Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

Q.1

Explain different types of scores used to interpret test results.

Three of the fundamental purposes for testing are (1) to describe each student's developmental level within a test area, (2) to identify a student's areas of relative strength and weakness in subject areas, and (3) to monitor year-to-year growth in the basic skills. To accomplish any one of these purposes, it is important to select the type of score from among those reported that will permit the proper interpretation. Scores such as percentile ranks, grade equivalents, and standard scores differ from one another in the purposes they can serve, the precision with which they describe achievement, and the kind of information they provide. A closer look at these types of scores will help differentiate the functions they can serve and the meanings they can convey. Additional detail can be found in the Interpretive Guide for Teachers and Counselors. In Iowa, school districts can obtain scores that are reported using national norms or Iowa norms. On some reports, both kinds of scores are reported. The difference is simply in the group with which comparisons are made to obtain score meaning. A student's Iowa percentile rank (IPR) compares the student's score with those of others in his/her grade in Iowa. The student's national percentile rank (NPR) compares that same score with those of others in his/her grade in the nation. For other types of scores described below, there are both Iowa and national scores available to Iowa schools. Types of Scores Raw Score (RS) The number of questions a student gets right on a test is the student's raw score (assuming each question is worth one point). By itself, a raw score has little or no meaning. The meaning depends on how many questions are on the test and how hard or easy the questions are. For example, if Kati got 10 right on both a math test and a science test, it would not be reasonable to conclude that her level of achievement in the two areas is the same. This illustrates why raw scores are usually converted to other types of scores for interpretation purposes. Percent Correct (PC) When the raw score is divided by the total number of questions and the result is multiplied by 100, the percent-correct score is obtained. Like raw scores, percent-correct scores have little meaning by themselves. They tell what percent of the questions a student got right on a test, but unless we know something about the overall difficulty of the test, this information is not very helpful. Percent-correct scores are sometimes incorrectly interpreted as percentile ranks, which are described below. The two are quite different. Grade Equivalent (GE) The grade equivalent is a number that describes a student's location on an achievement continuum. The continuum is a number line that describes the lowest level of knowledge or skill on one end (lowest numbers) and the highest level of development on the other end (highest numbers). The GE is a decimal number that describes performance in terms of grade level and months. For example, if a sixth-grade student obtains a GE of 8.4 on the Vocabulary test, his score is like the one a typical student finishing the fourth month of eighth grade would likely get on the Vocabulary test. The GE of a given raw score on any test indicates the grade level at which the typical student makes this raw score. The digits to the left of the decimal point represent the grade and those to the right represent the month within that grade.

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

Grade equivalents are particularly useful and convenient for measuring individual growth from one year to the next and for estimating a student's developmental status in terms of grade level. But GEs have been criticized because they are sometimes misused or are thought to be easily misinterpreted. One point of confusion involves the issue of whether the GE indicates the grade level in which a student should be placed. For example, if a fourth-grade student earns a GE of 6.2 on a fourth-grade reading test, should she be moved to the sixth grade? Obviously the student's developmental level in reading is high relative to her fourth-grade peers, but the test results supply no information about how she would handle the material normally read by students in the early months of sixth grade. Thus, the GE only estimates a student's developmental level; it does not provide a prescription for grade placement. A GE that is much higher or lower than the student's grade level is mainly a sign of exceptional performance. In sum, all test scores, no matter which type they are or which test they are from, are subject to misinterpretation and misuse. All have limitations or weaknesses that are exaggerated through improper score use. The key is to choose the type of score that will most appropriately allow you to accomplish your purposes for testing. Grade equivalents are particularly suited to estimating a student's developmental status or year-to-year growth. They are particularly ill-suited to identifying a student's standing within a group or to diagnosing areas of relative strength and weakness. Developmental Standard Score (SS) Like the grade equivalent (GE), the developmental standard score is also a number that describes a student's location on an achievement continuum. The scale used with the ITBS and ITED was established by assigning a score of 200 to the median performance of students in the spring of grade 4 and 250 to the median performance of students in the spring of grade 8. The main drawback to interpreting developmental standard scores is that they have no built-in meaning. Unlike grade equivalents, for example, which build grade level into the score, developmental standard scores are unfamiliar to most educators, parents, and students. To interpret the SS, the values associated with typical performance in each grade must be used as reference points. The main advantage of the developmental standard score scale is that it mirrors reality better than the grade-equivalent scale. That is, it shows that year-to-year growth is usually not as great at the upper grades as it is at the lower grades. (Recall that the grade-equivalent scale shows equal average annual growth -- 10 months -- between any pair of grades.) Despite this advantage, the developmental standard scores are much more difficult to interpret than grade equivalents. Consequently, when teachers and counselors wish to estimate a student's annual growth or current developmental level, grade equivalents are the scores of choice. The potentials for confusion and misinterpretation that were described in the previous subsection for the GE are applicable to the SS as well. Relative to the GE, the SS is not as easy to use in describing growth, but it is equally inappropriate for identifying relative strengths and weaknesses of students or for describing a student's standing in a group. Percentile Rank (PR) A student's percentile rank is a score that tells the percent of students in a particular group that got lower raw scores on a test than the student did. It shows the student's relative position or rank in a group of students who are in the same grade and who were tested at the same time of year (fall, midyear, or spring) as the student. Thus, for example, if Toni earned a percentile rank of 72 on the Language test, it means that she scored higher than 72 percent of the students in the group with which she is being compared. Of course, it also means that 28 percent of the group scored higher than Toni. Percentile ranks range from 1 to 99.

