb. per sq.52 in. per sq. cm.06895 megabars (or megadynes) per sq.92 in. per sq. in. of water = 407.6 mm. ft. = 1. ft. water = 0.0703 kg. in. mercury = 3.0361 lb. difference in elevation at 4.04464 ft. ft.696 lb. mercury = 7.61 in.6 in.000 ft. of air by 1/4 or 1% 1 in. in.54 oz. water = 0. mercury = 1.01934 lb. per sq.000 ft. water = 29.5774 oz.000 to 6. difference in elevation at sea level represents 15. 1 oz.000 to 6.70 lb.000 ft. difference in elevation at seal level represents 1.000 ft. = 16 oz. of mercury represents 1. per sq.000 ft. water 1 gm. of mercury = 760 mm. in. cm.0735 in. difference in elevation at 4. in. mercury = 2. in. per cu. per sq.134 ft.03342 atmospheres = 345. = 10. water = 0.

728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet 40 cubic feet 2.92 inches 25 links 4 rods 10 sq.42 cubic inches 231 cubic inches 1 cubic foot Dry Measure 2 pints 8 quarts 4 pecks 36 bushels Mariners’ Measure 6 feet 120 fathoms 71/2 cable lengths 5.624 steres 0.7646 cubic meter 0.9 qt.6 pounds Cloth Measure 21/8 inches 4 nails 4 quarters 1 nail 1 quarter 1 yard Miscellaneous 3 inches 4 inches 6 inches 18 inches 21.3524 hektoliter 4 inches 1.308 cubic yards 0. Measure of Volume 1 U.061 cu.2 feet 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cord (wood) 1 ton (shipping) 1 standard bu.881 dekaliter 2. month in comp.39 cubic cent. yr.8375 bushels 0. 1 cubic centimeter about 4/5 of a bushel 1 cubic inch 1 cubic decimeter 1 cubic foot 1 quart 1 cubic meter 1 peck 1 cubic yard 1 bushel 1 stere 1 chaldron 1 cord 1 liter 1 quart dry 1 fathom 1 quart liquid 1 cable length 1 dekaliter 1 mile 1 peck 1 statute mile 1 hektoliter 1 nautical mile 1 bushel 1 link 1 rod 1 chain 1 acre 1 sq. inch foot 16. 1 palm 1 hand 1 span 1 cubit 1 Bible cubit 1 military pace . 20 pwt. silver and jewels 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days 28. rods 640 acres 36 sq. 0.317 cubic dec.0567 qt. standard gal. interest 366 days lp.101 liters 0. miles (6 miles sq.9463 liter 0. 29.1 yards 5/8 of a mile 2-5/8 bushels 2-1/2 acres 2-1/5 pounds 1/4 of a cord 2.8 inches 2-1/2 feet Cubic Measure 1.3785 dekaliter 0.) Approximate Metric Equivalents 89 . 1. mile 1 township 1 decimeter 1 liter 1 meter 1 kilometer 1 hektoliter 1 hectare 1 kilogram 1 stere or.06 quarts liquid.Weights and measures Time Measure Troy Weight 24 grains 1 pwt.150.204.2759 cord 3.S. dry 1.0353 cubic foot 28.080.908 qt. 1 ounce 12 ounces 1 pound Used for weighing gold.280 feet 6. 0. cubic meter 1 metric ton Surveyors’ Measure 7. chains or 160 sq. 1. 30 or 31 days 1 month 30 days 365 days 1 year 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week 1 cal. dry 1. liq.

