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Introduction: What is advertisement all about?
“Adverting is the means by which we make known what we have to sell or what we want to buy.” We most people use advertising at some time, either privately or in business. And we too respond to advertisements and so enjoy the choices available to us in every sphere of life. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Facilitating Institutions Control Institutions 1. Government Advertiser 2. Competition 3. Research Suppliers Markets & Consumer Behavior Major Institutions involved in the field of Advertising Management ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Media 1.Advertising Agency
Definition: Advertisement is to persuade and sell.
A better definition is: Advertising presents the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects for the product or service at the lowest possible cost. This professional definition emphasizes that advertising should be planned and created to achieve the most results for the least costs. Many accept the observation that ‘Advertising is the lubricant which helps wheels of industries kept turning’.
Defining Advertisement: Don E. Schultz, an authority in advertising reported that consumers tend to think virtually every form of commercial activity, from concert sponsorship to telemarketing, is a form of “advertising” John E Kennedy, an earliest copy writer year back in 1904 defined: “Advertising is salesmanship in print”. Since the early days attempts have been made to define advertisement. One such attempt led to the following definition: “The dissemination of information concerning an idea, service or product to compel action in accordance with the intent of the advertiser.” In 1963, the America Marketing Association proposed the following definition of advertising: “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services by an identified sponsor.” Many experts based on various surveys and studies observe that there is no universally accepted single definition of advertisement. However, there are some recurring elements in all the definations like 1. paid, 2. non-personal, 3. identified sponsor, 4. mass media, and 5. persuade or influence. In view of this, the essence of most advertisement can be put in a single typical example which is – advertising is a paid, non-personal communication by an identified sponsor, using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. 1. Paid The paid aspect of the advertisement definition reflects the fact that the space or times for advertising messages are bought. However, there are exceptions like media institutions voluntarily donating space and time, and also prepare ads for certain public service announcements and social causes. 2. Non-personal Advertising is totally non-personal, offering no personal interaction as it is delivered through media. 3. Ideas, goods and services Advertising being a powerful mass communication tool not only present and promote goods and services with intent to sell but also help promote social harmony among different community and discourage harmful human habit like smoking, unsaved sex, etc. 4. Identified sponsor In case of advertising, the sponsor is known.
in the newspaper pages. the creative team members. Advertising is a very powerful communication force. Not neutral. media specialists. on the back of the buses. It has been part of human civilization. Persuade and influence The most important inherent objective of advertisement is to persuade and influence the targeted audience to accept the sponsor’s ideas. Besides. television. copy writers. These situations’ focused analyses are expected to provide relevant information and data about: • • • The target market segment and the target audience profile The brand’s main attributes and benefits Market share of the client and its competitors. magazines. strategies and other relevant information and data 3 . their product positioning. Mass media The large spectrum of audience can be easily reached by mass media such as print (newspapers. The client’s overall marketing plan decides promotional objectives from which advertising objectives are derived.) and electronics media (radio. highly visible. The promotional objectives help focus what is to be achieved and where the advertising fit in. goods. It is there on the walls. media buyers and professional advertising researchers. Again. adverting can not be claimed to be neutral and not unbiased for simple reason that this is controlled by the advertiser and is intended to serve the advertiser’s interest.5. ******************************************************************* Advertising Objectives Advertisement objectives provide a platform to the client and the ad agency’s account executive. 7. and in the televisions programme. in the play grounds. etc. it has been an accepted fact that advertising reflect one civilization’s social. not unbiased Rightly. The other function of objective is to provide opportunity for decision making at a time when two alternative advertising campaigns are developed. It is also strongly recognized that advertising reflects the need of the times. or services for consumption.) 6. in the stores. cultural and business environment. Whether we like it or not it is everywhere. outdoor displays. and one of the most significant tools of marketing communication which a marketing organization can hardly ignore. It seems it is very difficult to remain neutral and not to take notice of present day advertisement. The objective criteria helps select the most appropriate one that will readily achieve the objective. etc.
