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Added by Ondrej Kalny, last edited by Ondrej Kalny on Aug 26, 2010 (view change)

**This page contains frequently asked questions related to modal analysis. On this page:
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General FAQ o How should I setup a modal analysis for a structure with cables? o What are reasons for and consequences of a warning message that loads are applied to massless degrees of freedom in Ritz-vector modal analysis? o After assigning shell joint offsets, why I am getting warning messages that loads are applied to massless degrees of freedom in Ritz-vector modal analysis? o Why am I getting warning message about excessively large effective-damping ratios for modal time history analysis based on Ritz vectors?

General FAQ

How should I setup a modal analysis for a structure with cables?

Extended Question: I am doing a modal analysis of a model that has cable elements in it. The model is intrinsically non-linear since it has tension-only cable elements. But the modal analysis is theoretically an elastic analysis. If you force SAP to do such an analysis, what will happen? In another words, what is the algorithm involved? Answer: To obtain meaningful results for modal analysis of a structure with cables, the modal analysis should be using stiffness at the end of nonlinear load case in which the dead loads (and possibly other types of loads of interest) are applied. Then the modes will be based on the stiffness of the cables under the applied loads. If you need to consider complete dynamic nonlinear behavior, you should consider running nonlinear direct-integration time-history analysis.

What are reasons for and consequences of a warning message that loads are applied to massless degrees of freedom in Ritz-vector modal analysis?

Extended Question: When I run analysis, I get a warning message saying: Loads are applied to one or more massless degrees of freedom, corresponding Ritz modes may be unavailable or inaccurate for dynamics. When does this type of warning indicate? How can I modify my model to get rid of this message? Does that have to do with boundary conditions? If nothing is done to avoid this warning, what are the possible consequences? Answer: This message means that you are applying load in that load case to a joint that has no [mass] , possibly at a joint that is restrained.

UY. and Ritz vectors generate high-frequency modes that. for which the damping increases with large frequency. Ritz vectors used for dynamic loading work best if all applied loads act on degrees of freedom with mass. After assigning shell joint offsets. Is there any explanation for this warning message? Answer: This could be caused by using [proportional damping]. multiplied by the square of the offset distance. Why am I getting warning message about excessively large effective-damping ratios for modal time history analysis based on Ritz vectors? Extended Question: My model gives "Excessively Large Effective-Damping Ratios Have Been Set To 0. Also. you could specify a very small nonzero mass for the DOFs in question. Earthquake loads automatically act on mass DOF. When it uses Eigenvectors with all other parameters being the same. and UZ. chapter "Modal Analysis". this warning can be ignored. have large damping.. To eliminate them. If you are generating Ritz vectors for the purpose of applying gravity and other static loads in a timehistory analysis. each joint has up to 6 [degrees of freedom] (DOF): translations UX. You can additionally assign joint masses at any of the 6 DOF of a joint. since the load is applied so slowly that dynamical behavior is not important. please see the CSI Analysis Reference Manual. However. If you are applying other types of loads or are using nonlinear NLLink elements. why I am getting warning messages that loads are applied to massless degrees of freedom in Ritz-vector modal analysis? When [joint offsets] are used for the shell element. they are not very important. which SAP2000 treats as external force generators. Hence gravity (self-weight) load in most structures will impose load (moments) on massless DOF. section "Starting Load Vectors". Gravity load on a frame element creates a set of fixed-end forces at the joints which include moments as well as shears.In a structure with frame or shell elements." warning when I run time history using modes from Ritz Vector modal load case. and RZ. divided by 100 or 1000.999950 . Alternatively. Unless the offsets are very large. hence. there is no such a warning. come from the material mass density) are always assigned only to the translational DOF. A reasonable value would be equal to the translational mass as the joint. in turn. mass should be assigned to the loaded DOF. These messages are to be expected. and do not include rotational inertia. and rotations RX. RY. then it is not necessary to have mass on the loaded DOF. Masses which come from the elements (which.. you can assign small rotational masses at the joints. translational forces may cause moments at the joints. the masses are still lumped at the joints. . So for this type of problems.

