Steve jobs

Steven Paul "Steve" Jobs (born February 24, 1955) is an American business magnate and inventor. He is the co-founder and chief executive officer of Apple Inc.

Jobs also

previously served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, following the acquisition of Pixar by Disney. He was credited in the 1995 movie Toy Story as an executive producer.[12] In the late 1970s, Jobs, with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak, Mike Markkula,

and others,

designed, developed, and marketed one of the first commercially successful lines of personal computers, the Apple II series. In the early 1980s, Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of the mouse-driven graphical user interface which led to the creation of the Macintosh.[14][15] After losing a power struggle with the board of directors in 1984,[16][17] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT, a computer platform development company specializing in the higher education and business markets. Apple's subsequent 1996 buyout of NeXT brought Jobs back to the company he co-founded, and he has served as its CEO since 1997. In 1986, he acquired the computer graphics division of Lucasfilm Ltd which was spun off as Pixar Animation Studios.[18] He remained CEO and majority shareholder at 50.1% until its acquisition by The Walt Disney company in 2006.[3] Consequently Jobs became Disney's largest individual shareholder at 7% and a member of Disney'sBoard of Directors.[19][20][21][22] Jobs' history in business has contributed much to the symbolic image of the idiosyncratic, individualistic Silicon Valley entrepreneur, emphasizing the importance of design and understanding the crucial role aesthetics play in public appeal. His work driving forward the development of products that are both functional and elegant has earned him a devoted following.[23] Jobs was born in San Francisco, California and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs (née Hagopian)[24] of Mountain View, California, who named him Steven Paul. Paul and Clara later adopted a daughter, who they named Patti. Jobs' biological parents ² Abdulfattah Jandali, a Syrian
[25] [1]

graduate student who later became a political science professor,[26] and Joanne

Simpson, an American graduate student[25] who went on to become a speech language pathologist ² later married, giving birth to and raising Jobs' biological sister, the novelist Mona Simpson.[28][29][30][31][32][33] Jobs attended Cupertino Junior High School and Homestead High School in Cupertino, California,[23] and frequented after-school lectures at the Hewlett-Packard Company in Palo Alto, California. He was soon hired there and worked with Steve Wozniak as a summer

later. returning Coke bottles for food money. [35] Oregon. Jobs returned to California and began attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club with Wozniak. such as one in calligraphy. "If I had never dropped in on that single course in college. a manufacturer of popular video games. Jobs had little interest or knowledge in circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the bonus evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips.[38] He has stated that people around him who did not share his countercultural roots could not fully relate to his thinking. Atari had offered US$100 for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. [34] In 1972." In the autumn of 1974. Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50. . and getting weekly free meals at the local Hare Krishna temple. He took a job as a technician at Atari. a design so tight that it was impossible to reproduce on an assembly line. Jobs experimented with psychedelics. [17] the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. Although he dropped out after only one semester. Jobs then traveled to India with a Reed College friend (and. the first Apple employee). Jobs told Wozniak that Atari had only given them $700 (instead of the actual $5000) and that Wozniak's share was thus $350.[39][40][41][42][43][44] Career Beginnings of Apple Computer See also: History of Apple Steve Jobs and Bill Gates at the fifth D: All Things Digitalconference (D5) in 2007. Daniel Kottke. calling his LSD experiences "one of the two or three most important things [he had] done in [his] life". with the primary intent of saving money for a spiritual retreat to India. He came back a Buddhist with his head shaved and wearing traditional Indian clothing.[38] Jobs returned to his previous job at Atari and was given the task of creating a circuit board for the game Breakout. Much to the amazement of Atari.employee. [17] Jobs later stated. in search of spiritual enlightenment. At the time. According to Atari founder Nolan Bushnell. while sleeping on the floor in friends' rooms. Jobs graduated from high school and enrolled in Reed College inPortland.[36][37] During this time. he continued auditing classes at Reed.

