5

.

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In 1997. IDr. 6enjilmin f. fia~. President Qf 'iJ'uskeg:ee Urnv.e~, and 1U1TI1~~ St:sm:es Flepr€sentatwB' Boo Riley, 3m Di5-~riiJ~, Alatla.ma. requestec 'tha~ the Natiooal Park Se~lre (NFl'S) tpfep[UB' 8 ~peolal IFtesouriie' 8~udy of how OOSl'IO im~rprnt aM cclelJ\ral:e the role 94: ~he' Th.~:ee AJrmel!ll in Wmld Vilar III and 'LihCl:I~ in[t!al iIIt'llnlncgl a~ MoooJ!! IFiQrd. itre, AI<lMma [ieIJ'oElJrtmem: of llicoJloml:c and Oomm!ml~y A'i'fuiro (AD~CA) pJ{i¥lde;:;l a ,$75,000 gran~' for pglfilli ng. trave'l • .aJ1Id the Ibulk. of sal~ry C0sl1olf !NFl'S proJem personn~. Tine NP8 g·o!J1tJea_sI' FiegJooa1 O~rIC(l;i Tusbg;€l!} Ins~llure NffilGlllal HlsOCll\lc ~It(j, 1iusl':J:l;g~~' University, arut:! nlt:! @tl;jla of Alaooma 'fuffllshea ad.dilloFi2i :s.ta-H OO~OFt r5'f the p~parattjoo Cif iltJG; ropOf'it.

Th~ ijJ.Ii.IFpCiOO' o:~ '~he .stud~ Is, to 'e¥i3.Iu8be' iLlilJe pmentisJ !OI: addlmJ§1 MMoi'l FI,*,I n TlIsIre~:ee, AlaoomlEi. to iIlhIe NHJ1ioool IP~j'k S)IS1.'eFfi 1:0 'GOO'Imemorare '~hie ro!e iJf ilFie TlJ5:koegee AIrmen dur1ng Wm1dl WaF n. Gn accordanoe 'Wi~h the NPS planfllln.~ process, ~ne, s<1Jl.!!i1y ii.s .a fam-'f!n~!I11g1 e~rt !ba8~ on roodlly avalflable' inllOrmatiGlll. ana Is used 'to det.e~mine if '11110 arnei3J l"$S(iurces oo¥e' natIDl'lai sig;nifiCa!'Kie' 8f\,'d H~' s!.Jf'tabili~yJ feasibility of liFl-dudi"91 iL~e 8_l'eS. in tlle i"4aiill;l!!ll3J P,a_fl!ol; Sy.stem .. lfihe (jlaJiini'1liI9 IPl'(lce!;l!;l Ibeg-ri~ with

,a, I1EIGQri1iail!i~.BIflce :61,J1'i'EI~'

in i'i.'hjQh ~1i1E1' $1l!,110!if ~Bam cg[h~01$.IOI;i~ infOrmaiiQril alild ,~~~ ~M r,es~ro~ l!;ii!}nijj'~nQe'_ II~ the ar~, ,(:Ie;i!)e~re 'tl;)llh~¥e lXI~e--f1~ial ~ ,a un'it 11;11 ihEI ~a~iOri~1 P~r1l: ,~tem~ :;Ii tde'~(:Iile;p :;i~ud~' Of m:;l!n~g~~m alreml;i,jiwel;l

i ~ '! h~ rl QI;Ifl c\l o! e-d- T h:i!3 ~L,J:r'eo ~~"iClEl:s. a brieF '!;lUIiiIr';:;Iiry (I~ the m~tEl .. ia.'1 Q~re<l in '~h~ :;;II,I)l;i),' eJrid

. -.-~lfii':kl DIIIlln:!;

'9ilul d ''if<il1.' III

gQmmemgro;rteo ~he'Ti.J.g;;l1;!l Airmen ~nd Mg~Dn FiE!~¢L

Fl.OBJIJ'i\

lihe' VSih.mble< !lXi!lWibu~ion$ 'Of! the Tu~ke~~' Airmeri

ha"':e Qn!~ rece-..nl!y be-e!il ,!;I~I!iI~edg:Eldi 'bJi!(luglill ~~r\al me!'1Miir<s, diXlur:nentarlie-s, ie'levi'Siol!il d'J,(:Im(:I~ anGi !;lCh(llariy ::l~!.!~ies, The pr~~e- Qfi these Alr\i~-Ari'ielliCalil 'fig'h~~r pilots in 'ifile Almy Air O~I~5l (Army ,;!ijr Fi;!In~~) atIGi 'h'hi:;iir exemplary eerneat i;!I::ti ... mes rern:;f!ined li;I!rge~ Il,Jl!ilkriQINrl auri!lg, and even i;i!'fte~ World 'War I!, Ni@!t;n.pmeQl the "iLo.nel)!' Eag!e~," 1t!e If'''5l~gee ~ilYtl1e'll overw~me 'the "5efMI_ra~e but equa!" CQmji~ionQ, ~ncIiI;Hrn~ by tile LJriitElg Sta~e'.s AirrFLlI ~Q ~OOnie tI;IfiI~ (II 'tM lifI(Ia~ Itigl1ll~' ~Sl¥ieGila(l1 :;lind hgl!ill;lil,ed 'fi~Ner glrIJ;lL\lp$. ,A~l'(Iiiilgi M OfjIj'~llliflilil::3ir'y n;I 00 rtis , ~lfue< T~~!)i;Ie ,A;miisn Of ~Jme< :991:tJ FlI9htE1lf Sq\JI;I.i;lr(lllii l;iiig i:tJe .sJ2fla Fighter SIfOL4l ~ornplete[( ~ .578 miSSiOriS., ~Si~a ~r ,26~O IEltiert'l!i a]FCn'a~t, :Yn:k Me enemy de$ll(!yer, anal d~li'iiWlisl1EidIIiU1ii'li3'fOOS enern~' i'1i!;!h3lIali:(1rl$. F(Jr th~ir' eHol1$.. '~hese ,airmen ra-oeiilE!lj

950 lDi~ti~~i!!jned 1F1l{il19 CIflt!SS89, as I!'.rell ~s IW8giDn:s. of Mlemit, :S~1f :S~ar~, PUr1P-I~e E-IeaF~s .. the Cl'lIil!oi: lLiie, Gi!..ietre.

00000000

~l1io/ rwe fmn oII.d'I'L'I'~' U;;"'U.¢ romJli:'11:TIIT, lifMmge, tvlUUlIIIU[lII. II:.I.IiI mp;rri~., i'o n'mi" .fif'mmru on R.~"""T 111·n.9" ,ullff ~ X\l u ~~~ fow M.!.I lrunSl:L1ni'. ~

t:.,~ ... Anwn .5. ........ ~I «,."d 5Ia .... ,It~ I'a,..:.oo ~

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aoo 100 ~d Star o~ ''l:\Ig.osrevlill. Moreover, acc::ordlllQ 10 nUm900ljJ~ aeeourus, the FI1£ln Q.: '1M :3Mlnd A~hte.f '(1I"OOP ii111:;'i'~Q'l ICLSt a bOOlloo~ iI:O I!nem)l '~Ightem, 'htIllc, eSQmllng 'l.lTJ1) 'll.5~n AJr FOI"t.1l QfiI oornt!IJlg missions. Tlhls earned lhe' 'IilIs'kfl gt; e ,A, I rill!l!fl I~} ff'~Sp8d: O"f Am€:fh::!9In bElrmber CIlG'NS,; !lI.I1Jo ooJ:I€:d ~hGFIi1I mil UR!M:I",tall Alilg~ls,n afoor loo.f:r ,dlstlnc:1We red

~ail markings" as w.e11 as thQ !3!~t.r~fil L.u~l'!Nalk!'.

wlt!!!l IJIrrlGl'rre Eli rto t h:€l f'1'I:€l fil

as ttle ~~'h\i'lartze V'QoZIe'lme~en,~ or '"lI8iQk i'!.INifie'J"i.'" Tlhe ~m;pliSh" ments el 'these a1rll11ien ,aloci, Ii'ePN~nt a peak In '1M' s~nJlOOI'e by AlrriIDan Amen" eans 1:0 p;flFt Qlpru:e In the ILI.S .. arrmoo '(i\j';jJ€:s: thel~ ~I'JIiflOOJ: S!lE©~S proved 'w military IOOrlQfcS that, If

g't'Klii'il tM~ {If!pN~UTIlty,. A;Frlcan AmQfl(!ftns CiDu'ld b~i] !'JrlOO1i\;'Q FIi1 lI~ary fiQafi€lFs: aoo combat vl~tm'aoo.

TlilQ !'}1:oF'lf ot' '~hie iliufi~iC!1J .A1rJ:nQfil and ltiCl:11' ~flilplary ff'~CCijl:d ll~ vlrtll_all¥ IIJlilkncrwlil to IlK!sA: Am€l~~. F~ schc!t~li1Iy works. dooll with! iII1I@ IhISitory {II' '~h)f! aJlrrlliflen and th'lIr tprIFfl;}~ fJlg'ln '~rnlndng at IMa.1On F'1e'ld. Consequenlly" Nf'S hlstmians ClonSlillleod varlOIJiS IPfll'lilarry and !&eCOMaJry seureas such as. military ~rds. Mws~apers, IpliJG.W·' Q"1.tlptlS; dcetJlflitQmfl"ilQs" books. and film . oo~a@e. Thes-e.' tlisttlrlafls, also ,gathiflFtld ~nfm~llonl ~r{!1i1l th~ MO(!fland· ~pEfl~flI FtlJUarch (:.:l::n[~r at IFkIINard IJJr1Il'i'~e'J:sl~. '~e

Na~iGnal ArdiJi~e3, Ihe' Library o~ Co.ngress, Ti.J=*e~e Ufliver:sl~1f Ard'lIl'fe3, and '~hie Airr Foree FI~torir..tal Re~af;t:h Ag,eooy ,Bit Maxwell AJriB .. A~aDamaJ. To 'f!.Jr~herr iIltlJeir under:nandillQ O'~ tlle TlUskeg~ Ai~menJ '1M N PS st!Jd~' 'team ah!} oondooted a 'ff'l)mkShQjJ' wilh se ... erall airmen a~' 'the Migttty [lEighth ,Air Force Heri.a;-ge M~8e1J1m! in ~nn;(!lh, G.eiJl~ir:!. and sent many af the rurrnel!'!

a ques.~ionli!aire for 'I he [;r' ~np!Jt and insight in.o this; IProj;ec~. From '1M il'lf0!l"m~ lion g:a~hered, ~e Nruiooo! Fla:rk S~ire ":o:n~ded that ~e "Tl!s.k~ee; Ajrmen c:t:peri'ence" ~oos Ibeyooidl tliie oombat e:~P'liJits 0 'the IPlkits !Mlo. S8IVBd in the 99th fighter ,sq!J'f:idFO'II and 1h~ :a3at1d FIg'hler ~ro!Jp

amll oooulll:l IJilcl~d:e '~he ,a,1'7b'h BI)'fLIib,aIl'd_rM G~p. 'wtiliicn 'fouSIirt f~r ~!J,JaJ ri,9ht$ !N1i1l1l11il '~e Arrrny A1J' FiJi~QS S:'!fS'l'€lffit, 3Jnd '~h£l 'lh,(llJSal!!ld'~ 101 FJilenl :;Iillg 1,~mell wllo ~n,re.d in ~ilian ,!;lIiidiliRili~1i)i' ~j;I~iQlt g~OOps. This; smry 3J:oo dQals ~LiM 100 hls!~_ry and OOvetoflp· rment gfi T!,!I!;Ikli!'9~' ~~tihl,J~~1 I!ilg.w IklnQ1,'!.!rl 9:;;' TiJ~ee IJ.Jfill'i'~Q'J.sl~y. and llts '!lfklf~s t(!o Qs~ablls.h i9J fllgtrl tra ntng pi{!;warn 'for AMil;:an ,;!\JlineriC'~n~, 'The hi~tQry g~: 'the!;le Iffle-f1 ailid eWOiil9F1 a~ Itlatr 'righi, 'to ,lElfrl 1i'Kl, Arrm-!/ Air c.u~p.s (Almy ,;!\iF fi.Jlrce5i') i;Ilnd to PJQ'!e' lltieir 'worth ,to' Ittiiieir COU!iftry. :;I!~ weii as thei~ ~lfli;ggi9i 'ihr 8-qU;:d rtgh~ lin bcnh lhie tJnllUary and :~iXie~¥ 1!OOs.~ 00' pre~eN~ 'Kir the Amefican pul:i!iG.