etc. we shall discuss the objectives of different focused advertising campaign: 1. or wrong information • Build familiarity and easy recognition 3. recognition and acceptance 4. The advertising focused at helping to increase sales Objectives: • • • • Hold present customers Convert other brand users to client’s brand Convert non-user to users Convert occasional customers to regular users 4 . repeat purchase. increased usage rate. Now. The advertising focused at immediate sales Objectives: • • • • • • Perform the complete selling function Close sales to prospects already partly sold Announce special reason for buying now Remind consumers to buy Tie in with special buying event Stimulate impulse purchase 2. The advertising focused at long-range sales Objectives: • • • • • Build confidence in company and its brand Stimulate consumer demand Secure increased distribution Establish reputation as an innovator for lunching new products Establish brand recall. The advertising focused at near-term sales Objectives: • Create brand awareness • Provide information or develop attitude • Rebut or offset competitive claims • Correct false impressions.• Some ideas on how the client’s brand should be positioned and behavioural response on brand trial.
or package Announce price change Trade-in offers or special terms New policies regarding guarantee or warranties 7.• • • • Advertise new uses and use occasions Persuade customers to buy more or larger sizes Remind users to buy Encourage greater use frequency or more quantity per use. The advertising communicating information that would help close sales and build consumer satisfaction Objectives: • • • • • • “Where to buy” advertising “How to use the product” advertising Announce new models. dealers and retailers Employees and potential employees Financial institutions Public at large 8. or ask for more information Persuade prospect to visit dealership and ask for demonstration Induce customer to try the product 6. progressiveness and technical leadership 5 . The advertising focused at some specific step that leads to brand sales Objectives: • • • Persuade prospect to return a coupons. The advertising aim to build confidence and goodwill for corporation Objectives: • • • • • Customers and potential customers Distributors. What kind of image does the company wish to build? Objectives: • • • • Product quality and dependability Service Corporate citizenship Growth. enter a contest. features. 5.
1. Persuasion. 3. as per the researchers. price. It is used by the advertisers to persuade the consumers to buy its products or services by changing mental states. and 4. preference. They are: 1. knowledge. Reinforcement. quality. Hierarchy-of-effects model According to Jagdish N.******************************************************************** Functions of Advertising Advertising is a form of mass communication. In order to persuade the consumers. fear. offered. 2. 2. Example: Concept sellers mostly use these types of advertising. conviction and purchase. or provided by any product before. The function of advertising is better explained in Hierarchy-of-Effects Model because. love. It is mostly designed to reassure consumers that they 6 . Persuasion: Persuasion is the ultimate goal of all product or service advertising. Reminder. etc. the ad appeal may be emotional or rational with humor. Sheth the advertising has four sequential functions. 3. the audience members pass through a series of sequential steps leading to purchase of product or service. Ads usually highlight the product or service’s usefulness which could not have been done. shame. liking. Precipitation: The ad’s precipitation function helps stimulate needs and wants besides creating awareness and educating consumers about the new product or service. Reinforcement: Reinforcement through feel good effect is another important function of advertisement. Precipitation. quantity. From being unaware the steps lead to awareness.
Brand has a perceived value. This move has direct contribution in deepen market penetration. says John E. 1. 6. happy family’ is one such example. FMCG products advertisements are example of such advertisements. Competitive weapons: When the advertising helps build a brand image with definite identity of its own. Kennedy. Brand image building: Brand sells. and also used as competitive weapons. strengthen other promotional mix elements. a consumer may choose to buy an expensive car because it symbolizes status and wealth. In view of this thinking. Strengthen other Promotion-mix Elements: Advertising is ‘salesmanship in print’. Lowers prices: During these days of liberalized and globalize economy. It has also been an accepted fact that ad. build brand image. 5. *********************************************************************** * 7 . The customers satisfied with promised quality and service spread an approving wordof-mouth. it provides a shield against competitors’ aggressive marketing blitz. the fall of unit cost of product compel companies to lower the product selling price to the advantage of customers. 3. A youth may buy a Royal Enfield Bullet to demonstrate that he is really strong man. Other than the above function the advertisings help stimulating demand of product or service. Develops brand preference: Research has revealed that consistent and repeated persuasive advertisements help stimulate brand trial or purchase. and less pressure on sales people. Satisfied customers also develop brand preference which gets reinforced by repeated ads. 4. Cuts cost: It is often recognized that ad helps cutting down selling cost. it helps reach relatively large audience at shortest period. Brand royal customers are otherwise unaccounted assets. 2.made the wise decision by buying a product or service. Products with strong brand franchise provide protection against existing and up-coming competition. cuts costs. Stimulates demand: By way of informing prospective consumers about the availability of a particular product. develop brand preference. Family planning ads displaying the concept of ‘small family. lower prices. Ad is the most effective way of nurturing a brand’s image in the long run. 7. Reminder: The reminder ads’ are mostly given to keep the company or brand name fresh in the consumers mind so that the objective of repeat purchase is accomplished. the ad stimulates needs. There is scope of selling costs decrease in view of fall in wasted calls. 4. Being a form of mass communication. It too performs the pre-selling function besides evoking quick response. has some effect on aggregate consumption.
