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, regardless of its initial motion. Objects thrown upward or downward and those released from rest are all falling freely once they are released. Any freely falling object experiences acceleration directed downward, regardless of its initial motion. We shall denote the magnitude of the free-fall acceleration by the symbol g. The value of g near the Earth’s surface decreases with increasing altitude. Furthermore, slight variations in g occur with changes in latitude. It is common to define “up” as the +y direction and to use y as the position variable in the kinematic equations. At the Earth’s surface, the value of g is approximately 9.80 m/s2. If we neglect air resistance and assume that the free-fall acceleration does not vary with altitude over short vertical distances, then the motion of a freely falling object moving vertically is equivalent to motion in one dimension under constant acceleration. We always choose ay=-g =9.80m/s2, where the negative sign means that the acceleration of a freely falling object is downwards. Therefore, the equations of motion developed for objects moving with constant acceleration can be applied. Down ward motion i. ii. iii.

v = v0 + gt

y = y0 + v0t +

2 v 2 = v0 + 2 g ( y − y0 )

1 2 gt 2

**Upward motion i. ii. iii.
**

v = v0 − gt

y = y0 − v0t +

2 v 2 = v0 − 2 g ( y − y0 )

1 2 gt 2

Examples 1) A stone thrown from the top of a building is given an initial velocity of 20.0 m/s straight upward. The building is 50.0 m high, and the stone just misses the edge of the roof on its way down, as shown in Figure below. Using tA=0 as the time the stone leaves the thrower’s hand at position A, determine the; (a) Time at which the stone reaches its maximum height, (b) Maximum height,

d) Velocity at t=4. (b) The maximum height it reaches. we use equation vB = vo − gt 20 .0 tB = = 2. Find (a) the initial velocity of the ball and. 3) A ball is thrown vertically upward from the ground with an initial speed of 15.08s which is the solution we are after. y st = y A + v0t − t ( 20 − 4.8 × ( 2. and Solution a) Initial velocity=20 m/s Final velocity=0 To calculate the time t B at which the stone reaches maximum height.8 × 4.0m / s 2 v 2 = v0 − 2 g ( y − y0 ) but displacement at point of throw is zero.08 ) = 20 .0 m/s.4m 2 2 c) When the stone is back at the height from which it was thrown the y coordinate is again ( ) zero.80 1 2 1 2 b) ymax = y B + v0t − gt = ( 20 × 2. v = ±v0 = ±20 m / s . The body hits the point of throw with a velocity equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the initial velocity.04 ) = 20 .08s v = vo + gt = 20 − ( 9. (a) How long does it take the ball to reach its maximum height? (b) What is its maximum height? (c) Determine the velocity and acceleration of the ball at t = 2.(c) Time at which the stone returns to the height from which it was thrown.04 ) + 9.9t ) = 0 1 2 1 gt = ( 20 t ) − 9. Hence +20m/s is the initial velocity of the body moving upwards while -20m/s is the velocity of the falling object at the point of throw.0 s. (d) Velocity of the stone at this instant. The other solution is t=4.8t 2 = 0 2 2 ( ) This is a quadratic equation and so has two solutions One solution is t=0 corresponding to the time the stone starts its motion. 2) A ball thrown vertically upward is caught by the thrower after 20.00 s.04 s 9.

as in Figure below. velocity and acceleration vectors Let describe the position of a particle by its position vector r. The path from A to B is not necessarily a straight line. At time to the particle is at point A. drawn from the origin of some coordinate system to the particle located in the xy plane. Determine the speed of the second ball if the two balls are to meet at a height h/2 above the ground. the instantaneous velocity equals the derivative of the position vector with respect to time. We now formally define the displacement vector ∆r for the particle as being the difference between its final position vector rf and its initial position vector ro: ∆ ≡ r f −ro r We define the velocity of a particle during the time interval ∆r as the displacement of the particle divided by that time interval: v= Multiplying or dividing a vector quantity by a scalar quantity changes only the magnitude of the vector. Because displacement is a vector quantity and the time interval is a scalar quantity. The direction of the instantaneous velocity vector at any point in a particle’s path is along a line tangent to the path at that point and in the direction of motion. As the particle moves from A to B in the time interval its position vector changes from ro to rf. The instantaneous velocity v is defined as the limit of the average velocity approaches zero: v = lim ∆r dr = ∆t →0 ∆t dt ∆ r ∆ t ∆r ∆t t as ∆ That is.4) A ball is dropped from rest from a height h above the ground. we conclude that the average velocity is a vector quantity directed along ∆r . . Motion in two dimensions The position. not its direction. The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector is called the speed. Another ball is thrown vertically upward from the ground at the instant the first ball is released. displacement is a vector quantity and the displacement of the particle is the difference between its final position and its initial position. and at some later time tf it is at point B.