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

A student's percentile rank can vary depending on which group is used to determine the ranking. A student is simultaneously a member of many different groups: all students in her classroom, her building, her school district, her state, and the nation. Different sets of percentile ranks are available with the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills to permit schools to make the most relevant comparisons involving their students. Types of Score Interpretation An achievement test is built to help determine how much skill or knowledge students have in a certain area. We use such tests to find out whether students know as much as we expect they should, or whether they know particular things we regard as important. By itself, the raw score from an achievement test does not indicate how much a student knows or how much skill she or he has. More information is needed to decide "how much." The test score must be compared or referenced to something in order to bring meaning to it. That "something" typically is (a) the scores other students have obtained on the test or (b) a series of detailed descriptions that tell what students at each score point know or which skills they have successfully demonstrated. These two ways of referencing a score to obtain meaning are commonly called norm-referenced and criterion-referenced score interpretations. Norm-Referenced Interpretation A norm-referenced interpretation involves comparing a student's score with the scores other students obtained on the same test. How much a student knows is determined by the student's standing or rank within the reference group. High standing is interpreted to mean the student knows a lot or is highly skilled, and low standing means the opposite. Obviously, the overall competence of the norm group affects the interpretation significantly. Ranking high in an unskilled group may represent lower absolute achievement than ranking low in an exceptional high performing group. Criterion-Referenced Interpretation A criterion-referenced interpretation involves comparing a student's score with a subjective standard of performance rather than with the performance of a norm group. Deciding whether a student has mastered a skill or demonstrated minimum acceptable performance involves a criterion-referenced interpretation. Usually percent-correct scores are used and the teacher determines the score needed for mastery or for passing. Interpreting Scores from Special Test Administrations A testing accommodation is a change in the procedures for administering the test that is intended to neutralize, as much as possible, the effect of the student's disability on the assessment process. The intent is to remove the effect of the disability(ies), to the extent possible, so that the student is assessed on equal footing with all other students. In other words, the score reflects what the student knows, not merely what the student's disabilities allow him/her to show. The expectation is that the accommodation will cancel the disadvantage associated with the student's disability. This is the basis for choosing the type and amount of accommodation to be given to a student. Sometimes the accommodation won't help quite enough, sometimes it might help a little too much, and sometimes it will be just right. We never can be sure, but we operate as though we have made a good judgment about how extensive a student's disability is and how much it will interfere with obtaining a good measure of what the student knows. Therefore, the use of an accommodation should help the student experience the same conditions as those in the norm group. Thus, the norms still offer a useful comparison; the scores can be interpreted in the same way as the scores of a student who needs no accommodations.