white space. And scholars have taken various approaches to classify this. Advertising to general consumers. They are: 1. services. and even with regional language. matrimonial. And its advertisers are marketers of products or service available locally and local consumers as target. Such ads provide information about community market place for goods. They are: national and local advertising. As per the majority of studies on source of revenue of print media. local cable channels. 1. not confined to any geographical region. and opportunities like real estate. business opportunities. the ads may have target segment. etc. display advertising contribution is 70% of total revenue. coaching. This type of advertising is mostly persuaded by marketer of branded product or service. Classified ads are substantial source of revenue of print media. sometimes national advertisers realize ads. e) Retail Advertising 8 . 2. Advertising to Business and Profession and 3. c) National Advertising This title itself says the advertising is meant for entire nation’s audience. etc. Both classified and display advertising can be national. This is based on target audiences. b) Display Advertising All non-classified advertising are display advertising. employment. The term ‘national advertising’ conveys mass marketing effort. Media for this type of advertising are local or vernacular newspapers. mostly seen in media having whole nation circulation or telecast. not restricted to a particular region. These types of advertising usually have headlines. illustrations. Again these types of advertising are categories into two. This type of ads. autos. Advertising to general consumers: a) Classified Advertising Most classified ads are simple text set in small type in newspaper pages and telephone yellow pages. Of course. and other visual presentation besides the copy text. for a particular region under certain marketing conditions. domestic help. This classification helps managers both in the advertiser companies and in ad agencies to choose the most appropriate type of advertising in order to achieve the marketing objectives. advertising can be classified into three categories.Classification of Advertising There are a vast variety of advertisings. available through distribution channel spread all over the nation. confined to a particular geographical area. However. Non-Product advertising. Broadly speaking. d) Local Advertising This title itself says the advertising is meant for regional or local market.
The standard approach in retail advertising is buy at our store. But the fact is although the buyers are small in numbers yet the consumption volume per buyer is much bigger. mostly by dealers or distributors in collaboration with manufacturer. equipment and raw materials used in producing finished products is directed at a specialized and relatively small target audience who are mostly experts in the related field. and internet and trade fairs. the sales of any particular brand are not the objective of retail ads. telephone. The media used is professional journals or direct mails in which brochures and leaflets are mostly sent. The objectives are to achieve maximum distribution and so also maximum sales. Manufacturer of such products undertake advertising because successful end-product advertising helps create demand for the ingredient that helps in the sale of another product. etc. The other important objective of this type of ad is to encourage patronage of consumers and store loyalty among them. doctors. The message in this type’s ad is like buy brand ‘B’ at our store. To help identify dealers selling a particular brand of product in particular local or regional market. Usually. Media used are industry publications. direct mail. c) Professional Advertising 9 . g) End-Product or Branded-ingredient Advertising There are many products sold in the market (example: Intel Processor) which are rarely and directly purchased by consumers. This types of advertising is also sometimes accompany incentive to retailers and distributors with a hidden objective of getting prime shelf space in retail outlets. f) Co-operative Advertising This type of ads is also realized locally. However. architects. a) Trade Advertising The target of trade advertising are retailers and distributors to keep the stock and for wide area distribution. Such product advertising is called End-Product or Branded-ingredient advertising. there is deviation when the retailer wants to clear a particular brand or to meet the sales target sometimes imposed by producer in order to avail any specific retailer related promotional incentives. The prolonged consumer demand for such ingredients encourages companies to use them in their consumer products. b) Industrial or B2B Advertising Industrial advertising mostly for sales of machinery. dealers put the ads. 2. The manufacturer often provides the materials and guidelines for development of ads besides sharing the cost of ads. Advertising to Business and Profession The target audiences of this type of advertising are re-sellers and professionals such as masons.