The magnitude of the velocity vector (the speed) may change with time as in straight-line (one-dimensional) motion. ii. Therefore. Knowing the velocity at these points allows us to determine the average acceleration of the particle. its instantaneous velocity vector changes from vo at time to to v at time tf . Substituting v x = v xo + a x t and v y = v yo + a y t into Equation 2 to determine the final velocity at any time t. The instantaneous acceleration a is defined as the limiting value of the ratio ∆ r t as ∆ approaches zero: ∆ t ∆v dv v = lim = ∆t →0 ∆t dt NB: It is important to recognize that various changes can occur when a particle accelerates. its components ax and ay also are constants. we can apply the equations of kinematics to the x and y components of the velocity vector. it is useful to define its instantaneous acceleration a. and r change with time as the particle moves while i and j remain constant. The average acceleration of a particle as it moves from one position to another is defined as the v t change in the instantaneous velocity vector ∆ divided by the time ∆ during which that change occurred: a= v f − v0 t f − t0 = ∆v ∆t When the average acceleration of a particle changes during different time intervals. The direction of the velocity vector may change with time even if its magnitude (speed) remains constant.As a particle moves from one point to another along some path. The position vector for a particle moving in the xy plane can be written r = xi + yj ………………………………. v= Because a is assumed constant. we obtain dx dy i+ j = v x i + v y j …………………………………2 dt dt . iii. i.1 where x. If the position vector is known. as in curved-path (two-dimensional) motion. the velocity of the particle can be obtained by getting a differential of equation 1 above. Two-Dimensional Motion with Constant Acceleration Let us consider two-dimensional motion during which the acceleration remains constant in both magnitude and direction. y. Both the magnitude and the direction of the velocity vector may change simultaneously.

let us choose our reference frame such that the y direction is vertical and positive is upward. we know that the x and y coordinates of a particle moving with constant acceleration are x = xo + v0 x t + 1 1 a x t 2 and y = yo + v0 y t + a y t 2 respectively.1 = ( v xo i + v y 0tj) + ( a x i + a y j)t = v o + at This result states that the velocity of a particle at some time t equals the vector sum of its initial velocity v0 and the additional velocity at acquired in the time t as a result of constant acceleration. The vector v 0 makes an angle Φ with the horizontal. we find that the path of a projectile is a parabola. To show that the trajectory of a projectile is a parabola. With these assumptions. Similarly. where Φ is the angle at which the projectile leaves the origin. The path of a projectile is called its trajectory. the projectile leaves the origin with initial velocity v0 . let us assume that at t = 0. Projectile motion is a case of two-dimensional motion. Examples: a golf ball in flight. a bullet fired from a rifle and a jet of water from a hole near the bottom of a water tank.v f = ( v xo + a x t ) i + ( v yo + a y t ) j Quiz 4. Its motion is called projectile motion. we know that a y = −g and that a x = 0 Furthermore. In dealing with projectile motion two assumptions are made The free fall acceleration g is constant over the range of motion and is directed down ward The effect of air resistance is negligible. 1 2 at 2 . 2 2 Substituting these expressions into Equation 1(and labeling the final position vector rf) gives This equation tells us that the position vector rf is the vector sum of original position r0. Projectile Motion Projectile is a body thrown with an initial velocity in the vertical plane and then it moves in two dimensions under the action of gravity. as shown in Figure 1. Because air resistance is neglected. a displacement v0t arising from the initial velocity of the particle and a displacement resulting from the uniform acceleration of the particle.