0160 ton (met.9678 normal atmosphere Heat and Energy units 1.560 sq.48 gallons 1 gallon = 231 cu.600.217 ft. per sq. = 1./hr.-hr. per sq.655. of water raised from 62 to 212°F. = 4.098 kg.000 grains 90 Fahrenheit Freezes 30° above Zero Freezes 32° above Zero Freezes 36° above Zero Freeze 20° above Zero Freezes 28° above Zero Boils at 173° above Zero Boils at 212° above Zero 104° above Zero Boils at 360° above Zero 98. Ton (sht.) Ton (lg. from and at 212°F.p. 0. Oz. Hat and energy units 1 ton (refrig.2048 lb. 1.1848 kg. per sq. 30-1/4 sq.8824 kg.-hr. foot = 7. in. = 0.000 joules 3.223 lb. yd. water evap.413 Btu. per sq. = 28.296 deg. in.4536 kg. = 2. 9 sq.) Blood Heat Linear measure 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard = 3 feet 1 rod = 5-1/2 yards 1 furlong = 40 rods Circular measure 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 deg. Square measure 144 sq.-lb. (av.080 ft. mile 1 kw.0703 kg. in. gal.94 Pressure 1 kg. Ton (sht.135 oz./min. = 0. rod Liquid measure 1 pint = 4 gills 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts Volume 1 cu.3410 h. Apothecaries’ weight 1 scruple = 20 grains 1 ounce = 8 drams 1 dram = 3 scruples 1 pound = 12 ounces Grain = 0. cm.-cal.88 to 0.000 w/hr.240 pounds 1 pound = 7. ft.3495 9. = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 sq. 1 quadrant = 90 deg. ft. per sq. yd. = 1 sq.) = 1. 1 lb.3437 grains 1 ounce = 16 drams 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 quarter = 25 pounds 1 hundredweight = 4 quarters 1 short ton = 2.-m.2 gal (U. 1 kg. = 60 minutes 1 circle = 4 quadrants = 2 πradians or 360 deg.) . ft. Lb. rods = 1 acre 43. Avoirdupois weight 1 dram = 27. 3. per sq. 1 kg. 22. inches 1 gal. 860 kg. = 0.76 lb. m.9072 ton (met.000 pounds 1 long ton = 2. per sq. 2. 367.Weights and measures (cont’d) Temperatures Milk Water Olive Oil Wines Vinegar Alcohol Water Eggs Hatch Petrol.) = 0. cm. = 14. 1 league = 3 miles 1 radian = 57.S. cm.0648 9. = 1 sq. m.280 feet 1 naut mile = 6.) Mineral lubricating oil has specific gravity of 0. ft. 1 lb.) = 200 Btu/min. 160 sq. = 1 sq.4° above Zero 1 stat mile = 8 furlongs 1 stat mile = 5. = 0. ft. per sq.235 lb. 1 barrel = 31-1/2 gallons 1 hogshead = 2 barrels 1 Imp.) = 907.518 lb. per sq. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 3.

2520 kg.500 ft. per lb. 1 kg. per liter = 112.7457 kw.p. per kilogram = 1. ft.545 Btu.Heat and Energy units (cont’d) 1 h.315 lb.5555 kg. of water evap.520 Btu 1. 1 Btu per pound = 0. 5.97 lb.1085 lb.9685 Btu 1 Btu = 0. = 0.1849 lb.400 kg.300. manufactured gas (varies) 12. 14. 91 .000 ft.4 cu. natural gas (varies) 14. ft.500 joules 756.622 lb. – hr. 273.0089 kg.-hr.3814 h.-cal. 0. 1.745 kg. per kg. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 14.-m.-lb. water evaporated from and at 212°F. per cu. ft. 11. 2.-lb.980. 1 lb. from and at 212°F.2844 kw.-cal. water evap.1124 Btu per cu. dry wood oxidized (varies) 26.255 kw. from and at 212°F.2 Btu 104. 0.-hr. ft. ft.-hr.-m.000 ft.37 Btu per cu.8000 Btu per lb.-hr. ft. 1.8987 kg. m. per cu. 1 Btu per cu. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 2. 0.0668 lb.709 h. anthracite oxidized (varies) 2.-cal.-cal. of carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 1 kg. 1 kg.-cal. 970.p. = 8. = 0.p.-cal. 1 kg. m. = 3. 0. 1 Btu per cu.-hr. 0. 1 lb.-lb.-cal.023.9 cu.-cal.

