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Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 ± Management Process and Organization Behavior - 4 Credits Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)

Q.1 Write a note on the managerial roles and skills? Ans: A manager is a person in the organization who directs the activities of others. The managers perform their work at different levels and they are called by different names. The first line managers are called supervisors or foremen. Middle level managers include all levels of management between the supervisory level and the top level of the organization. These managers may be called functional managers, plant heads, and project managers. Near the top of the hierarchy, there may be top management who are responsible for making organizational decision and setting up policies and strategies that affects all the aspect of the organization. These persons may be called as vice president, managing director, CEO or the chairman of the board. Managerial skill
A manager has to perform a number of jobs. It necessitates that a manager should have proper skills to perform different jobs. Robert L. Katz conducted research during early 1970¶s, and found that managers need three essential skills or competencies; technical, human and conceptual. He also found that the relative importance of these skills varied according to the level of the manager within the organization.

y Technical Skills
A manager must have the necessary technical skills to work with the resources, tools, techniques, procedures etc. First line managers as well as the many middle level managers have involved in technical aspect of the organization¶s operations. Technical skills include knowledge of and proficiency in a certain in a certain specialized such as engineering, computers, finance and manufacturing.

y Human Skills
It is the ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group. Managers with the human skills can get best out of the people working with them. They know how to communicate, motivate, lead and inspire enthusiasm and trust. These skills are needed by managers at every level but top managers need them most.

y Conceptual Skills
Conceptual skills is the ability to integrate and co-ordinate various activities. Mangers must have the ability to think and conceptualize about abstract solution. They must be able to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various subunits and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. Conceptual skills are helpful in decision making.
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Rolls of the manager

A role is concerned with the behavior pattern of a manager within an organization. According Henry Mintzberg the manager has to perform the following roles:
Interpersonal Roles

A manager has to perform some duties as figurehead. He may receive the guest from outside or preside over a social function of employees. He may have to sign some legal documents as head of the organization. He also to act as a leader when he has to sort out the activities of the subordinates. He has to not only to motivate the employees but it is also involved in hiring, firing and discipline employees. The third role in interpersonal roles is of liasioning. He has to contract outside agencies for collecting business related information. The outside information providers may be individuals or groups.
Informational Roles

All managers are required to perform informational role. They have to collect information from organization and institutions outside their own. Managers also play the role of disseminators when they supply information to subordinates in the organization. This information is factual as wells as with interpretation for the benefits of users. A manager acts as a spokesperson when he represents the organization to the outsiders.
Decisional Roles

According to Mintzberg, a manager performs four decisional roles. He initiates and oversees new projects for the improvement of organizational performance, this is entrepreneurial role played by him. As disturbance handler, manager takes corrective action in response to previously unforeseen problems. He also acts as resources allocator when he assigns and monitors the allocation of human, physical and monetary resources. He acts as a negotiator when he discusses and bargains with other groups to gain advantage for his own units. Q.2 Explain the social learning theory in detail? Ans: The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura has become perhaps the most influential
theory of learning and development. While rooted in many of the basic concepts of traditional learning theory, Bandura believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning.

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His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people. Known as observational learning (or modeling), this type of learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors.

Basic Social Learning Concepts
1. People can learn through observation. Observational Learning

In his famous "Bobo doll" studies, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura¶s studies observed an adult acting violently toward a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the Bobo doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning: 1. A live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior. 2. A verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. 3. A symbolic model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs, or online media.
2. Mental states are important to learning. Intrinsic Reinforcement

Bandura noted that external, environmental reinforcement was not the only factor to influence learning and behavior. He described intrinsic reinforcement as a form of internal reward, such as pride, satisfaction, and a sense of accomplishment. This emphasis on internal thoughts and cognitions helps connect learning theories to cognitive developmental theories. While many textbooks place social learning theory with behavioral theories, Bandura himself describes his approach as a 'social cognitive theory.'
3. Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior.

While behaviorists believed that learning led to a permanent change in behavior, observational learning demonstrates that people can learn new information without demonstrating new behaviors.

The Modeling Process
Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:

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y

Attention:
In order to learn, you need to be paying attention. Anything that detracts your attention is going to have a negative effect on observational learning. If the model interesting or there is a novel aspect to the situation, you are far more likely to dedicate your full attention to learning.