The NeXTcube was described by Jobs as an "interpersonal" computer. . Jobs founded another computer company. and at the end of May 1985 ± following an internal power struggle and an announcement of significant layoffs ± Sculley relieved Jobs of his duties as head of the Macintosh division. having met in 1971.In 1976. the NeXT workstation garnered a strong following because of its technical strengths. That is. Apple aired a Super Bowl television commercial titled "1984. "Mike" Markkula Jr. 1984.[49] NeXT Computer See also: NeXT Around the same time. An industry-wide sales slump towards the end of 1984 caused a deterioration in Jobs's working relationship with Sculley. Jobs marketed NeXT products to the scientific and academic fields because of the innovative. experimental new technologies it incorporated (such as the Mach kernel. Bill Fernandez. however. however. Steve Jobs lured John Sculley away from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO."[48] The Macintosh became the first commercially successful small computer with a graphical user interface. asking. Apple recruited Mike Scott from National Semiconductor to serve as CEO for what turned out to be several turbulent years. and the built-inEthernet port). Prior to co-founding Apple. "Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life. As Apple continued to expand. NeXT Computer. Like the Apple Lisa. Andy Hertzfeld described the scene as "pandemonium. some of his employees from that time had described him as an erratic and temperamental manager. In 1983. which he believed was the next step after "personal" computing. an emotional Jobs introduced theMacintosh to a wildly enthusiastic audience. chief among them its object-oriented software development system.C. when their mutual friend. While Jobs was a persuasive and charismatic director for Apple. [45] with later funding from a then-semi[13] retired Intel product-marketing manager and engineer A. Wozniak was an electronics hacker. the digital signal processor chip. Jobs and Wozniak had been friends for several years. In 1978. Among those who could afford it. Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne. if computers could allow people to communicate and collaborate together in an easy way. The development of the Mac was started by Jef Raskin. founded Apple. or do you want to come with me and change the world?" [46][47] The following year.." At Apple's annual shareholders meeting on January 24. the NeXT workstation was technologically advanced. Steve Jobs. it was largely dismissed by industry as cost-prohibitive. and eventually taken over by Jobs. introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. it would solve many of the problems that "personal" computing had come up against. the company began looking for an experienced executive to help manage its expansion. Steve Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer and selling it.

Inc. Jobs loved to demo the NeXT's e-mail system. Tim's prototype implementation on NeXTStep is made in the space of a few months. Over the next ten plus years. as Pixar's contract with Disney was running out. and gives it to Tim [Berners-Lee]. Monsters. Toy Story. I like this very much. The Incredibles (2004). but has since relocated to Emeryville.[52] and in early 2004 . The first film produced by the partnership. Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. depriving the user of the possibility to contribute. This put considerable strain on NeXT's hardware division. Cars (2006). WALL-E (2008). as evidenced by such things as the NeXTcube's magnesium case.. NeXTMail was one of the first to support universally visible. Tim proposes "World-Wide Web". except that it is difficult to pronounce in French. Up (2009) and Toy Story 3 (2010). Pixar and Disney In 1986.000 machines. as an example of his "interpersonal" philosophy. thanks to the qualities of the NeXTStep software development system. and in 1993. Ratatouille (2007). Toy Story 2 (1999). (2001).[51] The new company. This prototype offers WYSIWYG browsing/authoring! Current Web browsers used in "surfing the Internet" are mere passive windows. [50] During a time when e-mail for most people was plain text. Mike Sendall buys a NeXT cube for evaluation. the company would produce the box-office hits A Bug's Life (1998). Ratatouille. California. During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria. California. $5 million of which was given to the company as capital. 2 November 1995. was initially intended to be a high-end graphics hardware developer. Jobs and Disney chief executive Michael Eisner tried but failed to negotiate a new partnership. which Disney would co-finance and distribute. Jobs ran NeXT with an obsession for aesthetic perfection. In the years 2003 and 2004." by Robert Cailliau. NeXT transitioned fully to software development with the release of NeXTSTEP/Intel. clickable embedded graphics and audio within e-mail.. brought fame and critical acclaim to the studio when it was released in 1995. After years of unprofitability selling the Pixar Image Computer. Finding Nemo. I was determined that the name should not yet again be taken from Greek mythology. Finding Nemo (2003). Up and Toy Story 3 each received the Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. an award introduced in 2001. The Incredibles. after having sold only 50."1990 CERN: A Joint proposal for a hypertext system is presented to the management. it contracted with Disney to produce a number of computer-animated feature films. NeXTMail. WALL-E. which was originally based at Lucasfilm's Kerner Studios in San Rafael. Jobs bought The Graphics Group (later renamed Pixar) from Lucasfilm's computer graphics division for the price of $10 million. under Pixar's creative chief John Lasseter.