Petroleum – bbl x 0.92 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 33.S.01325 = Bars (bar) absolute x 1.252 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 107. U.15899 x 42 Bars – bar x 100 x 14.0581 = Tons force per square foot (tonf/ft²) absolute x 760 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Barrels.96 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 1.S.00 = Centimeters of mercury (cmHg) at 0°C x 29.696 = Pounds-force per square inch absolute (psia) x 76. Liquid.53 x 1.3937 = Square meters (m²) = Inches (in) 92 .93 x 10 x 3. – bbl x 0.0332 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) absolute x 1.S.58 = Watts (W) x 12. gallons (U.S.97 = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) x 0.6 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) -4 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) x 2.52 x 29.0197 x 0.02358 = Horsepower (hp) Centares x1 Centimeters – cm x 0.11924 = Cubic meters (m³) x 31.06 = Cubic meters (m³) = U.504 x 33.S.98692 x 1.5 = U.93 x 10-4 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) British Thermal Units per Minute – Btu/min (See note) x 17. gallons (U.0443 x 750. gal) liquid Barrels.Metric Conversions Atmospheres – atm (Standard at sea-level pressure) x 101.325 = Kilopascals (kPa) absolute x 14. gal) oil = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Atmospheres (atm) sea-level standard = Tons-force per square foot (tonf/ft²) = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) British Thermal Units – Btu (See note) x 1055 = Joules (J) x 778 = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 0.

699 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 0.308 x 10-6 x 2.0 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 1.30 = Pounds of water per minute (lbH2O/min) at 68°F Cubic Feet per Second – cfs x 0.S.S. gallons per minute (U. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) Cubic Feet per Minute – cfm x 472. gpd) 93 .S. gallons per day (U.S.ft³ x 0.4468 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 5.8 = U.03704 x 7.6000 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Centimeters of Mercury – cm/Hg at 0°C x 1.02832 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 1.19337 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.02237 = Miles per hour (mph) Cubic Centimeters – cm³ x 3.200 x 10-4 x 1000 x 10-3 Cubic Feet . gallons (U. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.85 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.03281 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.S.013595 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 27.013158 = Atmospheres (atm) standard x 10 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Centimeters per Second – cm/s x 1.1024 x 10-2 x 1.481 x 6.013332 = Bars (bar) x 0.S.699 = Cubic meters per minute (m³/min) x 448. gallons per second (U.229 x 28.642 x 10-4 x 2.1247 = U.S. gpm) x 0.832 x 104 x 1728 x 0.9685 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.6463 = Million U.4720 = Liters per second (l/s) x 0.3332 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.5315 x 10-5 x 6.S.32 = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd3) = U.S.03600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 0. gallons (U.362 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.02832 x 2.S. gps) x 62.

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Cubic Inches - In³ x 1.6387 x 10-5 x 16.387 x 0.016387 x 5.787 x 10-4 x 2.143 x 10-5 x 4.329 x 10-3 x 3.605 x 10-3 Cubic Meters - m³ x 1000 x 35.315 x 61.024 x 10³ x 1.3080 x 264.2 x 220.0 = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal)

Cubic Meters per Hour - m³/h x 0.2778 = Liters per second (l/s) -4 x 2.778 x 10 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 4.403 = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Meters per Second – (m³/s) x 3600 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 15.85 x 10³ = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Yards - yd³ x 0.7646 x 764.6 x 7.646 x 105 x 27 x 46,656 x 201.97 x 168.17 Degrees Angular (°) x 0.017453 x 60 x 3600 x 1.111 = Cubic meters (m³) = Liters (l) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Radians (rad) = Minutes (‘) = Seconds (“) = Grade (gon)

Degrees per Second, Angular (°/s) x 0.017453 = Radians per second (rad/s) x 0.16667 = Revolutions per minute (r/min) x 2.7778 x 10-3 = Revolutions per second (r/s) Drams (dr) x 1.7718 x 27.344 x 0.0625 = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) 94

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Fathoms x 1.8288 x6 Feet – ft x 0.3048 x 30.480 x 12 x 0.3333 = Meters (m) = Feet (ft) = Meters (m) = Centimeters (cm) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd)

Feet of Water – ftH2O, at 68°F x 2.984 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.02984 = Bars (bar) x 0.8811 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.03042 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 62.32 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.4328 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.02945 = Standard atmospheres Feet per Minute – ft/min x 0.5080 x 0.01829 x 0.0051 x 0.3048 x 0.016667 x 0.01136 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per second (mps) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph)