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Retention:
The ability to store information is also an important part of the learning process. Retention can be affected by a number of factors, but the ability to pull up information later and act on it is vital to observational learning.

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Reproduction:
Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement and skill advancement.

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Motivation:
Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment. For example, if you see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, you might start to show up a few minutes early each day.

Q.3 Explain the Big 5 model of personality? Ans : The big five model- in recent years, a body of researchers have identified five basic personality
dimensions-Extroversion, Emotional stability, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness. All these five traits are so important and underlie all other traits that they are more popularly referred to as the big five personality traits- These traits are cited as bellow:y Extroversion: This personality trait reflects a person¶s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be sociable, lively, assertive, outgoing and talkative. The opposite extrovert is introvert who refers to those who are quite, reserved and less assertive. y Emotional Stability: This trait captures a person¶s ability to withstand stress. People with high emotional stability tends to be calm, confident and secure. A person with low emotional ability, on the other hand, tends to be nervous, depressed, anxious and unsecure. y Agreeableness: Agreeableness refers to a person¶s ability to get along with others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, empathetic and caring. However, people who scores low on this traits are cold, uncooperative and self-centered. y Conscientiousness: This personality trait is a measure of reliability. It refers to people who are dependable, responsible, organized and systematic. People with Conscientiousness tend to be unreliable, irresponsible, careless and disorganized. y Openness: this personality trait reflects a person¶s interest and creativity. Extremely open people are creative and innovative. They are willing to listen new ideas and to change their own ideas. They are highly flexible and curious. However, those who scores low on this trait are less repetitive to new ideas, more fixed in their ways and conventional.

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Q.4 What are the different factors influencing perception? Ans: The perception, organization and interpretation of information depends very much on the
characteristics of the stimuli, characteristics of the situation and some our own personality characteristics. Situational and personality characteristics which influence the perceptual seta are explained below:

y Characteristics of the Perceiver:
When a person looks at a target and attempts to interprete what he sees, his interpretation is greatly influenced by his personality characteristics which are as below: 1. Need and Motives: Our need pattern play an important part in how we perceive things. A need is a feeling of discomfort or tension when we miss something or require something. Therefore, unsatisfied needs and motives stimulates individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perception. When people are not able to satisfy their needs they are engaged in wishful thinking which is a way to satisfy their needs not in the real world but in an imaginary world. In such a case, people will perceive only those items which suit their wishful thinking. Motives also influence the perception of people. People who are devious are prone to see others as also devious. 2. Self concept: Self concept indicates how we perceive ourselves which then influences how we perceive others and the situation we are in. The more we understand ourselves, the more we are able to perceive others accurately. For example, secure people tend to see others as warm and friendly. Less secure people often find fault with others. Perceiving ourselves accurately and enhancing ourself are factors that enhance accurate perception. 3. Past experience: Our perceptions are guided by our past experiences and what we expect to see. A person¶s past experience mould the way he perceive the current situation. If the person has been betrayed by a couple of friends in the past, he would tend to distrust to any new friends the he might be in the process of developing. 4. Current psychological state: The psychological and emotional states of an individual are likely to influence how things are perceived. If a person is depressed, he is likely to perceive the same situation differently than if he is elated. Similarly, if a person is scared out of wits by seeing a snake in the garden, she is likely to perceive a rope under the bed as a snake. 5. Beliefs: A person¶s belief influences his perception to a great extent. Thus, a fact convinced not on what it is but what a person believes it is to be. The individual normally censors stimulus inputs to avoid disturbance of the existing belief. 6. Expectations: Expectations affect the perception of a person. Expectations are related with the state of anticipation of particular behavior from a person. For example a technical manager will expect that the non-technical people will be ignorant about the technical features of the product.