Jobs became The Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder with approximately 7% of the company's stock. He soon became Apple's interim CEO after the directors lost confidence in and ousted then-CEO Gil Amelio in a boardroom coup. San Francisco. 2005. See also: "1998±2005: Return to profitability" in Apple Inc. On January 24. 2006.Jobs announced that Pixar would seek a new partner to distribute its films once its contract with Disney expired.4 billion. [19] Jobs's holdings in Disney far exceed those of Eisner. Jobs and Iger announced that Disney had agreed to purchase Pixar in an all-stock transaction worth $7. who held about 1% of the company's stock and whose criticisms of Eisner included the soured Pixar relationship and accelerated his ousting. Once the deal closed.7%. . who holds 1. The deal was finalized in late 1996. Wikinews has related news:Disney buys Pixar Jobs also helps oversee Disney and Pixar's combined animation businesses with a seat on a special six-man steering committee. Return to Apple Jobs on stage at Macworld Conference & Expo. Disney. [53] bringing Jobs back to the company he had co-founded. Apple announced that it would buy NeXT for $429 million. and Iger quickly worked to patch up relations with Jobs and Pixar. Bob Iger replaced Eisner at Disney. and Disney family member Roy E. January 11. In 1996. In October 2005. Jobs joined the company's board of directors upon completion of the merger.

Jobs quipped at the time that he would be using the title 'iCEO. by lashing out at environmental and other advocates at Apple's Annual Meeting in Cupertino in April. with its own mobile browser. In 2005. "afraid that they might not have a job when the doors opened. Apple announced it would take back iPods for free at its retail stores. and the iTunes Store. introducing and improving upon other digital appliances. most notably NeXTSTEP. appealing designs and powerful branding have worked well for Apple. In the coming months. [57] Business life ." also changed the licensing program for Macintosh clones. While stimulating innovation. many employees developed a fear of encountering Jobs while riding in the elevator. The reality was that Jobs' summary executions were rare. Cyberdog. Jobs officially dropped the "interim" modifier from his title at Apple and became permanent CEO. a multitouch display cell phone. which also included the features of an iPod and.S. but a handful of victims was enough to terrorize a whole company. [17] [54] Jobs The banner read "Steve ² Don't be a mini-player recycle all e-waste". With the purchase of NeXT. However. which evolved into Mac OS X. customer who buys a new Mac. to concentrate Apple's efforts on returning to profitability. which has been dubbed the "reality distortion field" and is particularly evident during his keynote speeches (colloquially known as "Stevenotes") at Macworld Expos and at Apple's own World Wide Developers Conferences.[56] by which he means that delivering working products on time is as important as innovation and attractive design. This program includes shipping and "environmentally friendly disposal" of their old systems. iTunes digital music software. The Computer TakeBack Campaign responded by flying a banner from a plane over the Stanford University graduation at which Jobs was the commencement speaker. With the introduction of the iPod portable music player. Apple entered the cellular phone business with the introduction of the iPhone. Jobs also reminds his employees that "real artists ship". the company has branched out. Jobs responded to criticism of Apple's poor recycling programs for e-waste in the U. revolutionized the mobile browsing scene. the company made forays into consumer electronics and music distribution. he further expanded Apple's recycling programs to any U. Jobs is both admired and criticized for his consummate skill at persuasion and salesmanship. a few weeks later.In March 1998. In 2007. and OpenDoc.S. At the 2000 Macworld Expo. since then. Under Jobs's guidance the company increased sales significantly with the introduction of the iMac and other new products. Jobs immediately terminated a number of projects such as Newton. In 2006.'[55] In recent years. making it too costly for the manufacturers to continue making machines. much of the company's technology found its way into Apple products.