Feet per Second per Second – ft/s² x 0.3048 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 30.48 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) Foot-Pounds-Force – ft • lbf x 1.356 = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 1.285 x 10-3 x 3.239 x 10-4 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 0.13825 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 5.050 x 10-7 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) x 3.766 x 10-7 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h)

95

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Gallons U.S. – U.S. gal x 3785.4 x 3.7854 x 3.7854 x 10-3 x 231 x 0.13366 x 4.951 x 10-3 x8 x4 x 0.8327 x 8.328 x 8.337 Gallons, Imperial – imp gal x 4546 x 4.546 x 4.546 x 10-3 x 0.16054 x 5.946 x 10-3 x 1.20094 x 10.000 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = Pints (pt) liquid = Quarts (qt) liquid = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Pounds of water at 60°F in air = Pounds of water at 60°F in vacuo = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Pounds of water at 62°F in air

Gallons, per Minute, U.S. – U.S. gpm x 0.22715 = Cubic meters per hour (m3/h) x 0.06309 = Liters per second (l/s) x 8.021 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) x 2.228 x 10-3 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Grains – gr av. or troy x 0.0648 Grains per Cubic Foot x 2288.1 = Grams (g) = milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)

Grains per U.S. Gallon – gr/U.S. gal at 60°F x 17.12 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) x 17.15 = Parts per million by weight in water x 142.9 = Pounds per million gallons Grains per Imperial Gallon – gr/imp gal at 62°F x 14.25 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m3) x 14.29 = Parts per million by weight in water Grams – g x 15.432 x 0.035274 x 0.032151 x 2.2046 x 10.3 = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) av. = Ounces (oz) troy = Pounds (lb)

96

5 = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 2.69 x 1.7457 x 33.540 = Centimeters (cm) 97 .03613 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Grams per Liter – g/l x 58.000 x 104 x 1.42 x 8. gallons = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) = Parts per million by mass = Square meters (m²) = Square feet (ft²) = Watts (W) = Kilowatts (kW) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (metric) = British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (see note) = Kilowatts (kW) Horsepower-Hours – hp • h x 0.807 x 10-3 = Newtons (N) Grams – Force per Centimeter – gf/cm x 98.0139 Horsepower – hp boiler x 33.976 x 106 x 2545 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 641. gal) = Pounds per 1000 U.7457 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 1.06243 x 1002 Hectares – ha x 1.S.000 x 550 x 42.480 x 9.43 x 10.43 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) x 0.7 x 0.345 x 0.809 = Grains per U.0764 x 105 Horsepower – hp x 745.S.07 = Newtons per meter (N/m) = Pounds-force per inch (lbf/in) x 5. gallon (gr/U.S.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Grams-Force – gf x 9.600 x 10-3 Grams per Cubic Centimeter – g/cm3 x 62.732 x 105 Inches – in x 2.

07342 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C -3 x 2.487 x 10 x 0.2390 x 0.000 x 106 = Kilograms-force per square meter (kgf/m²) 98 .07 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.03342 = Standard atmospheres Inches of Water – in H2O at 68°F x 0.223 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.73 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.9807 = Bars (bar) x 32.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Inches of Mercury – inHg at 0°C x 3.535 x 10 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 0.807 x 2.2487 = Kilopascals (kPa) -3 = Bars (bar) x 2.205 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Calories (cal) thermochemical = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Watt-hours (W • h) = Pounds (lb) = Tons (ton) short = Newtons (N) = Pounds-force (lbf) Kilograms-Force per Meter – kgf/m x 9.454 x 10-3 = Standard atmospheres Joules – J x 0.807 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 0.03606 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 2.193 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.03386 = Bars (bar) x 1.9678 = Standard atmospheres Kilograms-Force per Square Millimeter – kgf/mm² x 9.03453 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 70.62 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.9484 x 10-3 x 0.96 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 2048 = Pounds-force per square foot (lb/ft²) x 14.87 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 28.778 x 10-4 Kilograms – kg x 2.807 = Megapascals (MPa) x 1.135 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 13.3864 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.6721 = Pounds-force per foot (lbf/ft) Kilograms-Force per Square Centimeter – kg/cm² x 98.4912 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.102 x 10-3 Kilograms-force – kgf x 9.2046 x 1.7376 x 2.5770 = Ounces-force per square inch (ozf/in²) x 5.