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

A test modification involves changing the assessment itself so that the tasks or questions presented are different from those used in the regular assessment. A Braille version of a test modifies the questions just like a translation to another language might. Helping students with word meanings, translating words to a native language, or eliminating parts of a test from scoring are further examples of modifications. In such cases, the published test norms are not appropriate to use. These are not accommodations. With modifications, the percentile ranks or grade equivalents should not be interpreted in the same way as they would be had no modifications been made. Certain other kinds of changes in the tests or their presentation may result in measuring a different trait than was originally intended. For example, when a reading test is read to the student, we obtain a measure of how well the student listens rather than how well he/she reads. Or if the student is allowed to use a calculator on a math estimation test, you obtain a measure of computation ability with a calculator rather than a measure of the student's ability to do mental arithmetic. Obviously in these situations, there are no norms available and the scores are quite limited in value. Consequently, these particular changes should not be made.

Q.2

Describe the different types of induction program.

Build confidence about self and the organization with in the new employee is one of the major objectives of the induction. This will makes the employee who recruited recently is become a productive one by reducing his/her anxiety that impedes ability to learn to do the job. Create the feeling of belongings and loyalty with in the new employee is another objective of the induction. Usually a new employee of the organization has little fear about his/her strengths at the beginning, because of the difference of the work culture and the environment. And if he/she signed a long appointment letter which was has all the rules and regulations then he/she might have some of frighten. That fear and the shy of new employee could change by a good induction program. Then he/she may feel that place like his/her home and will adapt to the organization in a short period. Familiarize the new employee with the jobs and the job environment with in a short time is another objective of the induction. If the new employee takes much more time to understand and adapt to organizational culture and environment, the organization will not have effective outcome from the new employee at the beginning as they expecting. To achieve the expecting level of the outcome, organization also need to support new employee form some kind of contributions. Induction programs and proper training and development programs could consider as that kind of contributions. When employee starts to think the organization as his own and he/she has a responsible to take care and contribution to development of the organization- that is the beginning of the feel of belongingness and loyalty. Loyal employee will give the maximum contribution of his/her to the profit/achievements of the organization. Generate favorable attitudes with in the new employee about peers, superiors, subordinates and the organization in general is another objective. Attitude is the basic thing that can be change the behavior of a person. If the person developed with good attitudes, he/she will be a valuable person to the organization, and persons like that are thinking about the organization work with same as owners. As an example, if one person feels switch off the light, when it is not needed (mean under the day light) he is a person who contributing to the organization to reduce its power expenses. Assume the daily expenditure for the particular bulb, which he was switched off is 1$ per day. Then he will save 5$ s per week (assuming 5 working days) and save around 20$ per month and 240$ per year. If the organization is large and if it has 100 employees same as the above one, then the entire group will

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

save 24,000$ per year, and it is same as a price of a car. That’s why the attitude is important to an employee. This favorable attitude will is a great valuable thing of an employee. This attitude will help to make a good team spirit to the organization. Assume, if the organization needs to shutdown because of some problems with investment, there may be have some employees who are like to work voluntary to standup the organization. Attitude, belongingness and the loyalty is not individual factors at the organization. They all are interconnecting with each other. That could earn by organization form employees by facilitate them when they need that. A new employee may need much more caring and instructions at the first month he/she start employing, assuming that is a fresh employee, who not have previous experience. Fresh employees are easy to convert as employees mentioned in above, because they know how they have started, and what the achievements that they have achieved are. Induction is giving a chance to move all employees among themselves at the beginning they have joined to the organization. Assist the new employee to contribute to organizational success more quickly is another objective of the induction programs. New employee may not know the organizational objectives and the annual targets. At the induction program, an employee will get know about the things mentioned in above. This will helps to change the private agendas of some employees to organizational agendas. Trying to achieve personal agendas at the working place is a bad practice of some employees. Ineffective induction programs are giving the opportunity to the employee to practice his/her personal agenda at the work place. So then how could organization having the effective outcome from that particular person? It should change. The changing point is “induction program”. New employee will understand the social responsibility of his/her to the organization. Then it will be helps to have effective and efficient works for the both parties of employee and employer. Basically there are four types of inductions, • • • • Formal induction Informal induction. Collective induction Individual induction.