Al"riean ,Americans :in the MUitary

Afric;anI"'AmElli~i3!nl metl BiMi 'wFn8nl naw ooolifiiiuaiiy 1P!'ay!ea .a ~gli!iliC'a!nt l"(lile i'll '~h.e 1I1liledi S~ate5l !1'1ili~aiI)!' an~ ~ts «!kiAlal pr'~eoe!3sors. The}!' ~i}.t onty. rou:,gnt to em:er'IM ~j'ml'J'dl fO~i:OO; eu •. 'IkIa.n 11n~l~ aooQptiJd by rtI1J(I; {lO\i'{llflfl- 1iinB:n1. '~h8Y had! ttl 1NOrtl: lind'ai' s.a9ilie~a~CI aliildl U fi'iEl OJ lla I, (:(I1liditi(J1iiI!;i a'ng p:r{l'~re their ~b:ili~ie!;i. Th~ lin.1emal b.a~le Qtintim.!!ed "!"H1;!I!Jghl iLf1!e I!3I_le '~e:Vef"iteen'it!. ~9Ne,en1t!. and nlneteeruh 08.fTfturies, up Iinto the '~ill"St haM iO.: '1M 'IWen~jethi OOn1ltuF~, 8G1h '~rn81 aoo I9FL~!iOO A'tFi:eaf'\S and Afli'iioaJl .A.i"narioan!i. (ooghl. il'l oolO'tliai wa~ aM OOO'llili'iiU8d11.O $Upp©r1 E..,.F©pean na1il;J1Il!;l ,ElJ'II:;1 the l,,!IFllibe~ sta~~ iin ~liie Re¥o.l!!.Jlio~ry Wa, aJijlj ~e WaF of 1812. For ex.ampl'e, by iIIlIlli ;eM ii)1 RI!!l\l'ClI!iI~lMIary War; appii'~~IFf;lat~ .5X!lOO .A:frlcafll ~rioan!i, iliad Mfwd] in ~li'iIa. CotitiMffftaII .Atm:.." and rNa'!/Ij; while tiim;l\!,J!;Il;I!ni;.:l!;l 'f(Jl!Iglir~ 'fQr ~hE;!' lB~ir~i!;lh ~I!I~E;!'. A~liil)\Jgh ~I!!ie ext.em !OI: $!;'fricaFl-,;i\meri'a:in 1P8rOO!pra~ion in ~l:le 'WaJr of

16~ 2 ia. !.!!Mile'ail"" .$'Ch!O!;:IiFe, e~tirna.te t~j; ~pg;iroxiirnelte!lf 1 S to 000% of ttle men n Ihe.' navy 'Were' b'1~ Mm'e0¥er. '!/!,!,!Q A,l'fIic.aFl~Af'"IiU:!fi'icaf'I !!.Inlts mei'{ji9d ro 't.omm lhe Fffi91 Negro IElalt:illi:g1i'ii whicn., With lIila, aiD! ,1)'1: Blr\(I~h.'EI~ :500 bladl: :roldi8r:;;. he!poed Andrew J!3I_c!<;eon !!i!efeaJ '~he ~rmsh :;r~ "title Bairt!e Q!:

New OlleaJ1ls (l,Ei:1 51.

Many of i1hese Afriean M'rIe1Jlcans ~GilJghl: I'ri jhese ~1IC::.5 fur 'liiNo reasons: ti) defeal the enemy and 'til earn 'freedOOll,. eq!.Jali~¥. and respect 'f.!;irr iLtrJeir eace, They achieve!:! some ooGia! gains [Q'f' 'their Soaaifice:5i, rOor mall)!' o~ them were lr~rd~ wiitI i'mmediate Q~ grndual '~reediJ'JiIl • NoriIe1t!~e'33" on~ a [ew Aj'!l"~cH_1l Arneri.t:ans beneli~ed I'rom ~tii!i!;l, p!ivli!ege ;o~p;a!l"eg wi In 1t!e miriiQna, ~MJ ~F!'1~i~ed e!l5!avedL IB,y tthe- s.t~rt o~ 'the Oiy,j! W!3I_f ill 1361. more than (WI!" mi!.iOll Afri~.lIn Amefic~na. ~re hek! u, bofij!jag,e' ~.hile' tet;!!3 lh[:!1'1 a h~ll: l'Ji'!i!liQl'!Ilha'tll Qbtai~e.d '~h:eir f.re.;eQom.

The Ci'i,lil War. h.Qwever, Q~red marr~' e-na~¥ed il\fi"i~n Ji;J'l!1.erii-cal'15l an QP'Po1'i!J..!!naw W 'Iigh~; kif ftr;e~i;kIm, Many

~'

000000000000000000000000000000000

si.1lJi!9$ e.scapsd 'fJilOO1l tMiGll~ masters, sought rl~4i:t9,e 'Wi1tJln Union Ihrrl!:ts, amd of'ft}rGd II-lel1 .8.Gol'\'iC{ls ~Cl1tJ1) eause, ElIa.ck. iIiIOops., oo~r, w!:t:~~ inl1ii1lJIy pbccdl n non-oornb~~If~t iloie!;, sueh as C00i-';s, ~1~.gfS, 'fIil' {i'7<dllflIM, or piJl'I1oF«Joo Mai'liai laM such aos ~ulldl~ foirlilicatioos and ffOat!s .. er ii:ligg~ng ~a['jais and trnnoooo. By ~ BBi3, i!MGl NoftllJ f(l~lzQd iIDla. li'lsad fe!~ ~.Ij(h1ioitaJ lrt'lanp~~ 300 b~an ~:o ,ool~ JiJliiean .ArnlliFicaiiS In '1i'I1'} ffll~iti;:( iJ Ifill W'flQ't!lf fillJlmb!l['S,

FOi' iQ:ta~ie, '~fI~ taFFii£!fIi M~.t.llIuoo~t:.s .!:i4~11 RflglifniGi'lt,~ ii:leJI~fIi F~f:l'Lly in ~MQ 'WidtJ::Iy vlQ'Wfld mO-1l'11'JI 'iG:I!}~~ 'Was ~n A1)i~al'l~rioafl ecFFibat liiFllt oi'~an~d tty 100' Ufl10f11 ~i'\rt'ly .. N0~looress, i:It~cl< solctim'S oootlmJoo 1:0 '!lI'lCOUfflltm biaLaFl't Ir.aclSi'i'I. ,!1ise(E.HfII~joni ~OO ~~j'{lga1ii:!filI, ,i;UflJd Wflfli} a~:sigrted rt'I8n~i tas.ks, .0l:U1Joogh some ~nl.l!lill:ly Jolood iffilIIJ,atf:r.. ifiitfartti'~ •. and light and h9a'i.f~ .arlillflr~ units as ~hfl w,at IPKlgFaeMd. Meaniid'liEG, jjf_~fik. ~~Uffll'OOQrs. such as I-Iairlst Tl!Jllt'ilIan O'i1I'aFed lhieit ,sS'T'i'ioos as :spies.. oo~s, and sMuts ~Ct1 the unlen ;:a~_ In .ali. aboo~ 1 (MJiOi) Akicaliil .Ame.ri~i'1!5 ael¥Bd ilii the iJnited :8t11JleIiS Mavy (~jJoSir1g ®% D'r ~Jrn9 .enlJinll n~.i ~~~J::eG}. wftilg ,anc.1f'Illr 1 SiB.OO!JI1bu~ht in me, anrt'ly_ iB!f the Qnd ,~ ~JirJ& Ciio'iil Wair, A.IF'iCla1'iJ .AJmeuican~ ilX!iinprise;r:l ~ooa. otJ thiS IUfilIlon ,'!JK;.Qs" while' oon~1i1.litiFl.)l;i 2% ,Oo.f In91 p~l.!Ila'l:k!filI lnthe North,

liM 'lI'Isir pFSEiEC~f;S, iIIi1IQOO A'frlcarl-Am~r1can men and WIOFnE!n u:SUali~ had ·two IilfIc.~S 00111100 ~Jim r Pl'IUldpai(J!l)n In ItleSQ wars: 1.0 deoo<1it An'Kli1lca"s mllL'ltlry efillQllllY and te d9'i'uJ Art'l9Fioo',s racism IFI erdor to win fU'fliGloom afilldi equalil~ klii' Ahi'ean Alililll~ns, At iltJll ;end' o~ the 'lHar, C<ofill9J\E!SS. psrmaoontly a'bollsi'Joo SI~\KlF)!' .and '9 ~lilt{ld mQflQ' !htm four fIil ilion Nr!e.aJfI AmeOOali1l8 IIbeF~y. clllzend'Jlp, arocl 111£ ~lgl'I~ to vote, for Ii'OOli1IY Afrleafl Amerkru'rJs, iIlirIes.e II' ghts were merely an I lu:Moo, and lFfIan~' of them $'t1]l encouotered r.!I.'Glal ,(fiscrimlnaJ11on wiHrln 1lMe mll~ry and In s.ociety. as. a. whole. Only !i!J few Awic.an AJ!n.€rican8 In .he armed 'f0rres, oDtail1ed offioer !o!' ~ec!~i~e£!

~ il1't!;,:; b!ti~ i}f !ifw 1:.i'.'lss-aahllSrJr:A';; 541')~ ~l!jfl~ ~ ~.i'~Q .in ,1M' ttrsr ~ "l~~r ifl'AI1l'Cf...:::tl· to I~,~~~ ~rn; 1I'idl~ ;sr,(t~· (jC~ ~ !'fi,[;l ~~~m SffiW Cilpilo1 M Boston ~mtI'liJ!'!',

1Yainil'iig, ~Ii~ ~Il]j IbI8!ck sllklial'"S dial M! recsM IhEi n~l;!~ry e~l,I~pmelll1it "ttl 1[itI€!I=LUi3.tElly prefMIli'EI th.EiIiflI ~Or Ql;IrFtI;Jat. When tl'I~ ·S~anj'$I'I-AlifLel'iean W;at Illeg13n in ~ 8!la, only l):fIe .Africa,n-Ptm8tiCi3.n 'W85t ROOiI gr.amLI.ai!9., Cl;arh3~ ~n,g, ~a ,8. pDsitiDtl ~ .i3:tI acbiva rna D'ili@£!i" m It\e mili .. ~ry. Racial g~rimili>a~iQIi m8ant ~ffili3!1: OFlJij a ~E!!N JiJll'iiMtl AI'1fI:~IIl\iCI;m8 ~el"il$dl ,3S oFlroam iilil tile :fipanisn .AffieriCi3F11 W.a~ .. M:O~i nfLili!ary !EIMerS. l'slt ~lilEl1: A~OO3Ii1 .A.m81ic-tlins l£:Icke,p '~h~ intelli!}eilliJce'. brEwry, lBatiarSlrnip., aM uOOiflb.:!J~ :s!"li II i;i. IJ;lI jl)'ili ~ImJ;I< i,s19Lilar .arriiy. 85.pacially· as D'ilICE1rs.. N',gfiielMIe$$. be~we8A11 ,6,000 alia '10,000 Illaol( .sOklfElftS ~rved iin ~fi1~ SpI;IJli$iii Amerioan WaF, m8..'n~ m iIi'Iem .8.idi1ig The(lall)l181 RtIoElsve'lt"s. ~Rl:H.iJg~ Flidal"E." at ~s GUi31SiI"lital5 l;iilid $8n .JI,I_an Filill

AlihQllIIgfl W'ClBfltlrow WilMIii prol"iiUsed to. "m~ the 'worid ~fe 'f.Q~ (Ii~HiiQl;:racy," AlriC~IIi1-AriieriCaiil .EiOOdf4;l~ fared Olily glightl)' bielre:r in Wtlmldl 'Wair l, ''IIlIlerB3a, two. milliCiiI .A'[iican Ameril;:.(:llii!;l reePQliideCl tQ the $eli;lGiive .!;;i.aIVioe AGi. Of 191'7, liile lIirlil~1!1f ,!'I~p1:etl (I IIil I)!' tH)O,(lQO bla'¢k re(:.ruita. MaIlilY oJ ,I'lI;!:;Ie men WI;!I1I;! :;!!!;Iei8lnetlto ngl!ii-com~lalil: II'(Ile~ e!nd rm;eni!'l~ '~i;lI);l;i. ·wtiTlile ·the M~rine COJ'lli;i alid Ar1lDjf Air C'ti!l'P~ iSirnpl:t oolliineJ;l Alj'~iC!'ln Anie~n$ .J;lJt(lge~l\-EI~ b)' c1aimillSJ lhal' '~he)' l~d~J;l1ihe gNlI;I~ificI;I,1igI!ii!;l 'fQF ~nilt!l;I.1: duzy. llil additioll, ll'~ci~1 I;hcriminl;l,iign ~~triCle-d 11'Ie' ~'e'll A"fri-~n-Ameri~n QHigeFi;i· ~o iQQIliimanail'l9 Bjll-!Illajck uni~I3" b ·title milit!'lr)' l;jidlll1Qt WBlITlt bl~ck ,D.flicaFE. lEiatlu,8I wtlibEI !lfQgtJ;I:;i. The 8!rmy il;!'i'E!n rreDr~f1iizE!d anDl .i3.1~i3:Chedi :sev.81fa.1 I!,!In~ gl: Afrig',;I!rlr-.Amlie'rig;€li1li S(]ldierG. Bllid D'ftIiiD!3rfS ~D the Fren@ AI'JirITlf, which not only healed UI8::iB aD.1diElts fairly, bui' al!;l:J;lI ~~n;il;!aI a r..e'!;limE!llIt kliown .8$ ~lmel "iHa,leifl'i II-hall F~hW~' t:he: di'qli;nS!l,If~'h~ CrQii( [)e (. l,Ie~-

Whae' ~lrul;!~ Afri@'~111 Ame1'iCaniii' 1'~!Jhi ·ftJ~ (lem!X:r:~ ali'Kl

I hoe· (i\}hl!;: of QPJ;lI1li!~.:;iedllPeg.ple_s ,!iliJroa(i. they ~E!ived few 'lh~e<t!Qrn!iil QF ci'o;,ril li1;ie-riii'e!;l in th.;i lJliii~J;!od St.a~E'8. The armed 'kirtle!;! !.!!seot! ~I'te IliiIJlN (li';sQ:r'l;!ll;Ii_ed 1 ~~ W~F CgllEi~J;!l SCI,l(l~' re£JE!I'(!i'ng 1i1e us-e i;!if bladk tr,go~ ,a:;; . .;ijlil E!i(t:I,I$EI !D daliY ~;fri~!l American:;;, pg.s:ib"lI;If1!;1 of ~1;!:;i!~lI'$tIip ang :I;lkililili ~ti1ia< mili~arYto anal l;li):n~il'iil,le:J;11 to red!1,Jce '~e IilJlriilPe:r ID.'!: ~igtili~ b'Elck. I!JInits.. TIme. A~ni:,.'· Aiii' eo.~ ,alilldl ~fle Mi3.!riIi1I81 Cot~ r"ernailliie.o cl~ .tQ Af~n Americal"l.S !,I'mile. '[he CtJ8.Si:

Guard ~mi~ on:ty ·a few man ~p low-level pDSj~jOO~ .. The e~llJoole of AJrnc!'ln Amerf_~rl$ ·to' .OOilili the Air QlIfIlS and become CJ;mlilb.a~ pi·ilo1'.$ gurin9 WlQIl'I~1 ~r III p1a')i'sa i):u! acgairts11f1i:;l. ~~rol,lnJ;l gl: off~J (li~riIITiiili:ati~n_

~

000000000000000000000000000000000

African Americans ill AvimtiO[(].