" [67] Commentaries on his temperamental style can be found inMike Moritz's The Little Kingdom. Fortune wrote that he "is considered one of Silicon Valley's leading egomaniacs. making him the 43rd wealthiest American. Jobs made the Fortune's list of America's Toughest Bosses in regard to his leadership of Next. his 5.[61] After resuming control of Apple in 1997. If found liable. once said that Jobs "would have made an excellent king of France. and iCon: Steve Jobs.[63] though an independent internal Apple investigation completed on December 29. Apple claimed that the options were originally granted at a special board meeting that may never have taken place. Young & William L. one of the few authorized biographies of Jobs. Jobs eliminated all corporate philanthropy programs.[60] After Bloomberg had accidentally published Jobs' obituary in 2008. In 1993.[65][66] Management style Much has been made of Jobs' aggressive and demanding personality.Wealth Even though Jobs only earns $1 a year [58]. by Jeffrey S. thereby incurring taxable income of $20.426 million shares of Apple." "But the lows were unimaginable. Job's office replied that his personality changed since then.30. which allegedly should have been $21.[68] Jef Raskin.000 that he did not report as income. Apple overstated its earnings by that same amount.5 million shares of Apple with an exercise price of $18. Arik Hesseldahl of BusinessWeek magazine noted that "Jobs isn¶t widely known for his association with philanthropic causes". a former colleague." alluding to Jobs' compelling and larger-than-life persona. Jobs might have faced a number of criminal charges and civil penalties. The case is the subject of active criminal and civil government investigations. The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Furthermore.000. found that Jobs was unaware of these issues and that the options granted to him were returned without being exercised in 2003.[64] On July 1.[69] .10. Cofounder Dan'l Lewin said. 2008. compared to Bill Gates' efforts. "The highs were unbelievable. a $7 billion class action suit was filed against several members of the Apple Board of Directors for revenue lost due to the alleged securities fraud. [59] Forbes has estimated his net wealth at $5.1 billion in 2009. Simon. the investigation is focusing on false dating of the options resulting in a retroactive $20 million increase in the exercise price. This indicated backdating. Steve Jobs was granted stock options in the amount of 7. by Alan Deutschman. 2006. and his 138 million shares of Disney (which he had received in exchange for Disney's acquisition of Pixar).[62] Stock options backdating issue In 2001.

lanyards and packages. a friend of Jobs from his time at Reed College. Deutschman quotes Elizabeth Holmes. [78] In the unauthorized biography. Simon. iCon: Steve Jobs."[73] Inventions Jobs is listed as either primary inventor or co-inventor in over 230 awarded patents or patent applications related to a range of technologies from actual computer and portable devices to user interfaces (including touch-based). Young & William L. author Alan Deutschman reports that Jobs once dated Joan Baez. Jobs was a "mature. keyboards..[76] The couple have a son. not where it has been. to make its titles available for the iPad. Lisa Brennan-Jobs (born 1978). Presiding over the wedding was the Zen Buddhist monk Kobun Chino Otogawa. he replied: [79] . sleeves.[74][75] Personal life Jobs married Laurene Powell. 'I skate to where the puck is going to be. power adapters. he later acknowledged paternity.[78] She briefly raised their daughter on welfare when Jobs denied paternity. from his relationship with Bay Area painter Chrisann Brennan. Since the very very beginning. the authors suggest that Jobs might have married Baez.[77] and two other children. ²Steve Jobs Floyd Norman said that at Pixar. Steve Jobs banned all books published by John Wiley & Sons from Apple Stores in response to their publishing an unauthorized biography. as saying she "believed that Steve became the lover of Joan Baez in large measure because Baez had been the lover of Bob Dylan. claiming that he was sterile.[71] In 2005.' And we've always tried to do that at Apple. mellow individual" and never interfered with the creative process of the filmmakers. iCon: Steve Jobs by Jeffrey S. And we always will. staircases. at least in innovation and style. but her age at the time (41) meant it was unlikely the couple could have children. The Second Coming of Steve Jobs. Jobs also has a daughter." In another unauthorized biography. He has referenced them on more than one occasion at Keynotes and also was interviewed on a showing of a Paul McCartney concert. Jobs is also a Beatles fan.. 1991. Reed Paul Jobs. on March 18. [72] In its 2010 annual earnings report. speakers. He summed up that self-concept at the end of his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference and Expo in January 2007 by quoting ice hockey legend Wayne Gretzky: [70] There's an old Wayne Gretzky quote that I love. clasps.Jobs has always aspired to position Apple and its products at the forefront of the information technology industry by foreseeing and setting trends. Wiley said it had "closed a deal . When asked about his business model on 60 Minutes.