Formal induction is a planned attempt to introduce new employees to the organization, job and the working environment. This induction type may consume more time of the superiors to learn and deliver the new employees needs at the beginning. But this may create new employees less number of errors at the working period and good coordination among all the parties. At this type of program, new employee may get know, who are the most experienced person to have the solution of the particular problem new employee might has. At the very beginning new employees are having lots of questions as same as kids at small ages. That is full normal thing and common thing, because the new employee needs to get know all the things, he may actually needs or not. CEO, GM, Section/Department Heads, Senior Managers, and Line Managers may involve in to the formal induction program. (From top management to bottom line). This will deliver fundamental things that new employees need to know. Advantage of the formal induction program is organization will have the better chance to win the new employees’ loyalty at the very beginning. And also new employee will have the chance to carry his/her works clearly, with less numbers of errors. Also, new employee will fit to the organizational culture and the work group easily, and strongly. Informal induction is not planned and is ad hock. New employees learn through trial and error method. They get familiar with the work and work environment by them selves. This induction type will make the stress on new employee at the very beginning, because of his/her not knowing things at the operations. So in that case, new employee may leave the organization at the beginning and then the organization may need to follow all the process of recruiting and new employee to the organization. Also this method will create a large number of errors making by new employee and then it may creates big losses to the organization. Those are the disadvantages of informal induction program. The

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

advantage of informal induction is, if the new employee survived, then he/she may know the process by his/her experience, and the later on errors may minimize. But at the beginning the vice verse thing of above advantage may creates loses, if the new employee unable to survive at the organization. At the movements which employees couldn’t survive, there could be see they are leaving organization at the beginning they have joined to it. So this will creates high labor turn over too.

Q.3

What are the benefits of setting up an academy for the organizations?

Benefits of setting up an academy for the organizations for the company, managers, and employees are :FOR THE COMPANY • • • • • • Reinforce corporate strategy, culture, and vision. Establish expectations for performance excellence, resulting in a systematic approach to professional development, improved job satisfaction, and better employee retention. Increase the effectiveness of training and professional development programs by linking them to the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of excellence). Provide a common framework and language for discussing how to implement and communicate key strategies. Provide a common understanding of the scope and requirements of a specific role. Provide common, organization-wide standards for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries.

FOR MANAGERS: • • • • Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the hiring and selection process. Provide more objective performance standards. Clarify standards of excellence for easier communication of performance expectations to direct reports. Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the manager and employee about performance, development, and career-related issues.

FOR EMPLOYEES: • • • • Identify the success criteria (i.e., behavioral standards of performance excellence) required to be successful in their role. Support a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and specify targeted areas for professional development. Provide development tools and methods for enhancing their skills. Provide the basis for a more objective dialogue with their manager or team about performance, development, and career related issues.

Q.4

Discuss entrepreneurship in detail?

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

Entrepreneurship An entrepreneur, which can be defined as "one who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods". This may result in new organizations or may be part of revitalizing mature organizations in response to a perceived opportunity. The most obvious form of entrepreneurship is that of starting new businesses (referred as Startup Company); however, in recent years, the term has been extended to include social and political forms of entrepreneurial activity. When entrepreneurship is describing activities within a firm or large organization it is referred to as intra-preneurship and may include corporate venturing, when large entities spin-off organizations.[1] According to Paul Reynolds, entrepreneurship scholar and creator of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, "by the time they reach their retirement years, half of all working men in the United States probably have a period of self-employment of one or more years; one in four may have engaged in self-employment for six or more years. Participating in a new business creation is a common activity among U.S. workers over the course of their careers." [2] And in recent years has been documented by scholars such as David Audretsch to be a major driver of economic growth in both the United States and Western Europe.

Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization and creativity involved. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects (even involving the entrepreneur only part-time) to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. Many "high value" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding (seed money) in order to raise capital to build the business. Angel investors generally seek annualized returns of 20-30% and more, as well as extensive involvement in the business.[3] Many kinds of organizations now exist to support would-be entrepreneurs including specialized government agencies, business incubators, science parks, and some NGOs. In more recent times, the term entrepreneurship has been extended to include elements not related necessarily to business formation activity such as conceptualizations of entrepreneurship as a specific mindset (see also entrepreneurial mindset) resulting in entrepreneurial initiatives e.g. in the form of social entrepreneurship, political entrepreneurship, or knowledge entrepreneurship have emerged. The entrepreneur is a factor in microeconomics, and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, but was largely ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics in the last 40 years. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. In Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.[4] Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is largely responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth. The supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternate description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the construction of a drinking straw. For Schumpeter, entrepreneurship resulted in new industries but also in new combinations of currently existing inputs. Schumpeter's initial example of this was the combination of a steam engine and then

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

current wagon making technologies to produce the horseless carriage. In this case the innovation, the car, was transformational but did not require the development of a new technology, merely the application of existing technologies in a novel manner. It did not immediately replace the horsedrawn carriage, but in time, incremental improvements which reduced the cost and improved the technology led to the complete practical replacement of beast drawn vehicles in modern transportation. Despite Schumpeter's early 20th-century contributions, traditional microeconomic theory did not formally consider the entrepreneur in its theoretical frameworks (instead assuming that resources would find each other through a price system). In this treatment the entrepreneur was an implied but unspecified actor, but it is consistent with the concept of the entrepreneur being the agent of x-efficiency. Different scholars have described entrepreneurs as, among other things, bearing risk. For Schumpeter, the entrepreneur did not bear risk: the capitalist did. Some notable persons and their works in entrepreneurship history. For Frank H. Knight [5] (1921) and Peter Drucker (1970) entrepreneurship is about taking risk. The behavior of the entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put his or her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea, spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Knight classified three types of uncertainty. • • • Risk, which is measurable statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red color ball from a jar containing 5 red balls and 5 white balls). Ambiguity, which is hard to measure statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar containing 5 red balls but with an unknown number of white balls). True Uncertainty or Knightian Uncertainty, which is impossible to estimate or predict statistically (such as the probability of drawing a red ball from a jar whose number of red balls is unknown as well as the number of other colored balls).

The acts of entrepreneurship are often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves bringing something really novel to the world, whose market never exists. However, even if a market already exists, there is no guarantee that a market exists for a particular new player in the cola category. The place of the disharmony-creating and idiosyncratic entrepreneur in traditional economic theory (which describes many efficiency-based ratios assuming uniform outputs) presents theoretic quandaries. William Baumol has added greatly to this area of economic theory and was recently honored for it at the 2006 annual meeting of the American Economic Association.[6] The entrepreneur is widely regarded as an integral player in the business culture of American life, and particularly as an engine for job creation and economic growth. Robert Sobel published The Entrepreneurs: Explorations Within the American Business Tradition in 1974. Zoltan Acs and David Audretsch have produced an edited volume surveying Entrepreneurship as an academic field of research,[7] and more than a hundred scholars around the world track entrepreneurial activity, policy and social influences as part of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM)[8] and its associated reports. Though Entrepreneurs are thought to have many of the same character traits as leaders,[clarification needed], involve particular psychological dispositions, or operate in purely business spheres of life, recent European theorising on the subject has suggested that, come the era of neo-liberalism and 'big society' politics that promote conceptualising humans as economic agents per se, normal, everyday people usually marginalised from the term 'entrepreneur' are too involved in the very same kind of processes that 'big business', proper entrepreneurs are involved with. Entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurship, as