AJtho~h the hist,griG 'flight O'~ ONi le and '~Ioor Wlfight in

~ 903 spaIWed SJ 1f18l!lioo-wide mierest in ;(:IYiatioo, rBioial dis![;fimioo~ion hi~delfed AfliGa:Il Americans, j'rom fti!lIy parttfd_pating il'l! th~ n:;w 'fie!I~, IJke the milit~ry, m~rr~ Ameri~115 ~1ili~!;~N' '~~~ i\ftri~nl A!!rn!rlcan~, lacked U~ nnel'i'!'talI r;afJ~bilitie~. i;i!p1ib"II:;le. aifldl reftle)le~ 10 'fl:." ~nd e:«:l~e.dl ~ltiei'S!ei 1!nE!!'" and W(lnru;ln frQall'l 'flight il"!e.!!Uc~ion, The few ~;fll'iCS!nl AmeriCa'I"!!e, ~ho "eS!!TIe<! ~i) fly i!'ll'itle 'ei!irty twefi-' iieth ~rvIl4ry were self-talJ!9nt

or !~Ied 8_bFO-!3IA to' IFe£.1eive ltIirnal .!l'ai!'llin.g. A~ef Charles lind~e'({lt!':s famous fligtn {I,f ~'9~7', Ji,lricali! i!i.meri'er:ins beG"arme iru~e,e!eled in avis:oon in il'M::Feaslng nl1.lmb~fS and beQa;f! .'0 form ,al~rialion cluDs and scbeols so 'i}1fiII€NS ceuld learn to ~!y, Howeve~. the ~Jili~e<!:I Stales .g:oV€rnmen~ dEli not apCflsor '~Iigh.t ~ffiiJilil!)Q ~Qr Awic;3ln Amerh::ans lmlil 193'9' wilt! '~he PB.~g!e of ttle Ci'ililian pm!)1 Tilaining Ad;. 'which al,J!hI;Ifi~e<:I ceFitai!!'l '!iCh'OClI5l UJi provide Cilo'iljm ~lIot TI'alnlflg FFOfIrarm.s '('O'f CPT pF0Qrarms) to Cie'8'~e· 8 surplus Gf plliD~s il!li case of a naool!!!a! if!~fgen0)l', The Civil AeIIDMllties ~'s$lX'ialion {{Iq" CA._'!\} selected six bl'=.ick colleges, HlOW~ftl iUl!ili!o':e<J,5liltlf. De'!a'M!lf'e State CoIl~e, HaIDJilOn lln.s:~jtul~, NoFilfil Carolill1Ul A 8. I, West Virginia Stare CiJ{I~l]i m1ir:l TiJ3Ireg:ee Insmute 'T1Jskege;e Unlversl~y), to P'fIfftl~lp.ale

in ltii$ pmQ"raJll, Ttte 'rederfll gWitemmiIDllt paid! for Qi"crund ,EUild fligtn ,s~oool ililstnJIiJtloo kif the CM eandldt:iuBS, Wh 81 1:t!e .~ch0dl5l prQ'ridedi in:illll'uctClrs. physl~a.ll2XaFflrnartio.l'Is

fur Hle pro.:lipec~ive 5tUdems, all'l:! Irnn:q;.oriL'6tloo ,tlJ mil CAA-apJ;llloveQ ~lymg 'fiekl:3 [Qr 'flight inslrucllon, Ely ilfuJll

end! !lJ~ May ~ 9~,o. the 'fif'8!1: class of C" srudems at TlUske;gee· IllnIstrtule rTlJSke~e IUniverOOy) had oom,p~eted '~h,-elr loo1JwC'tLiQn and all but ol!l!e p~ed the 'flight e:(!3I_m, Witfl ,a successful prums.ry ~f1it tlJaiJiiin-gl prog:lam, T~gee Ins.ilute (iru~.:eg:ee University) d~ecide!l:l 'Iil ;E!:(paM its CPT [pfOgrurm 10 reach Se!XiI'Ioory clag~:es, and! tLth!!.JS became .ne· center of ~'~rW;an-Ameliean a'!!ia~iCln U1 lhe, SGiLHh,

AUoolJ.!glil African ArneriGi3!ns had Flilf:lde some advances !n iC~ ... II!:aJil ,:;i\,rbaUGfI ~hFOQ.!gh ~he· CPT program, the .Airmy Air C!Onpa. ta<1i11 ~.ctuded 'them, HilWe1.i'er. afle:r mYcl"! Ipr,eSiSUFe 'from '~he black press and ci\ril rtgfirts ,gmu,pe S'Ucn ,as iIirIe N.AA.CP.. '~h-e mililliry fin all !;!' decided! to ,es1ai:!lhh

an i:lllubilack p!UlI"S\JiI: sq!.Jadr'oo based! in Tus'ke!}E!e, oAJab.anl.a. TU$:e!JBe IrmlllUrte nl!lskegee Universi~ [,erelved a ,@Jnroot '~rom It.e, mili~)!Ijry to j:HtiJVlll:le prl~ry fJlgtll 'HR'i~ng. wl'lile ttle ,army bulh a. separnt€l air base, Tus'ke!Jlfe Alrmy Alr FIe'ldI, far a-dvanced 'ilaIniJ'lg!, 'lleohnical 'IrnlnJng '~~ iltJe support per!;lcmJiiel was oomptete!l:l art Charrule F'le1dlln ~I(lnols. 1M AI~ CQ~S' assigned 1Ilree olficers '~il !Qyersee the traln ng ,at T~'kegee I'n~ilube (Tu5k~ee; Un~versi1y), provided the a:ircraft, and fllmisliiled '~h--e ca'!:l'ets wi~h text0o., Ilyfng '1;:1Q.lhe~, pa.~hut-e~~ arid mechanics sliits, while, i[~s~ee I n~lil~ (Tl!.Je~_~ee IUniver€lfty), the CiNiliaIl 'Qoo~ramor" IDm~ vi~ed 'f,yll 'fflcilitiies fm'the airaf:ltli and lPersonnel, ~ncludlflQ 1q,\!~riI:ere, and !:II mess 'for iIi1Ie cadets. hallQ1ZIJm and Fflalli1t€l~ niP.rwe, tOOCl'J:i5 .. ,!2If!d ~ices 'foil' AJr Corps personnel, 'fllghl: i!1Str!.!'cioro. gF01UKI oohoo~ inSilruc.-ors • .ru'Id 1IlfI~8inrcs, l["iJts.lo:.:eg:ee Im,m!.Jte (1li!skeg~ Unlver,slM ~hel1l F{!e.~d fiina!l.f.iing '~rom lhe, Julius li'iIoseflwaldi ~Unld! and bu[]t Moton Field to Muse diJe ffigh~ .seh.0ol Clfiel'a;IiQll1ls, The InstitutQl &el\eot~ A'fri'can-)\menean !!XlflItr.a.ctors. 1:0 'i:l'.eslgn aoo bulk! 1t!e facili~ ~ife ejj:j I~ workers.. and sl!Jl!:lents l'rom Tuekegeeo t!e'JpE!d fXlfll..p~te tliie 1ie1~. wl:llGh was de;dlcated in 19413 in h!oMi~ (il: Fiobelrt Moron, iIirle second pr~d:efllt ol Tuekegeeo Iln~Ule (TlJ5kegoee UinivBrsit'yl.

The Thske,gee Airmen

Oh JtJly 19, 1 M·l. 'twelve avirdion cadets. and one stud8m Qffiloec;r, CiljJt:,ail'l! J3.1e!!llja:rnil!!! Q, o a'!/ls , Jr •• reported to T~!;:kl;!ge-e 1000000000te ni.!.~:ee UlrWrerolty) 'ti). begl.n '~lIght il!'~ilITiing ~~ 'the '~i~t ~5~. O'~ African-#I;.merhJ.an pilot OOFIdi· Qats8 ilITi the ~LS~ millt.;tl!'y., 6y MQ'Ilember, O'I1ly 5b; 'i)..f Ihese ¢:ia!dI!3~~ hagll~mQ~,f:Ijed 11lle< nerJes@ry s~iIIs. p.as~ed!1f'I1j Ilfo3iil'1lir..g GDU:rSI;!l, :;lind 'were tl:!:'!l']~f-£!!I1I''-ed to TIJS'ke~e Army Air Fie:1dl10 ICi):.rtnp:lele 'theirr g:;iif:Q~' 'tra.'iniI"!Q wit~ the Army AJr Corps (AirlifL-y Air F(JrQi;I$). Qn UF,il'(lh .,. 1942, the 'f.iffi-1: ck:iss., of Aj'lI'iicBtl-.Alfitl~lrIicaii I;Irv:i!;l!tfQn cacle1_S 9 ra·r;!~!itedl fro 1m li"~kErSl8Ei ,Army Air E=felgl ,~lJr!l:j becE!.lliriie< the mlliiioo's 'Nrs.' Dla¢k, mili~$iry pil(r~l;I" The e:ignificali!ce '01: 'this ieven~ ,sh-0uldl 001: b81 l.lIn.-der$_s11ili'l~dI----,a~er :.'~~ (iI' et~oole, .A.iiriicBfi

~

000000000000000000000000000000000

J.I;_me~iGans were 'flloolly ~pbedl and oomiilissiofiiled a,;s lllrio;ts, aru;i! GflIeer:s ~Fli '11111]; Umooa StltfiS AiI'i'i'IT_ 1M euccesstul t1J-.alnlll1l~1 ;D~ these IP a.ts, at "fuskflga~. tOoup:led with ~llTIe ilJnited .s~'M{lS" {imry iFi~:O \I'!roi'id w.~i" Iii, 18d ~lTIial mllimry to eMpa.nd las. ,~;Fr1can--AmGr1eaFi .a,'i'iatiOO'i progi;;1lr'ifii. Oi:ifJseqoorntly. ~he AI'Ii1lY Air Ffir.oes ;eSMi.I:!ii~8itI 8ii'i!t!~h£lIf IJ.j'ric.alill-AmeOOaI1l !JIIU~ t11{l 3B2rur:i F"~mrl:er GKtUfl, aM began plans for 8J sQgreg~tQd J'Iil,{Iaium OOf:WJ8if' ~rDup mooJl as the 4i7th iBomoon:ilmmi1lt (;1 ~oop.

~spltQI iU1J~ ~d~i')MS in Alfiearm·AriiariC.a.ii1 riiili!s1l"~' BV,ia1ron, iit glill l1I;!~illed IQ ~ eeelil 'iffl'ijei'tiiie'J' 'these 1P!ki~s Wltilildl be uaed lin !!)tim'batt ibeside' wh[re pllots aool seldlors to dereM 100 co!Jftlry In Worki Waf' U. ,Aithou,gn '~M 'OO~hi IF"I{lii1ioo~ ~Sq[j.afiffiin ha;ti eloriiplEibBfI its hsini'.ng tJ.y Sprilii9 1'942, iI: 'W~i;i, 1lil1ii: ~nti] ,~J;lri! 11943 tt1iM the rumy sent n.e' ~nit ~:o Norilfhl Awica for comba.t duty, For s{1¥Qf:J1 moo~h!'1. In€! ,SqtladfOfi p~jf01i'Qdl N£!ii'th Atfiea .aFldl ~liie, M\eClitEilfraliiieari, WilrIout ,~DDriliil91 ;;11, sjjr)gle \iiicbGr)': Finally. on .Ally 2. 19d$, thE! u:nil SfiDi: OD'i'l'n ~9 tli'r~ ;li!fle.'1iIlY wrc~!1t. The lad!: 91' ci;!Iliflooi '!o'i~'Ories, hOWe¥eF, led sever,aj ml Imlll leaders

'til ques.lion ~llTIe squadronfs, aJj.Jllliiills; WheD'l ilJieutenafli ColCinel 9:QnJ<lmln o. Oa1.lis. Ji_, r'Sturr'LEICl 'to, U\a, Uni~~dI Stales in AJUgUS-l 1'9'43 to as!i!!.llriie CQnirTlll;!n-d of '~h:e 3il2l1d Flghmr GrouP. ~ S8li1a1~ i\~~ry Committee ,e.l:illoolii~n him ~o !iln~:er q~esOOl!1Is

.ur ~ EiLilL'!l!l ,~~'ill' ~11Ils.i"iJh"llI~ D. CW;"''''''J'r... {looe.Q:f~ifYg

"f'_~111 '"'~\-Jlk!!;, ~ I~:~ 'ltle '99th

sQlI,I~d';r,on\sl I)ElIril00r~noe'- eS;5iei;!l upon '~h:e comrnitteef~, unctings, !tie Airmy

Air Forces p~iJe{lOO~i:II with plans te ootatli~hi iiJlf:1 A1rioan...Amaricafl mediLr1'f1 IXil'iiiber Ilro'Upi ,anfl <S'l;!l!iit 'ltie 30211'11;1 Fighter G~IJP ~iJ 'm,e Med~ITfi"",e'8l'1i to t.e.s~: 10011 {jilmlOO~ skills.