33 x 1.53996 = International knots (kn) x 0.5144 = Meters per second (m/s) x 1.78 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.3351 x 4.151 = Miles per hour (mph) Liters – l x 1000 x 0.28 = Miles per minute (mi/min) Kilopascals – kPa x 103 x 0.667 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.425 x 104 x 737.2953 x 0.9113 = Feet per second per second (ft/s²) Kilometers per Second – km/s x 37.021 Kilowatts – kW x 4.90 x 14.035315 x 61.655 x 106 x 3413 x 860 x 3.2200 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.671 x 105 x 1.6214 = Miles per hour (mph) Kilometers per Hour per Second – km • h-1 • s-1 x 0.024 x 1. gallons (U.2642 x 0. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) 99 .308 x 10-3 x 0.3410 Kilowatt-Hours – kW • h x 3.68 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 16.6 x 56.010197 x 0.6 x 106 x 2.2778 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 27.3410 = pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 32°F = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (hp) = Joules (J) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force meters (kgf • m) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) Knots – kn (International) x 0.S.78 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) x 0.S.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Kilometers per Hour – km/h x 27.9113 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 54.1450 x 0.

20 Megapascals – Mpa x 106 x 10³ x 145.0936 = Limits per second (l/s) = Cubic feet per second (cfs) = U. gallons per second (U.6093 x 5280 x 1760 = Meters (m) = Kilometers (km) = Feet (ft) = Yards (yd) 100 .03728 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Feet per minute (ft/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Miles per minute (mi/min) Micrometers .1020 Meters – m x 3.6667 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0. gallons per minute (U.600 x 60 x 15.281 x 2.600 x 0.281 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.37 x 1.885 x 10-4 x 4.S.000001 = Meters (m) Miles – mi x 1.281 x 39.0600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 3.S.05468 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0. gpm) = Imperial gallons per minute (imp gpm) = Pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square millimeter (kgf/mm²) = Feet (ft) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd) Meters per Minute – m/min x 1. gal/s) = Imperial gallons per second (imp gal/s) = Cubic meters per second (m3/s) = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) = Liters per minute (l/min) = U.666 x 10-3 Liters per Second – l/s x 10-3 x 3.01667 x 5.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Liters per Minute – l/min x 0.0 x 0.µm (micron) x 0.0600 x 196.85 x 13.S.237 x 0.403 x 10-3 x 3.8 x 3.S.03728 = Miles per hour (mph) Meters per Second – m/s x 3.6093 x 10³ x 1.

06857 x 1.10197 x 0.06250 x 0. fluid x 0.06250 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 4. = Liters (l) = Cubic inches (in) Ounces-Force per Square Inch – ozf/in² x 43.6093 x 2682 x 88 x 60 Minutes. = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.70 x 1.8046 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per minute (R/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = International knots (kn) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Radians (rad) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Pounds-force (lbf) = Poundals = Dynes = Grams (g) = Tonnes (t) metric ton = Drams (dr) av. = Ounces (oz) troy = Tons (ton) long = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Pounds (lb) troy = Pounds (lb) av. x 28.233 x 105 Ounces – oz av.9115 x 2.4667 x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Miles per Hour – mph x 44.909 x 10-4 Newtons – N x 0.08333 x 0.35 x 2. = Ounces (oz) av.0971 Ounces – oz U.S.02957 x 1.835 x 10-5 x 16 x 437.790 x 10-5 Ounces – oz troy x 31.8690 Miles per Minute – mi/min x 1.5 x 0.103 x 480 x 20 x 0.1 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.395 = Grams-force per square centimeter (gf/cm²) 101 . Angular – (‘) x 2.6093 x 26.2248 x 7.82 x 88 x 1.