on the condition that he advertise the property for a year to see if someone would move it to another location and restore it.[80][81] In 1984. Later that same year. including several with experience in restoring old property. but he met with complaints from local preservationists over his plans. Jobs spent years renovating his apartment in the top two floors of the building's north tower. Jobs purchased a 17. by a court decision.[83] The court decision was overturned on appeal in March 2010 and the mansion was demolished beginning February 2011 [84] He usually wears a black long-sleeved mock turtleneck made by St. an apartment building in New York City with a politically progressive reputation. no meat". Croix. daughter of Rita Hayworth. Great things in business are not done by one person. in a Gartner Symposium. a local preservationist group began seeking legal action to prevent demolition. According to reports. And the total was greater than the sum of the parts. Jobs bought an apartment in The San Remo. also had apartments. Pei. Steve Martin. when Michael Dell was asked what he would do if he owned then-troubled Apple Computer. designed by George Washington Smith in Woodside." [90] On October 6. [86][87] [85] He is a pescetarian. he said "I'd shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders. they balanced each other. With the help of I.600 m2). Jobs had never moved in. Levi's 501 blue jeans. one whose diet includes fish but His choice of car is a silver 2006 Mercedes SL 55 AMG. Jobs lived in the mansion for almost ten years. Steven Spielberg.M. and let Bill Clinton use it in 1998. President Clinton dined with Jobs and 14 Silicon Valley CEOs there on August 7. the Woodside Town Council gave Jobs approval to demolish the mansion. Although it reportedly remained in an almost unfurnished state. 1996. which has no licence plates. Since the early 1990s. Jobs has lived in a house in the Old Palo Alto neighborhood of Palo Alto. [88][89] Jobs had a public war of words with Dell Computer CEO Michael Dell. and Princess Yasmin Aga Khan. 14 bedroom Spanish Colonial mansion."[91] In . they are done by a team of people. In January 2007 Jobs was denied the right to demolish the property.My model for business is The Beatles: They were four guys that kept each other's negative tendencies in check. but no agreements to that effect were reached. he kept an old BMW motorcycle in the living room. only to sell it almost two decades later to U2 frontman Bono.[82] He allowed the mansion to fall into a state of disrepair. In 1982. 1997. A number of people expressed interest. where Demi Moore.000-square-foot (1. and New Balance 991 sneakers. also known as Jackling House. In June 2004. planning to demolish the house and build a smaller home on the property. California. starting when Jobs first criticized Dell for making "un-innovative beige boxes.

it turned out that Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future. Steve. WWDC attendees who saw Jobs in person said he "looked fine". Steve Jobs sent an email to all employees when Apple's market capitalization rose above Dell's. stated that he had a rare. [97][98] together with his choice to delegate significant portions of his keynote to other presenters. an Apple spokesperson said that "Steve's health is robust. Timothy D. but I thought it was worth a moment of reflection today.[93] After initially resisting the idea of conventional medical intervention and embarking on a special diet to thwart the disease. [100] [101] following the keynote.2006. Jobs announced to his employees that he had been diagnosed with a cancerous tumor in his pancreas.[93] Jobs at the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo. Based on today's stock market close. Apple is worth more than Dell. In early August 2006. Jobs underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy (or "Whipple procedure") in July 2004 that appeared to successfully remove the tumor.[93] The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is usually very grim. Stocks go up and down. Cook." . His "thin. almost gaunt" appearance and unusually "listless" delivery. however. far less aggressive type known as islet cell neuroendocrine tumor.[99] In contrast. Jobs delivered the keynote for Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference. head of worldwide sales and operations at Apple. The email read: [92] Team. and things may be different tomorrow.[94][95] Jobs apparently did not require nor receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy. ran the company. inspired a flurry of media and internet speculation about his health. Jobs. Health concerns In mid-2004. according to an Ars Technica journal report.[93][96] During Jobs' absence.