The displacement along x-axis at any 3. v x 0 = v0 cos Φ v y 0 = v0 sin Φ 2. 1.t − gt 2 1 2 . any instant t. Component of velocity along the x-axis at 2. » x = v0 cos Φt » y = v0 sin Φ. v x = vx 0 + a x t v x = v0 cos Φ + 0 = v0 cos Φ v y = v0 + a y t v y = v0 sin Φ − gt This means that the horizontal component of velocity does not change throughout the projectile motion. Component of initial velocity along y-axis. The displacement along y-axis at any instant instant t t x = vxt + 1 a xt 2 2 y = v yt − 1 2 gt 2 . Component of velocity along the y-axis at any instant t. X axis Y axis 1. 3. Component of initial velocity along x-axis. the table below gives a summary of y and x components v0 v0 of this motion.From the definitions of the cosine and sine functions we have v v sin Φ = x 0 and cos Φ = y 0 therefore.

This equation of motion is valid for launch angles in the range 0 < θ < .At the highest point. the vertical component of velocity v y becomes equal to zero.t − gt 2 Substituting for t y = v0 sin Φ. y = v0 sin Φ. sec 2 Φ g. ……………………………. tan Φ − This equation is of the form y = ax −bx 2 where 'a' and 'b are constants. vo cos Φ 2 ( vo cos Φ) 2 1 x 2 . x 1 x2 − g. v y = v0 sin Φ − gt At t = t .1 2 2 vo 1 2 » y = x. v y = 0 0 = v0 sin Φ − gt . 2 Net velocity of the body at any instant of time t v x = v0 cos Φ v y = v0 sin Φ − gt 2 2 v = vx + v y ……………………………………2 Where β is the angle that the resultant velocity (v) makes with the horizontal at v β = tan −1 y v x any instant? Time to reach the maximum height Angular Projectile motion is symmetrical about the highest point. x » t = v cos Φ 0 Also.Equation of Trajectory (Path of projectile) At any instant t x = v0 cos Φt . The object will reach the highest point in time t . This is the equation of a π parabola.

3 g Maximum height H Let consider figure 2 below Equation for vertical distance (y component) y = v0 sin Φ. vy = 0 2 T 2 0 = v0 sin Φ − g .t= v0 sin Φ g Time of Flight T Angular Projectile motion is symmetrical about the highest point.t − 1 2 gt 2 At t = T .. v y = v0 sin Φ − gt T .t − gt 2 substituting the value of T from equation 3 we get . »T = 2v0 sin Φ …………………………………….At the highest point. The object will reach the highest point in time t = equal to zero. y = H − and − t = T 2 1 2 » H = v0 sin Φ. the vertical component of velocity v y becomes 2 At t = T .

R = v xT = v0 cos Φ 2v0 sin Φ g R= 2 2v 0 sin Φ cos Φ g = 2 v 0 sin 2Φ g Using the trigonometric identity 2sinØcosØ= sin2Ø » R= 2 v 0 sin 2Φ g 2 v0 The maximum value of R from Equation above is Rmax = . This result follows from the fact g that the maximum value of sin 2Φ is 1. which occurs when 2Φ = 90 0 . such as 75° and 15° as shown in the figure below. x = v x t when t =T . 0) can be reached by using either one of two complementary values of Φ . a point having Cartesian coordinates (R. Of course. In addition. Therefore. 0 − g g 2 g 2 = H= v 02 sin 2 Φ g v 02 sin 2 Φ 2g − 2 v 0 sin 2 Φ 2g »H = Range R Range is the total horizontal distance covered during the time of flight. x = R thus. R is a maximum when Φ = 45 0 .v sin Φ 1 v0 sin Φ H = v0 sin Φ. From equation for horizontal motion. the maximum height and time of flight for one of these values of Φ are different from the maximum height and time of flight for the complementary value. Examples .

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