5552 x 24 Poises – P x 0.8229 x 13.0886 x 10-3 x 0.6735 x 10-4 x 4.166 x 3. = Ounces (oz) av.448 x 0.2 x 12 x 240 x 5760 x 0.2153 Pounds per Cubic Foot x 7000 x 1. = Tons (ton) long = Tons (ton) short = Tonnes (t) metric tons 102 . = Drams (dr) av.0197 x 10-5 x 10-3 Pennyweights – dwt troy x 1.1143 x 10-4 x 3. = Grains (fr) = Tons (ton) short = Pounds (lb) troy = Grams/cubic ft. x 4.0583 = Grains per U.450 x 10-4 x 1.0700 = Grains per imperial gallon (gr/imp gal) at 62°F x 8. gallons at 60°F Pascals – Pa x1 x 1.6 x 16 x 256 x 7000 x 5 x 10-4 x 1.7324 x 10-4 = Newtons per square mater (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Newton-seconds per square meter (N • s/m²) = Centipoises (cP) = Pound-force-seconds per square foot (lbf • s/ft²) = Pounds per foot second (lb/ft • s) = Newtons (N) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) av.S.9991 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) at 15°C x 0. gallon (gr/U.328 = Pounds per million U.1000 x 100 x 2.6x107 Pounds – lb troy x 373.S.S.4536 Pounds – lb. x 453.06721 Pounds-Force – lbf av. gal) at 60°F x 0. = Mg/cubic meter = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) troy = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Parts per Million by Mass – mass (weight) in water x 0. av.

01603 =Cubic feet (ft³) x 27.787 x 10 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Pounds per Cubic Inch – lb/in³ x 2.1199 = U.675 x 10-4 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Pounds per Cubic Foot – lb/ft³ x 16.882 x 10-4 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 6.88 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.20 Quarts – qt liquid x 946.576 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 2.73 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 2.88 = Grams-force per centimeter (gf/cm) Pounds-Force per Square Foot – lbf/ft² x 47.4 x 57. gallons (U.S.944 x 10-3 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) Pounds-Force per Square Inch – psi x 6.07031 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) Quarts – qt dry x 1101 x 67.488 = Kilograms-force per meter (kgf/m) x 14.68 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) x 1728 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) Pounds-Force per Foot – lbt/fl x 14.036 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.45398 = Liters (l) x 0.768 x 104 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 27.018 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 0.S.06805 = Standard atmospheres x 2.70 = Cubic inches (in³) x 0. gal) Pounds of Water per Minute at 60°F x 7.895 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.98 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) x 0.016018 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) -4 x 5.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Pounds-Mass of Water at 60°F x 453.01605 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 4.59 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 1.311 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 27.75 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) 103 .

av.47 = Pounds (lb) Mexico x 101.43 = Pounds (lb) Peru Radians – rad x 57.338 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) 104 .30 = Degrees per second (°/s) angular Stokes – St x 10-4 x 1.54 = Pounds (lb) Brazil x 101.7 = Newtons (N) Tons – ton short x 907.41 = Pounds (lb) Chile x 101. x 101.9072 x 2000 x 32000 x 2430.33 = Pounds of water per hour (lb/h H2O) at 60°F x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Quintals – obsolete metric mass term x 100 = Kilograms (kg) x 220.46 = Pounds (lb) U. gpm) x 1.S.30 = Degrees (°) angular Radians per Second – rad/s x 57.S.03789 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 83. = Pounds (lb) troy = Tons (ton) long Tons of Water per 24 Hours at 60°F x 0. millier x 1000 = Kilograms (kg) x 2204. = Ounces (oz) av.2 x 0.8929 = Kilograms (kg) = Tonnes (t) = Pounds (lb) av.076 x 10-3 Tons-Mass – tonm long x 1016 x 2240 x 1.1668 = U.6 = Pounds (lb) Tonnes-Force – tf metric ton-force x 980. = Tons (ton) short Tonnes – t metric ton.28 = Pounds (lb) Argentina x 129.1200 = Square meters per second (m²/s) = Square feet per second (ft²/s) = Kilograms (kg) = Pounds (lb) av.6 x 0.S. gallons per minute (U.