Jobs concluded his presentation with a slide reading "110/70". Apple announced that marketing vice-president Phil Schiller would deliver the company's final keynote address at the Macworld Conference and Expo2009.[110] Jobs responded at Apple's September 2008 Let's Rock keynote by quotingMark Twain: "Reports of my death are greatly exaggerated". however. 2011.[111] at a subsequent media event." As during . given Jobs' hands-on approach to running his company. containing blank spaces for his age and cause of death. in an internal Apple memo. Jobs wrote that in the previous week he had "learned that my health-related issues are more complex than I originally thought" and announced a six-month leave of absence until the end of June 2009 to allow him to better focus on his health.[107][108][109] intensifying rumors concerning Jobs' health. voiced the opinion that shareholders had a right to know more. noting that "while his health issues have amounted to a good deal more than 'a common bug. [118] [118] with Jobs still involved with "major strategic decisions. Tim Cook. surmised his cachectic appearance was due to the Whipple procedure. [119][120] Jobs' prognosis was "excellent. Apple announced that he had been granted a medical leave of absence.[112] On December 16. Jobs underwent a liver transplant at Methodist University Hospital Transplant Institute in Memphis. stating he would not address further questions about his health. one and a half years after Jobs returned from his liver transplant.[113][114][115] In a statement given on January [105] The New York Times published an article based on an off-the-record phone conversation with Jobs.[116] Jobs said that he had been suffering from a "hormoneimbalance" for several months. referring to his blood pressure. Tennessee.' they weren¶t life-threatening and he doesn¶t have a recurrence of cancer.) Although the error was promptly rectified.[117] On January 14. who had previously acted as CEO in Jobs' 2004 absence. Bloomberg mistakenly published a 2500-word obituary of Jobs in its corporate news service. 2008. (News carriers customarily stockpile up-to-date obituaries to facilitate news delivery in the event of a well-known figure's untimely death. similar concerns followed Jobs' 2008 WWDC keynote address. many news carriers and blogs reported on it. 2008. participants responded to repeated questions about Steve Jobs' health by insisting that it was a "private matter. [104] [102] Apple officials [103] while others During a July conference call discussing Apple earnings." In April 2009. stating his decision was made "so he could focus on his health. stated Jobs was victim to a "common bug" and that he was takingantibiotics."[106] On August 28.Two years later." [120] On January 17. became acting CEO of Apple. again reviving questions about Jobs' health. Jobs announced his leave in a letter to employees. 2009 on Apple." Others. 2009.

Women and the Arts. and charisma.[126] In August 2009. great wealth.[125] On December 5. 2007. [129] In December 2010.[124] On November 27. about the rise of the home computer/personal computer. Beard Award) in 1987.[130] In popular culture Due to his young age. located at The California Museum for History. (and sequel to Triumph of the Nerds) which chronicles the development of the Internet. High-tech could not be designed and sold as a consumer product.' How wrong can you be". Apple announced that Tim Cook would run day-to-day operations and that Jobs would continue to be involved in major strategic decisions at the company. Jobs was named the CEO of the decade by Fortune Magazine. [121][122] Honors He was awarded the National Medal of Technology from President Ronald Reagan in 1984 with Steve Wozniak (among the first people to ever receive the honor).0. Jobs was selected the most admired entrepreneur among teenagers on a survey by Junior Achievement. California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Jobs into the California Hall of Fame. ending its essay by stating. Jobs was named the most powerful person in business by Fortune Magazine. "In his autobiography.  Nerds 2. On March 2.his 2009 medical leave. 2009. the Financial Times named Jobs its person of the year for 2010. 2011 Steve Jobs made an appearance at the iPad 2 launch event.[123] and a Jefferson Award for Public Service in the category "Greatest Public Service by an Individual 35 Years or Under" (aka the Samuel S. John Sculley. said this of the ambitions of the man he had pushed out: 'Apple was supposed to become a wonderful consumer products company. the former PepsiCo executive who once ran Apple. 2007.[128] In November 2009 Jobs was ranked #57 on Forbes: The World's Most Powerful People.1 ² a 1998 three-part documentary for PBS. When Time named the computer as the 1982 "Machine of the Year". This was a lunatic plan. after Apple's founding Jobs became a symbol of his company and industry." [131][132] Jobs was prominently featured in three films about the history of the personal computing industry:  Triumph of the Nerds ² a 1996 three-part documentary for PBS. .[127] On November 5. it published a long profile of him as "the most famous maestro of the micro.