Aftho!Jgh ltie ~ O]nl~lJdoo .olilldi disoeriWlln:ruory b~havll}'l' (lof some ,AI1llY AIr FQI"OOS oliklals and mirmry 1~.dQf.s 100 ttillJ"rfI ~Ci qides.~j0Fi tl"l9 1j:!ii:lOOi'maneE! Clf ~a. i1iusJ(~ee AIlm€!fl, ~ll1I~ unit :si)!lKld a series Q.: vlet:ooos In 11944· ~nd cI'Iangfid lPublk oplfflliorl coneern1ftg 'Iti~ir aoores.· Siv:eIll€"SS. AlIIIMI Forcoo iand8d at Ai'l2:lo {in JaJrriuary 21" 19O!]4. In hopes, or 'fur-

1h€"rlWl~1 iltiGir eampa :l;If:l 00 the malimiand iD~ ~l~. nil S9m-J squadroo parth::ipa'b9d1 in Ihls. amack, and by IFOOfUlilliY 10, ~~. tria; l!inl~ lMad

fr coofirmoo kills, 4, probaiJk! vimi'ie:s, a:nlj 16 dama.ged enemy alreraft, As filQ'NS 01 the S!.IOOfISS 0~ the Tlii~~e~BEI Airmen roocoo.d rn mary lea~E!iFs. many fOfmei1y opp;ose;d 1.0 the ~ mp Ib~gan 1:0 f~-'i\OI' lrIe;m and pr.a:iiMI li"teif ,adii9V8- me Ii1I'ts , as mli

as 1I1lIelude them

fri mDfi":of! 'l'1tal mlsslons.IMilii";(1' Im,portantty, mil 'Jii..!skeg@® ,Alrmoo earned 'thlBI respeet of oowrtlll tllJmoo~ CIf€lWS. woo tJiligafi 'to d~el1.d ~P.OFli 'lti9 't.G.\!'ti!ira{!i2i f:1oN}.'!.lir:Ioo IJ,y ~li1I!} group and e~loo loom 'lti9 '"fi{!d.Mil AlngQIs;M

lJ!rlll kJ31 'Iti 9 :9 ~ uh

Fighh~ir SquMlllt!n 'CgI~lg IItlij;m!:_g IDUIU, [~f1i,I,.Jr. !![~!III, ikf.. •

.CI.11 til 1fI e :3 :l2Ji fI ellmb In[! iII'ki lUll .uI~d iliuln 1'1", dlITII ~.'liI·iw:

FigNer Group, 'ifi!e

477nllr! E!lCinID@ramem' ~ro!Jp remained 11'1 th€l Ufll~oo St.QJOO throl1!Qhoot the war. Wh la iLhQ bemear {iii'O!l(P' did not h~ ltil} oonn:bat sueesss or fi'EI!:ieiiMI' inCe>frilanjalt3l 1f'8CO!)ni1idrii i1i1l.9 i[he 'iigli'llbel' lli IiiI it" 'ltiey :s1EigEia ,M iil'll;port.ant (lrote~t ltIt" Elqual rig(h~a at FrEieriiari lFie~. In~ie!na_ MeilJl!bere, of 1fle iilinln, frl,l$.lr~~~ 'lli1ti '~heir ''separ,[3J1:e oot ,eqUlf:lI" Imi!!llillQ IlXIl'lduti(lllliS, deciood to de~Qr~me '~h.e all-white of"fl)oo~ ~l,Ib at Freeman lFier.d. 'wlMich was a patfllcllliar afil'rlOiil't

lSiillOO offitiaJ ,£:ill"m)" r.egul'fl~IGns, proltlb ·IDd '1ti9 segF9ga'tiOf'l o~ reorei:Ulloool faeIllU€ls. Aith0U{i~ as 15'11iJt.E1fi'S weM pla'08Q under <:IJrr(lS~ 'fm dis.ob;e~hf~g of'de-r~ to. eave ~h.e club, the anll"l~ merei:P.' Ii'E!prilTilCltll:ll8r1 tiM riieril oii!nQ Glrop(ied .he' ~a.r'giBa against 1tli;·m_ Thi!;l ,~rty non-violent pretest wilhin ,he Army A.ir IFQrGe'~ ~y~tep:n was a ~fgnif!wa:flI preeedem Il;if ~e later ~il riWiIS m0¥ement.

s

000000000000000000000000000000000

SlgmfficHlo'ce of tlle 'Iuskegee A·irm.,tn Mill Moton :F~e~,d

~l~F iteSIS.i1lMhlllg such 8J blood 3J!l1dl s.;gl'ii!iC'ant al'O!)i', !"'e' NFl'S silldy I.~ reall;]ed the impol'tt:i!YJe' of '~he Tuekeg~ Airmen and! iMa..tofll FIe,1d1, lhe· site of primary flight ·trs,'ining fOl thes~ N~Ie.afi~i"I(iafi pilots, The me:::l_lli!!ii91 Q~ this ,£:Iir ~IQifil ~:Gfids itO lificiooe the 4 77lti ~F!'1ba.rt!m.enl· GFOI;Ip i;'!n~ i[h.elr s.~lftJOOII]i fi)f equa1 r1g:Ms withi~ tfle A!'Ri!Y fJ,i~ IForce:;i .. ,!'I~ w.eil.as mil ~Fflp!)n3.m partlclpalnon iIJt l["uta"'~gee !neti~ule (Tus.Gm§:€l12i IJlrU\!'!erslly} and S~PQiEive Ameficanra. in ~ne' ~ru~g'Ie· 'i'or ·full.A:frEEin-AJTIerican lps.nicipatton illill~ mililQry.

:S~nlfl(iafi.· poi'.ms co.ncemingl'ltie lhistory (I~: '~he TusJl;-egee AI.r1'li\!El n ,8[,e·~

1, The stn,gggle ilf AIricam1 AmericallS for grel3~er II'Qlee il'ii1 Nonh .A.mie1rh:::an military QiJfIfIi~B SpSJlS '~h.-e eeventee-nth, ,gf@hrel!l:nlh, nlnetee:mh, aM IWen1iiE!~h !f.iE!muries, OpportuTlllles .~Ii' AJriean"Arnell'lcii!.ll panicipaoon in tihe llS. mililary were BlIIWYS very limit€a and ooo~!"OWrsir:!Il, ()uot~s. Q-Xctuslon, and raelel dlscrirninatioo were based 00 the provaillflg ~ul~!.OCIe In tlhe United :States, par~ict[!lar1y '00 ~h£l par~ of iIll1Ill U,S, rn I~al)l;, 'tha~ Anic.an ft_me~icans did M~ possess the irmtflllGdJaal c.ap~, aptitude·, and skills to biB SOOE~f1Jl1 lighters. PDli'I:kaIlPresslJ]re exerted by 'title bt~ci<. piF9SS and ,clviJ ri~hts ~ooptS FQSuitedi Iffil tnlQ 'fOF1FfIa'lklffil O'f ~.he 'Tt.mikegel') .Alr«JS'i'I. maklfil!;)1 them an e:.:csi· lan1. iffiotama,pie or the s~ruMhe by A,'j\tic.-an Americar~'l:o ser'o'e in 1f'I9 Uliilited :si:aI9iS m[litCl!r),_

2.ln 'b1'le £tatty

'1 :94!Js.; k.sy lfIadfl~ wl~hSfi ~lrrI!] Un ted S~mes Army Ak Corps (fumy Air FoffC{ls); as 1,!,!-g1l as the FI'1!l'.IJority ![II wr.1~e Ame;rilMoo, did 001 beiiflw,a· ~liiIl:M A'rl'iJi:::Qn .A.m~rlcans !had iIfTIe IntoeDe01l1ial capac-lLy te become sl.JC;OOssful FIi1iIUa.ry pilots, A'frer s.ticciJ.rnbl~ 10 m(l; PilQSflliIFe ~ilrl.oo by {:lv11 rI~hro groop-S and black I~Q-r.s., 1tJ~ army d€:ddedl to '~rnil'Jj 3 S~II .filJmb~f ~. A'frlCo§n·American pllQot cadets unae'..f speclal con.tlmooo, .A.lttiough prejudkie aM dl8cfim~aroloo against AfrloiNI AmerkaJ1ls 'WM a naitiof'lii!! phenomenon, !!'lot .fcu$~ 8J oouthem ~rai~" it was more intense ill '~he SQtlth iffl'Iere it had lhardened intO' rigidl!!l-enfof'ce;:;! pal1em~ of segi.egiil!11on W pretect 'Nfr!i~e IPri,",i!Ie~. Su.;;:h was nlie! el1vironrnenr ·~h.G~ the mililary ctic!s€ 10. I~~e ttle nr,ajning (IJ:

.hiD iliJs~.egee Alrm-en,

.3,. The mllll:B1l}!' S€1'ec~ed ilius~~ee Institute (TIl.!:lik€:g~ Ufll'!'-~r:slly) as 8J ,dvl~iim c.onllrf:lctiJJ 'for a ';\RIfiery g.f rea.-~Of1S,

P'i~ ~~ IJ.£ ~.""'l' ~i~ R:!_l%hiUl' ~mn, w.'dlied ~ILh YI!l!llln(l~.!Ii •. !l1' 1fL~ :t.t! oGWiII.il!l ~\'" ~~ 'lu .l!"K!iI,. U!o,,;, '11l" ilr:tIl.il1iICIII i;edh.i.":iLd..;;. seuih ~~ Rfiai!, o[igJ~ ~7'! ~9fl.'Ldk (i'!il!1i' Ifm'~ ~~ .. i!II :illlli. n~ ,dllk 1i!n;!.i~1 iIIor.IIf~_ Ji1rik:ljl~flt:IIiIJ 1.l~Lfi! of ~]il'!'!j,'J~ nl!.T.!m 'l![!.1!. .. ~ .'!.'£rlGllllll1!.m'! ~!!II!!!I ~i~ .. ~ ifmiH.L,'i\IF ·~.I~itiiB >Ii: i'I urll~~ In ih~ i!ilUihi:lfllIU"-:L

Thee~ iindl,Jah~,zj lila sclTIlo.t!l'·~ ~lii'lg 'i'ae.IIJI.tf!s. Il'figlrreering arnc ~Sl;:hf1iO~1 iiiS~n.Jcttlt,£;, aoo a Cllmi1111 wllh Idelll 'fI!P'lngl ctll!'idiliol!ile ·:r.'ear rmlloo_ Ti..rs!:"lJ3g;E!9 insmute\s (Ti1is.'keg.ee U!l.ivE~~) ·~tro:n9 in1:Eirast in IPUlylding al'J~ooaullcal'~rall1'ing kif Al'ril;:l;I11-Al!DI3~ici3Jfl ~oull\5 was also an Imporl.3f11t facoor- Tu~gee's s1l!.11darYi:S .:lind faooil), tlad ooslgl1€d and COf'Ietl1,!lct.e~ Molon ifial!ll as at :si18 !'or itS mllLmry pllol' ~rnil'\)ing ~ro9r.arTill allildl narne.ti it jot '~nQ seheel's eecond preside Ilit , fltil;!>er~ Rus9a. Mfi.1Dn~ S!1idQflffi rrom1Fl(l; !OC:'Moof!3.

ci ... il'it3n liilot 1J~inilliig plflt!!jrdti'i haCi SOffnf! or thlli best tes~ :!llOI:Kl,es. when Ql;IIiIl'dJ~red ~o iIJIIliiIet stuaefltcs 'rramn pr(~rnms ,!3i.1:if oss lfil eo so uta'l !a!;lSit

4-ln ~ 94·1 the Army Air Corps. (Atm:..' Alii' F'OFWS) rlWaJtlcd a C0!'l1lr8J;)1' 10' Tus~gee Ens1i1Jl1ta (TuSkJ~,g;g;e, Unh.!'QmI11'1 to oper,are a ~~imS!ry ffight 5CooDI at Mo.16Fl Field_ CQnse-qUe.'I1~I)I, Tuekes3e-e' h!ii~itl,Jie (TU6MiJ8e!i IJl1i'M11'1SiLyJ was

ooe 01' ~ 'Ve"y 'Few' Ameri'~n ir\S1iI.uti0i'l8. - aoo 100 only J!;;flica:n-Ar:neric!3ll!1i ir1$_1iiu1ic1n - to OWn. d8i.i'eh:~, and coo·· tr,gl fa.~liti~ fQr rnili!8J)" Ili;ght in:MJlu~ioFl.

'5- MltitOll HeiGl. ,£:1150 Ml;M'il as the Primary F~ng FI€lld '(!il Jilnrporil' 1'Ii'!.J!'FI!;ier 2, w~s. ~h'e dr\1y jlIfil'lli1l[f~ 'tilghl. Imlnlng

,6,

000000000000000000000000000000000

fEI_.eiliJy for .A'jriCM-~mefica_11 pi!il.1' 'C!3I_l!!!diMteS in Ihe U,S, Jiormy .Ai'r Corps tjhm~' Air Forces) during W'tilildl War II, Thus, the fa(;i!ily ta,ymbo!i~s the enl!l'il~' of JJ;.frican-Affierican pUnts iinliJ '!tie A_lI'I!T'f!j .A.ir Corps ~Army Ail Fo!l'reS) Slna title singular rclle' Qf Tuskegee ~ns1iiJUle (TIJ.gee M.l!l!i,",ersi'i~i) [;n prov,liiiing eco~oomic' iiIlnd edUlcaool!l!!3IJ rescerces 10 make tha~ e!'irtlry p~b!e. ,el!''!oughl on a segr~8JteiJ ba8i!3~

,. The lfl!l~k>ege$ Ai~m~n ~~ ~n.e lir.st AlIliCl;ln-p,I'1!I:E!Il"iiCEln i5Itildiere, 10' '~u~esMI~ comp.!ete '~heir tr,aJni'og Bfiid enter iIfTIe Army Air CiJIPS ~Ar11I"IV A1r Forc~}. AIm0sJ: ~ ,000. ;lIJI~· tors wer~ PFOOIlJiOOO a'S AimsrleriG 'f1F8J. A'fFiOOtl-,AmeFi~r'iI milw~ry lPi!g,i:;;. lin ,Mi;lit'il;lt1, more 'than ~ 0,(100 ~ilitary and oo-i!iian AlfJ"ics:n-AJnerican mellii and women served as. n~lilit iFi~if'UCIGrS, (!Ulc~rs. oombardlw,s, ifia\l'lgatfii's, Ir.adio t-aGl'lnj. itiaJi5, IFi'lMhaniCs, air 'br,a~ii~ cOri.'IKIlJsts, par:l3d;ute rig1gera, electri~1 and comlil!.mica1i(iIll5l !ilpEcia!i'sts. !'1'Ietiic!3IJ p-l"Q-~es-eiD!!l!81s, IaOiJialory assi~l.anIS, cceks, musicians, stJlJi)ly, ~1j1@,.fl:ghtlng and tFafiSpOJla1imill p;G~nn~j_