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7. Situation: Elements in the environment surrounding an individual like time, location,
light, heat etc., influences his perception. The context in which a person sees the object or the event is very important. 8. Cultural Upbringing: A person¶s ethics, values and his cultural upbringing also play an important role in his perception about others. It is difficult to perceive the personality of a person raised in another culture because our judgment is based upon our own values.

y Characteristics of the perceived:
Characteristics of the person who is being observed can affect what is perceived. Though, it may go against logic and objectivity, but it cannot be denied that our perceptions about others are influenced by their physical characteristics such as appearance, age, gender, manner of communication as well as personality traits and other forms of behavior. Persons, objects or events that are similar to each other tend to be grouped together. People dressed in business suits are generally thought to be professionals, while employees dressed in ordinary work clothes are assumed to be lower level employees. Manner of communication, both verbal and non-verbal, affect our perception about others. For example, the choice of words and perception of language can form impression about the education and sophistication of the person. The tone of voice indicates the mood of the person. The depth of conversation and choice of topic provides clues of people¶s intelligence. The status of occupation of a person also influences the perception. We tend to behave in a more respectful way when we are introduced to the principal of a school in which our child is studying, judge of the high court or Supreme Court or a famous cricket player.

y Characteristics of the situation:
The context in which we see objects or events is very important. The surrounding environment and the elements present in it influence our perception while perceiving a particular situation or events, its physical social and organizational setting can also influence the perception. For example, if you meet a person for the first time and he is with a person whom you respect and admire, you will create a favorable image about him in your mind as compared to a situation in which you see him another person whom you intensely dislike.

Q.5 Write a note on contemporary work cohort? Ans:
Contemporary Work Cohort, proposed by Robbins (2003) who divided the work force into different groups depending upon the era or period in which they have entered in to work. It stress upon individual¶s value which reflects the societal values of the period in which they grew up.

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The cohorts and the respective values have been listed below: 1) Veterans:- workers who entered the workforce from the early 1940s through the early 1960s and exhibited the following value orientations: a) They were influenced by the great depression and the World War 2. b) Believed in hard work. c) Tended to be loyal to their employer. d) Terminal values: Comfortable life and family security. 2) Boomers:- Employees who entered the work force during the 1960s through the mid 1980s belongs to this category and their value orientation were: a) Influenced heavily by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights and feminist movement, the Beatles band, the Vietnam War and baby boom competition. b) Disturbed authority, but gave a high emphasis on achievement and material successes. c) Organization that employed them was vehicles for their careers. d) Terminal values: sense of accomplishment and social reorganization. 3) Xers:- they began to enter the work force from the mid 1980s. They cherished the following values: a) Shaped by globalization, two career parents, M¶TV, AIDS, and computers. b) Value flexibility, life options and achievement of job satisfaction. c) Family and relationship were important and enjoyed team oriented work. d) Less willing to make personal sacrifice foe employees than previous generations. e) Terminal Values: True Friendship, happiness, and pleasure. 4) Nexters:- most recent entrants in to the work force. a) Grew up in prosperous times, have high expectation, believe in themselves and confident in their ability to succeed. b) Never ending search for ideal job; see nothing wrong with job opening. c) Seek financial success. d) Enjoy team work, but are highly self reliant. e) Terminal values: freedom and comfortable life.

Q.6 what are the special issues in motivation? Discuss? Ans: Some of the special issues in motivation are discussed below.
Motivating Professionals The professional employees likely to seek more intrinsic satisfaction from their work than blue-collar employees. They generally have strong and long term commitments to their field of expertise are perhaps more loyal to their profession than to their employer. They need to regularly update their knowledge, and their commitment to their profession. Therefore, extrinsic factors such as money and promotions would be low on their priority list. Rather, job challenge tends to be ranked high. They like to tackle problems and find solutions.

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Managerial Implications: y Provide them with ongoing challenging projects. y Give them autonomy to follow their interests and allow them to structure their work. y Reward them with educational opportunities. y Also reward them with recognition. Motivating temporary Workers: Temporary workers may be motivated if: y They are provided with permanent job opportunity y The opportunity for training is provided to them y Provide equitable pay. Motivating Low Skilled Service Workers: One of the most challenging managerial tasks in to motivate low skilled workers who are involved in repetitive physical work, where higher education and skills are not required. For this category of people, flexible work schedules and higher pay package may be proved effective motivational factors. Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers involves:y Recruit widely. y Increase pay and benefits. y Make jobs more appealing. Motivating People Doing Highly Repetitive Tasks: y Recruit and select employees that fit the job. y Create a pleasant work environment. y Mechanize the most distasteful aspects of the job.

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