. affordable personal computers. Computer designer and corporate executive Steve Jobs is cofounder of Apple Computers. Patty. With his vision of Steve Jobs. He remains one of the most inventive and energetic minds in American technology. Paul Jobs was a machinist and fixed cars as a hobby. He was portrayed by Noah Wyle. he launched one of the largest industries of the past decades while still in his early twenties. California. 1955. Pirates of Silicon Valley ² a 1999 docudrama which chronicles the rise of Apple and Microsoft. Reproduced by permission of the Corbis Corporation . Early life Steven Jobs was born February 24. He grew up with one sister. Jobs remembers his father as being very skilled at working with his hands. in San Francisco. and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs.

a technical whiz named Steve Wozniak (1950±). They raised $1. an electronics manufacturer. He swam competitively. There he saw engineers demonstrate new products. in memory of a happy summer Jobs had spent picking apples. California. Jobs also enrolled in the Hewlett-Packard Explorer Club. was becoming a center for electronics. Jobs became fascinated with the marketing potential of such a computer. for some parts he needed to complete a class project. He was very impressed. He spent a lot of time working in the garage workshop of a neighbor who worked at Hewlett-Packard. He dropped out after one semester to visit India and study eastern religions in the summer of 1974. While in high school Jobs attended lectures at the Hewlett-Packard plant. At first they . As a child. was trying to build a small computer. and computers. He showed an early interest in electronics and gadgetry.In 1961 the family moved to Mountain View." This is because a substance called silicon is used in the manufacturing of electronic parts. Jobs attended Reed College in Portland. They called it Apple Computer Company. California. just south of Palo Alto. Hewlett was so impressed he gave Jobs the parts. but was not interested in team sports or other group activities. televisions. the president. stereos. Oregon. In 1976 he and Wozniak formed their own company. for two years. This area. College and travel After graduating from high school in 1972. On one occasion he boldly asked William Hewlett (1931±2001). At that time people started to refer to the area as "Silicon Valley. One member. Jobs preferred doing things by himself. In 1975 Jobs joined a group known as the Homebrew Computer Club. and he saw his first computer at the age of twelve. and offered him a summer internship at Hewlett-Packard. Electronics form the basic elements of devices such as radios. and knew right away that he wanted to work with computers.300 in startup money by selling Jobs's microbus and Wozniak's calculator.

but the new model suffered technical and marketing problems. Personal computers began an entirely new way of processing information. and so costly that individuals could not afford to buy them. because it was more expensive than personal computers sold by competitors. Apple was continually forced to improve its products to remain ahead. Jobs continued to be the marketing force behind Apple. The Macintosh .7 million. At that time almost all computers were mainframes. Early in 1983 he unveiled the Lisa. and was later reworked and reintroduced. They were so large that one could fill a room.sold circuit boards (the boards that hold the internal components of a computer) while they worked on the computer prototype (sample). as more competitors entered the marketplace. It did not sell well. It was withdrawn from the market. The Apple II went to market in 1977. The company's sales grew to $200 million within three years. By 1983 it was estimated that Apple had lost half of its market share (part of an industry's sales that a specific company has) to IBM. Jobs and Wozniak had opened an entirely new market²personal computers. Apple introduced the Apple III. Apple's biggest competitor was International Business Machines (IBM). however. with impressive first year sales of $2. history. By 1980 the personal computer era was well underway. meant that computer components were getting smaller and the power of the computer was increasing. Jobs and Wozniak redesigned their computer.S. Apple and the personal computer era Jobs had realized there was a huge gap in the computer market. Advances in electronics. This was one of the most phenomenal cases of corporate growth in U. with the idea of selling it to individual users. however. It was designed for people possessing minimal computer experience.