d) Corporate or Industrial Advertising This type of advertising is meant for corporate image that the general publics perceive when the name of the company or its product is seen or heard. and in rare instances mass media are used for advertising. direct mails. engineers. to counter negative attitudes towards company. The important objectives of corporate adverting include: to create and maintain corporate identity in public. and professional services. stockholders. 3. Non-Product Advertising a) Idea Advertising Advertising is a powerful communication tool to influence the public opinion besides reshaping public attitude towards issue concerning environment degradation. financial institutions. employees. Both audio and visual media of all types are used for these types of ads. human rights. tailors. 10 .Professional advertising is directed towards professionals such as architect. doctors. e) Surrogate Advertising Surrogate means delegate. who are may not be direct consumers of the products but make the final-decision on behalf of their clients. to enhance company image. caring. road safety measure. d) Social Advertising Advertisings concerning social causes are mostly given in mass media by different government departments and agencies. many of which are banned. Mainly the quality of service is largely depending upon the quality of company employees. b) Service Advertising Services although can not be seen as physical products yet its advertising fundamentals are same as in case of product advertising though experts defer. etc. In advertising. c) Political Advertising Political advertisings are mostly given in the mass media by political parties to promote their party concern on political issues. to associate company with some worthwhile national and social cause and to overcome negative company image. The professional journals. etc. As we have seen these types of ads are mostly biased and attacking. NGOs and even corporate on some social issues in order to inform and educate the population on some issues affecting society at large. dowry. political leaders and government or otherwise all stakeholders. population explosion. And ads highlight this aspect more emphatically besides service networks as customers show high concern for convenient. it means the kind of advertisement which is promoting a product. using anther product. The target groups of corporate advertising are consumers.
) in India. layout. A Full-service Agency comprises department like Creative Services. production and traffic departments. and ultimately. and Office Management and Finance for accomplishing various functions designated. The main reason of companies using the services of advertising agencies is because the later provide the more specialized and highly skilled services which the companies may not have in-house. The experts in the department conceive the ideas for the ads and write the headlines. media specialists. Creative Services Department: Usually this department of the agency is headed by a Creative Director whose responsibilities comprises production of advertisements. Production Department takes over the work after completion and approval of the copy. Creation of ad message is the work of copywriters. *********************************************************************** Advertising Agency: Functions & Structure of Modern Agency Functions of Ad. etc. To a great extent the success of ad agency depends on creative services department responsible for the creation and execution of the advertisements. Marketing Services. supervision of copywriters and artists works besides setting the creative philosophy and standard of the organization. Sometimes. etc. preparing and executing their advertising and promotional programmes for a cost. illustrations and mechanical specifications. Besides. there are some agencies which may have industry specific expertise. Agency Advertising agency is the facilitator of advertising. with specific knowledge. The Art Departments how the ad should look with the message placed. Creative services department has functional sub-departments like art. All most all ad agencies whether small or large may have personnel comprising writers. The layouts for TV commercial is a sequence of frames showing the commercial in still form and is called storyboard. the 11 . to serve clients better. market research specialists. Account Services. McDowell Soda. The arts director and the graphic designers coordinate their work and prepare the layouts for print ads. subheads and the body copy keeping in mind the basic appeal of the advertising campaign. artists. It is an independent organization which provides specialized advertising and promotional services to assist companies in developing.Example: advertising of alcoholic drinks (Bagpiper soda.
The account executive working under the department head represent the client and explain the client’s view to all the agency personnel working on the account and also the agency’s point of view to the client. human resource and office management. and from independent research firms. the researchers in the department also conduct ad’s pre-launch copy testing to learn how the ad is likely to be interpreted and perceived by the audience. and even websites. their rates. Media and Sales Promotion department. Some of its functions are finance. Other important responsibility of the account executive is to obtain the client’s approval for media schedules. Many ad agencies provide additional services like Sales Promotion to clients. Marketing Services Department This department is sub-divided into Research. The Traffic Department responsibility is to coordinate all phases of production and ensure that the ads are completed on time in order t meet the media deadlines. and contract media times and spaces for delivery of ad message in a cost-effective manner. Besides. and rough ads. the research personnel analyses and interpret the data and furnish the same to the account department which places the same before the client or advertiser.production department hires outside experts to transform the creative concept into a commercial. After gathering the data. Besides it does analysis. The Media Department develops media plan to reach target audience effectively. In it includes designing contest and publicity materials. budget. packaging materials. selection. Office Management and Finance This is mostly an in-house activity department which is to provide logistic support to above three departments so that they can perform their work smoothly. Account Services Department This departments and its staff main responsibility is to keep relationship between the agency and the clients. 12 . primary data through field observation and survey. accounting. Research Department main responsibility is to gather relevant marketing data from all sources like published data (secondary data). Media specialists are supposed to consider the media reach and frequency. This job requires high degree of knowledge on functioning of advertising agency along with diplomacy and tact because any misunderstanding and communication gap may lead to loss of the account or client. and media habits of audiences before actually making purchase decision because a significant amount of client’s budget is spent in this activity.