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

such, might be enacted by anybody, encountering as they do economic uncertainty on an everyday basis. Concept of Entrepreneurship It has assumed super importance for accelerating economic growth both in developed and developing countries. It promotes capital formation and creates wealth in country. It is hope and dreams of millions of individuals around the world. It reduces unemployment and poverty and its a pathway to prosper. Entrepreneurship is the process of searching out opportunities in the market place and arranging resources required to exploit these opportunities for long term gains. It is the process of planning, organising, opportunities and assuming. Thus it is a risk of business enterprise. It may be distinguished as an ability to take risk independently to make utmost earnings in the market. It is a creative and innovative skill and adapting response to environment of what is real. Promotion of Entrepreneurship Given entrepreneurship's potential to support economic growth, it is the policy goal of many governments to develop a culture of entrepreneurial thinking. This can be done in a number of ways: by integrating entrepreneurship into education systems, legislating to encourage risk-taking, and national campaigns. An example of the latter is the United Kingdom's Enterprise Week, which launched in 2004. Outside of the political world, research has been conducted on the presence of entrepreneurial theories in doctoral economics programs. Dan Johansson, fellow at the Ratio Institute in Sweden, finds such content to be sparse. He fears this will dilute doctoral programs and fail to train young economists to analyze problems in a relevant way.[9] Many of these initiatives have been brought together under the umbrella of Global Entrepreneurship Week, a worldwide celebration and promotion of youth entrepreneurship, which started in 2008. The charity The Aldridge Foundation sponsors Academies specialising in entrepreneurship, teaching core entrepreneurial attributes to young people with the aim of improving their life skills. [10] The Collegiate Entrepreneurs' Organization was started in 1983 and it's mission is to support and inspire college students to be entrepreneurial and seek opportunity through enterprise creation. Financial Bootstrapping Financial bootstrapping is a term used to cover different methods for avoiding using the financial resources of external investors. Bootstrapping can be defined as “a collection of methods used to minimize the amount of outside debt and equity financing needed from banks and investors”.[11] The use of private credit card debt is the most known form of bootstrapping, but a wide variety of methods are available for entrepreneurs. While bootstrapping involves a risk for the founders, the absence of any other stakeholder gives the founders more freedom to develop the company. Many successful companies including Dell Computers and Facebook were founded this way. There are different types of bootstrapping: • • • • • Owner financing Sweat equity Minimization of the accounts receivable Joint utilization Delaying payment

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

• • •

Minimizing inventory Subsidy finance Personal Debt

Traditional Financing Having outside investors is not necessarily beyond the realm of entrepreneurship. In many cases, leveraging the owners' credit cards and personal assets, such as mortgages, may not be sufficient. Inadequate investment can also kill a start up. And bringing in outsiders can be beneficial. Outsiders can provide financial oversight, accountability for carrying out tasks and meeting milestones, and many can even bring valuable business contacts and experience to the table.

Q.5

List the tips for successful career planning.

Career planning is not an activity that should be done once -- in high school or college -- and then left behind as we move forward in our jobs and careers. Rather, career planning is an activity that is best done on a regular basis -- especially given the data that the average worker will change careers (not jobs) multiple times over his or her lifetime. And it's never too soon or too late to start your career planning. Career planning is not a hard activity, not something to be dreaded or put off, but rather an activity that should be liberating and fulfilling, providing goals to achieve in your current career or plans for beginning a transition to a new career. Career planning should be a rewarding and positive experience. Here, then, are 10 tips to help you achieve successful career planning. 1. Make Career Planning an Annual Event Many of us have physicals, visit the eye doctor and dentist, and do a myriad of other things on an annual basis, so why not career planning? Find a day or weekend once a year -- more often if you feel the need or if you're planning a major career change -- and schedule a retreat for yourself. Try to block out all distractions so that you have the time to truly focus on your career -- what you really want out of your career, out of your life. By making career planning an annual event, you will feel more secure in your career choice and direction -- and you'll be better prepared for the many uncertainties and difficulties that lie ahead in all of our jobs and career. 2. Map Your Path Since Last Career Planning One of your first activities whenever you take on career planning is spending time mapping out your job and career path since the last time you did any sort of career planning. While you should not dwell on your past, taking the time to review and reflect on the path -- whether straight and narrow or one filled with any curves and dead-ends -- will help you plan for the future. Once you've mapped your past, take the time to reflect on your course -- and note why it looks the way it does. Are you happy with your path? Could you have done things better? What might you have done differently? What can you do differently in the future? 3. Reflect on Your Likes and Dislikes, Needs and Wants Change is a factor of life; everybody changes, as do our likes and dislikes. Something we loved doing two years ago may now give us displeasure. So always take time to reflect on the things in your life -not just in your job -- that you feel most strongly about. Make a two-column list of your major likes and dislikes. Then use this list to examine your current job and career path. If your job and career still fall mostly in the like column, then you know you are still