7. ,;O;[1fiiotlg'h military ~e-fldeffi, blin~d Iby raclet concepts QI' 't'dlile :superlority aoo MrkaJ'l·#J;meoolll'l IR1I't(lrii:!fI~y. W!~H!l h~:aJFiI to liiSe, 100 ru:sl{~oo Aii'll1l'lai'l in OOIl1\!ljM, Ih.Er airmali'il 8v8lillllaJl!f saw ooosideraDle itc.iion in Noolh A1riCI;IJ ~l!1ir;ll iEr.rr,tIpe, ~pta!"Qe ~rom Almy Air H:iI"reS, ~nits came ~t-i)wly, bu.: '.llf!lr 900rng:eous. aoo. In many eases, lhilllFOlc pe-li'ormarrcs earrri9>d Ihem IrYCre;.aser:l oolM.'bart Clpp.t!If~Ul'iiitieB and li'e~p8e1_

8, 'ihQ' S(jCC~Q:s. 101 th~ Ttlsk~Gel AlrmeFli pKl!ted to tne AmeFieolriil pub4h:: that ,Airtleanl JiJfnericarrs. 'wlilrall gi!olsill

~h8 oppDrAun[ty, couldl b~E!' effiacti!oll;!' milil@1)!' 11~i;lers :;lind !iil~ Tlmi!;;! 1i"ii1;!fJ;re;dI pa¥e 'the Yroty fur de:s.eg;r,egaoon

of tfle milimry, Ibegjnrrlngl wIth r'r€sldool HaFiY !5 'liluillQWI's E:<ec!ll~ OrclQ:r ~981 IIFlI ~ M®., It .aJs.o, trel,pM :0el, tItEr ~Ia.ge kit oil/il ri~hI5' adirocal!3S to C(lli'I"Iiin!!llE!' itllli!' ~;liL,I9!i!1le ki end I!'~ci:;lil di~r;:rirninatkrl!1i d'lJll"ling '~h-~ civil rights movement cd the ; 951ls and! 10008, Coooequen11y, ~li1I!l story (!~' I~ ~keg.eg Alrmerr COns.111l!.ii.'ErS, a p;i:!weiiuJ ,a:rrd ~emirt=ll

Ill€l.:a;plilrm 'for Ibel S.1ruggle, fQo1' ~(lk 'freediJm irr Amarkla_

9. Tlful;!< Ti,r~!J3e AkmElI!ii ,BlIsg. r,sjl\9c~ the al!l1.!\}gr.e of A,{Tica.11 AmerQ_l!'!5l W' ar::hie ... e eq,ua.1 rigli1rts, 11101 OI1'1y th[{ilJ.!!g1'l leg~1 ettacks on ~JilrQ :'1lfS'tem il)~ ,S~i'E!ga.~ICifi, I:}jj~ atso lh:rr;MJ!;ah ihB' ~sr:;:hniQlL,lea m llion'i'iolen~: DliF8r::~ ~ aimed! a~ rjj~m~n~jillg white, pJ'il,!'ilege 1111 the rmll~a:l)I:.lhe members. of the 4,7~ Bornitramm;gFlt 8rro!.f,p.\, 'Woo· ~a,{l9di a iilOO!' ',",iple-nl· gr;!lTiIl)cl!~tra1igliil to. [jI~!}J'~a~ '~hEr 00di@er6" clab a.' IFreennEl_1!'! iFie!d, !l!iidlEll!iiElJ hielped set tlle IJ'8ttem raJ" ,direct ac~ion ~HO:t9Sts p;upui.ari~di by ci\i\il jj'llgh~s. ac1ivISt::s ilii! IBil'Errr itlE!C8a~.

TIn! 'R.esou:Ke::' Moton :[field

N8_med in hooor 11)1: Fiobert AI.!!5:Sa MIohl-f1.

ilhQ; oocond prml!Ent 01 Tusk~oo, ~MtibUl(i;., M'1:!loo F'k!ld w,a:s Di.Wt IMl'iNaEif'ii ~ ~ID aMi 194.2: Ery Tlii~itiaGlBEI I fi£1iWi bEl' with tfill~nQir]g 'fFI;~'lir! 'the ,Jlu~ilJ!5i R~!il\~!illd F!,!!!'1d_ iBecEI.A!I!;:e tifije facilily was an arm)' 'Qoolrnm fligtr~ 8.00001. M~~I ~I!l:kIl n MoIiI~omQry, Aiaooi'1ilQ, ~Hil'ik:le;dl lse;nAlcaJi asslsilai'iiM ift ~el~i"I9 ,an!1 ma;ppiRgI ~li'ie, Sil'El .. Ed'iWaiiitl C_ Miiiar, an ~fi;:h~r;:~, ~l!iidl G,. L ~~hin~n, ~1liI '1;!f1!;11ne~r 'wtful;li t5'e~d ,I5IJS Director Qf Mleclt!iIDical Illtlustrie:ii ,at Ti.!al::eg:ee IIfiIStltU~", doolgrroo ~ ,Qof 100., s.1JiiuctlJroo ~J: '~~ alr ~eld, The sCMoi al~r) :selectad ,AFCfiiiie A Ar.e::tan!:le~. ,an engi~ n~c ,p1!ilQl Qgntr~~lQr, ~Q ~ild 'U'le air lie!~, ~titdl AI\;l:«:rI!ii~r be;g81n oonstrlJIDti!;il!ll '00 'H\!e lI~ht dlool fa£ili1l'es in June

1 M:jl, IFlclmn9iill't woo~h~~ oous[ld SG'!lGrallb!!.llldil~ d(jb~ys" ali.d 5iLJ(ient ~a~~ ,allildl $.~illedl 'W(!t1!l81i$! fKr.m lfl!.llsIti898e h'l:~tit1.!~e !helped 'finj:iih iL1ii!e ili:eld eo flig,lll' 'training Ql;I!Yld begil1l en lime'. ''Mlen iFuskegee In~mute 'f1n.fll~ oompleted 100' Iac.ii!y. I~ If;K;h.!d9di two hallilgars f!:u' ,afiFCfJ'aft. a !::onlrol i~r. ,a IIrxt_eF CtlJik:ling, :=i club IIiOU:s.EI,. :5S'rs/aII wtI00 biJjldli'ngs for gfficr;;!a, €!!1lId i;!!l,!IF-"ili:ei;l. ,Ii!. f-ew Ibrick e-tl1ilctYn;!i€I' b SliJrage, and 8Jn areaJ for vehicles. artd '~tl-eir mainitenaooe'.

A F€!~ool 'tlff0, ,nO'!NQ¥Q"r:, dOO-1ro)'Gld a Ihangar at M!J1:on lFi!aki (I-IaJi g.31i' N e, :2) 8i nit! DI amas e;tI ~ ItEr i3iC,j.a Ce Fit co 1'1 1m II ~m'llsj" _ Trml;!: andl .,~I'er;:t ha"'e' ",1i;!Q 'c[tt!eedl ~!fi!1 buildi'.,glS W 'foall into lIllin, while 'i).1li1Ier,s hm'e' been demollsh~. Onl!;' nlflfl or 'Ltrl] filFWQfI klliIowrr sIJi'tJc~mes ~l M'o~oo Field dining World 'war al reifla:in. Many of 'Itr~, :MIf'L,I~Lllr~ Ih~ rJl;!ieri'or~t'Ii!d and nel;!:tl;i i'mmedia~e feip:;liir,. wh.'ile (jl!iie 'Of! '~hem h@iS been alte'Jied '~rom ll~; origg,al appeernnc.e and lJSe. ~1!lIe.tlrrele.stJ. rIilany il)~ the hI8~o.flc, laooscapiB 'rila!l.Ur~s at me; 'Itetd. ,sU-!i:ih as the f'i3~eF"'o]F, ga~iM piib8 ,aJidl flllel 5ro:t.age 1acili1i'es. '~he ~g ,aircraft illl"$~ betwl;!'en ttre h,(mg;;!ra, 'th~ la;li:)iway !'O the ,!;Ijr '~ield, vehidle areas, and curbs aad road beoo, are .stili vlsll:lte, artd con~rlioot{l' I);:.

th~ charac~e:r of ~:hre historic sille_ Hniess SUime 'form ,r),'f r'i3~r:ru1fCEl protectioFi is .e:Ma'bli5hedl, !he' hil;i~l)riQ: ~1nJc.1l,,1re-~ ,Elni;lll;l;nQiS-CEIpe feElJl1i.1FeS- ,aJl ~.on Retd ~re in danger of 'further decay and wllllJ;e Ib~~ '~!) ~1jftur© g€l'I!lr,~lorl$,

'I

000000000000000000000000000000000

N'T ,'-,' , ' S':::, -, '. ,- 'I S~- 'T'" "J'i"IJ"'" F' " -, ',-

, I:ll IONAl '", .IGNIF.f":ANl:E';1 1,1 I ] J\BILI t I AND EASIBILI1Y

A n ,pn;l:;li ml!,l~t meal :;Ii!l crite''1i:;li 'f©r l'!atia~E31 '~i\Jflin~~e-. eultability ~nd le;;r!eibi!UI-¥ :ae :;Ii p'J'ef,equisite ifc.r inclusion III the N~ional Pal'll; SysAern. The, ibl!OINjng di~clJsSiOfl sumliii;l!~!;1 '!he lil!ildlnge 'f(jll' 1he v.;!~e cmEll'ia..

N'atiotull ,signiftcaoce'

To quafrfy for c:onmal'l3ltioo a'8 .!;!, p~n1i!;Il ~gtdi!jQ1!li 'tg; ~he' Naoonal Pari!;, 8)'i;i!em an :;!ina!;!, ml,J~l meet iI;!~ch gl' '[QUI" cFil.'eria. h~f rta~iDn::il1 SiSliiFican~i;i. ,An :;f!Fe!;!, fiI1Iy~t be an ootcStarnd 1'181 e9;8if'riple Ol' 8i 'lylpe I)f lI',e~l"nce, 1!J~!;Ie, leit:J:i8p~iif!MI wlUi3S. lD:r iFiteIl'pt'leie!lion. l;I'lovi'!l;ie :SU~ii!'r!ati¥e' ~pcllftUii1li~iea 'for pi,Jtllj'~ lI,I~e and il;!lTij~ef1~, .aliii;l re1aill'l in1.\ag,ril~ M ,8. 1rue, . .i3¢~~ i;lin!l;i ~Iati,""ely UI!iI!iipotii!:ed! 18[i;afflple. oi I;I! we of I1I;!:;iOUIQe'. MliI.:on Fie'ldl aM ~ne' history ,o.f ltE Tu:5!BgaB Airmen meet e~ gf tIlese' !iNi~e.'ria.

SllIilttability'

Ani uooe~.l;tngi~ gF '!;iuil;:abi!ily must M' based 00 how 'irel) 'llhe h~U!fIJ r1$,PfiEi$!;in1l;id! ai Nhl;ltl;lf1 H~!d 'Cilfinpoares, witih loot oover-e.tI by EI:(iiSiil!ilgl all"eae o.f !he' ~.iQnfl! 1P-8_rk 5ysrern.

To [Ie Oilli1sili$n;lOi el,J~~e< fQT illiic!lJ$iiJQl i'f! '~h--e eyelem. an .i3J\8:3i mum re--~~~eni: :;Ii ,1;:LJ'itur.;!1 ,neme' !OI' ~e< Q~' resouree 'iflat is n.t!~ ,BlrBi3Oi:t ~OO,!,!lat-ely roli!F)re~errted i~ 'the 8)!5~efIf'I lIi is ooi, com~r~b2y re.g;-e~n.i-elj and! p!fQtern:edl ftH' pruti!ic' !l3nj~etrt I}y :;l!ng!h;ell' lani;llrna:ne!gmg en~i!iy.IBa3'ed 00 'the fpliqwingl ~j'n"in9!;1, it ie recommendetJ that Moton Field is $l,Ji~~blEI a~ ,an adQli~ion ~o ·the Nnooa:! Palrk Sysle-m.

] ~ The Ni;litil;lii1:;1,1 I?@rt; Sye~em iI'!C!~8 several sires Ir,eIi;i~~1 ~o W-4Jrhj ~r I!I. However, none ilf ~JlIiese sues .tIe,aJ \'iI'i~h rnnilit-~ry tr,l;Iinin\J (If militaf1l pilot 'iJaininQI.

2. OllM 6:r Nallorl~.1 P-ill'k SarcwlcQ unlrs Itlal aF9 dlf\eJtl1l'y aoo frldlrectl!!' ~ct:lJOO 'hiLa'! ArFi~n--.ArneFi~n herilB'ge, none of iIIlI~ unIts tJave 00 '~e;ir primary mlsslen, or deaJ dlmdly With. n19 I1"IretlpF9'~tion @r military lPikit: 'Irnlnlng k1i1' MIucan Ameiioafiils in Vikluldl Wa~ m. Tbe Slf[llJggro faf Afrh:ian~rican pa.:Fli~ailiDffl in I hoe' ULS. ml ltarv Is. n(l>t adr:lfi'eSSSdl in de!l.ail in GtJir'fJl3lii1t ti!lPS II.m[l$.