341 x 10-3 x 0. when this exceeds the precision of the data. is in the tenth percent region at best.25 x 0. such a practice is misleading and timewasting.860 x 367. the fact that different sources disagree.413 x 2655 x 1. analog or digital. Hence this table is confined to four or five significant figures. While many handbooks and standards give factors contained in this table to six or more significant figures.7376 x 1. thus needing only three significant figures. At present the accuracy of process instrumentation.01433 Watt-Hours – W • h x 3600 x 3. or the accuracy of the application. in the fifth or further indicates that four or five significant figures represent the precision for these factors fairly. and its application. in many cases.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Watts .05690 x 44. determine the number of significant figures which should be used. 105 .341 x 10-3 x 0.1 = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft – lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft – lbf//s) = Horsepower (hp) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilograms-force-meters (kgf • m) NOTE: Significant Figures The precision to which a given conversion factor is know.W x 0. The advent of the pocket calculator (and the use of digital computers in process instrumentation) tends to lead to use of many figures as the calculator will handle. However.

2 -4.0 30. Zero (0°K) on the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas has lost all of its energy.8 59.2 -31.8 95.0 -148.2 172.0 21.6 186.0 201.6 42.6 204.0 156.0 °C 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 °F 93.6 60.0 383.2 73.6 87.2 37.0 84.2 136.8 23.4 125.0 -5.0 320.6 °C -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200 -250 -273 °F 15.4 26.0 311.8 194.4 197.0 365.8 -16.2 199.6 6.0 138.4 -2.0 -238.6 150.6 51.4 -20.0 -14.0 66.8 -34.0 275.2 91.6 141.0 210.4 62.2 64.0 329.8 -7.0 48.4 44.2 100.2 -22.4 -0.8 14. This scale is based on the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas and uses the same ske degrees as the Centigrade scale.6 78.0 -328.0 212.0 192.8 167.6 -18. °C = 5/9 (°F-32) °F = 9/5 °C + 32 Absolute Zero = 0°K = -273.8 32.6 159.0 -23.6 96.8 203.0 -76.0 174.6 177.0 75.0 221.4 -11.0 120. 1 unit is 1/100 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.4 152.4 134.Temperature Conversions °C 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 °F 18032 17132 16232 15332 14432 13532 12632 11732 10832 9932 9032 8132 7232 6332 5432 4532 3632 2732 1832 1742 1652 1562 1472 1382 1292 1202 1112 1094 1076 1058 1040 1022 1004 986 968 950 932 914 896 878 860 842 824 °C 430 420 410 400 395 390 385 380 375 370 365 360 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 245 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 °F 806 788 770 752 743 734 725 716 707 698 689 680 671 662 653 644 635 626 617 608 599 590 581 572 563 554 545 536 527 518 509 500 491 482 473 464 455 446 437 428 419 410 401 °C 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 °F 392.8 77.2 82.0 102.8 68.4 35.8 50.2 154.0 284.0 459.2 55.8 113.4 -29.0 12.0 374.2 1.6 33.4 161.2 190.2 -40.4 °C 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 °F 170.6 24.8 140.4 143.2 109.0 183.2 28.4 -38.0 147.0 -130.8 149.6 195.4 17.4 98.0 3.0 39.4 8.0 129.2 10.0 165.0 57.0 -32.0 -193.6 -27.8 122.8 176.8 185. 106 .0 347.4 53.0 -94.0 266.8 5.2 145.16°C = -459.4 179.4 °C = Degrees Centigrade (Celsius scale).0 230.0 239.2 -13.8 -25.2 19.0 338.6 132.0 356.6 69.6 -9.6 168.6 114.8 86.2 163.2 181.2 208.8 104.69°F °K = Degrees Kelvin (Absolute temperature). °F = Degrees Fahrenheit.0 248.0 293.6 123.2 127.8 131.2 46.6 105.8 41.4 71.4 188.4 206.4 89.0 -418. 1 unit is 1/180 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.0 -112.0 -58.0 302.4 80.8 158.4 107.6 -36.2 118.0 111.0 257.4 116.

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