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

on the right path; however, if your job activities fall mostly in the dislike column, now is the time to begin examining new jobs and new careers. Finally, take the time to really think about what it is you want or need from your work, from your career. Are you looking to make a difference in the world? To be famous? To become financially independent? To effect change? Take the time to understand the motives that drive your sense of success and happiness. 1. Examine Your Pastimes and Hobbies Career planning provides a great time to also examine the activities you like doing when you're not working. It may sound a bit odd, to examine non-work activities when doing career planning, but it's not. Many times your hobbies and leisurely pursuits can give you great insight into future career paths. Think you can't make a hobby into a career? People do it all the time. The great painter Paul Gauguin was a successful business person who painted on the side. It actually wasn't until he was encouraged by an artist he admired to continue painting that he finally took a serious look at his hobby and decided he should change careers. He was good at business, but his love was painting. 2. Make Note of Your Past Accomplishments Most people don't keep a very good record of work accomplishments and then struggle with creating a powerful resume when it's time to search for a new job. Making note of your past accomplishments -keeping a record of them -- is not only useful for building your resume, it's also useful for career planning. Sometimes reviewing your past accomplishments will reveal forgotten successes, one or more which may trigger researching and planning a career shift so that you can be in a job that allows you to accomplish the types of things that make you most happy and proud. 3. Look Beyond Your Current Job for Transferable Skills Some workers get so wrapped up in their job titles that they don't see any other career possibilities for themselves. Every job requires a certain set of skills, and it's much better to categorize yourself in terms of these skill sets than be so myopic as to focus just on job titles. For example, one job-seeker who was trying to accomplish career planning found herself stuck because she identified herself as a reporter. But once she looked beyond her job title, she could see that she had this strong collection of transferable skills -- such as writing, editing, researching, investigating, interviewing, juggling multiple tasks, meeting goals and deadlines, and managing time and information -- skills that could easily be applied to a wide variety of jobs in many different careers. 8. Review Career and Job Trends Everyone makes his or her own job and career opportunities, so that even if your career is shrinking, if you have excellent skills and know how to market yourself, you should be able to find a new job. However, having information about career trends is vital to long-term career planning success. A career path that is expanding today could easily shrink tomorrow -- or next year. It's important to see where job growth is expected, especially in the career fields that most interest you. Besides knowledge of these trends, the other advantage of conducting this research is the power it gives you to adjust and strengthen your position, your unique selling proposition. One of the keys to job and career success is having a unique set of accomplishments, skills, and education that make you better than all others in your career. 9. Set Career and Job Goals Develop a roadmap for your job and career success. Can you be successful in your career without setting goals? Of course. Can you be even more successful through goal-setting? Most research says yes. A major component of career planning is setting short-term (in the coming year) and long-term (beyond a year) career and job goals. Once you initiate this process, another component of career planning becomes reviewing and adjusting those goals as your career plans progress or change - and developing new goals once you accomplish your previous goals. 10. Explore New Education/Training Opportunities

Sikkim Manipal University

- MBA -

MU0010 – Manpower Planning and Resourcing

Semester: 3 - Assignment Set: 2

It's somewhat of a cliche, but information really does lead to power and success. Never pass up chances to learn and grow more as a person and as a worker; part of career planning is going beyond passive acceptance of training opportunities to finding new ones that will help enhance or further your career. Take the time to contemplate what types of educational experiences will help you achieve your career goals. Look within your company, your professional association, your local universities and community colleges, as well as online distance learning programs, to find potential career-enhancing opportunities -- and then find a way achieve them. 11. Research Further Career/Job Advancement Opportunities One of the really fun outcomes of career planning is picturing yourself in the future. Where will you be in a year? In five years? A key component to developing multiple scenarios of that future is researching career paths.

Q.6

Write a detailed note on E- manpower planning

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