If you need much more than about 20 to 25% of the DOF as Ritz vectors. (2) Cleaning new vectors with respect to previous vectors. For example. (3) Orthogonalizing the final Ritz vector set. However.Ritz vectors • • Added by Ondrej Kalny. FAQ Why is the cumulative modal mass participation ratio for a given number of Ritz vectors affected by the total number of Ritz vectors requested? Extended Question: When 1000 Ritz modes are requested. the first 200 of both will be the same. steps (2) and (3) will dominate. Only the first step uses multi-cores. there are four main operations: (1) Solving for new vectors. But if you get 200 and 500 Ritz vectors. none may be the same. . the cumulative modal mass participating ratio for Rx reaches only about 70% for all 500 modes. Ritz vectors do not always produce the same modes. and that uses multiple cores. when only 500 modes are requested. although the lower modes will tend to converge to be the same as you increase the number of modes. the stiffness matrix is factored. and (4) Postprocessing and saving the vectors. and they dominate as the number of vectors is increased. Step (4) is linear in time with the number of vectors. Is there any explanation for this? Answer: Unlike Eigen vectors. However. 2010 (view change) Parallel Processing in Ritz Vector Analysis Prior to beginning Ritz analysis. This step dominates for problems where the model is large and a fair number of vectors are requested. the usual intention for using Ritz or eigen vectors is that they reduce the number of degrees of freedom in the system. you may want to consider direct-integration. so that the essential behavior can be captured more efficiently. last edited by Ondrej Kalny on May 03. the cumulative modal mass participating ratios for Rx for 250 modes is almost 100%. if you get 200 and 500 eigens. When large number is Ritz vectors is being requested. and will increase exponentially with more vectors. During Ritz analysis. Steps (2) and (3) are not parallelized.

eigen modes are generally quite efficient.. in the same model. as does SAP2000.g. Orthogonality is strictly maintained to within the accuracy of the machine (15 decimal digits). When determining convergence of localized response with respect to the number of modes. and in standard structural dynamics textbooks (e. but will still produce eigen vectors that you can use to trace the source of the modeling problem. SAP2000 will detect and report ill-conditioned systems. For vertical ground acceleration. The natural frequency information can also be important for understanding where resonance can be expected with different types of loads. Sturm sequence checks are performed and reported to avoid missing any Eigen vectors when using shifts. including the consideration of P-delta and other nonlinear effects. determine the type of modes you feel are most appropriate. even in the same run. Load dependent Ritz vectors are well documented in the open literature (e. you control the convergence tolerance. Ritz vectors are more efficient and widely used. Please let us know if you need detailed citations. eigen modes may be much less efficient. SAP2000 lets you. When using Eigen vectors. or localized loading such as by machine vibration. Ritz . Ritz vectors can provide a better basis that do eigenvectors when used for response-spectrum or time-history analyses that are based on modal superposition. Cook et al). For determining the response to horizontal ground acceleration.. and does not give information about localized response. although it may be necessary to include a missing-mass (residual-mass) mode to account for highfrequency effects that are missed by the Eigen modes. Ritz-vector analysis seeks to find modes that are excited by a particular loading. Wilson et al).Ritz vectors vs.g. Eigen vectors • Added by Riaz. the engineer. SAP2000 provides static and dynamic participation measures for other types of loading as well. in standard finite-element textbooks (e.g. Most common structural analysis programs have this capability. and determining whether or not you have enough modes can be difficult. modes at different stages of construction. However. and have the advantage of always including the missing-mass modes automatically. Ritz vectors converge much faster and more uniformly than do Eigen vectors. you can calculate both types of modes simultaneously. Chopra). We always recommend performing an Eigen analysis of the structure. SAP2000 offers much flexibility in the calculation of Eigen or Ritz modes. it is only useful for ground acceleration. Mass participation is a common measure for determining whether or not you have enough modes. As stated in the CSI Analysis Reference Manual that is included with SAP2000: • • Eigenvector analysis determines the undamped free-vibration modes shapes and frequencies of the system.. and compare their behavior. since it can help to check behavior and find modeling problems. and frequency shifts for specialized loading. In fact. Even for horizontal ground excitation. Loaddependent Ritz vectors are very effective for this purpose. These natural modes provide an excellent insight into the behavior of the structure. Internal accuracy checks are performed and used to control the solution automatically. last edited by Ondrej Kalny on Dec 15. 2010 (view change) SAP2000 has always offered both exact Eigen vectors and Load-dependent Ritz (LDR vectors).

but strict orthogonality of the vectors is maintained as it is for eigen vectors.vectors are not subject to convergence questions. .

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