3. Wh Ie it may :3iPJlEic81 t'hatt QI,Jrre'llI' N~tioo!:!<llH1stmE Landmarks adlequabel,y lr,epli$i;ii;'n.' pI;! 0 P!e' :a!l'd eve!l1~, assooj~fi!itil with 'Mrlltl 'WSII II, iill):ne o.f'lhe~ sues We'l'e d!lsigmlatGd Ma1roFillili HistlJliit< Lantlmarli;i;i' b~l.I5ie'

'IOO~,r ff€llaool dlN!(i~iy I"Ui 'U'la 'b~aifiin9 m' A;fri~rhi!;,meri@a!'l

f:1illIUary plrlf!~s. -

4. Only QIle f'I,!!;!;iio~!illiisliJ_ric La:ndm~rk; 100 Fort: Des.

Mgilml;!$ ,Pn;lvi~!!li('!1 AII'm)" O~I~er 1Ir~lng Schoo~ in 1De:~ Moine§., l~fI. rela!bes. '10 timing ~.' A'frlean Amei'l~ cane, 'lot' milrtar:;." dutJ~ iOFeate!l:i durl"9 Worfd Wflj' II, title;

school !'li!f:j~d bO'lt! _hie U-S, Army's 'Firat recogliiilion !OF i~8 rnsP'Onsib,i!il)!' lO' tJraiJl A'frf~n-~rneriC'anl Qm=iCii!'r~ ,I;I_S we'll @S the estlbOshmeJill oj' a mi!itary '~radiliiO!'l .f!1!DlJ1'ili91 c~frican Arr1'sncElI'!8,

S. The ~'Qry gf 'the TUI~keg~ Airmen and rMQtOfl f1'eld ie ,('!iso, ~iJo± ;;!I~qb!atelly repll'e!;lenlW or prclec~e-d by .f!1!f<Y (l;lner land ma.naging eIllily~ E;(rnbfu;; IOn the IllJSfregee Ai!l!nel!li ha¥e' been 8_~mbl~ ~ v~riI:I~:;: 1Q-CH~j'Qn:5 .f!l'I;Iund ,th--e Ul'!il~ Sta~es. While 1t!e:s.oe e:xi1ibi~s are wei! ,tki!!1ie'. '~hey !:M,e very. I!i~d in 1heir .re~t_me!!rt '01' ttle :~~. They c~l1ool' be' 00 l15ide red oompa~_b!e ro ttle in.terp~~i'ofe value'S,. Ui1!~~: can be de!'i1!ed W'iJm Iples.elJfta.ion Q~' 'the s~o;r)!' BIt Mmc.11 Fiek!1 where t~iniT!g .(:I.~oo.l2y ~rr'ed,

6. AlTiil'lJiier issue relaJed .0 s!.JrmlJillil!!, is. ~he iI',elaUonsJilip {if MlDtoo FTeid 'roo ilhe existi"9 'iJ'!.Jskegee lastltute M8;1fDMlIIHie~iJ\Iic: :Biae (Nl9cS-). Mot0n Field hes ,8, S1J{inQI aJ!!idl clired' ll\elatiooship to TlJehl.eaee' ~nstlrute (nO'"",' JlUs.ke{lee· Un wrs[ty) aFldi, Iner~Ibr-.e'. to lite· purposes for 'Nhlcltii the NFI;S li'laS estabflshed. S'ho!J!-d M©too F'ie1d1 net be adii3d 10' lhe N~~iiJ_nal Part Sygtem as a separare !JlI1Ii~. i~ woold be, eui~a.ble as a OOIl1l0iJfltigtJo!.J~; acKiuoon lB' ~tle· eNiisting N~ •

IFeasibiUty

To be, eortslkl'eredl feasible as a new u~t {ii' the ~atlOfial !Park System, ~n area must be {if stlftrtclellit slee arKI appropriate, con1iguration to enOOff€l 101'lg-.1:erm pr{!~:IOOtioWi 'Gf IliIls~I}'Ilc: settings ane1toDlf lF1010urral si~"Slems and to aecemrnoda.il:e pulJflG 1JiOO. U .i) must lila..,!) the tpotenNaJ for efilftiernt admlrtistr.-ail10fl 081: ;3J re.asol1!abJe· COS~. Fadors 'to be {:OOIsld· ered tricl'uoo s ~ and oCGtltJlgurnmon, oollllndary. lan-d own = ersh[p and ffi;'{;Illablllty" eests for a;.oqulsl1lon aJ!lldi development, 6GCeM, Ihreals 'to 1.he J'e$Durce, and lhe effoots el 'the plans of Qthers QIilI the slre, ~asoo on an rnmaJysls of 'these fa.Gt{ir3, n is reoomme:nde.d 'tha~ Moton fiileld would 00 a 'feaSible addilion iI:O the N0Jtk!nal fi'aJrk SystQm.

.•• ii Ji.'I'A· f'i''liJiill;.liI}1\_J!'flT '¥i!1i'TD;lJt<f .i."''f''I''If"':rlI1:rl11 ' 'S l'JIiIl.", ;' :U'.Ii!i!l'U1EIl.ll.l. tIJLI. .mru;n.tt, ,ID'

Ttl€ '~I}Owlng ,altelmffii¥es. deoorlbe!!:ll erent ways of 'iJOO"lmemorating" Iflte~re~lng and prese.rvllllgIII"!ISO!l]"eOO ,[:I~ci~~ed '!Ni'llirl 'the T-uskeljJee, Airmen a~ Mot(il!ll Field. The concepts are 'Ih-e reslJl~ 'iJf e:N.1eMI\re' ~letiJJlcal re.se~rd'I as well as input HQm tile Tuskegee Airmen. Pl!!bGc ,agencies .. lJIlivate or:g:anilaool'ilS, TIJ.~e

IJ n.'i\;'e J5ity aJ!ii dI in d i vid IJiiJ ool~e fill s, Ttl e alte m at i¥e s Fe.1P1fe!ilen~' a P'f-og!"ession tow-rud a gr'ootef ,[:Ij)i!ity to 'tell more '!:II' '~h~ S~iJry of '~e Tll!sk€!gee Ai~me_n at Mown Field.

8

000000000000000000000000000000000

A'CtiODS Common tQ Each Alternative

t. UiElr" Afidaf'Sifli'll ~S~Ii'G9't WOliIld ~ used as a pedestrf..3ir'illvalkw@y W vlslters and servioo' veht0le access to ~1iii9 l'IiS.!toric t!u:ildiFL{i cornplex,

1., Fli'storE entrance 'gla'te ~IQI ~ lfEIn.atiilrtat,ed to.il.S migirniiJ appear:ance.

~'" E:.l:iatirlg aimpof't aecsss ffOati wmlidl be removed Ib~' '~h.e Gily or iiJi.sitleg~ and aJ FliilflN f0ad built Iby n.e' ctty 1l)!1 cii,~' pro,patLy.

4. S!;;ree~i!!lgl Qfi the fnl!.llrii;;ip,al i3iirpolit 'frD'.iii'l the hiS.torlc comp'!e!'x' WlOu'ldi be p;riI;Wi:Ji;leg ~lrurDugh pl~f1ling ,011 ~JeQS and ,ojJi!eT '!oIege-i'atil;)'J1- Allema1i1l9a C 81M I) iFlJitt)iioia' greater p.r,gj_e'ctil;m ~ 'IDle b-'lMtI IhL\sWf"ie landsoapeJ setLing.

5. A moooFrlE!flt ~:o tMc Tusk~ee' Airmen woold 00 pro~ide;d i:n saci'! al~8fooll"'-IlIb!Jt in ditlerent ~oca~ions, i:lM Mri1i,gur,a1jJt!f'\S. Theii desigFil iLll the FJi"l'Dntll!n€m(s) ~u'!dJ i'nclllllj.a statuary 10 oOOllmefl'lorate the alrrmen as !i!J @r13up as 'I,', .. ell as '!.he; Impu·nanl: roles played by il'Klh!id~ ~aJB auof:h a'S Beffijarnhm (t Davlls, Jr., YChlef· Andersrnl, ~ri:ifIary pil.iU~ if;\s.tr!.tCro~ ~_I Mo~oo Fl:cld • .mil ;[i.hers.

6, ~n the hisW~li~ ,ciJ'mp'le"~, '!o\E:I!f)'ingi degJiEiEis Df prre:=ierva· lIon 'tIn~·atmen~' kif hi:sWric re~~~~ lI'iQl,lkll De IjJr& videdl. A.o1ibns wiJ'uld r.;!l~!;l 'fr.Q'IiI'I ri'i~r1iiFl9 ~klOIljl~in1S;;; o~ 'former I\1st{iJic ooirdili!giS (11m 'the !;Jrl)'l,lrKi 113 :Bt.abililZa,~ i1f0n (if QOOI..jJte~e re'h~bili~aji:gr'il >oj' ~5tins l'iii::;twic; ~llI.lOlures. Hli~l:Orfu ta~iwi!Y, lP'€IItihw~a ,anti paved areas woold be pre~elVed- '~~e 'E!~lTIiil:i"ib9 l'!.!D:LiI.r:l

,aJaO iJe; Ilce2I~e-d att oaoh bu Idllng sne W' p~d~ illilforma~ioo on UilIG use « each slructIJII"'i;!'.

". 'other ~ii-e~ rela~d ttl '~I\a lTIii::;tOli:t.' Dr '1f'Ie; 1i'!JskegQC A'irrnetl. il'lCli,1,ging Ghana!l.!' :3100 lLisk8g~a; Ai'm)!' Air Field, WOl!!!d be irn~l;!rpre1BdI. In AI~erl'\ali~ A iilIOO S.

t h [s OW 0(4! d I;J.!;! I!l!;I n I;LII;! 0 by iii E!l :S I a.1ta O'r JiJa bama 'throll.!!gh 'n'litteMi agreE'metl~a 'wi'lm 'tha OLlff~Fl.t pFO~Jfty ,ow.nerE!. ThE ~a~ion:;rii P.3Ii\~ ,S>3l"1lice 'Wooi!1 assume '~Ilb role in M.e!'1I"!Sibiv-e~, C ,aliiidl []t

,8 .. 'iLi:sit~OO lJI~rstlTy eernpus site'S and bui&t!i"9!;1 re'1i:I~~ 'to ~:ii1I~ ~g.el';li .A.innen 'wou~ be inlerpreted by N~S.

'9. ~0If AiibematlvQs ~ .. C and D), MiJ-tof1i Fiek! WlOu'!dI bleeOf'Fl9 a ilJnl~ {flit\;} N.aJlonal fad;; System. TllTie' NIPS unit efL'iiisioooo [rj AI~I}fn:aUve D would ~c!t!de iiIl 'iL.r£:Iooo~~ ,i\im1l!3f'1 NatlCiIlaJl Genter. ~n ea-ch case, lNatiMai Part SQF\I\II)!3' o~[~~lon and l!DEIJ!\agemefT~ 'liDuJci tie [based at i1h1] (l:(lsalfillgjl Til_glee Ilfls~in.!te lNatiO:F1al Ifi~rork Site.

iJ). C'Os~s 'fJDr oon:sNIJcij!:1I1ii ,j)f ~~Ii~ie~ ,l;l1r'8' :5tiowi"l ~~f e-:ach atternati;ve' oo~d 0'11 I'IJPS 9~elililEl~ 10ti 'ttltal,g~ 'OMits (~nclLldill9 net oonstrl.m;;tiClilli, .!;IQlv~l!iiOe plSiritlilliig. GdriF 8lmUalion 5'!...!pervi~l~n ,f;I1iI!;I Ql;Illiftiinge:riciea).. ItiS,_ialliilliCl:: patedi lFiat if! partnerW!ip ,ar!1!,rigsgrnt wc 1M SMRJfiffiQI of tJese' OOS~S '!.!II11 boe' de'&1Qt1~" ~n atkli1i:iUn 'I.\i) ~ Pi3; other reder,al, 51 ate'. IQc!il1 '!ilge:ri~iea ana ~fivate organi· ~:etiG'[js may prO'i.iide pogntil)tll;i, of tileBe ~ats. in .nes9 cases, the' ~ual ~'QI @n!;l~tOOri ,for wriOll5 raonfU~ may be less Hl'an 'the e~le:;i ~581'i11Bd in I hiS iJ'8,pOft

- EJI;IU;~:r~ C1 1E:o._.biri.zi.::
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~-~ '~~'~~ 1'illrH::1i!Li_; 11-.:ill
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Cd ~_IIIl!; tbI.IDII~ CJ ~,,,,,,,.t.!pl)lji;;
~"~ M)l}TIJ1"l FlE.LI) I TUSIf.£MH:: ~ :sm:::w;RES{ltrR(lE SI'I't!DY HI!J_j)ffijj] ~ Mip- M.:u.. E;.:ru C'!:Iii1jh _P..-IJ"","",,,~I..;;jJoiIul(&:.l ,'-1]1-;;1

9

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOQOOOOOOO

ALTiBItNAfJIVt: A~OMME ·IORATJlONIINFOIWATI.'ON::

MOI1Q:N 'IEtD

w~ ltor ElIIpifiijen"Cif'

I! Enhal!iloe-d liiiig'h'«~ [?!;.t a~~;; ~1: :;Ii u:nit Of ~e NlaiiQlm!'ll P'arl\;, S~!;itI;!1iIiI"

I! P,'a$'$'iW;!' ~ll'iliIienilOt"~jiOril: rii~rtirig ,I)f :sit$ :;Ii!;: reml!ii!'ln~ II$ii~~E!',.

i LiUle ir;iib8~jJit'8j8i~iDti of 'TL!S_~98e ,Ail'Vlfle-J'i liiIia!l)f)t

,~i tCrpJ:\flfu\'~ EliijJlnasis,

.. Foc~ IIJfiI basi:e dartaiinf(!IiiFfl8.i1i01ll I):n MltJlon Re~ ai;; 'lJainiliilgl sjb8_

Hi~~(W.r.ic Btl ~Idin.g: l:o:mp] c.~

.. Slaibiliz$,ji:(J1il .gJ' ~i~ting liiIi~!l)ri~ tlyt:ld]ri8!1;l.

.. Mi;llrk 'F.g~~iri1$, o~ 'fOFIiifIE!'r li'i!;l.t(J.io' 1;i·lli\Jc~y:r,~.

:ritlerp~il'e Rldlmti~ I1'0D]S

.. :S~II 'irifQf~~iQri~ieri~a~ 8~l1,!IotI,J1.e- n~r viei'Qr !Jarkilil9l.

.. :Se-If.-!}Ui'!l;IiIll9libn(lCliiil,JiIEI1 ~rl(I way..ei(Je' exhitJi1~L

.. Writ!eri pliblf~!iOri$; {I;i.vf(ilable at calYl;!l MI!II;l~rifLl TI!III;l~ge'EI 1~til\Jte< INHlS)_

,

.

.