layouts. Departmental System In this system. These types of practice existing in medium and large size agencies provide exposures to employees in the department to develop expertise in servicing different types of clients. For example. Individuals with client specific expertise are drawn from different functional areas and work under account executive in a group to serve particular client. Group System The Group System structure is very popular in the large agencies. The selection of one structure or other depends on organization work philosophy envisioned by the promoter. *********************************************************************** * 13 . the departments are grouped around designated functions. and production services for all clients. One is Departmental System and other is Group System. creative services unit is asked to prepare copy writing. There is no hard and fast rule on the part of agencies to adhere this or that.Structure of Modern Agency There are two types of structures are seen in Modern advertising agencies. Agencies using group system believe that employees become very knowledgeable about client’s business and there is continuity in serving the account.
Interpreter of the company policy to advertising agency and other service providers This is a very delicate function. Without having intimate inside knowledge of the company and its policies. The wrong presentation may cause huge financial loss as well as damage company image in the public. new product investment. 5. 3. are taken into consideration. modification in existing product. etc. this department has to prepare the budget and submit the same for approval of the top executive or board.Functions of the Advertising Department and Advertising Manager Usually in large business concerns. The advertising department and its staff from manager to executives must be responsive in feeding 14 . While preparing the same the aspects like competitors advertising. gross margin. in smaller company he himself initiate market research work. the advertising manager use to work with marketing and market research executives. percentage of anticipated turnover. This department’s primary responsibility is advertising. Functions 1. There is no text book practice in preparing the ad. media and techniques. Party to major policy decision The department and its head participate and is party to major policy decisions in the company like new product launch. They are also responsible for product pre-tests and test marketing exercises to decide whether the product. the advertising manager and his department has to be master of budgetary control. Advertising budget preparation or appropriation Alike many other department. etc. ideal campaign plan. 4. it is very difficult on the part of concern person in the department to present in easy and understandable terms the company’s objectives to service providers. publicity and sales promotion. In doing so they use face conflicting challenge mostly from product managers. cost per head of target population. there may have an exclusive Advertising Department headed by an Advertising Manager or Marketing Manager with advertising department responsibility. entry into new markets or market segment. They can not work in vacuum. Coordinating with Ad Agencies Agencies are not miracle workers. corporate evaluation. the marketing strategy or the advertising media and techniques are likely to be successful. changes in distribution methods. Expenditure control With expenditure spread over a diversity of campaign. company’s budget. 2. In large company.
the average tenure of client-agency relationship was 7. Many forecast if the above trend will continue then by 2010 every client on an average will search for new agency in every 4 years. which is very complex in the business environment. Why do clients terminate agency relationships? • • • • • Change at the top level in client’s organization Lack of understanding of client’s business Lack of synergy in company strategy and advertisement creativity Outgrowth of one of the partner Research score consistently below norms 15 . 6.2 years. and social functions and regular supply of the house journal can help to foster good agency relation. This fact has confirmed by numerous studies which have been conducted on the issue. The state of Business Partnership today: In spite of mutual agreed promise. Works visits. The trend in client-agency relationships is to terminate those that under-perform. confidence and understanding among the parties. invitations to sales conferences. many partnerships fail to meet the expectation. large or small. 7. Success of business partnership highly depends on trust. Client – Agency Relationship Business partnerships play a significant role in the preparation of the strategy of leading firms. Media relation This activity in majority of organization is done by the PRO who work under the overall supervision or in close consultation of Ad Manager. Production of Ad Materials They control the production of all other advertising materials like packaging materials. gifts.. not assigned to the agency. The cry today is for cost-effectiveness and he has to know what he is recommending and buying. for mutual benefit.the agency with all the facts. It calls for a liberal education. business experience and sound traing in advertising. It reduced to 5. These seven responsibilities indicate something of the breadth of the ad manager and his department functions. competition coupons. samples and other back ground materials on which agency can go to work.3 years by the end of 1997. The parties are supposed to be proactive to sustain the relationship. etc. stationeries. In 1984.