the end of Steve Jobs. All these films have been extremely successful. To use the computer. Late in 1988 the NeXT computer was introduced at a large gala event in San Francisco. Toy Story NeXT was not. aimed at the educational market. Inc. Inc. had a black-and-white screen. the user pointed at an icon and clicked a button using a new device called a mouse. This process made the Macintosh very easy to use. The onscreen display had small pictures called icons. and an outstanding sound system. Pixar later went on to make Toy Story 2 and A Bug's Life. a huge box office hit. the Macintosh. Despite the warm reception. NeXT Jobs soon hired some of his former employees to begin a new computer company called NeXT. which Disney distributed. In 1986 Jobs purchased a small company called Pixar from filmmaker George Lucas (1944±). Monsters. Pixar specialized in computer animation. and had a fast processing speed. The product was very user-friendly. the NeXT machine never caught on. had the largest opening weekend ticket sales of any animated film in history. It lacked features other personal computers had. however. however. however. and could not be linked to other computers or run common software.In 1984 Apple introduced a revolutionary new model. The Macintosh did not sell well to businesses. Nine years later Pixar released Toy Story. The failure of the Macintosh signaled the beginning of Jobs's downfall at Apple. Initial reactions were generally good. andMonsters. though he retained his title as chairman of its board of directors. NeXT and Apple . It was too costly. Jobs resigned in 1985 from the company he had helped found. excellent graphics displays. such as a corresponding high quality printer.

Apple entered into a partnership with its competitor Microsoft. The Apple Store became a runaway success. It includes Apple's AirPort." Over the next six years Apple introduced several new products and marketing strategies. Jobs returned to Apple as a part-time consultant to the chief executive officer (CEO). The following year. Jobs said. and you don't quite know how to get it. In January 2000 Jobs unveiled Apple's new Internet strategy. "The thing that drives me and my colleagues « is that you see something very compelling to you. a computer version of the cordless phone that would allow the user to surf the Internet wirelessly. In September of 1997 Jobs was named interim CEO of Apple. . Steve Jobs: Think Different. In 1998 Jobs announced the release of the iMac. Steve Jobs is truly a computer industry visionary. sometimes intuitively. Within a week it was the third-largest e-commerce site on the Internet. The iBook was unveiled in July 1999. "agreed to cooperate on several sales and technology fronts. He was instrumental in launching the age of the personal computer.In December of 1996 Apple purchased NeXT Software for over $400 million. but you know. This is a clam-shaped laptop that is available in bright colors. Brookfield. For More Information Brashares. CT: Twenty-first Century Books. And it's worth putting in years of your life to make it come into existence. It included a group of Macintosh-only Internet-based applications. In November 1997 Jobs announced Apple would sell computers directly to users over the Internet and by telephone. according to the New York Times. The two companies. 2001. In a February 1996 Time magazine article. Ann." Jobs has worked hard to translate his ideas into exciting and innovative products for businesses and consumers. in a surprising event. it's within your grasp. which featured powerful computing at an affordable price. Jobs also announced that he was becoming the permanent CEO of Apple.

Foresman. Berkeley young. history. Steve Jobs: Wizard of Apple Computer. year http://www. 1987. house. Suzan.notablebiographies. Glenview. Jeffrey S. family. time. story.html#ixzz1NBEd0M9Y . Young. New York: Paragon House. college. information. Lee. born. 2001. school. Read more: Steve Jobs Biography . Steve Jobs: The Journey is the Reward. Accidental Millionaire: The Rise and Fall of Steven Jobs at Apple Computer. NJ: Enslow. 1988. IL: Scott.

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