,A,llerDla'l:ive [i,Alil COilllW~T]O!\! I i""'O]g!.i!l!iQt.i; MOTON AEL.m<

Pa;rnifuru ofTus!li.'!eglfe Mrmelru St'01rf "fo·1d Throuldl!J l\bi)t,{UJJ F1e'ld H~IIDI'>i!lf"Ji: ad, 'FadU~les

• 10-1511Jercent

I! Visit!)]" unCier.s.1.andfn9. iIJ4' roe~.' of iSm!}' W-O\t!ld rely hea'liily. 'Gin n;!S!ding ,aof pu'bli'~~iona.

Mmuagem~t/Opemi:ion I! lfl,J~~gee UriivE!~

(ons1mii:lion '~ff: Facim~i;es

f!I! VlS'ikJr lPa]ilj:ng ~City (II' 'Uiue!'o:e:gee aool TiJ~g:ee Un~~).

'I! !rrf!O]flrnaOOlru -',~ienta1Jjoo ooi~inQ {TIJ~~e Unive~, put!L~ a_n'!jl p!fivate ruMs)l,

'I! Q,lner d'eve!©pmen~ arnd :Willi!izalion g~ hist.oDric bu'i!din@el ~PriJ!.ah;~.

Land O\\'nemJ.i:.p

.. T~eke9e-e' U'ni'verei11j and Oity Q!' TlL!e!<;_-~ee'

Ct!I'Sl mf ,Fad~iJtty ICons~rl!ldh!i1!l ''fQ1~!1 :$4.651e;.1Jii;;J~

1(11

000000000000000000000000000000000

Aa~RNAll ~ B-COl\DlEMORA.TIONlINmRPImTATlO .:

S .i-G' .• AIRME" & MOTON fIELD

'. ·si.fir' ~. enee

• Pas.sl ... !} ODmme<.mor:ailj'Qn

• I'Fl 'J} malcerpretaCionr

biterpretbi'€' EllllpiMis

.. FOOu:iI, em trai'rlifi1g1lPn;II::9SE 'forilis~~(jI AJrmen at M0~Qifj Field.

Histo;r]c DuUdlil],g ~om,(I~~

'" 1Ft€! h ab 111ta~ i on cr~ H Sl n $I a r ;U: ~ a n.irl eli:! rrl:rill Thv!i' €l r. '" 5Mbl zallon {( hi~tt:)ric t!u ICI nSS. (6).

'" "Ghost" fr,amework mr eiaes 0.1' li)'J'ffiElr I"IIS1CH1J!:: b!.fJldln{ls. (4!l',

~[jf.!L:' reb"ve Fadl'ide:!k' Fou]!!,

[10 Hlangar #'1 ,_ ~Qr C(l1Iii~cl and BJeiiibit<s WI'lIlrI 'blY le photos. rep1i~!.iI.S Q : t~inirtg BiifCl.Q I.

.' s;{lIl'·glJ~ln~1 ~J"OCihlj,lre, giher pull6e.i!lJiOns, and wayside exlilll bits ,

.' Clm~~e James MUie.!.!1!n _ ,~lmibit:S M ~Foo,dQ ~ r 0'lY. or T1.Js k-e gee 1\ i!'TIl en,

,

.: IIiIIi Iii3 I

I

,

Ponion. of 1lusk~~ Airmci ' tof'}~ 1'(t d Tihmug,h i)~lim] f.'iI:eldJ IJtl':S\DUiOOCS 9itd Fdi~k-s

• .2ll)-Sl) per'C~n'L

.' Viairl),r uJ'Iliet.S'l!:1Itldlg {if res. of srory Qep-erl(li;in~. on ·l,!I.Jitb;in puJllfrca1iJi:!flS and limited e~l1il:;lib oa~ relt.abilila~e(I Ctla,Ppie Ja r '8 ·useum (Tuskegee Il).liIi"'Ejsi~, .

L\'[a:UUJgJ5.DDl'!n~ IO]J~[': 110\0 fI.J ~ti D:r1al Pi} I1l: cS.a F\i'J e QI

(;(lfistrucGiuTI ef IFa~U' rtes

Ii; 'iJilSi1:0r pa:rkiIil9I,(Clty or '1iiJskege..e and Tus!!iege-9 U nj,ver$ily).

'. 0. .tter faiCililiA:i~ and pr~rvallonJ !l:d hisW!fic re!;lJ;ll'l,l~8 (NP5) ..

~'Uld ~}'!i\'IiI.'iB:rsb~'pl

Nattol'\(:lti Pa:rk Sar- ... ioo ~IJ.IIJfe vla oona~ion:

• 5, ~CIfeB irnm ClLy of Ths~ee~

• .as acr~ fr'DI1iI Tusill£lgoo. Ufjl'ifers.ll)'~

(~Slt ef fa_dl.~t)' COnstrll I~OJ Tbtel:5;l ~ ; 6 4;1 ~1)"111

11

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ALTER ·lTlVlH CTuS:KEGJEE AIlME·

Vi8iW(f' Iq)erl.all;c

... ~;!)i f'li'ta I in ~ e rl9 rEta a i Q iii

• A.c1iVEi ,_ Diive:r.ae liifIe<lra. ,~liiiibit5l, NPS eA8iff i ffl:e ~pi\e u VB :aEiIY i G:i31;i

l~nt,er'pRtI\r~' ,Enl,pffil~is

Fo~!JiS Offll I:i'~Md ~tory ,M iU~kEi!;OO8 .A.ijrmli!f1 ilm addi~iQn ~Q. lMoo:on F lilkIl lndudii'i.)ij:

!i! lilItrOOWlOtifil.ll 15 ~toli'ij hignli,ghfng h~~wC)' 'w ~~·oo~~ AFnflii'liOWll:!:;. Ii'I !M uis. mmtary .. -

I! The; tra.inU'lg p«ICi3ss k1r "!tie lillil~k--eg~ Aillmen aM 100 :MfI'arEigic mrs of lil!l~hleg~~ In~1jirute {nOlN TlIis~aga:EI UiiiVBrsil),J. iili ~fi1Iat ~~~ilmi!19~

'I! lFf;lpac~ ai TusRe.gee· #i;i'rFlilen glarillg WIxld 'iNar II. ... In'l:egf.i!I~iit!n 01· !1tEi milil$ry .

.. 'IF"liine IlitlEl :5IiJD'n'ilig Q"tiher event~ ill US. d!!!ring same

~i~ pa'liUitiL -

Uisin!'.!c Ihlli]d]iiIJi_g ~;nmp ex

• iH~hai:Nilla'litllm ,M Halii'l~~ #·1, CI;lt1~FO! Tower, Wa.~8tJousaJV,ali1iiCle SkJIl'.;!!g.e !!;1:lii!dinS ~'plI"Cipogedi NIPS maiinteliail'L(li;l (Ei,GjliM. ~er Bui!dlng (fjiFO'pOSE!d INIPS ,Ml'I'1ilif~llalive ftJ~s), All RatlRs. QuID ~·l!;!roP'tlee-d1 ~Q(id ;~e(J"vire ,concession).

!I Slalbiliza.ooliil _. 3 ;s:hed'ts:

Ii! "G:t'Iosf' f1l"allb8!N!tirk _ ~ibl;!~, Q'F ,~. ifor!!neC" lhi~tooo bUiltfings.

i lfI:eeonstl\u~: tt:llrlQar #.2 _ l'I.Iew ;~tr~!I"e \I'.rith exl:eii'ioi' ,eiC®Eli;y resalfiiilJling gl"ig·inaL

:11i1"er,pmil'e r.~riUttle~ liooJs,

>II I-Iat)gar #1 _ Uli.iing ttist(Jry ,~tiiiibit~ ,E'I.Jld [Pfograms loOC1i.mingl on ailrmen 'Iltai1ling al!ildl egl,Jipnm.em (i .. e .• Ilfik ·lrnIM~" [p;£lood furniS'hfrlS!B i~lu:¢lin!) aircrwft

'" frlaFUl;lar #'2' - Vlsl~o.r ,w8'J'l!eF.i'ff1l..J'S8ll.11m, emiltii~~ '0'11 'Tuslii_€!goo AIfi1iil~n [E:.:p;eriMc,e("' ~lIiIdi ["11i)b~n Fieldl, ·'oIariety 0.· media,

• ""FumlstJlHI" CIlliI~Ul.j,ll iarJ~pe, _ Ot!jEir:t~ from hist{ilfi~ pe~loo SIlJQI1 as COFflbaJ1. ailfi'aan. v.elliiiCle~, $i9l!e. ,e~"C~, ,added to o!l1.doo~ aJfJ'E!a£ ~' liiIisto:ric com~lex 1"t;i ellllhanlDi} SCf"llS{l or ":gOOPcpinidj i:)a!:;1( iliil time"" ·FgF V~~itOi,5l,

• Wa"l!lBlde· iiIl:!(11IDlm. aFliti putliia:atiO'tls.

bk.eg;ee IIJnl:l\e1""slrtty (OID[)Onf!1lt

Qpp&lun[1y~:o 'et§1abllsh i!i CttarJ'SI5l A~~($ A;I1~ ~~J of AvI.:iIl.!'OO' S~, wilh:ili ~liiIe hiiS1'Ori~ bl'(!d'in@ ~~ki_x. MiOii'e Itlafil ,00 ~e-:.:lI1i:5l ago,. pilDt ~lI'ailiilee~ lee!frted ~ed<1J1I2,@d1 skills, at MO'iltln FieliJ. The 'E!Qlu~~iolla! PFQ.9Jf:jrJl]l 'W(ilt:i prO:I!'Id~ an 0000[11 aimBfflsiCn ~D ~1'\lI;I1,;'I~r il;!xperierloe'. allo'Ntrlg v.lsl~:orn. Ie; sae StUdMI5 laaTr1ins in the ·~ra-df!_itin ~: iIli!te· Ttls.k€~1]i Alrffloo_ i?j\~lIage arid gOllege level oorriol.!-· IUnrIl wowld 00 proviaedl. klcusfflQI on B1.ii3tiOlm, m(;I~hi, 1;I_lldi scf€nce (seG Ai1'9Fr1a!1Jve D ~~f' .i3.dcmiO:Ii~1 l;il;! ia'i I !;I),

!I! Vl~t0[ftlillUse;um .ancl :schaD:! iJ'l(i9ram a-cbhdties w.oold ooilllra U~ err 1iia1'l~1i' #2.

'!I! OI.sp1ayOO aFilil'~ .:±iool m:hibij~. ~rve a dll.!!3IJ p!lrpOO:G: ~~t3i"o· and ed\ICarbioIi1,

'. l1\iliilgar #.2 - R:OOIifiS arol!.llliO P-ierimeter of l1!anga!l" d8'iiClU:!dI M ciassm·DlifI 8.fIg pqQje~. !eE'lJ!'lin.~ SfJS..£e. M\i1il'n pot'tiUin ar harlg8ir 1lI$E!I!;I·f.g~ e(i,;h~bL1a.

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LNIOO 111 i$'l"O~Y;

TUSKEGIEE ;It:F.!N!!:iM EXPERIE NeE

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• ,8:1lUI de nts am dI te aOh e rs a. s s i:3I' wi1:h S P E! c:ied in te rIPf~II'iI-e and living h~ry Pf{igrams as pan oj' eurrteulurn acr~I!{j~jes,

• ' lnteraeuen ibetween vis!mrs anll:! s~lJl!jen~'S, wou!d! be en Integral pert ~: I hoe, eMperrellKle for oolh,

.' .see Mell1natNe' II) for :adol;!i~hDflia! det.:oai[s,

• 'V1!iiitoq' fJ'oi'i~ing {NPS. lflllsfliegee Ulilive-r,ei~~. pri ... a.1~ and lPr.!.!bI'it: 'fulliid'$.) .

• HlitS~\1Irj_0 bliildin@ ci;lImple;;:; (f'/Ja1it1lil!::!l P,ark SeJYice)

hriion o:f &:dregee Airmen Sto!ll;ry- iFo~d Through ~I.ooolTh lFi,e:ldl RlesDl!I:Nlie.lji, Fadl.ities ,~md Progra:ms

• 60··7G percent,

• 6", ,!:,!Qr,e~ (Oily gF lfllls~ge~l

• ·61 acres rTU!5~gee i!jl!lii,",e"!;ii~).

~lwruag~1lI1"nt I Ojper;atiOln

• Hlsmrie bujlding complex (NIPS)

• De;par1mefl~ ;lJo_f Avia'iIDn ,~ieflce (Jook'!i!gee UrtrremiM

C~!it of' E'til:iU1y CllJnsuudiJDn ro~1 ~3.6'71.1,3~

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ALTERNATIVE ,0- TUSKEG,EE AIRMEN ~" ATI}ONAl eH TE':

A HISTO,RlCA! ,CJOINTlNU" M

111I.:C.[iC'. '\rc Empl asjs,

The ooilltlrwliillgi legacy (if If\!] TUskeg:ee Mrmen wou~ be' j;irasE!llted iliil tliEl ~Oi'ltEOOt a' Afi'I~ai"i-.AmerleaFi parllcip8Jtl!Jfi ill '~~ U-S, IrniritP.ny 'wfilm bJD.3d ,slalifiElli'its of If'»a !ilOry preserrte.d '~h;r,oog'h e;;(hibi~!;I, ~nd prwgll"~rF1s. .a~ Motoo !Fiald::

II! F'.as-t. pfl]$G.rnt and! fut!JJ8' o~ mi:litl5NY' 8iiti~1i\;;in ,(:1_1']1:1 ~jainhiigL

iii J!;1!lican-Anier'iCa11 ~~n,J!).;lla kit gli'ElaJoo~ parni~patl!:lin 111 iIllrIe U.S. mjli~8!ry Sind nMi!fEi ei'g!l'ifica_lIl~ reles in ~Ferl(l- 11'19 'their OOtilfl1lJ'.

• :811f8b8@ic: role air 'iOO~~8 I Fi~lm~ (iFiO'W Thsk~~G1' IJn~rWty.) ilil tihe 'tr~n[n81 ,00' ~nal Ti.Js~9i8B AijrfiiEln ..