What questions is the agency mostly to ask? • • • • • Agency must be given the opportunity to be totally absorbed in client’s product. There are a large number of simple attitudes and behaviours that facilitate proper communication and create a long-term and successful clients-agency relationship. Great clients are honest in their praise and polite in their disapproval. Be honest. Be specific. If you don’t like something. Too much involvement consistently denies the agency the ability to realize its vision. 16 . • Inspire a spirit of partnership The best advertising is only created in the absence of fear. every successful and profitable relationship is not one way traffic. • • Make the agency responsible for the advertising and give them the authority it needs to do it. A successful joint effort is achieved only through mutual respect of intelligence and expertise. What precisely is the client asking the agency to do? b. people and culture Create an environment of experimentation and be prepared to pay for failure Be cautious of change for change’s sake The success in advertising is achieved by finding a long-term positioning and sticking with it Treat agency people well Great clients know it is human nature for people to work harder for friends than for business associations. say so. Both the client and agency have to exert all the efforts available to them.• • • Creative stubbornness and arrogance Mandated consolidation Loose attention to budget Distinguishing Qualities of great clients: Evidently. Don’t ask for a new execution simply because this one ‘does not do it for me’. What kind of information does the agency need? c. Some clients use lack of involvement to avoid sharing responsibility for a poor end result. Agree on a clearly defined objective of the advertising The clients must come up with clear answers to the three questions before briefing the agency: a. Avoid the superior/subordinate relationship and fear of dismissal while dealing with an ad agency.
Can the agency produce a single-minded proposition that your target audience will find irresistible. agency can be made on the basis of following questions: 1. Does the ad agency understand your business objectives? The advertising agency’s understanding of the client’s business objectives briefed by the client in the initial discussion must be reflected in the agency’s response and strategy developed. A wrong choice may cost dearly to the advertiser in many ways including damage to brand image and sales. Make sure the agency makes a fair profit. 3. 6. Will your account be important to the ad agency? It is important that the client’s account is seen as being significant and special on every level. are finalized. The selection of ad. Whether the agency people assigned by the agency to deal with client matter while important issues like creativity. a never recovering situation. Will you be dealing with the directors of the ad agency? Ensure with whom in the agency the clients will deal with after the deal is finalized. Is the ad agency producing results for its existing clients? Verification of the agency’s existing client’s help in great extent in this regards. 2. 4. 7. helps in providing winning edge to competitor who so far hard fought for a space for survival. And in the process. Can the ad agency differentiate your business? Every client has its own differentiation quality and core essence. This is one the most difficult assignment on the part of the Advertising Manager. then challenge the agency to find a solution both the parties can agree upon. Does the agency realize that advertising is not always the ‘solution’? 17 . Performance evaluations of each other at least annually ******************************************************************** Selection of Agency Selection of Agency by the Advertisers is not simple act.• • Great clients tell precisely why they disagree. If response is not matching the objectives it may be due to absence of right people with right kind of experience in the agency for the assignment. media decision. Can the ad agency develop big idea to fulfill client’s brand potential. and for the advertiser. etc. and the Advertising Department he heads in the advertiser’s company. Does the ad agency have the right credential? Does the agency have clients and brands that fit the advertiser’s profile? 5.
and TV-viewers. Advertising is a non-personal form of mass communication. 10. In fact. It has three main aims: 1. A modern. Is the agency capable of integrating traditional and new media? In the present scenario. Does the agency offer high level strategy and creativity? The strategy and creativity are two interdependent disciplines. Newspapers get more than half of their revenues from advertisers. listeners. To provoke action beneficial to the advertiser 18 . ******************************************************************* Module – II: Advertising as Mass Communication Mass Media through mass communication have an important role in modern society as the main channel of communication.“Advertising is the solution. there must have proper synergy between strategy and creativity. the advertisers have a strong influence on news contents. media mix strategy defer from product to product and from objective to objective. 9. Advertising through mass media communicates information to a large number of recipients. Obviously. In order to attract advertisers. To develop attitude 3. To pass on information 2. 8. Is the agency’s motivation to take your business to the next higher level or to win awards? Check whether the agency is enthusiast with the assignment. a single media agency might not help the clients achieves the desired result. and progressive advertising agency must demonstrate that it has full working knowledge of the most appropriate options available to meet the objectives of its clients in present context and in future too. Such an influence is usually considered unethical. the media often generate a “buying mood” by discussing topics of relevance to the advertised products and avoiding any criticism of commercial products or of consumerism in general. Within a campaign. paid for by an identified sponsor. Competition has become increasingly keen in the area of the mass media as they keep fighting for the attention of the readers. and most radio and TV stations get all their revenues from advertising and sponsoring. but is nevertheless difficult to avoid. now what is the problem” is a widely held view accepted by the traditional agencies.
(a) Questionnaire. Direct Response: Designated to solicit a direct response. 2. Advertising: General information of interest to the wider customer groups (a) Radio. but it does perform certain parts of the communicating task faster and with greater economy and volume than other means. (f) Posters. happy family” educate people advantage of small family. 4. a party broadcast aims to increase votes. (e) Conference. (c) E-mail. Word of Mouth: Communicating directly with individual and specific groups of customers. (d) Directories. (c) Leaflets. Direct Mail: Information to a specific audience. their product value and any benefits to customers. It must be remembered that advertising is only one element of the communication mix. (b) Surveys. (g) Workshops. an advertisement with slogan “Small family. (b) Newspapers & Magazines. 3. 3. (h) Meetings. 19 . Buyer awareness of the product is low Industry sales are rising rather than remaining stable or declining The product has features which are not clear to the buyer The opportunities for product differentiation are strong Discretionary incomes are high A new product or new service or idea is being launched ********************************************************************* The Communication Mix Communication is crucial to the success of any organization. 5. (f) Seminars. an advertisement on insurance promote the benefit of policy while in distress. The main elements that make up the communication mix include: 1. What significant role advertising as an element of mass communication does play depends on the nature of the product and its frequency of purchase. The advertisers need to use the different elements of the communication mix to communicate their message. (a) E-mails and (b) Letters. (h) Brochures and (i) Internet. 6. (e) Packaging. (g) Trade magazines. which is specific and quantifiable. (d) Letters. direct from the customer to specific product.An advertisement for motor bike is paid for by the manufacturer to achieve greater sales. It contributes the greatest part when: 1. 2. 4.
F) Deciding on the Communication Mix: Each element of the mix has a different communication capacity. obtain enquires. etc. portfolio. visits & interviews). Therefore. the medium used and allocated budget. emotional (stir up positive emotion that will motivate action) and moral (directed to the audience’s sense of what is right that is anti-social behavioural action). it must be affordable. (b) Presentations and (c) Meetings. money spent on a bad communication is worse than spending no money on communication. that appeals to the audience. For personal selling. Steps to develop a Communication Programme include: A) Identify target audience Who? Where? What do they require? B) Determine communication objectives Possible objectives for the communication may be to create awareness. decision as to choice of words. This appeal could be: rational (show benefit such as quality. information. For printed ads. obtain information and improve product’s image. is effective at different stages in the communication process and we have a different level of control over each one. The message format depends on the communication medium used. This will depend on the specific objectives of the project.(a) Personal communication (telephone. etc. The message content should include benefit. the careful decision for headline illustration. D) Decide suitable timeframe A decision must be reached on the timeframe of the communication process. C) Set communication budget This must be realistic. economy. and value that is proposed changes in a product or in service). dress and body language. In practice few messages take customers through the whole process. It is very important to allocate the budget wisely. the decision for choice of communication mix will depend upon: 20 . but are pitched at a certain level that meets the required objective. colour. E) Design the message What to say? How to say it? Where to say it? The ‘AIDAS’ model can illustrate this process: Attention Interest Desire Action Satisfaction Ideally the message should get the attention of the customers and take them through the stages until satisfaction reached.
4.1. coordination and control of the entire communication plan. This should be done against the objective(s). 3. Who the target audience is The agreed objectives The timing of the communication The complexity of the product Legal restraints Monetary restraints G) Carry out Communication Plan Implementation. Measuring and analyzing the outcome of a specific interaction will help in the development of future communications and in evaluating the best methods to use. 2. H) Measuring and Analyzing Results: It is important to measure the effectiveness of each communication campaign. 6. 5. *********************************************************************** * 21 .