II! ;S gntflwance 'Gf OOCC~5'e'3 o~ the Tuekes3ee' Airmen iln Deac&JFlg to d9S£jgrega~lon o~ 'the 1Jj.;S. military 5'hort.ty ~~'e' Wg~ldI War n.,

• Impect5l of Ti.!~9~e .Air1fiEl1iiI~IiDjJI~hmelilb5 M subsequA:!l'ilI't ICiYililrighte, :a~n-cea, of t'he 19&1$. ~rtd ~9IWS"

I!ult~!p'[,'eti,ve Facimi,~ IThi!!Jts

T~egee ~~ NafianaJ Ce.rrISi', a, liJJi·SJMha mJiI~ary museum ~ilt on 5'ite' ta-epal!'abe ~1"(I1!IIIi ih~1iOriC QOI1iIpI8~ ~jjlllt WI~nsFi ~lib!} :g'1 aeres ctJl'i'BITItI~' owned i!;J~·l!iurak:eg.ee Ui'lilita~i1y, wilt1 ~paoQ; 'lbr.:

• TI!,Ji;ikes~s Airman 1M8fit'lDJiaL

• lMa;o' le:-;hibit $J;laoe with peri:o[j military ,i3.j~.:dt ,j:JJiri eqlJ!pment.

• lMi* aul1 ~1JaJl presel!lltaJIOIli 1(p;DSSiDI~' an !IMJA:X). i!!I :SflmIuli3Jor fi'(!DfifI,-lnl:efiactlys .. "hcrn~oo" 1"1Qp'IICi9I8 'I)f ili!qu~l!Dt;!Imt 1,I$~dI b)' T!,J~jj;~~sl Airmen.

1'us~eg~e 'Unive~~ ~~nmponem

OplJ!O!l"tul!i!i~ ,teo e~tabU~ ~ C.f.J~~_~ .Ai'lreOl' Art($r$Qfil ~parrme.f!t of.,i!jliii~ri!m Soiw,Jce wfmin .the T~:9~' AirmetJ' Na.ltooaJ C(!i'iii'.er.. F're·colleg:e and ccdleg:e level wliiie!!.llliJ.fin k1C!!.1isirtgl (In £f'ilath:I~"I. math, :sciBoo!l ~nd aerenaulic~ illl;!b'uCiiQli1 1~ pr~1P~re ;$"bl,l!jlJ;lnt~ to meat IJ::h;Ojir.Gnga:=i ~iJir s~~~, :n ~J:le· 2'1 i5i oontu!!)' in the 't!ll.Jjilioll gl' 'I~ 1l.Jskegs;e Alrm0F1. Fa@lIiti€s 'i'i\[!uld l~m'ilde:

• Ii;, hlghlty OUIiTilpOOM at!,I';i8!1i\onAra:lning ,center provio-' ing pil!)t ~~iliiling. and oo!OOa~lon ~n ~If~rt manag:e-' melilt ,(:InJ;;i S(:Il'e~,y, lifI.etedr'Ology:. 8!i~ iIr.:!J~rlt. ,coo~rol. m.af.rI~e'Jlance and ,e-i1ir!e[ 't>ecl!iinil;:!;l~ M1~iB.'lties fOr pooph~ Ilnl iIIrI!J i11skegee Uiniversity reg fJ;;i iii.

~ JE:ducatiOlf'l aMi rralFlJFlg ,e.oo~Q::r 'for avlatiQlllI research.

A l'l(:I~iQn;;!1 II"le~l)$ittJry 'willii1 higlJlJ'~OOh oompul:gFS and !ff;!)1l"i1d'iffict.e computer a'COe~ El!iihall(lElliDElli'rt (J~ ThSllifl!l;;l!Kl Ufll'il@rs.lI~ls 'frxISl1i1lg prQgram il!!! ,aeroep.ace a I'iIg i n BEllfii ni!;!-

• iE~pali15liQn of Tt,!Ieltleg~ uni\iBrsily'oS DS,paFlMeniit m Colllltinuillllglilli:iducatiiJ'.fl progroaflil$ inclu~ing AvJaniQriI 'mlJith C2Jnnps. lGl(bU[f~ serf.{ls by Tuskegee Airmen ~n¢l ~ianllill,lal ili/l;lh't Ii'EWiGw:!;, klr IiCQFlstld plklIS., AdlJill oJJli,eech 8Js.Q 'iO' [j;I1"Q ... iQle W1QwI~gsl 811td :!i~ls to obtallm ,alrllrame ,8JTldi lPowef plam !icS'llta-e a.(Iprovedi by iF"sd'£!fl'ai A\i\1ai1ion AdFfi~Is.tr.~L~lon (FAA,).

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I!.!GAIQ;Y~ "IIN!JSIKIEGlEE, AIRM_:e N

~ATlIOlNAL CE_NTEIR'~, A 111M 1.!9,"INJRnCAL OONTi~uu:~

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'. ~ncreaei;'(j lIftili~~ion 01 Ii!JalloOO Ceiil'[{!1i' ~OO O~hfl~ 'f'ac.Utles QI!'! T!.!!e!<;~ee' UriL\rei':!im}f ~i'li\p1!J;S lr;ciLN:iing CIiTI~ple Jarm;e:i! M'ueeum. whioh \\'OOlg I)e l\Eiii'fiOW'ood to. j)ro'i'ld . fm Imt{~fll~e.1:8tioo Q'~ ctLmptls eit:e~ aM ~ini}S Iinl:lleCi with '11K!, ~e ," men ~e!!ieJloe'-"

!I! ~belijtieJ ,atl.,!j~h~'ii~·ri5;jttJr lrrtE!fface pro~foarns,

li'sitor iExpe' '~ence'

Higllrll)" a'C'tivle' 8100 itifer,a~jw

~nlQ.a f)'fTh5~~e A 'rm,eo Shu"}' 'IQ]~ 'I1tr0u; Moto Reldl B~!I]riLe.liil! ,Fad~m,es . Pmgt~illS, ., ~i)-OO pe -!Cent

€o - SttuOti01] of fh'll;i IWelil

.. TYl;ikesee, Airmen Ma1iolillaJ CEml3r ;,

• \f~it(lr Iila.rting (1'4 PS, e t.Br [pub( ~ B.;genciEm 81nd T'!.!I;II:I;e.gae UniVeffSily)

• Hiall)ri~ i;)yjhiin\g cGmpi~ (MPS)

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1IRE.1!Uil!!

ltbullagelmmll Opuati~UDJ

• Hi~ric blJi~ing OCIfMjl~.:x (,N PS)

• DeparbiDBnt or AViation ScliQflIl::€l (Tuskegee UlrMf5lity) • !,!I!1Ikegee' Airmenl ~9JUil:!n.ill1 CGnN~f '.

,i}" 1)). - 'et' h ()

_ ,~diongl IPQrk Service .a.otjuire via rlooo.llon: .' e:r Q~8, (Ci~~ of T~~ ~

.' PEl'1 ,I;I~~$. {iuskE!g;E!9 !Jiitv.emlty}

vo~ . 10 'adHo" ~;!IIlI1struoti.on

., liui;iil!;$gee Aifr'li\Eln Ma:lioiillai rCa:fI~~r ~ !2D.OOO~OOil)~'3~o.oo.l~OOO

.. Olt!er IF:acaiti~ - ,$2i3l1,6.'l1, 1[38

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Atli2lrna1n.o:9 D ~CQR'1i~iiI(O

,AI, pll.b!it~ljm¥a'le rmrlJl'e~mp (tt.l .!;:!' t.i~r.!(N.l!3'l ~1 wiJi ,M rUMJdlH1 r(;ll ra~ funds. COJ1'~~ a_mj ~'f~r~, tha, rl1S~gee Ar.!"i'tKii"l N:itlioo.af Ce.r:!rer. ,.o!! n~t~~ .f~~ng c~~ign ~ .rni.;\fi,i\@. f.i"Je. r~l:i:_~' ArrmeJ'!'" T~e' U.n~'I$~~ f,~&~df anc!' a~ mf}Jral'}.t p.efiOO~, pffv:~re' CC~ItlCi.ra~rnll (~6j~ ~n.a ~~t~, iMlJSrzy). pr,lliiat!::' fcil.'lf.ld.!il~ a~ t;lr-h~~'. JJi.9va~6\Il~' ,~f.jdl' ofHNa'l/(J_~ ot'iIhe' t.acmty WOLI~ ir.I! .. ~tve (Nj~ ;pt mom iMer;ai agQl.:l'" cres. ifr.!ese' fJ!N1eraf fmrtne!'5i 1'i'1\liI-Y ~ rJ:j~ ~ S. ,D~r~nr' of De1l!ooe" U. S. ~rlme.n~ of Edttco!ili\kl.n',. F.edem'i A.'liiai\i"oo tktmi.rtiSlraoo.n. ~AjSA, N~5 !li'~ o.rfier ~~. NPS r/ni'!i~. merrllWa!!J'Al ei'!7pi'l'a!S'iz~ ~ ~ge.f1'Cy~! .lD'fini.3'JY ilEspd¥ls_ibNi1y o~ r~~Jirtg tn8' !WOIy ~f Ins ri!.lS~~' ,Af{meJl_

IMPActS.

The ciJllifiplete 8"t!.J!k!~ contains an ~n;al~ 01: imp,acls of the! &e-\!'!C~I a1.ernalli~~. Ilrnpacts cij: each 'lXin~t ,!;Ire ad~:;iS8[i based on IssIJeS such as \i'f$it-tlll" e:q;lerienci;!', cl.f.iLJf:;li1 ffi9f!u~ rla.trural fe80!.JfOe~ a.nd 'the SOOiC'eCOIlQmlll;: iI;!~rorillDl;lli'ilt.

wtiie C.IMadI::.oo, ~It3!'1~r. T!iL5Wd,!jt'o!j' I'fj~.lii\!r~ N$~l-ar J-WSJOIJe Sil8 RdR!jv.~.~~'I&~~~,~~N!FS iBerbaJ:Ei 'rapr, ~ia!'1. ~jr~1 S-L.~;;.rr Of~. IWl!S

!l1ri:s1i'1e il"E!bal~ ~~ So~~' ~f~. ,'NP$

JIohrt Becl;, ~_~,~ ~~' ~1 ()ff;~ ~

Th!iJ Nlrliu1t3i Par~ Sa~ ''ifElk;Qm~ all ~l)mmOIl'l~ ~ 'Ilii~, ~1J;jd~ Pl'ea~e 8eBlld II}DmrmenilEi, Ihtj no 1'al:E!r ~tw:J SElptE!rnbef :2'!, 1gee. Ii; [imi~ l~mb~1 01' cqJlell- o11he oompl81B &jl'E!ii.aJ 1N!~1\!:;8 !l>iJ'!~ ilrC ;:''!1Ji~l~ by w.~liirng tQ. ~iTie SI:cJ!:haEHi~ Fl.'agk:c1al Of:lJ.te "I !lfle NMi~ ~!lk. SQfVi~. C~Ji'lII'Iet1ts fir reqlJleS18 'for fmhlM" i~J.ool ::;hoo!r;:! bEl 'S~ ~~ ~¢ ~~gJ.i!il'l9 ~"'E!!;i~

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Motoo FiBldffiJ~_8gM Ajfi'l'iGn 8~i~! aeeeuree S~!!I'd~ iSJ\I10NJI!!L IfI~IRK ~YR"'iill'f~

8ouUi'ieMt RQgiQn~1 Oll~

Jlitfill\1i1J FIJdIJ!";]] GGf~OF-1 9~4, !:IUi!l!!in~

100 ~a 5!Jlee1: SW -

AI!~nl'{iJ, .etA 3{L;IDtJ

Al; 'Iioo Ni'llioo'l; prioo[!'031 <OOr=i~kll1i oIIB;e'.I1I!V, ~Jie; ~-ar.b:ii~ cd iJ'IeI frniertilf liI3~ resJi"j;"J~1i~ 6!lj' rnflS!! ,i:iII ~ Iiil:lliDr'lil.lt, oo;il!'d P'_i'Iilie lanlb;llilid ftI!IliIl1:il i'I!~~_ Thi~ IlldlidaB ~r!n!! t!'i!3i WiBBst UE!B' 61' OL!r !l!J'(! !:¥IIdl ~f ~iJM~, ~ljil!J ~ ~ RrJd WlJd!Je. pr:1i~1t!O! tl)El ~6!I'!!~1 ",nQ oC!]l!llTl1i \mil,:.;;; ~ <J;II;M" l1i'1liNL~1 pilr1!s 8M ItIE!L~ p!\:IJo;ii. ~!:!I tI~J1!1l.;ir ~it;;;; ~l;IriI ~ Ii!.:! Ihm!Jllh ,~oor ~~ltiJlii.. Tlj~ O!!lB~~i ~~ cur IIffiIiIr .. i ~~I;!1,U'C~ .. 1id !h'!I~ tID ,a~~urli' ~Jiiill tlt;.!iM- ilI~ki~ef'l'l i!i iii ~Ile lti~ iliL~~ i(i-[' fill iU!.iI" ~IE!. TllIE! lD~illlnll!iiilll iil~D 111&5;11 fIi.i:Ijfit re:jijl!tfi~illi~ '[.iH ,;!,lNii'lkan ~Sf1 ffii:iSrwr'uOO 'Q!lffiIT!~~ RfK! ~f lIJi3'Of!!:! ~ !!'n;i !I! ~mI ifeJiloolfliM lfillef UIlIiIBd 5'I8lB:9 a.~lnla"lJB"l.km.

Thi) ~Li'lJ~1 Pi!r~ ~I;!i;l', ~;u;trnNtl td tho illl!fior. is Wi e-qu:3J a.pparlurny ;lI!Jifi~ :!ii"IilI iilll'efll a!1 PB~i\a~.he tiem~1'i1i3. 61' [:IS~~ In aacn er i!::iJ ~=!:i ~dI iOOrripeling in ~II ili'!I~ ~f ;!ffi~effll i\il!j!l~ d ~. ~1. f!!itIiiUI'L. Be:.:; ruilIonaJ OOg!1\o ,~. haJTo;:!.o;c! Of !l:ILlTw<ir n~~rll; ~1;lI",~.

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